IHE TUTUNE |lT

U RBNllsfil0il
-spread and Sh ape in Selected States

CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH NEW DELHI

June 2001
A studY supported
bY

Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC) lnfrastructure Leasing and Financial Services (lL&FS)

STUIIY THM

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Prof K C
BN

Sivaramakrishnan

Singh Paramita Datta A Shankar Sarala Gopinathan

project Leader principal Consultant
Consultant (lan j999 to June 2000) Consultant (Dec 2000 to May 200J) Stenographer

TIII

TUTURT OT URIAIIISATIOII

Foreword - P. Preface

iv

-

P. v

Acknowledgements
Abbreviations

-

P' vi

-

P.

viii

PART

I:

STRATEGIES FORTHE FUTURE OF URBANISATION

I.

OVERVIEW OF THE FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY

-

P' 3

II.STMTEGICDIRECTIoNSFoRTHEFUTUREoFURBANISATIoN-P,,3

PARTII:URBANISATIONANDURBANDEVELOPMENTCHALLENGES

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

MAHAMSHTM

- P.37
P.725

GU]AMT

- P.87
P.169

TAMIL NADU _ KARNATAKA-

ANDHM PMDESH

.

P.277

rHI

t!runt 0t uRSAlll8Arl0ll

Foreword

r0nil||nD
For long we have accepted that India lives in jts villages. The record on the economic front at least over the past two decades bears clear euioence irat the engi-nes oi *onor,. growth turn as much or in the cities and towns of the country. more i"orv .o"rt qg ,-nlpopl,.,,on is engaged in agricurture but that accounts only for:o per cenl oiin.'in.o"ru generated. This is not'to underestimate the imponance of agriculture' It is widelY remgnuua thufihe-iopuraton dependenlon iur*ng has to be brought substantially so that increased productivity down and biversifie; iruitt position India amongst the leading agricultural producers in the world. Correspondingly non-agrii;turar emptoyment particularly in the service sector has to accommodate the inevitable increas-e'in tn"liooriiorce Incruding surprus agricurtural labour' This is already happening. rt ii-tnri-elconomic dynamics wnicn is manifested in urbanisation. However' in spite of the crucial economic cnanges propelled by urbanisa:ion, a visionary strategy for managing urban growth in an orderly manner has not yet been formulated. of course the situation varres between different states' Rut even in the so-called refoiming u"d ;r;g;;;;e $ates rike Andhra, Karnataka or Maharashtra, urban development is still commonlyperceived as deieloping shopping complexes, housrng estates or enclaves of the rich rather than an efficiently p",i"irirgi';conomically viable network of infrastructure, housing, work places and

rrieLof

iui,.'i;ili

services.

The Centre for Policy Research (cPR) has maintained a strong interest in urbanisation as an aspect of economic change meriting serious discourse among planners and the policy making community. About two years ago we decided to take up a study under the leadership or proi x c Sivaramakrishnan on some strategic aspects of urbanisation in a few stales such us Nanarisritra cujitut, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra' The present report is the outcome of this study. It provides the likely futuristic spatial picture of urbanisation in these states and highlights the important issues for managinf their growth and governance.
The cPR is grateful to shri Deepak Parekh, widely known and recognised in India and abroad for his leadership in housing and infrastructure finance. Right fiom tne conieptuiisation oitn",trov, s-nriparem has taken an active interest in bringing together various organisations including the HDFC, the IDFC and the IL&FS in jointly funding the study and also ensuring positive inputs and strong insights during its progress. The cPR would like to place on record its gratitude to shri Deepak parekh as well as shri Nasser Munjee ano Shri Hari Sankaran for their invaluable support to this studv.

I

would like to congratulate Prof. K

organising and persisting with the study in spite of very limited resources. The CpR has always been ,n'inOtrt of its limitations' This study is not a purely academic one. In policy-oriented studies of this nature, tne cpn seeks to bring the collective wisdom of its faculty in focussing on some critical issues and serves-as a catalyst' we will consider our efforts amply rewarded if the sta[e governments and others concerned with these issues find this study of interest and use. I commend this stu:dy to the researchers and policy marers interested in the future of urbanisation in India.

c

Sivaramaknshnan and his colleague Shri B N Singh for

lune 2001 Centre for Policy Research
New Delhi

Charan D Wadhva Officiating President

fit

rurunI 0I [R8ililSATt0tl

Preface

"P-$,11,+,p;,,,,,,"",.,:r,,:.1:,.,i.:!,:!.,,.!i..n'.:'!i1|!.!.!!':i:.:t.iai;n,!!),4,,...!)'.,.,:'!:!.,,"1

India is a long been influenced by the belief that thinking and policy making in India have Political perceptions' In percentage terms rrave n.ip"a in aisailing these rural country. rne census oi iggr'ano t99t popuiiLn io ne urb'-an' The figure is estimated to be about the 1991 Census indicated about 25olo or tne reality of absolute But these arithmetical averages ignore the 30yo, according to the C"nru, of 2001.

numbers.India,spresenturbanpopu|ationoranout_ioomi||ionpeopleis12timesasmuchasatthe beginningofthecentury,rntnenext20y"u,,,.th"_u,banpopu|ationwi||doub|eitse|f,Thestatewide future'

"uiutio"i

the are already significant and will be more so in

Whi|esome$atesmaysti|ltakerefugeunderpercentages,for.manyothersurbanisationisaStrong Tamil anO Gujaiat will be nearly half urban whereas economic, political and spatial reality. Maharasntra Haryana and nniong the northern states Punjab, Nadu, Karnatat<a ano nninra will be about 40% *uun. of uiban population' So will it be in the Eastern Western U.P. will have srgnificant levels and concentrations aberration in space but a direct reflection and states. The simple res.Jge is that urbanisation is not an most of the states, industry and services result of the economic chJnges. In the country as a whole, as in Good agricultural are contributing an Increasing proportion to the GDP as compared tO agriCulture' peformance and surpluses frort tne iarm economy are also a major stimulant to urbanisation'

of urbanisation' Unfortunately there has been very little attention or debate on the basic issues public attention and repot in the media have been sporadic, occasioned more by the irritants of daily urban life and some visible manifestations such as congestton, pollution, water scarcity, sanitation etc. The of National Commission on Urbanisation set up under the Chairmanship of Charles Correa and its report paid to the subject. 1988 was the last occasion when any serious attention was
Financial assistance for this study has come from the HDFC (Housing Development Finance (Infrastructure Corporation), the iDFC (lnfrastructure Development Finance Company), and the IL&FS present study possible. The study is limited to the 5 states Leasing andFinancial Services) and has made the of Maliarashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. This is mainly because that these states are the onei who are rapidly becoming urban. They are also characterised by their initiatives to promote industrial and economic growth. They have been variously labelled as progressive, dynamic or reforming states. Within the limited resources of money and time, the CPR believed it would be more effective to be selective and concentrate on these few states.
This study is not a substitute for a state's urbanisation plan. Such a task is well beyond the mandate of the CpR. What it does is to present the likely spatial picture of urbanisation in these states and flag the important issues regarding physical planning, infrastructure, environment and governance. It is up to the states to pick up these issues, consider them further and decide how best they can be taken into their development agenda. K C Sivaramakrishnan

IIIt

TUTURI Oi URBANISATIOII

Acknowledgements

several individuals and organisations have shri Deepak parekh who. as cnairrian !!g9o in this study. speciar mention must be made of ottnu. iiiic,,ro'rc ."0liaii pJoJlo"o jointlv fund the project' Apart them to come tosether and from tnir sn.i brr!'trt r,* 0""" ;;,"r":,"d in forowing up *ri-frosress of the studv' Shri Hari shankaran oi n. ilaii'ir9,pgr,r.rr* Nlr;"" qtne IDFC havl abo supportive' Dr Rakesh Mohan previously oJ"n th; IC.AER .no pi.i.litiv-chi"r E ono,.nic Advisor u"ry Government of rndia, prof' A-K to onoo, o] Fb,r""s'';r,o Architecrure, Derhi, pror. the shivanand swamy, centre for environmentai HM ano recnnorogvlolr.o.o.o, prof. -e 'i'r,i"n,ouiro, Director' Madras Institute or oevetopment Appasamy, former and shri Director, Association of Development Authorities-have iiirioutec sijniri.untiy io'in" study wth their ideas ano ffi[:X",ittr

;i M;itilil;i;i il;;"g iiro*

".i";i

The Centre for Policy, Research (cPR) is thankful to the various state governments concerned for their support' Mention must be made oi lrr.'..tiu. interest uno urrist*.. from,Dr A Ravindra previously Managing Director of the Karnat.t urbun rnrrurtrariu-Dlffiffi;i: and Finance corporation presently Additionar chief Secretary, and Government of Karnataka

.

cPR would also like to acknowledge the kind assistance and positive interest of the following:

,

shri P'P's' Thomas former secretary, Urban Development, Karnataka (now Advisor, plannrng Commission)

Tamir Nadu Shri Ajay Bhattacharya, Secretary, Urban Development, Tamil Nadu shri N' S' Hariharan, Former Principal Secretary, Urban Development, Andhra pradesh shri s. sreenivasuru, Director, Town and country pranning, Andhra pradesh Shri Ajoyendra Pyal, commissioner and Director, Municipal Administration, Andhra pradesh p. K. Mohanty, Commissioner, Hyderabad Dr. Municipal Corporation

Shri s. Krishna Kumar, principar secretary, Urban Deveropment, Karnataka Mrs. s. Marathi, secretary, Municipar Administration and water suppry,

shri K. Narinakshan, Former secretary, Urban Deveropment, Maharashtra Shri Vinay Bansar, Former principar secretary, pranning, Maharashtra
Shri Ramanath Jha, Former Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA Shri V. K. phatak, Chief, planning Division,
MMRDA

Profo.P'MathuroftheNationa|InstituteofPub|icFinanceandPo|icy
Shri S' P' Shorey, Special officer (Planning), Hyderabad Urban Development Authority Dr Manjura subramaniam, secretary, Urban Deveropment, Government of Guj6rat Shri V. V. Dave, Chief Town planner, Gujarat

Dr K. Rajivan of the Tamil Nadu Infrastructure Services; and shri M. L. chotani of rown and country pranning organisation, New Derhi.
CPR should also place on record its gratitude to the late Dr. R. S. Ayyangar, former Director, Maharashtra Remote sensing Application centre who at the very beginning of the study helped in obtarning and applying satellite imageries.
vi

ilII

TUIURT |lT UNBAilISATI||II

Acknowledgements

WithintheCPR,DrVAPaiPanandiker,formerPresidentwashigh|ysupportiveofthisstudyqroject the interest' Dr Ajit d;;;'o-wrJnur, Or;jati"g-Ptesggnt [as--lyst;ined valuable insights' from the besinnine. D, CPR faculty have provided Shri Sanjoy H;a;ik; and other correugu;t-inihe
Mozoomdar,

Vaidya, unO

Theassistancereceivedindataco||ectionandpreparationofmapsfromMsKusumLata,ShriHitesh inti A P Sah is also thankfully acknowledged'

THT TUIUBT OI

URBAIIISAII|lII

vll

Abbreviations

lBBntunil0ils

AD ADB AMC APIIC AR BCC BDA
BMRDA

Anno Domrni Asian Development Bank Assets Management Company

Andhra pradesh Industriar Infrastructure corporation Limited Accommodation Reservation
Bangalore City Corporation Bangalore Development Authority

BangaloreMetropolitanRegionDevelopmentAuthoritv
Build-Own-Lease-Transfer Build-Operate-Transfer Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Constitution Amendment Act

BOLT BOT
BWSSB

CAA CETP Common Effluent Treatment plant CEPT Centre for Environmental planning and Technology CIDCO City & Industrial Development Corporation CMA Chennai Metropolitan Area CMDA Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority CMIE Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy CPCB Central pollution Control Board CPR Centre For policy Research DDA Delhi Development Authority DPC District planning Committee ELCOT Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu Limtted FIRE Financial Institution, Reform and Expansron FSI Floor Space Index GDP Gross Domestic product GEM Generators of Economic Momentum GIDB Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board GIDC Gujarat Industrial Development Corooration GIS Geographic Information Svstem GITCO Gujarat Industrial and Technical Consuttancy Organisation HDFC Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited HITEC Hyderabad Information Technorogy and Engineering consurtancy HUDA Hyderabad Urban Development Authontv
viii
TIIT TUIURT

|tf URBAII|$il||II

Abbreviations

HUDCO

ICICI IDE IDFC IDPL IDSMT IiR IL&FS IUDP l&K
KUDIFC

Houslng and Urban Development Corporation of India Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation

Institute of Deset Ecology
Limited Infrastructure Development Finance Company Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited Integrated Development of Small and Medlum Towns

India Infrastructure Report Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited Integrated Urban Development Project

Jammu&Kashmir KarnatakaurbanlnfrastructureDevelopmentFinancecorporation Life Insurance Corporation of India
Level of Urbanisation

LIC LoU lpcd MEIP MIDC MIDC mld MMR
MMRDA

litres Per caPita Per daY Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Programme
Metropolitan Infrastructure Development Corporation Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation

million litres Per daY Mumbai Metropolitan Region
Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Ministry of Surface TransPort

'

MoST MPC
MRSAC MSRDC

Metropolitan Planning Committee
Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation Municipal Urban Development Fund
Mega Watt

MUDF MW
NATMO

National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation National CaPital Region National Commission on Urbanisation Non Governmental Organisation National HighwaY National Highway Authority of India National Housing Bank National Institute of Urban Affairs National River Action Plan

NCR NCU NGO NH NHAI NHB NIUA NRAP

TtIT fUTURT

|lf URBAIIISAIIllII

Abbreviations

NRSA NRy NTPC O&M ORG pC ,PHED RG SDp SFC SIDCO srlcoM
STPCOT

National Remote Sensing Agency Nehru Rojgar yojana National Thermal power Corporation Operation and Maintenance Operations Research Group planning Commission public Health Engineering Department Registrar General, India State Domestic product State Finance Commission Small Industries Development Corporation Limited State Industriar and Investment corporation of Maharasntra state Industries promotion corporation of ramir Nadu Suspended particulate Matter Spatial priority Urban Region Town and Country planning Organtsation Transfer of Development Right

SPM SPUR TCPO TDR TIDCO TNUDF TNUDP
TUF'DCO

Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund Tamil Nadu Urban Development prolect Tamir Nadu Urban Finance and Infrastructure Deveropment corporation Tamil Nadu Water and Drainage Board
Urban Agglomeration Urban Deveropment pran Formuration and Imprementation Urban Local Body Union Territory Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority Water Supply and Sewerage Board Water User,s Associations Zakaria Committee

TWAD UA UD'FI ULB UT VUDA WSSB WUA ZC

IIIT fUIURI |lF UBEAIIFATNI

mnil
stltTl$rs fOn Tffi ]uluilt 0l ulBffilstTl0il

'''.i

-

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,

t.

Confenfs

G0lfitlllS: PlnTl

I.

OVERVIEW OF THE FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY

A. B. C. II.

BACKGROUND OF THE

STUDY'P.3

METHODOLOGY FOR THE STUDY

-

P,

5

THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

- P, 6

STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF URBANISATION

A. B. C. D. E. F.
G.

_ P' SPATIAL PLANNING FOR URBAN CORRIDORS

73

_ P. INTEGRATION OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS: PLANNING MECHANISM
LAND MANAGEMENT REFORMS _ ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

76

P.77

- P.20
P.22
26

INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES _

FINANCING URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE _ P.

MANAGEMENTANDGOVERNANCE _ P. 29

References

-

P. 33

Whhwqtttahttbsitalttahn']tt1ri1'4rtl?ilvrt,t rtt/.v///tr*tq+.t44,it1,riti

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Tabfe Table

1 2 Map 1

Prgected Population of corridors in major states of lndia Area of Urban Land (1961-91) - P. 77
Emerging Urban Corridors in selected states

-

P'

7

-

P.

35

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URBAIIISAII|lII

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A. 1.1

BACKGROUND OFTHE STUDY

last four decades' There are' India has experienced rapid growth of urbanisation during the well as growth rates' The pace and urbanisation as however, wide variattons among statei in the level of for some states. For instance, Mizoram is 46 per cent urban but spread of urbanisation i, n1or" fronounced with an urban population its total population is about 7 lakh only. On the other hand, Maharashtra Tamil Nadu with 34 per per cent (14 million) and percentage of 39 per..nt-ijf million), Gujarat with 35
population' States such as Delhi and Chandigarh cent (19 million) have, In absolute numbers, large urban significant Inter-state variations' UT are predominantly urban. Overall percentages have to consider

r.2

2016 AD

projections already made by the Exped Group of the Registrar General of India and available up to -bring major states will have become
-urban

by then, Maharashtra will be 48 per cent urban, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil predominantly than 35 per cent. The rate of Nadu more than 40 per cent, while Punjab and Andhra Pradesh will be more

out the contrast more clearly. while none of the

a whole' urban urban population increase will also viry. Between 2001 and 2016 in the country as population will increase by nearly 50 per cent, compared to 17 per cent rural'

managing In some of the states which will become nearly half urban in another 20 years, issues of perspective than other states' urlan growtfr are far more impoftant from the economic and development Nadu will obviously be in this States like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil for Policy Research has covered category. This Study on Future of Urbanisation undertaken by the Centre pattern of urbanisatron as emerging in these states thes-e five states and attempts to delineate the spatial and assess their implications'

1.3

distribution in different Studies on urbanisation usually focus on demographic changes, numbers and and future ciurr., oG*ni, rn.r. is a need to understand the spatial pattern of urbanisation both existing planning, the needs of physical in terms of spread and shape. This in turn will help understand_better management and governance' infrastructure requiremenG, environmental implications, and issues fOr

I.4

Correa Commission and

lts Findings

chairmanship of Chhrles 19g8, the National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) set up under the in very clear terms that urbanisation was Correa submitted its report. The Commission repoft emphaslsed The report advocated not an aberration in Space but an inevitable concomitqnt of economic change'

1.5

In

TIIT fUTURT Of URBA]IISATI|lI

Overview of the Future of lJrbanisation Study

selectivity on the basis of development needs as well as growth potential all over the country as generators and identified 329 urban cenrr€s (GEMst wnere devetopment converge. The Commis$o1.J* iOentiried "f +9 ipatiar prioritv Tgryltur activities shourd (SpURs) in the country tevet. A SPUR was not merely a confirmation oiin. oi'Jur"d trendi or gro*th'ili was assessment or srowth and optimisin;,xr,:::L;;;ffi;nities based on the commission,s particular region' These regions n::Tl,:l vary in size 5nd arready avairabre in in many cases cut across the state boundaries. rhat commission had recommen{gg a policy The progr.r-" f9, A subsequent studv titled 'INDIA - tjneAN'c-d;inlDoRs' ceveropmlni ii tno.. spURs on a prioriw basis. o.rJ-.r.-igsi census by Nationar Thematic Mapping organisation r^rnr'roilJ.nli.o . ,ut or zs uroan corrioi^ at the country rever.Aras and a diagnostic and descriptive derineation This was uno *ri,in"refore, different [n" spunr.

".;;;;;;

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iri

r.,

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.,;:Tilj!JIijt*..:??f::.:,"":

taken prace in the country since

leel,

which ca, for an ursent

D

D D

The liberalisation of the economy, in particular in the regime of licensing investments and industrv. Some state governments-have been taking more initiatives than betore rn promoting industrial and commerciar growth through infrastructure, pubric- private anan!er"nt,
Private sector initiatives have been on the increase.

"t

.

o ' fl 1'7

Agricultural development, productivity enhancement and increased incomes have created a demand for non-farm goods and services and consequent urbanisation. studies reveal that districts which are in the frontline of agriculture and contribute 1olo or more to t|re-c-untry,s rice, wheat or oilseeos production have higher rates of urbanisation than their ,"rp".iiuu states (chengalpet, west Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Barddhaman, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Karnal anct Kurukshetra
etc.)

Pursuant to the 73'd and 74th Amendments to th-e constitution, several possibilities and positive opportunities have emerged for decentralisation of functions and powers to local governments.

Apart from the 1991 census figures and the population projections of the Registrar General, referrecl to earlier, there is considerable information available about the spaiial trends of urba-nisation ouiinj the past decade' The satellite data from National Remote sensing Agency (NRSA) can be used for mappini in-ng., in urbanisation statewide, identifying the urban corridors as also their continuity, concentration and sorawr.

The Present Study for Selected States

rhese compelling demographic aspects of urbanisation and the need to take note of recent information as mentioned above provided a fresh opportunity for a study on the Future of Urbanisation, by the centre for Policy Research. The study has been supported by the Housing Development Finance corporation Limited (HDFc), Infrastructure Development Finance -orp.ny Limited (lDFc) and Infrastructure Leasing & Financial services Limited (IL&FS). Given the signtricant variations between the states and learning from the correa commission's views, this study ii selective both in content and geographical coverage. The study seeks to stimulate consideration of the emerging urbanisation pattern, as a result of changes that are taking place in demography, economic activities in the wake of liberalisa.on, and more impoftantly, the spatial growth, shape and spread of urbanisation across the 5 states fvlaharashtra, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, where urbanisation is likely to be-a0 to per
1 50

q

cent by 2021 AD.

Tllt rurunI 0f uRBAlilsAIr0ll

urbanisation Overview of the Future of

forces are l.gThepreferencefor|ocationofnewinvestmentsisnowgurdedinthecontextof|iberalisationano governirent-prescriotions' The market requiremenf,-oittu t.rk9t r9th9r t'han growth adjacentto deregulation by out with oiurbanisation' ine-cities are spreadino shaping the spatial puou*'u'ni'f"uuf naitely' spatial manifestation of of .ont"'n in four broad areas'
issues existing cities. The rtuoy"riir", governance of urban areas' environment, ano lne implications for growth, inrrastruJuie, economic

B.

METHODOLOGY FORTHESTUDY Information Base for the Present Study
Desk Review
publications including

l.l0Thepresentstudyisbasedonvariousinformation,datasources,reportsandof Urban Affairs (NIUA), states by National Institute Census of India, UrOan SeHor Profile of selected -entral several other sources, statistical organisation, and Economic surveys and statistical Abstract-India, II of this document' References at tfre end of each State Repoft in Part

ii-rirtuJ.r

CMIE DAIA
states investments in manufacturing and infrastructure projects in various (CMIE)' was made available Indian Economy included in this study, as compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Promotion, Ministry of Industry' The above data was used to us by the Depaftment of Indu*ri;l Policy and of industry and infrastructure in attempts to bring out a district level picture on the number, cost and status projects. This data helped to relate the spatial changes due to these investments'

1.11

The data related

to

Repofts of State Government and Other Agencies 1.12 The industrial policy documents of the state governments and their agencies on promotion of industries and their decentialised growth in particular locations, and policy instruments such as incentives in and provision of serviced land were studied. All the states have been promoting industrialisation backward industrial parks. The states are areas through industrial estates, industrial townships, growth centres and making serious efforts to attract industries in backward areas other than industrially developed locations e.g., dhar*apuri, pudukottai districts in Tamil Nadu; Chitradurga district in Karnataka; and VUayanagaram, pr6kasam disiricts in Andhra Pradesh. However, the CMIE data indicated clearly the preferences for locations guided by the market rather than administrative decisions. The new investments in industry and infrastructure have been directed at areas adjoining the metropolitan and large cities and coastal areas
where port development is receiving high priority.

Limited

use of

satellite imageries/

CPCB

Zoning Atlas

and other large cities and emerging urban corridors, visits were undertaken to Chennai, Hyderabad and Nagpur for selking suppoft of the ioncerned state government through their Remote Sensing Application Ceiire for making maid based on satellite imageries. This was specially sought for mapping the changes in spitial spread oi urban areas at two time intervals during the past decade, identification of the urban Centre corridors, their continuity etc. The Government of Maharashtra agreed to share the outputs with the for policy Research and we were able to obtain maps for the Maharashtra state together with-urban sprawl other states maps in respect of seven cities where urban growth is very rapici. Similar maps in respect of the state governments could not could not, however, become available as the costs were substantial and meet the same.
The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) is preparing Zoning Atlas for siting of new industries at the district level in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and others.

1.13 With a view to identify the spatial configurations of existing and future urbanisation at metropolitan

1L4

TIIT IUTURt |lT URBAIIISATI|lII

Overview of the Future of L|rbanisation Study

The state Zoning Aflas p::l-Tg, under the the GPCB for the above five states,".r. o,r*l,ol, of. Nationar Aflas and rhematic Mapping (NATMO) r.J".uaitaute study' These maps provrdeo userui-ri#r"ii91-.gi to ihe'c;r"';;,. poricy Researchioi use rn for tnis oroao Lno uiurl .r.nrpo,tation settlements, industrial estates, inaustriai network, uroan growti''..ntr", and industriar crusters etc.

by the Reoistrar General for India and States for 2016 AD were used prolecting the urban population -The for ror tne nu""'rirov states for lozi nii trend-based poections for district-wise urban population, urbanisitio;l;";;, 4nd crass r, iir'cry sizes Dased on growth rates for 1981-91' rne output nelogc t9 pr.b.i" r.p, i'ncrcating for 2o2r ADwere made the In urbanisation levels in various districts ou"i tggt urbanisation reueri5s weil as grow1|ranticipated changes in 2021 AD' The census 2001-has ot"niotpr"l.dbut of towns and it wirr tateiometime before state and district cities growth trends are available' tn wise our view, tlJ-lger-sr tr""oi uro'ir'" projections made therefore are conservative and may be exceeded in several cases.

:i:*T"r population projections 1 1) Ine

for urban popuration, urbanisation Levet and Size of Major cities

Ii;;;

C.

THE FINDINGS OFTHE STUDY

Emerging Spatial pattern

1'16 In many countries of the world, metropolitan growth is mainly because of the growth in peripheries over-spilling the municipal boundaries. In some countries, as in India, central cities may continue to grolv. There will be increased concentration of population in large ,roun uggro,;eratrons in future. such growth is going to pose formidable problems a challenge as well ai oppodun"it.
The present study reinforces the generally known but undocumented phenomenon about the emergence of transport corridors, providing linkages among important urban centres, increased flow of goods and passengers' These transport coiridors are a strong stimulus to uroan growth with substantial Increase in volume of activities, work force and population atoni gre .oiriooit. These corridors contain some rapidly growing metropolises regions as well as sparsely locatld new urban centres. A number of growth centres and industrial estates are being developed along these corridors. The upgradation or ft,e coroen Quadrangle National Highway network to strengthen the links between Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and chennar and nofth-south and east-west corridors, the proposed expressway in certarn stretches, and new investments at various locations reinforce the growth along existing .orridorr. ir'in-ot atJni sore corridors, growth is continuous and in some others, such growth is sparse and discontinuous. some of these transport cum urban corridors are also inter-state e.g., Gujarat Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu KarnaraKa. Apat from these, the states covered by the present study, many of the corridors, such as in Andhra .-- -' Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are within the

r'17

ir'.i"rrii

states.

--

-

-

cent of the projected urban population in Gujarat. Likewise the chennai - Krishnagrrr Hosur corridor in Tamil Nadu will also constitute 43 per cent of ur6an population of the state. The Bangarore Belgaum corridor will have about 58 per cent of the urban population in Karnataka with about 16 million population, and in Andhra Pradesh, the Hyderabad Ananthpur corridor wiil experience a very high growth rate with a population of 11 million i.e.' 31 per cent of the urban population of the state. rogeiheitnese

for 2021 and percentage to total urban population in Maharashtra, Gujarat,-Tamil Nadu, Karnataka ano Andhra Pradesh is given in Table 1 (Map 1). In 2021, the Mumbai thane (to Ahmadabad) corridor will have about 24 million people i'e', more than 40 per cent of prqected urban population in Maharashtra. The Mahesana-Gandhinagar-Ahmadabad-Vadodara-Bharuch-surat-valsad corridor will have about 20 miltion people, i'e., 72 per
tggL, prgected population

1'18 The urban population along the transport corridors based on Census

-

various corridors will account for the predominant part of urban population in the respective statis.

IIIT

FUTURT

|lf URBAIIIS[il||II

Overview of the Future

of

in Major States of India Table 1: Projected Population of Corridors

;--L-: r"rull!4!_

f',tumnai (excludinq_MumQa
b aL !4 u m

-

]_u9jl:_\

'1115^6

: a/t^ Ahrnad^hedl nasnil - Dhule - Amravati - Nagpur

1,33,28,59q 61,21,778

43.&
20.0s 8.54 3,86 4.59 0.37 7.93 7.77 1.16

2,42,79,ffiz
1,t9,47,723
62,48,869 16,86,690

42.39

20.90 10.93
2.95

-

Pu

ls-"ffi
ijune

nslsllHij##I.
^
t

lT"

26"08pi7
11,79,810

r,lll lE ' I\ull rapur

i^Jt^t c,t..i.l.tr
Auranqabad

r). ...^ an.l lrl^t^n ! s^Lruurr ru r ur r- jl1l9a])::lz--

- Raioad - Ratnaqiri) - Aurangabad - Jalgaon nnmaanagar
Mrrmbai
\

(

r^Lru:lllal:"'.4--

t4,07,643
1,12,095

22,43,769
1,49,581 33,63,253

3.92 0.26 5.88 4.20
1.66

8,96,239
8,46,528 3,54,308

soGpfi --parorran'G4qqIg!"EpqL&P-4p!eD

- Parb!q!!:!t@
GUJARAT

24,03,220 9,46,306

Total
Ahmadabad - Vadodara - Bharuch - Surat - Valsad) toastal Corridor - I (Bhavnagar - Porbandar - Okha) Coastal Corridor - II (Okha - Jamnagar - Morvi Gandhidham - Bhui) (excluding Ahmadabad - Rajkot - Junagadh (excluding Ahmadabad)

2,68,s0,916

a7.92
59.88 6.96 6.29 8.00

5,32,18,593
r,99,84,t61

93.10
71.58 6.27
6.45

N"'th

-

fuuth Co"id"(t'4ahesana -Gandhinagar

-

8s,32,998 9,92,198 8,9s,739

L7,5t,t99
18,00,207

OkhA)

-

-_

t1,39,454

24,82,48r 2,60,18,Os4
r,33,36,374

8.89

Total

1,1s,60,389 TAMIL NADU

81.13
36.35

93.19
43.38
18.71

Krishnagiri - Hosur Coimbatore - Erode - Salem - Krishnagiri (Excludinq Krishnaqiri) Coastal Corridor - I (Chennai - Cuddalore - Tanjavur Karaikudi) (excluding Chennail Coastal Corridor - II (Tuticorin - l{ag449j!)
Chennai

-

69,35,548 30,99,209

t6.24
8,12 3.67

57,5r,r70
77,09,8r9
10,40,823

-

1q do 7eq

7.19 3.39

7,00,316

Total
KARNATAKA
Banqalore

L,22,84,A62
66,88,598

64.38
48.08 10.90 5,86

2,23,38,18s

72.67
57.58

-

Belqaum

159,9!,9!I
34,Or,t54
16,09,415

Mysore-Bangalore-Kolar (excludinq Bangalore) Coastal Corridor (Manqalore - Udupi - Karwar)

t5,16,417

72.5r
s.97

8,t5,740

Total
Hyderabad

90,20,7ss
55, 11, 173

64.84
30.81 11.74 4.15 26.61

2,06,66,474 t,t3,L7,759
39,76,286 1r,97,236
99, 18,s 16

76.O1
31.23 10.97 3.79 27.37

-

ANDTIRA PRADESH Ananthpur- HinduPur

Hvderabad - Viiaywada (excluding Hyderabad)
Hyderabad - Nizamabad - Adilabad (excluding Hyderabad) Coastal Corridor (Srikakulum - Vishakhapatnam Kakirrada - Gundur- Nellore)

2r,00,327
7,47,609 41,72.,113

Total
Source: Census of India, 7997

1,3L,26,222

73.37

2,64,O4,796

72.46

i

Prqected

IHT TUIURT l|T URBAIIISAII|lII

Overview of the Future of lJrbanisation Study

1'19 The study indicates that these corridors have been attracting sub-stantial activities' such as industry.and regional inrrislrgyre.;";;;.1 vmanirestation volume of economic economic change is discernible ffrrouin of investments and continrJur or oiscontinuoJipir*i *itr, pory-nodar centres Jong tn" corridors' In some corridors, growtfiwill oe contln_uo,us but in;a;;-it'ritt ou discontinuous and sparse, wasting land and other resources in the p.o."o inu changes in t|re rinJ use patturn will be dramatic taking away considerable portion of agriculturil land. The p^eripnerar areas orLiJe cities along the corridors have been growing and absorbing migrant poprt.tion'in sprawl lacking basic iervices. such developments exerting considerable pressure on land'and dGrl1,irll,r"rour."i. r-n-ifu-is a need for understanding are existing and future characteristics of these the .orrlooo and their implicatiins in terms of spread and shape, infrastructure and environment, organisationaf framework for
management and governance.

1'20 such corridors have not been unknown. The National commassion on urbanisation (Ncu) in its repoft in 1988 identified the emerging urban corridors which *ere tate|. modified by the National rhematic Mapping organisation (NATMO) as ier rsgi aensus. rne location or new investments in industry and infrastructure in the context of liberalisation oithu after 1991 are inaping the spatial pattern arong the corridors' The findings of the study or s states ".onomy have reconfirm"i tn. of the urban corridors identified earlier with a few new corridors. There "rurgance are, however, some surprises i.e. new corridors other than the findings of the NCU/NATMO. For instance, Siurashtra'r C;1.;r,i the focus of new industrial concentration with huge investments in petro-chemical complex in'iirn.iar and development of rarge number of seaports all along the coast' These developments are ruerrrng ine growth of new corridors. The emergence of coastal corridors in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are otnei nJ*oevetopments.

;

framework for development and management particularly for .Nodes, and urbanising ioiroresignt planning and keeping the development options open' we need to address the issues of land, water and environment. Another issue is governance of multi-municipal and multi-noclal pattern of growtn along the coridors. The organisational framework required for governance will be very differeni than what we have at present, particularly in the context of large cities dominating the urbanisation scene with rurther conientrlttn or
areas along the urban corridors would be needed. There would be a need

L'2L Appropriate

population.

Implications of Corridor Development The New Urban Landscape

r.22

There are severar implications of this emerging urban landscape: Baroda will cause higher growh around nodes resulting coalescing with each other.

o o
D
O

rhe high interaction between two nodes particularly between two ma;or cities e.g., Ahmadabad

-

in urban sprawl with smaller settiements
a

of low-density urban sprawl along the corrldor axrs, Increasing the cost of development later o-n. Public transport will probably be the single most important policy issue rn managrng urban growth. The main corridor transportation system wilt need to be supported by a secondary system of road network and other communication facilities together with public transpon. Physical impact on the urban corridor will be significant and will help in consolidation of sparse development. Changes in land utilisation pattern may be dramatic. The urban corridors will take away a considerable portion of agricultural land. Unless planned, linear spread of urban activities may be inevitable.

rhe influence area. of 'Nodes' will get further enlarged. Such new urban regions will neither have centre nor a periphery but emerging as a shapeless mass. This .will lead t-o accelerated growth

IIII

IUTUNT |lF UNBATISAIIt|II

Overuiew of the Fq!!,e of U'ballsalon

0LandVa|ues|ngenera|wi||takeanupwardtrendparticu|ar|yaroundthenodalcentres.

oEnvironmentproblemswi||becomeverycritica|,Airandwaterpo||utioninandalongthecorridors
will rise significantlY'
tn new a number of questions: whether urbanisation The emerging urban conidors in the study raise The transport corridors is OesitaOGZ Ancl if so, to what extent? areas taking place along #^rpo4 iottidors (Ahmadabad or poty-nooai,toan corridois, as in the case of Gujarat providing stimutus to the Pune) aie well known' The implications of the Surat v"p'l i"-O rvinaraintia (uumOai Vadodara will be multi-nodai out not well connected functionally' such corridor development are many. The corridors policy choices on whether the corridors need to be continuous connectivity will require carelui ptanning and residential development, infrastructu.re together or discontinuous. The location of future economic activities, would have to be planned and with integration of multi-nodal centres both spatially and functionally,

1.23

-

-

-

d;;i;*""t

-

visualised.

Infrastructure Im Plications Region a I fnfrastru ctu re
is widely recognised that regional infrastructure is particularly critical. Their inadequacies and imbalances threaten to constrain economic growth and quality of life in both urban and rural areas. Large

L.Z4 It

push through upgradation of national highways and construction of expressways. However, intra-city transport continues to receive poor attention placing the cities under severe stress due to congestion and growing vehicle population in cities. The India infrastructure Report (1996) is a landmark work and has highlighted the related issues and made comprehensive recommendations in the infrastructure sector. Urban fnfrastructure The emerging urban corridors will require special nreasures to deal with urban infrastructure and services, The urban growth will aggravate the existing shortfalls of the basic infrastructure and Services. Primary urban infrastructure such as water supply and sewerage are not available outside the municipal limits. There is an urgent need to evolve policies and programmes that address the problem of newly urbanising areas in terms of provision of infrastructure services. This calls for larger investments in water supply, sewerage, urban transport and communications, housing and conrmunity facilities, all within a coordinated framework of economic and spatial planning of the corridors.

ports are investments in regional infrastructure like roads, railways, power, telecommunications, airports and The inter-city road transport is getting a good required for accelerating the growth rate of the economy.

1.25

Water
The gap between the availability and demand of water has widened over the years. Most of the cities are facing acute shoftages of water. Wide disparities in population coverage and levels of supply amongst the different size of towns exist. We have a problem of quantity of water. Drinking water requirement forms only a small propoftion of water resources. Even that is not available where needed. It is necessary to make a long term planning of water resource management. As the demand for water is increasing, the availability/potential of both surface and ground water is reducing. It is necessary to make judicious allocation of available water resources by preparing water resource management plan. In view of increasing demand of water supply and diminishing water resources, the following issues/measures need
consideration:

t.Z6

O O

Water reSources planning on a regional basis'
Setting water availability for different settlements as a defining limit for development.

iltt

tuIURt 0f uRlAlllsAll0ll

Overview of the Future of lJrbanisation Sh rltt

O

fl
D
o " D

Water conservation through leak detection, minimisation of transmission losses and measures, promotiOn of water conservation in industrial and residential premises byrecycling suitable legislative measures.
Measures to prevenVcontrol pollution due to indiscriminate disposal hazardous substances in land and watercourses.

Legislative measures to check over_exploitation of surface and grouncl water.

of

solid waste, elfluents and

control and abatement of pollution of water bodies from municipal and industrial wastes. gitjJrtffistructure to ensure proper pricing to enable cost recovery, demand
Rain water harvesting, storage and use.

management and

Sewerage and Drainage

r'27 Most of the towns do not have a sewerage system. Provision for sanitation arrangements musr go hand in hand with water supply. There is a wide gap between the level of water servic! ,nJ in.o"qru.. sanitation' As a result, the discharge of waste leads to pollution, health risks and environment degradation. such sewerage systems as existing in few cities are only partial in .o*r.g; The coverage is further limited because only part of the sewage is collected and even less of that is treate-d.
Sotid waste Management

serious threat. The accumulation of garbage has become a common sight in most cities. This state of affairs is directly linked to inadeqLtate planning, finances and management capacity at the local level.

only part of the garbage generated in urban areas are collected, transported and disposed off. In many cities, in the industrial areas, municipal solid waste is getting mixed up with hazardous waste posing

1'28

a

Environmenta I Implications

)'.29

waste management. Discharge

Most urban areas are exposed to air and water pollution, and problems of inadequate solid and liquid

of

water is concerned, over-exploitation and intrusion of saline water in coastal areas have been thJ major problem. The coast is being polluted due to sewage and industrial effluents from urban setuements along the coast, discharges from the contaminated river.s. There is a need to examine the ecology of the coastal zone to ensure that coastal resources are protected. By and large, the environmental issues include: loss of natural resources - water sources, green areas and coastal areas; deteriorating quality of surface and ground water; deteriorating ambient air quality; pollution from solid waste; traffic congestion. Governance Implications

resources' Industries and vehicular emissions are the major causes of air pollution. Contamination of water sources whether by pollution of rivers, seepage of polluting substances into the ground water or infiltration of water supply lines by drainage and sewage pipes is a serious problem in many cities. As far as ground

domestic and industrial wastes has seriously polluted most water

Municipal Governance

1.30 An illustrative list of municipal functions is provided in the 12th Schedule under the 74th Constrtutlon Amendment Act. The Constitution Amendment provided an opportunity to the states to formulate a new set of municipal functions to be incorporated in the Confornrity Legislation. Only Tamil Nadu, among the study

states, in its Common Urban Local,Bodies Act, provides an elaborate listing of powers and functions of municipalities. Unfortunately, in the rernaining states, the functiorral domain of the municipalities is not
10

IIIt

TUIURT OT URBAIIISAII||II

of |Jrbanisation Study Averview of the Future

comprehensive'Thefundiona|domain,financia|autonomyandproximitybetweenthepeop|eande|ected issues' i"pt5t""i.,'""t continue to be unresolved

1.3].TheStategovernn.lentsovertheyearshavetakenawaymunicipa|functionsandgiventnemto

n.,-,u.i.

levels, Urban Developme functionar jurisdiction of municiparities, ,ug'ri.;;,,' unJ These organisations present framework "n.ro..n.."i on the govern_ance of cities' ", parastatals n.] r"i'r.,.0" any signiricaniimpact network of of decentralisation of urban governance' .nu"oui,,.';;1";.i iontror rn in'e itnt"*tfocus on clear assignment of functions ano are not subjected ao of municipalities'*il;;;b;t there is a need to rethink tne rote that the functional domain of the The state gouarn*;;t, neect to ensr-rre financing' implementing devolution of financial ,"roura"r. reiponiibilities such.as planning' uno uunoriispects of-functionat Municipalities in Municipal Acts for alternative uiJ;iJ;ily defined. prouir-ioiJ'aie ario neeoeo and public-private pa(nersnlps' and monitonng such as privatisation of urban ",.., institutional mecnanrsms ?or delivery Acts' '"'uit"i in int Maharashtra amended Municipal Such a provision has been'muAt they are focus of urban management' in practice problems of Though in theory local bodies are the,traditional L.32 areas' and reiponding to the O.u'fopittii'lf bodies not responsible ror ptan'ning and overall tuin. titn", in public perception' municipal inrrastruit'ure ind environme.t. ni physical growth, areresponsib|eforservices.Mostcommon|y,peripheraIareaSarefragmentedbetweenmunicipaI t::?:,I.d'tn to urban growth' Another oroulnt'together jurisdictions and funcuons which need to ne stand alone' but need em"erging-atong the corridors' which relates to ,n" nu* industrial townships oroblem inteqrated service provision' State main city jr-rrisdiction'iotir'" p"p"o'"t ol into under to be integrated how new industrial townships should be brought governments ,f,orlo uiro ionsiOer' slriously in India has not been the history of conrpany townships municipal jurisdtction. ti"it, i" o" ".phasised.that the industrtes or inability to mobilise any tax resources from -io ' happy particularty rroni if,"n n.u,. iotal of company n'ti.t. 243 (Q) of the Constitution envisaging the exclusion residents. The provisron work' to*nif.r'pt from municipal purview is unlikely to

.0"'*ixryj:ir,'i:liieT',?#:L[T["Tffi::q;:3;*:.T1T"x?[lTli.ii];|il ""iiri" the

ti.

;;;"

]:

G

growth and econorny in the country' The metropolitan Metropolitan clties are the main engines of The metropolitan confinid to the"boundaries of one single corporation' cities are multi-municipai unO ur. not metropolitan areas ls l,n"t".t local bodies' The scale of services needed in these to address them in are divided in areas municipal .o'-Joiution or the different municipalities are not so huge that it is not possible for one aithorities have been created for such cities' they their entirety. Though metropolitan development both long term vision need of these t'tt'ltunitipui areas' These areas an adequate answer to the problems The stakeholders are many such as elected investments' and a series of short i"rni ,nt"ru"ntions and Authorities' p'oiesiional groups' NGOs etc The Development -u representatives, business and industrialists, all stakeholders on a single u'"-noi in potition to bfing mostly involveo in reaiestate developn.rent, -ptouio"t for tlre Metropolitan Planning committee for ,"n"*t;; ani".ltnL"t platform. That is representatives of urban and rural local Two-third Of its menrbers are to be elected metropolitan area. and central government others are to be nominated representing state bodies in the metropolitan areas. The tlre.norninationi also enable representation of responsible roi various services. rqoru *po,tunlly, agencies an intert'letropotiian Planning commiftee is' therefore' the private sector, exferti ano ttre community. oing a vision, a strategy and a metropolitan development pr6v governmentat, int"r-orlinirutl";il IgrT for passed an enabling stalei is"non-starter. Recentiy Maharashtra plan. The settrng up of-MpCs in all the study so far' but the same has not been constituted law to set up Mpcs in n1"iropor,tun areas

r.33

t-v

*.,

L,34TheT4.nConstitutronAmendmentActmandatori|yprescribestheconstitutionofDistrictP|ann.ng the planning, facilitate required to integrate urban and rural committees. These committees are
11

Illt

fUIURI 0r uR&AlllsAll0ll

Overuiew of the Future of Llrbanisation Study

r

"r ffl;::ifi'ln.?:T:TffHfl":#fr*;,'HJJi:;T::,:H: -,,0 o",ikoi*',,#""T-:"X'yli'':':";

development of regional^ in1-?-t'fuitqtt and promo-te Lommittee have to be constituted .environmentar conservation. The District prannrng i" to consoti;il;b*.prepared Municipalities' Even alons the-transport """ryii1rr.ct by panchaya* and urban mix will prevail' nor be continuous and rurar_ tn" iiriiiar'rk""iu.,*q1r, Br;anda;a Amreli districts in Guiarat; in M"h..rrntra; B-anai'iantna, qlgtmapuri,-e;;dft.i orstrias in Bijapur, Mandya districts in i,ni :''.#i#1ffi 1# io,r, ii"iii^ g

ht:f

y"'i!?'il

L.::

f

il'il;i_:r1gof, Jil;;il;'l;i, li;;;.t rl#'iuj"i

il[.;',H;

:FjJ",i",:| #i

ii *

.iv,

::*3#11ffi::':::'JfJ;'i::J";:f::[:Xluu'

1'35 Appropriate institutional set up for planning and deveropment wiff need to coherent policies for management be created !o evove and integiat"J oeuutopr"nt-oi-rr# i"rr,ooo. In the absence of such set up' uncontrolled and spontaneous grofth *ilr .ontinue to oi.rr. a m"louH-nodar structure of corridors may or may not honour the traditional-acmrnistratlve oornoi.ie, J ur"'L.r, bodies. Hence the need for a or ro.ui n"oi"iro,. as we' as preparation or
'"i,.i,i,.*,"n

r::n of assignment development strategy imperatives ut tn" ro.ui Jiaie and country revels-requiresof functions and resources, and central government levels as well. deriberations at the state The ar"no"c conrt'triil'n J""t .i'i'r'ng of functionar and financial domain and this process can only ne innuerrceJ iigiiricantry through poritical process and public interest.

1'36 All issues cannot be addressed at the local

'::':lT

t2

TrI FUruRt ot uRrnltsnnoT

Strategic Oi'eXions

fo'the

Future

d

r_1,___**"*t$fIF'$Ig"qLS"hqJJ"qll*p*"t-0-"[-J*!!J..1'!!-!,!1,*.[,!- -0J,J"n-!.lllj"$-tJ"!"0""||.,..*-".-

A. 2.1

SPATIAL PLANNING FORURBAN CORRIDORS

Background
allocations, overlooking The national development plans are concetved mainly in terms of sectoral allocations, the issues of tne spatiat dimensions of social and economic change. with emphasis on sectoral nodal points for economic growth, the inter-sectoral co-ordination and integration, identificition of emerging place in this type of distribution of economic activities ln large, medium and small towns do not find implications of industrial and planning. There is no mechanism at present, to work out the Spatial concept of a infrastructure sectors consequent to economic liberalisation. What is missing, therefore, is the local level regional spatial plan in terms of actual use and development of land on a regional basis. The physical planning which is done without any spatio-economic policy pljnning is usually micro-level iramework at the regional (state/district) level. Thus the existing planning mechanisms for urban development are short signted in nature, deal with individual problems as they arise, lack comprehensiveness, and are by and large ineffective. Emphasis is invariably placed on the Master Plan, which is a static concept to cope with rapid adjustment to the demands of increasingly rapid urbanisation'

Improvements suggested by the National commission on Urbanisation (NCU)

2.2

The National Commission on Urbanisation had recommended various measures for addressing some of the above drawbacks in the existing planning and development system. The NCU suggestd adoption of a spatial planning system as a link between national and local planning. It had observed that in order to evolve effective policies for planning and development of towns and cities, regional approach is quite essential. This system entailed a process whereby national and state policies would be disaggregated to the local level. At the same time, this approach would provide a national spatial pattern after the settlement and district plans are aggregated at the state level. Thus the proposed system envisaged introducing the bottom uo feedback mechanism, This approach would thus enable integration of inter-sectoral policies and programmes with particular reference to spatial planning and development.

2.3

The regional spatial planning approach suggested by the NCU required delineation of hierarchy of regions comprising macro-regions (inter-state), regions (state), sub-regions (inter-district), and microregions (districts). As per this model, the approach to spatial planning at the national level would confine itsLtf to policy and strategy formulation, while most effective spatial planning would be through preparation and implementation of spatial regional plans at the state, inter-district and district levels.
73'd and 74th Constitutional Amendments

2.4

The main purpose of these amendments was to empower rural and urban local bodies so that they begin to function truiy as institution of self government and in reality as a third tier of government' The ottier objective was to establish institutional arrangements for integrated development of settlements, areas and regions. Under the 74th Amendment Act, urban planning including town planning, regulation,of land use, slum iirprovement and up-gradation and provision of basic services have been included in 12'n Schedule
13

ilIT

TUIURT |lT URBAIIISAII|}II

ic Directtons for the Future of Urbanisation

containing the list of municipal functions' Local government has thus been entrusted with the responsibirity of preparing deveropmenr ptans inctuJinl o-u*ro'pru"f i".ir"i jurisoiaion.

*ii.'ritli

of committees, namery, District pranning and Metropolitan Planning Committee. These would rr" ii.ui'pr.'ni pr"p.r"o by rocarcommrftee panchayats and municipal levels are "n integrat-o-*ithin the rr.r"*oit ,lilo-zs year perspective bodies at pran and 5 year development plan prepared at national and state levels. The District planning committee would ensure that a spatial development plan is prepared oy consotioating tne p[ni piepareo by the panchayats and

2'5

The 74th amendment also envisages two types

il:liTl[?,f|iil'l
Regional Plans

j::'5:.'ff$ise,

Metroporitan pranni-ns

c""ittJ.

wourd prepare'a oeveropment

momentum from this period. The preparation of the National capital Region plan for an int-erstaf region comprising over 30,000 sq km in Delhi Ncr, parts of uttar Pradesh, HJryana, and Rajasthan is another exercise for a metropolitan region. The Metropolitan Region plan for cri.rttu, Bombay, Bangalore ano Hyderabad have also been prepared. The record in preparation of regional plans is otherwise
weak.

There are only a few pione-ering exercises of interstate regional plans as also plans for regions within states undertaken by TCPo' The south East Resource feolon erin coulrinf parts of Bihar, orissa, Madhya Pradesh and west Bengal including a small portion of UttaiPradesh *uroirJ.t"o to organise conflicting uses of land and settlements. The regional plan of western Ghats enconrp.rmg oor, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu was prepared as a framework for seitoral investments. The neecl for spatial planning for socio economic investments to be considered within the district as a region, gathered

2'6

id;t"r?Mil;;rnirul

District Planning
District planning process has received impetus under the 74th Amendment. on an average, each district is about 7000 sq kms in area and holds an average population of about 2 million. Thisiverage population would increase to around 3 million over the next three decades. They are appropriate spatial entities for preparation of regional plans. Metropolitan areas would have to be carved out from these districts for preparation of metropolitan development plans broadly indicating goals, policies and strategres for development and larger investments.

2.7

Emerging Planning Framework Regional Spatial Planning at the State Levet
Regional spatial planning system needs to be incorporated within the ptanning structure at the state level. This would enable organising the national space economy and relating growth of individual cities anJ towns to economic growth in their regions. Spatial planning can make its greatest contribution at regional level because development policies both national and state can best be translated into spatial form thiough

2.8

preparation

and development of emerging urban corridors in various states, as identified in this study, need to be supported by Spatial Regional Plans for optimum utilisation, conservation and development of all human ano material resources in the region in an integrated manner. Regional planning process can integrate economic and spatial planning into single continuous process. However, this would need institutional mechanism for preparation of regional plan as well as its implementation. Without such arrangement, it may not be possible to prepare a viable economic and spatial framework.

exchange of information, national/state development policies and local needs. There is need to co-ordinate varlous programmes in terms of a general area development plan for the state and for regions. The planning

of regional plans, providing framework for development. This will also provide a two-way

L4

ilfi I0I[[I

0F

Ut0A$sniloil

Di rection s

for thglutu re d!/lba nls!!g!

Plans Formulation of Spatial Regional
into 2.gTheprocessofformulationofspatia|regiona|p|ansshould_b"-]llP..obytheStategovernment sp:ii"l-:"^T:al planning should take ,o*n uni'tount,y ptannins +;ti;;.1 on the economic' social and environmental throush the state anO inieractions consideration the lmpacts oi into-f*iuS"s pt'ioctii teuiews built into it so that the dynamlc The planning prgces: tn""ia*n."" the Town and Country resources of the region. aO;rsltJn;;;;"' The functions ofplanning' integration of of urbanisation can be monitbred unO nature *E"nal and.urban planning Department ,nouri-.oniirr of coorOinitiin';"ih; inleraction with the state's planntng spatiat offi'"',],'.J og r.r.i"*9"'Ov"u".ontiu'nt. powers within their own boundaries economic and independent

should exercise -ine department. rne metropiiiun'liti", Oistrict Development Plan' should concern plans fit in those of the region tt u *n"it' should be orovided their district. The District Devdlopment Plan resource; w*h the spatial distribution oi services anJ project oriented.

; il.

District DeveloPment Plan

the Plan with specific strategies to implement Each district would prepare a District .Developnrent 2.10 collate and integrate the district O""ioptt"t plan wouid have to the 74th state spatial policies. To be effective, the sectoral attocation-s at inu Oitttltt level' *.ff plans of its constituent urban and rural areas u, regard to matters of plan should be prepared with due Amendment envisages that the District Development planning; sharing of physical anC t,ntipalities, including.spatial common interest between the panchayats of environmenu and

l,

development and conservation and natural resources; integration of infrastructure financial or otherwise' unO type of available it'outttt, whether "^Gnt MetroPolitan DeveloPment Plan

be prepared by Metropolitan Planning committees' Development Plans for metropolitan areas should 'snoutd. inotcJe goatl iorr_cies, _sirategies regardinq spatio-economic The perspectiue oeueropient fta.n "National/ state Five Year Plans to facilitate integration with the development. It shoutd 6u rurrv iynchronised of spatial and economic policy planning initiatives'

2.tL

Local Level Plans

devolution of Z.l2 The 74th Amendment envisagestne guidelines planning functions.to local Plan Formulation an. for Uiban Development approach has been ;;g;;rtJ inDevelopment Plan' in conformity with the

authorities' A four level

Implementation (UDPFI). The local authority tho;ld ftp*e'Local and those between the plans prepared for urban centres sub-regional plan. This needs close co-ordination in"t.ror", the spatial planning functions of local planning for the surrounding rural ireas in the sub-region. planning sy$em be clearly defined' The recommended 'prunauthorities and Distrlct Planning committees should plan indicating the [ng gloviolf9 a strategic consists of (a) perspective Plan for 20-25 v"u" of the settlement' The output is not just a policies and strategies regarding spatio-economl Oetieroptent for city development including land' physical development O';-;r1 a set of intei1eratetL'strategies pro.eii of integrated urban development; (b) Comprehensive infrastructure, finance, institutional i.e', a (say for 5 years) allows a more flexible meiitin1 plan within the framework of Perspective ptan growth should take place pians idengfying u'"u' where urban change and base for the preparatron of iocat within the instrurnents for execution; (c) Annual Plan with supporting inrrasiructure, source of finance"and frameworkofDeve|opmentptancontainingnew-andongoingprojectsthatthe|oca|authorityintentsto of of eroleiysinemes conceived within the framework implement during tne financial year; (d)-Plan approved Development Plan/Annual Plan'

i"i*

#a

tttt

15

IilT

TUTURT

|tf URBAIIISAIIOX

considered i!p.r#rr nwaioeueropmil#",1 have remained in this context, rargery se..oral dJ r;rious Five v.r,. irr"i,"qr"i..v o, rife not shown anv marked improvement' in rurar settjements has b. in" rranc, tne imirlii, ,ro.n,ration stress on the rural has settlements.particularly
has been lost as built-up areas have

urban and rural developm-ent cannot o" and despite massive in;11l1ents ou'ing

INTEGRATION OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS: PTANNING MECHANISM 2'L3 It needs hardly any emphasis that urban.andmetroporitan problems are intrinsically rural hinterlands' Increasing linked to their tgitit'Jtrt ilroor.l'.::.1 oJverop-ment goars in both areas' supporting prosperity for rurar and urban :.u,pp9rt rural poi,ittion-.no rapid urban o"u"iopr"nt.

B.

.,rui.p"rii.ilrinies. .rpu.O.Jon meropolitan Fringes.

"jl* tr."11'-

added fufther ro,. instance, agricurturar rand

;lii'J:tfl::i!|.H;'ff

The metropolittl-Td]?t9" cities during of their growth and physicar expansion absorb several urban villages and resul-ts in tne liaZuar or uroin sprawr especiaily arong transpon corridors' This sub-urban zone is usually ^extension abo-ut 15-20 km n.v""l u.,"ilriiiu," city fringe. The outer fringe of about 50-60 km lving beyond the zone oi ouity corinrting uiro".or", uncrer influence' particularly ir i[is aiong tne considerabre uroan miinlranspoft routes. i, nt*'rrban nodes in a predomrnanry some oithese t'.. . tpiir-ou"r or industries rrom a metroporitan ciry, some orhers

2'r5

and communication has red to rapid urban areas into the countrysidp ano expansion of the has ario orougnt about a procei-i or transformation and change. As a consequence' the boundaries 6etween rural and bruned and indistinct zone or transition' The phenomenon o1'rapid ,totnititrn taking prace in ,.*"r surrounding metroporitan cities is making a perceptible impact on deveroprenilno growth poricies of metroporitan areas.

2'L4

Industrialisation..lll-:lpuntion of transport

rro* .i.*i;;;il'a

lil.,

ll:lll.s:

l''ii

2'16 In various parls of India, between the fast urbanising and the intervenrng rural areas, there variety of common Problems-like the sharing wi, be a oi-water and naturar drainage and communication etc'' along with industrial and hazardous waites '=ro*aar, spitting oue,. inio tne ciiriirv sioe and problems cannot be ignored and water courses. such seen in isoiation. plarining irrr:rroun'rntegration should emerge as important imperative in dealing witn oeveropmeni. n ,egioiar .pprou.n to'retflement planning which an Into account both rural and urban centres takes assumes signiiicance iri o-.ri"g *ith metro-region pranning issues wherein the urban-rurar interaction is more intense, widespread and dynamic.

r.

2'L7 'District' becomes a significant level for implementing rura/urban/regional plans. The National commission on Urbanisation rgeSi siiongry ,ecomminoeJ'olrtii.t rever spatiar prannins -ltrtcu formulating Integrated District oevetopme#er..r. iiirr wiil enau-rel!.'1"-priot for deveropment of rurir and urban areas in a time-space-functionai and conte"t. ir," District pra;;;; iorri'itt.. (Dpc) set up under the 74rn constitution Amendment can serve as the pratform ror integr;teJ rurar and urban areas at the district level' The DPC is expected to initiate such plannlng process bi consotidating plans as are prepared by Panchayats such development .a .nJ r',luni.ipiiitiei in a oirtiia, ii",u lol of Dpc becomes alt the more lmpoftant in the context of planning for rapidlv urbanising areas in the emerging corridors. A district development plan would form the baiis or .J.ioi..onoric planning at tne oistrlct level and providing the spatial framework' In pt"Psfi']g the draft oevetopment pran, the bpc snouto have regard to matters of common interest between the panchayats and municipalities including spaiiai planning, sharing of water ano other physical and natural resources'and the iniefrateo oevetopme-ntLi infrastructure and environmental conseruation' The 74th Amendment urto p.uio"ilo,. Metroporitan nrea oeueiopment pran to be prepared Metropolitan Planning committee (upc) to ensuie rntegrateo oeveiopiiJni ptanning and achieving by the desired metropolitan development goals. Though seueraistates nu*-purruo enabling laws to set up an MPc' none has been constituted so iar. Recentt/tt't" uunurrrrrtra gouerrimeni p.rrao a simirar enabring

;;;;';",

raw.

lo

IHT TUTURT OT UBEAIIISAIIOII

oneveryusefu|featureofthisisthattheMumbaiMetropo|itanRegionDeve|opmentAuthorityistoassist il;drc'#ln un"tt function as its technical arm' the conformity laws' so for District planning committ€es in Himachal most of the states have provided 2.1g while states. are: Assam' Gujarat' n.u-"-t.I"n-ri"i,, to .onrtn,itJ-lnem' rnes! niJas*'an' Tamil Nadu' Tripura' west far only twelve states pradesh, rq.nliltnttt,'otiiii,
pradesh, Karnataka, Kerata, Madhya
Bengal.

C.

LAND MANAGEMENT REFORMS

Background
and z,LgUrbanandruralsett|ementsoccupycomparative|yasmal|Percentageoflndia'stotalland'About i15O ysesiO per cent comprise urban per cent of the tand i, .o.iiO.r.O usa'nie tor t;tiln 84 i;d about 10 per ceni is classified as unusable rural settlements with their transport linfages; ilIonl'i put cent of the topographically usable area ianO aT?IltJd topographically. m rSzr, the urOan process in future will certainly require or1n" totar population. The urbanisation accommodating one-rifth contentious issue representing the crux of

h;J

is n..oring-i".it more land. This extra ,.rj ro,. ,roi. uses land is getting conveaed into below shows, ,1otti"to more agricultural per land problems. As the Table urban has beenistimated at about 75'000 hectares in peripnenes oicitLs. fne rate of conversion urban uses lni't r..i" will fufther accentuate in next 20 vears'

;il;;il

Table 2: Area of Urban Land (1961-91)

Source:SripthiKs,lgg2lEffectiveSub-NationatAreaPlanningthelndianScenario(Mimeo)
access human activities' In rapidly grOwing urban areas' Land Serves as a base and platform for.all of. housing' industry' commerce' the competing demands to land is becoming in.t"*inSt OifRcutt byp.t"Jtn"oi e"cosystems' It is this competition which leads the 'oitransport, open spaces, ugi[rftJru, and access to lack

2.20

ecotogicaily vulnerable land' speculation, increasecl ra-nJ prices, occupaiion scarce land' of disadvantaged groups, and uneconomic utilisation

of

2'2IThesupp|yofurban|andisinherent|yine|asticowingtotheinvestmentrequirementandtime and foi wniin-tana itseif is a major input' To avoid unhealthy required for expanding ufin infrrrtructure judicious land use patterns to ensure necessary to promote. unsustainable growth of urban areas, it is for protecting water quality
inOiipensiOle agricultural land ootimal land utilisation including the protection of areas' a[J giorno recharge' fraqile areas including coastal

2.22

the line with the growing demand greatly accentuates Failure to expand enough serviced land in land available' tenC io limit suplly and raise the value of shortage of serviced ranO. 1ani use regulations land is influenced by 'artificiuiinottus"t'' fte dema-nO for urban Monopolistic practices ario iieate furth6r provision tne i&ou-tce constraint for acquisition of rand and the inefficient pattern or uinin o-&"lopment ano peripheral a.nd R131ature exploitation of of infrastructure ano services. Due to critical shoft;;;;;;;fnazard the

lands due

to unregulateJ

,t.

or land, unauthotiiuO' J"u-"ropment continues' further compounding

already comPlex situation'
Tilt furuRt 0f uRBAlllsArl0ll

t7

2.23

To cope with un

T+ suppry or serviced tand,.proper disposat and-detvery problems of distorted real estbte ;;io-"l] .ilr#,and'updateJ r.[pi"g ;r urban areas ca, for measures for ensuring proper managementorLni'in"t"ri.r'or its suppry, utirisationind servicino.

r-irt"tu,i::illriilin#ii.'ffi fuJril*ksr,lnffi

; ;d;ffiil

jffii,:enistrlii!:r

H:ffiJTl;ffir,rifl:#:l:

Reforms in Land Management

of urban expansion, previntrve action to safeguard environment' land use planning to minimise-ei"rgy the ,r" and access of affordable land to low-income households' second' there is a need at the same tiTelt? deregurate many ehments of land public-private sector patnerships need to oe aeveioped to mltch te oemano for a quick use. Third, new suppry of rand. Finally' there is a need for institutionar changes-in-land man.agement to help streamline the land market. The operation of land market will be improved iithe cities can take up assembring, anarysing and disseminating information on land availability, land prices .nJ o$r"r inoi..iort i"[r,]ird iti ;urrenr poricy for use of rand. 2.25 An agenda for use of land as a resource may rnclude the following:

housins and rand snows that such agencies have not been ?'n..;.*:T able to accommodate thJconstanfly cnanging needs of rarge urban economies' The public authorities have moved so ilowty tnut in irru ialo is virtuarty removed from the aborish the uroan iano ceirins A* "ir"J oeen a wercome step, nas severar more Rerorms are arso land and to enable"".o.is,Ti,.:#"",'.'5ffff,83'.i',"r1fi the publrc autnoritv to mop-ii-unuurn"a increments in iano varues. The use resource for development needs to be of rano as a explored iri atl its potentiatities. i"uuilt t components of reforms rn urban land management in the context oi tore basic issues oiscusiea-eariel can oe identified. "y Though, the elaborate master planning may not be an adequat. an *ar, yet the planning ano reguratory lmpotant role in land management in terms actions have an

deveropment.,'i-iiiu'iu.ame

ilii

#","".illffJ

tlij:ll'"'fftil:Jheprocess

or urban rand deveropment has been excessive

in

#*'d;":"J:n:?:,#ilJ",n:*.|:1u'.n",

[ij5: y:';"$"..r:;';:" r

iy"iH?:":y;#W*1"]j:'-r.,f".*[,glti

a

J o J o

turn, enhances the varue of vacant rand. Development Charg-es' Development charges to meet the cost of infrastructure to service the development in question have not been aiequately exploited. such charges ought to include the costs of both on-site and off_site development.

Levy of vacant Land while Municipalities in sonre states are empowered to levy vacant rand tax' in several others l1x: is no explicit lega.l provision these roi:i"uv-oi'rucn tax. Experience of some states indicates that a vacant land tax coulJ o. u rujo,. to""J ror financing the deveropment trunk infrastructure which wourd, in of

:?:.::*"

Impact Fees" Impact fees are variants of development charqes which are revied to meet the costs of and indirect impacts of deveropment. oeuetoperi sr,ourJ pav for such impacts on urban

Betterment Levy: Land values.in cities go up because of development prolects. Betterment levies, if feasibre, could be irnposed on rands rocJted *iti,in tn" nenerit zones oi proJects.

infrastructure' The Hyderabad Urban Development Authority has'iecently introduced fees for various types of insUtutions and conversion of land use.

for Change of Land use.'conversion of rural land to urban use results in an instantaneous rise of land prices' A part of these unearned increments may be tappeo ior the development of urban
Fees

TIIT TUIURT OT URSAIIISAIIOi

Strategic Directions

for

the Future of Urbanintion

Innovative Practices for Land Assembly

urban development of land have been in force as part of various alternatlve moclels for assemblage -rn"s" 2.26 *.h:Tut (2) Town Planning schemes' (3) ur" (1) Land *#;;;;" rhe counrry. process in ramil Nadu' (5) The Haryana (4) The Guid-ed-urb#oevetopment scheme of Transferable Neqotiated purchase of tand, (6) r"ranaiaifrt'a incentive Scheme in the form of Model of Licensing of Colonir;ers, and DeveloPment Rights.
La nd

Readiustm ent Schemes

2.2TLandreadjustmentalsoknownas'landpooling'and'landconsolidation'isaprocessenablinga the pur.""tr of raw land without paying compensation to public authority to urru,"nut"large number or.smait to urban development, returning most of the building sites owners and sub-dividing iuin aisembled land for portion of contribution. The authority retains a the originat owners,n proporttn to the value of ineit land theassemb|ed|andtoprovidecityinfrastructureandconrmunityfaci|itiesWithoutanycostforpub|icsa|eto recoverthecostof|and.Theuseofthismethodhasbeen|imitedtoafewstates|ikeMaharashtraand planning schemes through the cuiurut in the form or-ptot reconstitution schemes executed under town for making large amount of provisron of town planning legislation. The scheme is a potential rnechanism the valuation of lands in their raw form prior to serviced land available foi urban development. However, in ineir assemblage and their valuation after development is fraught with complexity and difficulty
administration.

Town Planning Schemes The Bombay Town planning Act, 1954 as applicable in Gujarat and the Maharashtra Regional and planntng Rct, fgOO, empow-r a planning authority to pool or assemble lands for the purpose of Town -town planning schemes and to reconstitute them in accordance with the scheme. The implementing reconstituted plots of land are allotted to the owners. The boundaries and titles to land are restructured by the operation of law. There is considerable delay involved in implementation of these schemes which range from 11 to 19 years. These have been attributed to administrative bottlenecks and delay at the arbitration stage due to poor land records and lengthy hearings etc'

2.28

Z.2g

The government of Gujarat has initiated a number of steps to improve the legal framework of town planning schemes in order to reduce the delay in sanction at the government level, and to include additional items of costs and to provide for cost escalation. Other areas of suggested reforms include: improving the land record system, better methods of valuation, integrating the implementation process with funds available for the scheme and better communication proces!; with the land owners. The land readjustment schemes and town ptanning schemes are on parity. While the town planning schemes operate in semideveloped or urbanised areas, the land readjustment schemes operate in virgin areas.

Negotiated Purchase of Land
such as Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh etc., the state government has directed that the District Collector should identify suitable private lands, negotiate with the land owners and arrange to purchase the extent of the land necessary for housing and urban development at a reasonable private rate to be fixed by a Committee headed by the District Collector. The only disadvantage in the negotiation is that due to time gap in finalising the purchase, ceftain landowners back out from their commitment to part with their lands.

2.30 In some states

iltI

tuIURt 0t unBlilsArloll

19

Directrons for the Future of urbanisation

Guided Urban Development Scheme of Tamil Nadu 2'3L The Guided Urban.Development scheme-1hr,ch now is a component of the world Tamil Nadu Urban Development Project Bank assi5ted repiesents a new approach rn which developer/land owner affected by the private sector the u-/u." i"{.i ceiring Act i; vs' qv\-u to provide serviced sites for economica*y weaker sections in return the ro. exemption rri* *,iinJ.

.";ff;;;

Licensing of Coloniserc

2'32

the poor' The operation of Haryania uruan oevetopment Authority along with developers in Haryana has helped to moderate rand prices and provide atternative approaches loirrJrtrv of rand. Maharashtra's rncentive scheme in the Form of Transferabte Devetopment Rights 2'33 A major initiative to meet the challenge of housing the poor has been taken in Greater Mumbai, by adopting innovative policy instruments in urbin planning and development, for the effective implementation of development plan proposals. These include Accommodation Reservation (AR), Transfer of Development Rights (TDRs) and Additional Floor space Index (FSI) i" Jr".ir.iv imprement the deveropment pran proposals' These new policyinstruments help in resolving the problem of land acquisition / land assembty to some extent' Mumbai is the first city in India that has adopted the TDR concept in a regulated manner as an alternative mechanism for land acquisition for providing the essential amenities in accordance with the development plan proposal' These policy instruments demonstrate a partnership between rraNaRDA, MHnon and the suppoft of the state government of Maharashtra. These policy instruments have been effectively used in provision of civic infrastructure as per development plan proposals; slum redevelopment; and
renewal through reconstruction of dilapidated buildings.
urban

success of such guided colonisation depends on agencies to anticipate the areas or growtn

The Haryana Model provides for licences to colonisers according to stipulated conditions. The

sr<i[iur-rnte'rr##il

so as to capture infrastructure costs and to assure land suppry for

il!

gouernment and infrastru*ure

D.
2.34

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Water supply, sanitation, health and environment are closely related issues. Water quality has oeen a major casualty of development. Because of disparities in distribution system, the urban poo, srife, sepous deprivation of this basic necessity. About one-third of the water drawn from distant sources and treated at high cost is lost due to leakage. Poor pricing policies fail to promote conservation of water. If these trenos continue, there is a real danger that more urban areas may run out of water. Since about 60-20 peicent or drinking water is drawn from suface stream, their pollution is a direct threat to public health. Discharge of domestic and industrial wastes has seriously polluted most water resources. Contamination of water sources whether by pollution of rivers, seepage of polluting substances into ground water or infiltration of warer supply lines by drainage and sewerage pipes is another serious problem in many cities. As far as grounclwater is concerned, over-exploitation, intrusions of saline water as a consequence particularly in coastal areas and leaching from polluting substances have been a major problem. The competition foiwater among various users is already acute and conflicts are rising. Institutions and mechanism are requirecl to assess and manage demand to regulate the allocation of water among users, to optimise water use and to resolve conflicts.

2.35 If water supply

increased, the number not served will still remain very high. Water-borne sanitation is denied to a large segment of population. Till such time as this demand is met, productivity, incomes and health will continue to be impacted, especially for poor. With most uroan wastewater not treated or treated minimallv, the

and sanitation are considereo together, while the number served has no doubt

zu

IllI

f

uruRr 0ruR8fiilsAilotl

Directionsfor@
urban settlements exDansionofurbanwatersupplys]:!ems!.llccomPanied.bytl:.tT:.gfacilitieswil|continuetoimpose is' poit,lteri of water sources has been costs.-drie of the *rjo, sources' There -ouJi water huoe environmentar o*ping unt eatei'";;rt*' it tl'ln.-dectining sanitation' improved thJmserves which have or *ut"|. i"ioui."s through
therefore, an imperative

".;;";;;;;iion

2,36F|oodsanddroughtsarecommon.natura|hazardsandhavestronq|inkswithwaterandits the two irincipal factors for flooding' and unplanned ;;;;"i;ttt; are overatt' manaoement. watersneoiegradation ress abre io protect themserves' out to particurarry .?J;,"d il i*i" iuiu','it,il,,"..'ir,..vrr" The ooor are i"'"'i#'J *pply' Already' cities are reachingassured r,,igii .;i dJ"inJ witt contiii" tevets are no longer means
water stress sourcei ,i*", irppty; retocating ino-ust..les close to water increasing environmental more distant sources ", W*h popufution' growing-rapiOi',-inOustrialisation :-n an isSue of critiCal importance' water supplies. iesourc", *"ntgt*unt has become the sovernments degradation anO pottution, water rr.qr"nuvi?lffit",iiJo"91193i^s and most Responsibilitie, ro|. *.nugins';;t"..i" to regulate water allocation and conservation' have vet to adopt erectivi'foticies

^'i'"'

2'3Tcitiesarea|sorunningoutofairtobreathe.Industria|emissionsaresignificantbutvehicu|ar in iiti"' u'" being added to the list of cities n",n"'iir,6re most important il;;''ilj; pollution appears,o three principal sources poitrtion *-iiti'.r.tti"s frequency' There are other countries, aneaeo'iy";;;;";;it Vehicles contribute 64 per cent vehicles, i.Orttrv ."0 f,o'i"not. iuel'
of air poltution, namery;ir.il;?;"t pollution is 12 per cent in Delhi' of oollution load while inOustriat

Strategies for Environmental Management environmental will have to integrate strategies for addressing Urban environmental rnanagement 2,38 *oJld huu" to cope with the problems of changes past .r'"*uf f ui inoie of the futri".-iltiut probtems of the rhift in_p.duction process involving use of uno occurring due to,n.*urlolulomooite spatial dimension of cities "ri"rg'v''rr", of *11: g-eneiition and changes in the therefore' require actions hazardous chemicals, higher levels managiment would'
The urban sprawling into wider uroan regions. for:

"t"iiont"^tir

oAna|ysingandevaluatingtheenvironmenta|andhea|thimpactsofexistingproductionano
new physical developments' consumptlon process as well as

o I

for internalising the regulatory and economic instruments Evolving and implementing appropriate internal costs' of for effective implementation' reviews and adjustment Ensuring Co-Ordination and monitoring policy instruments on a continuous basis'
particiPation.

llmprovingtheinstitutionalframeworkforenvironmentaImanagementanden|argingpub|ic

J

1 o

working out arrangements for coordination is a proriisinl instrument for making the environmental environmental status of cities. This il;o;;;." of entities accountable and transparent' private sector to improve assist citizens' authorlties and Developing an information base to
environmental management' partner in the delivery of services' involvement of private sector as a

details in environmental management' publishing

on

Dconservationmeasuressuchasrecyc|ing,reuse,wheretheprob|emofwastewaterextst'

2t
IIIt
fUIURT OI UNBATISAIIOII

E.

t in cities. Public participation' improving the enforcement of raws and standards strategies' designing prrcing and and implementation of ta"at':on svstlms ror captuii"s ,*i.i'r.d environmentar costs of resources and urban services need role tnu prioriiv iJ*L in .ont&i managemenr.

2'40

Protecting Land Resources 2'39 Due to oror""r^r-^or-,-,,"b1i;atjon, .,,'":,..:r?-.rg into rurar areas,. catchment areas' forests and fertile agricurturar rano, water ecologicai tun'ii": rands. Land ui" lriining, zoning, buirding economic instruments cocres and 1e9d to oe uteo ul'"inrtrurunt to pioteci irlgite areas to prevent-undesirabre conversion of rural land urban aiel!. l"ni ,r" toorr .to iJ"i'i"'oe"ionsioereo to residentiar and industriar aevetopmeniili;h ;; greary improve unui,iirunt quarity guide th- sring or

li;";;;r";iar

INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUES

Background
increasingry rearised ,nu, ,Tjo,I::ts in.infrastr"ucture are emerging economic growtn, In tnu- Jirpi"st. as terms, i.rr.rtir.tr* refers to roads, the malor telecommunications' ports and urban rail, power, inirultr"r'a'rre. Among'these, l.r..o, nu"o, are being met increasingry quicker and cheaper ranse or private services' However, wi1_,1'10"' iltT:T,i:'iil{:Jfi'.:T[:.H,ffil::tJ':il,i?o[illll;;* of urbanisation pattern and projections ror io)t indicate tr''.-t'...li'"rlicreasing urbanisation, its spatial

?:aL, It is being hindrance

to

::ffi'.:ill|:,f::: i;H,'".il,'::f":*:::j'.t..n'"rw."ioii,gi;iler,

.!";

I.

uno-ri,g; ,,.bun ,1_u11_.ioo1it 1 urbanisation and the cities are'racin!-..'.* o"ri"t *iGi transportation'. power' communicatiJns "r etc. iince mort of the' inuurtr"nt required prolected growth in the economy for achieving the is likely to take prace in ano arornJ-ine urban aggromerations and the emerging urban corridors' such urban areas wirr neeo to be provideo *itn ,ouqrate qualig urban and regional infrastructure' we examine oetow some or $'u r,"y i,ir.! rnrrastructure sector. Urban Infrastructure

:!!!i*#,,T;'itilillii1l"ffiJ:n,.;[:l'f;i,."l#,ht*[il[

irpp;;""1#:jT"lil#::'i:rT:r:xff:
;'ft";;.

Status

'1?J'"X.'ilil11?13?i",:iil:ffJE*;';.:i,"ojected

4.42 The present status of urban infrastructure by inadequate level of urban services. As per 1991 c"nrri, rd"r" of urban households hrt"gilt::::flected racirities ana z+n-ierJ riuins, larger cities' to about 50 lpcd in most rrirrui-it*n, while t-he .u.iug.-Gt"r being 27 lpcd' There are about.2'3 availability in urban stums mirrion C-raiines, needing .onu"roi-'into water-borne toirets in towns with population less than million. ^half cities Mu'nu .ii'"t racr< r{ura w"aiiJ"runugurent system. The roral wastewater generated bv 23 metro rs .lsposed off untreated' In metro^cities, is treated, and the resr rs only 60 percent.or sotio wasie is iJi..t"o, transpofted and disposed off' As per India Infrastructure Report, rggo, [n. totar requirem;;;i;r-;;." infrastructure deveropment comprising backlog' new investments and o a v costs ro, ft'u n""fi6 i, Rs. 2,50,000 crore, whire onry increase in',ioin popuration wi, puiir," ur,."uov
i

*iil;iil;l;;:,.t,i:1fflii!*#i:#ff,"'#i?il,.irl;llru*i$
giziTl1l$l.i;-'t'iip.r'."nt t!""

22

Tftt

fuIUIt 0t unanrslnor

Directionsfor@
Key

Issue

2.43

follows: water supply and sanitation are as Some key issues regarding

JlnadequateCoverage:Atthoughalout.S2.percentofhouseho|dsincitiesareestimatedtohave cities' water is available oii.*i.. i, poo.' In many Tamil Nadu and Andhra to pip"o *.i"i suppty in 199.1, the f!i"f access in some states like for only 3 - g hours a day. The *ut , ,upp]y-ritraliln in chennai, 54o/o of the residential pradesh is critical pafticularly in targe^citiJs, i"i""#pr., to be connected ,,io s*"iug" Board-sbrvrce,area are estimated have sewerase consumers witnin'in!,-wate, slpprv (1991), out of 300. class I cities to the sysrem *,tii'i iiiiiv oii6 rp.a. o;u60 40 per cent is treated' than n#'[ i"rr".t.J ot *nitn only 30 to medium systems. or tne totai r.*5g", less to open defecation particularly in small and than half of the urban population resori
,
More towns.

'networks oPoorQuatityofSeruice:Thewatersupp|ysystemssufferphysica|losses,rangingfrom25to50per being poorly maintained' Low cent, on ...ornt oi old transmission ariJ"-oiJtiuution of water due to back-flow in the pressures ano tnieimi[eni iuppry |."suttr']n-.ontttination cholera and gastro-enteritis due to frot

distribution n"t*oik. iif.utta' nis sufferi' was due "nJ.ti. in Korukkupet settlement in chennai in 1993' unfiltered water supply. outbreak or crrotera in 1955 and again in of contamination, once to poor quarity oi witer. Delhi was struck';ytniit',pe hepatitis' also has suffered from epidemics of
1988' Ahmadabad

3

is a growing Increasing Demand and Supply Gap: rhere
diseases' levels cause water borne and water related

theWatersupptyandsanitationsector.Itisgenera||yunr.esponsivetotheneedsofthemajorityof sufferfrom poor access' Inadequate service the un-served poor people and women in'p'a'tii,fai

-m!:lT.:

in the demand and supplv in

fnsfitutional Arra ngements In large cities, state level entities or 2.44 The institutional arrangements vary from state to state. for.water supply and sanitation sector' In

are responsl5te metropolitan agencies or muniiipat corp-orations ii t"rpontible for capital works and maintenance in Karnataka, the state water supply and Sewerage-trto ginguiott, Chennai' Hyderabad and Delhi' In some noards foi small towns. There are now separate wate-r and construction while the public Healtfr ano engineering oepartments hanlle planning, design cases, the "maintenlnce ties witn municipal governments' In most small and medium responsibility tor operaiion inO oepartment or public sector parastatals' The the responsibitities lie with the state government towns, of service delivery' has incteaseo the institutional complexities overlapping nature of tne responsinilities local bodies enabling has provided a constitutional status to urban 2.45 The 74th constitution Amendment.re in t-nu prinning, management' and provision of urban services a lreater local governments to Inil ,rOan toiat bodies will take responsibilities for water suppty anO sanilation. This yet to be such as However' the spirit of the Amendment is providing the servrces witnin tneir territorial OounJaiiit' should be given the tne ioiai level. The local governments translated into reatising decentralisation at professionalism' re-siinsioilities' There ii a need to bring financiat resources necessary to perform tneir of state in uinari toiat bodies' The process of giving a share technical skills and rinancial'management is yet to gather real momentum' The to urban local bodies by the State rinance Commissions crore for urban local bodies to meet revenues oiuor*ion of Rs' 2000 Eleventh Finance co.riiriion nus recommendeo during 2000-2005' their needs of operatlon and maintenance

i"+;;

."i"J

23 TIII
TUTURT OT

URBAIIISAII|tII

Dhections for the Futurq of Urbanisation

Key Reforms
Polrcv Framework-T *"t"g'ut isiu'es, address water resources and allocat]on gdopt-"d^:1:d to-provide a poricy - framework which must arso particurarry water oincient areas. There is a need to significantty increase ,np:r_.*qse or popuraiion. with access supply and safe excreta disposal through sewerage system.as well-as row iost'tecnnorogei. rneie'ir"l'n".0 to create a conducive regal srate and rocar b"JLrl;;.t;: nas oee,i Jone'ov inu ..nn , [:i$:H"i:;:the eovernment in rhe power and

2'46

d*;;;

2'47 commercial Approach: The India Infrastructure Report recommended a commerciar approach provision of urban infrastructure to the services, u.r"a on dem;;d-oiii;i;lo].'''.no fuil cost recovery. uncter an appropriate regulatory framework, the privati sector can provide the management expertise to reduce losses and exPand,servic.t. in. fon..pt orpror'L-pri"it*i.rtiersnip is generally and incentives private sector partnership' seen as route to lhe.r9 are onrv a re* griuat ,..t5, pu,iiip.ii"" exampres in urban water suppry and sanibation so far' The local bodies wLar< rinahciar status ao-ei noi'Jtto'* in.r..re -Rnanciat in capacity and suppry, substantial improved performance ano meciianisms resources to meet the anticipated increase in demand through coJ e?ective tariffs aie .iquir"1. iome municipar corporations have attempted to raise the resources from financial markets rr.ntiieniiiollJd and Bangalore.

F s-.r.iil;

2'48

D J D

to be followed needs of urban infrastructure. The main thrust of recommendation by IIR is on:

strategy: A dynamic strategy of financing infrastructure has

to meet

investment

greater role of ULBs by strengthening and diversification of municipal domain and tax structure; creation of favourable investment climate_for public-private partnership whether appropriate handing over parts of service derivery by mechanisms to the private sector;

fiilT.tfit"*tion

approach to the provision of urban services based on judicious

mx and cost ptus

O establishing a regulatory framework for private sector participation; D options for private sector pafticipation such as leasing and concession contracts; o setting up of Infrastructure Financing corporations at state level to meet investment
;;;;H'lni",n.u'n"nr, i1t,l:x;:i.fl,.f:?1.#"ffj:3TJi1"jTlFs
Sstor

needs of urban nscar oisciprine ano

D
2'49

opting aadppropriate technorogy to reduce cost of service derivery.

Private Sector pafticipation _ Some Examptu in WaterSupply

financial closure recentry.-The a.nguiore';adr suppry poect i's oiing attempted through Boor arrangement for sourcing 500 mrd water to the city witn an'estmiteo cosior ns. g00 crore.

several initiatives have been taken to encourage private sector pafticipation in providing urban water supply' The chennai MetroPolitan water supply ano se*Lrage eoiiJ tn"ig'91 contracted for chennai,s water treatment plant' The Tirrrppur water suppty'and sewerage pro;ect has been through a spv_ New Tiruppur Area Development corporatlon at estimated cost of ni. soo crore. This has attracted 'mptemented private sector into funding, constructing, operating, and. maintaining raciiities. The project has reached

in

Di rections for

thg!!!u re'9! tJ@lg1lt on

II.

Regional Infrastructure

is 2.50Thedeficienciesinregiona|infrastructuresuchasroads,power,-.te|ecommunications,po]tsetc', produ^ctivitv' Improving infrastructure lii,'*i.i.r#;;;.;;;d up to ihe country has open€d seriousty affect the nationat'llo-nJmv giiltn a1o.,u'011 iL"i;;T;"f !ii::^-ts:'t'to aftract more investment in critical to sustain *"""tit thus process is The major-thrust of the ongiing ;fo,t

Drivate investments. regional infrastructure'

Roads

2.5!TheMinistryofsurfaceTransport(MoST)dea|sWithNational-HiohwaysadministertheRoad o'1."t'lv q tn-oia (trtHlt)' under the Ministry Transpoft rynd.: Th:-I*]?"'.r]-,lii*lt

Devetopment and Road capacity of roads' The Ninth tne nationat niin*'avs ano increaiing the of surface Transport, is strengthening & tn" national highway network' The year ptan envrsages strengthening .no chennai Five G;io.n-Quuotangle linking Delhi, calcutta' naiionar -uy priority sections incrude building four ,pgtoinq the network by and East-w"ri.*'oott, proportional demand for and Mumbai and also tn.'porin'-south economic growth in tne lanes. The future but to the entire regional applies to ihe nationat highway network state highway transport infrastrudure.'ini'noi onfy tn" otn.ii..tions o:r tne'-nationar highway and network as wer. rn. nu"i'roi rti.ngln.;.'ing, transportation' The to finf uiian'anO ir,ral areas for improving the on networks is, therefore, equally important for-lfr-e-ei.rerging urban agglomeratons connectivity will create intercity ttuntpott froblems lack of such volumes because ot Intense ,oaOs tannoliope with increasing traffic the transport coniclors. iq."v the cost for production and lower

ih";;j;r

i*prini';il;i;i";i ..hdkii

couniil';il..*,*i ifl"^gfr

industrial activities.
transPort.

"-iiii"g nna'";ii.*ni tiansport inrraitiulture will help

population 2.5zlJrbanRoads:Ttedemandforurbantransportisincreasingduetovariousfactorssuchasgrowthofis in"iniome etc' 11.re rapid increase in vehicle population, increase i" in"ii"i of cities, rise about 21'37 million' This venicre popuralron. in the country was worsening the situation. in iggr,in" totar million' with the process of 2001 tne nu-nioeiii tikely to be nearly 50 increased to 33.56 mi'i; in id96. By roads in shaping ro|. uroin transport. The importince of urban urbanisation, there rs continued demand iJin. tott uiiible manifestation of the failures of devetopment hardty needs emphasis, Conistili' urban alarming proportions in cities, rte vehicle population is reaching urban transport purt,.ri.i i;;h; lrrd"r the result of inadequate road ano rarge iities. bongestion is also relation to the road nut*ir[ in ,"tro[olitan efficient engines ln cities] i'niie.iing nr;]O"t o-f vehicles with less network. Inadequate pioui.ion for roads and pollution arr aooing'to ihis te'-'ous problem of congestion and lack of mass *un.pJrt tvtt"ms aie

2.53Facedwithrisingtranspoftationdemand,urban'areasreQuirenewapproachestoaddress public transport .uny narc oecislons to be made in developing efficient transportation proorems. in.r. ui" new strategies' such as iranipottution-de.man{a1d devise in large cities, Cities nu.O to'iu**amine urban fuels and. technologies' integration of traffic land use-transport ptanning, demand t.n.g.tuii, at a minimum cost' objective tnorij o. to provide maximum access modes and traffic management. The

i";;;

Power
-inO z.54Thepowergenerationisgrowingtoos|owly.Theshortfa||inmeetingpowerdemandisestimatedat The situation in several states is fg-per c.-nt fot. pea[ OemanO in the country' fo, non-pea-t 11 per cent The Electricity Supply Act on captive po*ti to cope with irregular supply' serious. Industry nas mostly relied However' the private more investment in power generation' 1948 was amencled in iggf to encourage of that was expected from them'
cipacity investors have not prouioeJ tne additional

Tllt fuIURt 0f uRBAlllsArloll

25

Directions for the Future of (Jrbanrsation

2'55

::'#il';,'T;',.'#l'iffiil:mm*:h;n:;}il;;ff:i',i,:,.ii1l!'nn
2'56
Power supply planning

with increasing,,urbanisation, power requirements particularly rol urban power su'plY is charatt"tiil grow substantialry. ]1d,ustv, wilr and suppry. The situation is qu*e rapid,y due to niener enersy

il;ffi,"s T"nril;"i;;;##

i!ffi1fl;i?lTii"i:Hli::XT"#ouns ilw;;;lctor
Telecommunications

can be used as-a, tool directed for planned urbanisation and location inclustries and other e99n91ii aalvities. noeiriate,investmeni;ili of emerging urban agglomerations' to.be made to suppry power ro It is likely ffriiiuoiic r"ao, .ronu'*oriii-',ot ou abre to meet iire i,i.r".ring

ffi;

rerorm.

rni, in.r,iui

introduction or private sector ror

2'57 Telecommunications is a .vital aspect of infrastructure and is a direct input to industry, traoe small enterprise' Telecom.ha-s witnesseo ancl iap'i piivate rnvestments in ,ecenr years after the cellular'"'it-u:,,*::u-tnr9w1 op* to private sectorln 1992. private.sector now provide radio-paging' voice' e-mail, and video-text cerurar, ru*ii"r, private firms ri"lio'rt.,tng up in fixed technology and range of services .t. services. The no rori'ilriour irrr"r. *";.*tE:.ommunication extended around metropolitan cities ,pto network has been ..,t.ii distances m area. This has facilitated access to the telecom facilities to..industrial centres. The need roiextenoing such facirity to a, the tne same principre as tnar or ioirmln Economic zone, anidea mooted ;ilfi8ilt :::'.| Htj"#,T,i#ffron.

n::::l:lq;q;tj.g,

;;;;.;;9

r"iiiilrti.

Potts
The central government has adopted oto,:o-l:Ji., measures to open ports to private central government is seeking private investment'in sector. The captive and other iaciiilies while seeking private investment, mostly in state governmenB are ne* sites. ti is, therefore.esi.nii.iio'int"grate pofts with otherforms of transport like roads and railways at ihe to ensure viability. This will require interministerial coordination between MoST and in" Ni.irtw ini, ,,i,j, .rro require adequate financiar support to road and rail projects to ensure-connectivity to new rt.t" po,tr. Formuration of integrated transport policv covering roads, railways ano porti tn;; io.o" strategic pranninq wourd also have to address other elements or tfie iransport network 'ilor=u#.n,uo. ports such as dry o coordination between pods, rairways, containlrisali". to ensurj oette,

2'58

;;;';vel

i"rr."i.r

"inrii*#. .;";;

J,",0-*.i.iiJri,rii""

F.

FINANCING URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE
Fra

il:i::iJ}o|;:"hll;il1;fillii,li,tii;Ji,il,Xilj,?3i,T,.Il$o,,, ,:.ii,"l,?e 2'60

mework for Infrastructu re Finance 2'59 The Municipal Acts in most states envisage obligatory and discretionary functions municipalities such as water supply, sanltation, str""t .r,gntifu,-;uint*.n.u of roads, drainage, for the reality' however, many of these functions niu" .itn"r oeen tarln ou"r, oi uru being performed etc. In purpose authorities at the state or by special city level. For e1a1Ple, in rt t.rl ,*i', as Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerara, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu ui'o piaoesn,'w;t", sri-rrri"uii's.*.rugu uftur Boards (wssB) nave been set up which build as well as operate water iupplv system;ilil.;i.;. There are three wsS Boards

Institutional

municipirie,i.t,-iniuains

These bodies are supposed to be financiallv"5[.1yrnc1ent, but they depend on state subsidies Ioans from HUDco and other financial institutioni.'tn and many states, the donor-assisted projects are routed

Tlt

ruTURt or

unrnltsliror

g[ Urbitnlsa!1!1 Directions for the Fult1g

fragmentation and duplication through these bodies. The. continued
effective urban delivery servlces'

of

municipal functions undermine

2'6tThecentralgovernmentp|aysanadvisoryfunctionthrc.T.\,-tr.]vlinistryofUrbanAffairsand the states' Its two financial centrally ,pon*r.d programmes-through Employment, besides i*pru*"niing National Housing Bank o-eueropmlli doiiorution (HUDCb) and Finance intermediaries _ the Housing and Urban uiOin inu"sttents' fte Housing Development (NHB) tend soft toans to-l;Af bodies to finance Financial Leasing and private sector-ietaii lender' The Infrastructuri Corporation (HDFC) is a splciafleO both public and private sector rinanciat institution with board comprising services (IL&FS) i, u non--6.-nrin! in industrial other financial intermediaries' currently specialising Institutions investors. In addition, tn"r" tn" IFCI' The USAID programme entitled Financialthrough the investments, such as lcrcr,'-SCiii.nO of India's debt market (FIRE) is assisting lnlf't Reform and Expansion Program Finance Corporation "*pansio-n infiastructure, iroj"tit' rnri"ttru:luf..?evelopment development and financing-6r urOjn infrastructure sector' The IDFC provide l;il'-ie'm finance for the. (IDFC) has been recentty""riJr,rr'"0 to an? a provider for financial guarantees' will act as a direct f"nO"tl .iufinancing institution,

ir"

Financial Decentralisation the mecnanlsm towards municipal decentralisation is based on 2,62 The approach of the 74th Amendment."nt'ui Lu"[' wnitu tn" State Finance Commission (SFC) is of Finance Commission at the state and is expected to the municrpalities, the central Finance commission expected to suggest statJslaioevolution Funds of the states to lo augment the-Consolidated to make recommendations, as to the measures needed was The Eleventh-Finance Commission' for the first time' supplement tne resourceJ'Jti,u-ioi.r bodies' Amendments to the context of 73'd and 74th to maKe r.u.ori-r"nOulions for the local OoOni in the
reouired Constitution'

tssues of Financing Urban Infrastructure

2.63

to meet the demand for urban infrastructure and The present institutional arrangements are unable services.Presenceofa|argenumberofagencies|eadstofragmentationandoverlappingresponsibilities limit restrici iapacity a-ugmentation and technical constraints resulting in conflicts. The fiiancial constraints poor cost recovery and ;oniitaints resuit in inefficiencies, the coverage or ,"*,.u'i"ii";;. ih; manageriar consumer dissatisfaction'
Financing Recurrent Expenditures 2.64Loca|governmentsobtainmostoftheirrecurrentrevenuesfromtaxesandcharges.Severa|studies ofmunicipalfinancesnaveindicatedrecurrent'uu"nu"tasinadequate'resultinginpoormaintenanceand generation' by improving need to improve their internal resource declining levels of ,attui. There is a capacity exists' The municipalities ano capturrng whatever taxable growth effectiveness of local tu*ii'rnllnurges its lurisdiction to gnab]e-jhem to manage urban need to be given gruii", autonomly within in municipal cities have, however, shown dramatic improvement effectively. Several inn,utiua, oy states and existing legislative of collection of tt'"t, octroi and user fee within the finances by improving i1u "irrciun.v
frameworK'

2'65FinanceMobitisationlssues:Therearesevera|waysinwhichmobi|isationoffundscou|dbe
include the following: achieved. Important among these

o

regard Pricing of various services having due
services'

to the needs of the poor and

access

to

various

illt

Furunt 0t uREAlllsArl0ll

27

Directrons for the Future of tJrbanlsatron

. 'ilil'il,'f
O

:f,;::Tlil*?f.T"i.ff

'as

D Levying new taxes wherever feasible. D Reducing institutionar and overhead expenses,
public-private partnerships.

fi:xil:ff,#:h

rrom rocar taxes, rike property tax and

through efficient management systems.

Financing Capital fnyestment in Urban fnfrastructure 2'66 The financing for long-term urban infrastructure has traditionaily been made from the centrar state plan allocations' These allocations naue and oeen rnsuriici"nf io''r.ut the huge requirements infrastructure investments. tn cities. rn. of opion avairabre .i. al'p."io. frnances through Development Fund or an intermediaw Munrcipal riil pi""io" direct access iJ .'.pltu, markets (iii) encourage direct private investments, These options can oL irieo in combination, as they are not mutuary

2'67 Municipal Developmen.t Fund" The Municipal Development Fund is a resource poor, controlled channelised by intermediary institutions' rn and manv states such ui in reiata, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu ano Gujarat' Infrastructure/Municipal oeuetopmenf corporations o"e-n-.r"ated which have faciritated leveraging of grant funds with loan funds, thereby, reouiing cost of borrowed funds to the municipalities' For example, the Tamil llaou't'lunicr:pai """r.ir urban o""""ropr*iig1d to finance equipmenr and civil works in 80 municipalities was -nriitut"o by way or toan riom the 5t-uo Bank and roans ano world grants from the state government.

excrusive.

n.* ii"

Direct Access to capital Markets: The responsibility for provision for most infrastructure services rests with urban local bodies and 74th constitution nmenoment on greater participation of municipalities in the provision of urban infrastructure and services. sn"u,. magnitude of the urban infrastructure financing s:lsJ:sts the need ror tapllng market-based funds. Municipal Bonds have emergeo as an lmpoftant instrument for mobilising private'resources for funding uiban inrrastructure projects. Ahmadabad Municipal corporation is thJ irst The in In_dia to get iti ;n"o i.Lo and second to raise funds through such bonds' utl9^|gt: corporatrn (ecc) issu"eo tni iirrt-rrnrcip.l bonds with a structured -city between coue'menr or Karnataki, iiJS,Xt:o[ $:'J:Hfi,,ii''"$nl"i,i: u

2'68

it;;il."s
in!

flXtlfl.::"iment

iii:-ino

2'69 Private sector: tn:li1':.].tt:structure Report, emphasises the need for commercialisation of urban infrastructure' All the components of infrastructure rnorro iu ionnnJ io ipu.iric areas/users and rocationspecific commercial ventures of infrastructure. Availability iipii.i, pr"rJtsionalism, operating efficiency and technical and managerial expertise are characteristics "r ihat ..n n.'ufiririi,ied to the private sector. There is a need to involve the private sector in the development of urban infrastructure.
Financing Strategies
Financing of urban infrastructure through budgetary resources of centrar and state governmen* is unlikely to bridge the large resource gap thit exists. The. urban rocal governments have to become financially efficient to raise resources ?rom institutions and op"n r.ir"i.- There is a need to brrng transparency in inter-governmental transfers and grants and reduce suusiclei. such reforms should incluoe:

2'70

t

3":Hl'3f?Jfifl*t J:?.,1i:fi"J:ir:T:lttins

revenue corection potentiar and improvins tax

o
ld

Pricing of urban services for efficient delivery of services by public and private sector agencies.

ilIT

TUIURT

|lr URBAIIISATI|tII

urbanisation Dircctions for the Future of

O

investment projects' cost recovery programmes for capital DeveloPing and imPlementing Oun"fitt an-d minimise

maximise

* oEstab|ishingmethodsformeasuringthepedormanceofserviceprovisionWithaviewto resource oqenditure' G.
MANAGEMENTANDGOVERNANCE

Urban Management

2.7tLoca|governmentisthetraditiona|focusofurbanmanagement.Democraticdecentra|isationofloca| urban management and for efficient p,econo'tiJr-ior governments c€nstitutes ."'*p"["tt "n"tipu understood in terms of establishing o"i"ntruriiutlon is powers ano delivery of urban at "nu,roi*unf-inirastructure. toiai tevets and assigning to them such concept of democratically elected local governments context' the as institutions of self-government' In this responsibilities to enable tn"t io function to local bodies so as to be or powers, r"rponsbiritLs and.authority decentralisation refers to oeientralsation participatory structure at the The emphasis ir'in i;.uting democratic and able to efficiently discharge them. through properly political po*"i, *iil tn. people's representatives local levels implies the sharing of on participatory thb city unO *u'at-f"u"ii' inutL has been emphasis the provision of constituted political tuor""t"nt of the private sector in ""ecrtiuerit arrangements for the o"ri".rv oi ,.rvices, .incruoiJg

;;;1;.;hi.h

responsibility' has traditionatty oeen a local government

Amendment The significance of the 74th Constitutional the state to endow the municipalities' with Z.7Z The 74th Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 empowers selfiC ,;*tS.t'^"^: to Junction as institutions of such powers and authority as may u" n"t""ui considered which comprises a list of functlons oovernment. The 74.n #;;;.;;'.on[in-ifirihedule functions'is iffuit'atiue in nature' The 74th fne' fiii of ippropriate for Oevotutiln- to municipaf,ti"s. as urban plannlng' a laiger role forlhe municipalities and.such functions nmenomentiriruuti'"' Constitution aspects' protectron or environment and promotion of ecological 'Rct -enuisages urban povefi alleviation, urban forestry, Municipal three types of municipalities: slum improvement and upgradation, -etc' Jh: areas cities and towns' and Nagar Panchayats for for smaller Corporations for large c'ti;"1'4;;'c';af Councils elected from territorial 'five of rePresentatives in transition from rural to urban, comprising princip_ally years, to be conducted by State Election mandatory elections, on.i in constituencies, population and onefor reservation for sc/sT in propoftion to their commissions. The Amendment provides Warcls women in municipalities' The constitution of third of the seats in all local bodies to ue rese1.ued-ior no bar for the cities-iit[ tot"-g'un 3lakh population w1h Committees is mandatorily prescribed ror to *iin iestet population' to ensure proximity of the citizens constitution of such .o.rnitt"", in cities/towns for constitution of District Plannlng the elected representatives. The Amendment nct-ilso'provideThe constitution of such commlttees rs a committees (MPCs)' committees (DPCs) and Metropolitan Planning pto."tioiprinnin6 The DPCs are to be responsible for the . significant step in the direction of initiating and preparrtion of draft development plans prepared by the Pancha'uGlna Municipal:rties' consolidation of preparation of draft developmental plan for for the plan for the district. Likewise MPis are to oe responsible proviles-for the Staie Finance Commissions to review the the metropotitan uruur.-inu Act mandatorif'

ano

financesofruralandurban|oca|bodiesandrecommendthedevo|utionoftaxrevenuesandgrantsinaid Finance uruno"o by the 74th cM to the effect that the central etc. Article 2g0 of the constitution was also of the municipalities pieiU"nt to supplement the resources recommendations to the
Commission shall make

onthebasisoftherecommendationsmadebytheStateFinancecommissions.

illt

ruruRt 0t uRBAlllsAIl0ll

29

Arections for the Future of t/rbanisatron

The Implementation of the 74th Amendment 2'73 As a follow up to. the mandatory provisrons, municipalities have^been constituted erections to these *o':i in the states, iiJ" r,".199 lly: of tne maibrstaies, have been constitutedjn some ?ircr; n.u" been set up, and DpG whire r'ri;cr ir.l""tAi pro..r, 73'o and 74th constitutionat Rmenom".ii, of being estabrished, The .p.rt,r.r i"r, time arr rurar and urban rocal bodies have the "Rioht to t-ive", naveiir,i oi"rgnt ro"ri *pi?.." "nruriig-fo-,.'i'n" sjal'rrection commissions, of seats for womenis.well as iczir, sr.,. ri..,i* io,irll,onr, District pranning reservation and Metropolitan Planninq- committees' comm*tees rn.i!'ir, no*uu"r, considerabre variance between regard to the structure of Municipalititt different states in .no tni devolution or e*"crtve power. wake of the 74th Amendment- n"Jt" some criticar issues in the .""#r..0 ;'t ="gJri"r. The first is about innancing economic peformance and efficiencv or cities-inine .o"l;ti;i;;#EY;n economy second is on improving organisationat attinf.ments for bettelio.n"gou"rnance. and grobarisation. The ensuring accountabilitY,,:y The third rerates to iuppo,t. crearry defining functions in the context of decentralisation, accountlbility -t:.rtils.citlzeni iin.n.", and of the urban ro.ri oooi"r. It is imperative functional domain is laid down ln n. that the ionl"in"c Rct itsetr. oi in.?.t" Finance commissions, Dpcs, MPCS etc'' have also to be more ctearly deiined to facilitaie i".lii.iii.'n"or the objectives underlyrng the legislation' Decisions have to be made on r'to* to equip rocal bodies to iin.n and imprement the iange of functions envisaged for them oy tne Cnn. uioinlo.ur.ooo,-e1 neeo 6 ecuii " themserves for raising resources locally' Emphasis should-be on increateJproiuaiuity of rocar oooieJ.'no not multiplicity ofitate rcvel agencies' as this only- aggravates ft'" pioor"rs already t"hg in ensuring accountabirity and decentralisation in urban governance. Functionaiies, runctions aniri".ni", nave to go together. critical review or mnioiritv resisrations ;";.1;;;y ar states and the There rs a :'r"r%:il'J1:rtakins resisrative

Gil;;;

a;ffi;;;

*ri.iJt

l"

; il;;";;;

r,.r"lrl #;';; t'..i.

-f.*i'

Structures of Governance
Mu n icipa I Urba n Situa

has brought in a third stratum in the system of governance the municipalities is_rnstit-uti"" r"iig;"";nment for urban governance. It has sought in principle funitional uno ni.ui-ouvolution to ro..igJ;i-',r"n,r. "r As a folow up to the mandatory provisions' municipalities have been constituteo in tne staiesino municipar elections have oeen held' The municipalities and municipal .orporti*, have now ;h; ;ili";ist. state Finance have been set up to examrne the fiscar commissrons ,."ritl"rnip between state and tocl rocaltaxation powers and revenue functions as urban planning, urban pov-erty 'h;;;'e.;:'tnn uiruariies i;,i.,."r#i":il:'ffi?.t,'o}i.!!r'i;10"!1,jf, i,E:l1rig",.urban foiestry, protection of promotion of ecologicar aspects, environmenr ancl aniJ srum'impiovement and upgradation have been envisaged to be assigned to municipalitieg' Tne emphasis is on Jteatino-democratic and participatory structure ai the rocal level' making the municipalities accountaor" people's participation through oecentratiieoto tn.ir erectorcte. The Amendment also aims to enhance ino consutt.ti* o".irc"-i.,-,ating, greater transparency, stronger finances and a more rigorous democratic process. The provision or waros committees is to ensure some proximity between the citizens ano ftreir eteaeo representlu".i.*rn" committee is expected to serve as an effective forum for interaction with the wiiJ-councittor. and rendering the process more accountabre. The states must take steps to constitute thise committees and difine their functions. Adequate representations in the wards committees should bi given to differeni i"Jrnr of the population in the area including weaker sections, women' NGos and voluntary agencies. rne emenoment also provides for the constitution of District Planning committees ano l'tetropotitun eru*i.fio*nitt""r, which plans prepared by local qovernments will consolidate in collaboration wltn etected r"piur*iii"us. Representation qiven to the various sections of tfie people including interest grolrps in the Dpc/Mpc will ensures that voicei of different sections are heard at tne instituiion.r'i*"i. while some oi'ff*-rtut", have taken initiativesthe rc
Dy constitutionally recognising

2'74

tion The constitution.lT-t:dJ"nt

Act

(cM)

Strategic Directions for the Future of U

functional domain, finanCial autOnOmy' prOximity strengthen ancl improve local government, in most other planning, financing and managing municipal affairs' by between the people and the el6cted representatives, and large, remain unresolved issues in most of the states' local self-government, good governance outlines its 2.75 While decentralisation confers the right togovernance revolve. around the need for autOnomy' responsibilities. The primary issues facing urban governance' In. all most all accountability and transparency, planning and part[ipatory and consultative limits but are divorced from local states, state-owned boards and authorities functions within city the city vis-d-vis government. At the state, a comprehensive assessment is necessary to define the role of should promote the state and institutroni playing a dominant role in urban affairs' Secondly, the state gr.ri"i irtonomy and accounlab-ility to local bodies in municipal affairs. The amended Constitution seeks influenced significantly through sharing of functional and financial domain and this process can only be political process and public interest. central to 2.76 participation of the people in the planning and development activities at different levels is solely the no longer remain the Constitution Amendment Act. The CAA recognises that governance can prerogative of governments. Cities are already becoming ungovernable through traditional structures and mechinisms. Government needs to become a collaborative effort of the government and non-government governance' As such, the creation of sector, a fusion of public and private initiatives of citizens particularly in suitabie structures and process is vital to the success of democratic decentralisation' There have been a number of voluntary initiatives in areas like garbage collection and shelter to the urban poor, but the efforts of these organisations have been limited and confined to certain areas. What is important is to build a partnership between NGOs and the civic agencies who are engaged in providing basic services. A forum needs to be created to coordinate the efforts of various agencies so that there is optimum financial and human. In Bangalore, a Citizens Pafticipative Forum called utilisation of resources .SWABHIMANA'has been set up with a view to provide a platform for NGOs, voluntary agencies and resident groups to interact with civic agencies'

2.77

-

Multi-Municipal Urban Situations

ZJg

The Indian Census places cities with a population of one million or more in a separate category. Many of these million plus cities are not single municipal entities. They are multi-municipal urban agglomerations, which also include various jurisdictions which are urban or urbanising, but not municipal. LJige city growth and concentration of urban population in agglomerations is a pronounced feature of tnOia's ui5anisation. Some of this growth is because of densification in existing cities but much of it will be the growth on the peripheries around existing cities. New industrial centres and service activities including market towns for agricultural products also contribute to this metropolitan pattern of growth.
Multi-municipal urban agglomerations are complex and arrangements for their governance cannot be treated as an extension of the existing arrangements. They need special and innovative arrangements, which are intergovernmental, inter-organisational and participatory in nature. The arrangements neecl to reconcile the twn objectives of aggregation at the metropolitan level required for economy and efficiency and disaggregation necessary to sustain proximity to the people and sensitivity to local needs.

Z.7g

The 74th Constitution Amendment stipulates that every metropolitan area comprising two are more municipalities and having a population of more than one million should have a Metropolitan Planning Comrnittee (MpC). The pieparation of development plan for the metropolitan area as a whole is the task of this Commitiee. For this purpose, it should consider matters of common interest between the municipalities and panchayats, coordinated spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, integrated development, environmental conservation, overall objectives and priorities of the central and itui6 gouurnrnents, and extent and nature of investments likely to be made etc. Two-thirds of the members

2.g0

Directrons for the Future of Urbanisation

of the MPC are to be drawn from the elected members of the urban and rural local bodies within the area and the remaining one-third are to be nominees of the state The composition wi1 grus reno political and representative legitimacy to the metropolitan area ino-ario pr*,0" a platform for the different local bodies and agencies to come together. The constitutional provision is in the nature of a broact intergovern menta I prescription.

a";;;;;i.

Non - M u n icipa I llrba n

Situation

Rural-urban migration in the past was largely directed to big cities, and, to a lesser extent, to a few New Towns where large scale industries developed, The current tre-no, nowever, is towards movement into the periphery of metropolitan and other large cities. In many cities, iuih new setflements have mushroomeo and urban peripheral growth is taking place in an unplanned and uncontrolled manner. Local authorities are not capable of providing all the basic infrastructure facilities ano oir'teiamenlties. ne core municipalities are not keen to include these areas in their fold. However, such urbanising fringes begin to burden the urtrtir,g civic services and also health hazards, which new settlements create 16r tnerr immediate neighbourhoods in the municipal areas. In this context, it is important to note tnai ,lr tn.t is'uiuan is not municipal. In rapidly growing urban centres, most settlements are emerging spontaneously virtually untouched by formal governance.

2'81

Inter-Governmental Issues

all that is urban which is comprised In these agglomerations will not be municipal either. There is a need to evolve appropriate municipal model, with a minimum framework or goueinan.e to serve the future multimunicipal paftern of urban growth, as reliance on mere 74th const]tution Amendment will not help the situation' The problems sugh multi-municipal agglomerations or metropolltan regions and 9fdevrsing organisational arrangement for their governance have been a formidable task. Fostering rural-urban linkages within the growing metropolitan area is an additional problem .nJ-i"qu,.es developing meaningful strategies' It is also necessary to ensure that the organisational arrangements do not increase the disrance between the people and the government.

2.'82 The wide range and scale of economic activities and the vast array of services required to maintain the metropolis, inevitably results in multiple tasks, multiple organisations and multiple jurisdictions. The answer does not lie in artificially reducing their number. In eisence a metropolitan area can rarely be unitary. It has to be inter-governmental. In increasjngly urbanising states-like-iarii-Gr,'lnonr., Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat the shape of urban growth will be multi-municipal agglomerations but

Public Accountability

2'83 is essential to develop a range of instruments of accountability. citizens charter, regurar arrangements for keeping the people informed, access to information, transparency in the conduct of municipal affairs, expanding public contacts on the paft of municipal leadership etc., are cited as-some instrumerits which are needed at the municipal level. To ensure effective accountability, it is important that the rules for interface between the elected councils, community groups, trtcor, ceo, uuiioulliorp, or stakeholders are spelt out clearly without ambiguity.
Municipal Capacity Building
capacity building of municipal personnel is an important task and needs to be addressed on priority. There is also a need to develop capacity building of elected representatives including Mayors and -management. Chajrpersons of municipalities. There is an urgent need for professionalisation of urban Professionalisation of urban management would cover aspects such as training, research, adoition or technologies and procedures, computerisation of municioal accounts and adoption of commercial accounting practices and use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing applications in planning, etc.

It

2.84 Tie

32

III:

TUTUNI ||T UNBAIIISAII|tII

References

,F"#.-qlj'L--9,.1;

Development in India' the chaltenges for Infrastructure of Indian Industry, t999, An overuiew -of confederation Development, New Delhi' cum Exposition on inri.it*.trte 2,,d International conference New Delhi' Confederationoflndianlndustry,!g:g',E'?:?!!.:'!:digmsinUrla!Inlrasru:lrrelssuesinTranslatinglntent tum d;;il; on inrrastructure Development'
to Action,2''o International Conference

!j,,*,..n !....,7!/'.!.'.ri1//!,./!..,!!L;L:,;'4i..',i.,":.!:/,1fi,

Infnstrudure Report: of Infrastructure Projects, L996, Indian New Delhi' Expert Group on the commercia|isation waa*,vorrt. fi"itoral Reports, Ministry of Finance' poticy rmperaur";7;;;r*th

uii

FernandesBG,lgST,TheConditionsof(JrbanGrowthinlndiawithlmplicationsforPlanning(Mina)
GirishKMisra,lggS,PartnershipfolReso-ur99Mobi|isation,shelter,Vo|.1,No.1&2,January-Apri|. HUDiO-HSMI Publications, New Delhi' Poticis and Pradices in t998, Ilrban Land management: Improving H Ansari and Nathaniel Von Einsiedel, Jamal Nations Center for Human Settlements' Developing couni'ies ir'rci', vnitud seminar on Emerging Perspective and Need for-Good urban Governance' Jamal H Ansari, 2000, Ptanning Issues of Management Studies' New Delhi' Urban oo".tn.nt"ii"U rs io' rti'ity
Delhi. in Crisis,New Age Internationa| Publishers, New Maitra Asesh Kumar, 2000, |Jrban Environment on

-' -

Mathurop,2000,Decentralizationinlndia:AReportCard,uMP-AsiaoccasionalPaperNo'47'
Base-cum-issues paper' (Jse and Development Planning Problems & solutions, Meshram D s, 1gg7, urban Land vision: 2021; oct 6-7, Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi' National seminar on Future cities - uroan Urban Management Programme' Thailand'

MinistryofUrbanAffairsandEmployment,-.,lndia:NationalRewrt,secondunitedNationsconferenceonHuman of India' New Delhi' Settlements: Habitai II, istanbul, Government study series No' 59' Financing lJrban Infrastructure in India' Rsearch National Instituteof urban Affairs, 1997,

NationallnstituteofUrbanAffairs,lggS,Indiz'sl)rbansectorProfile'ResearchstudySeriesNo'61'
Nationa|Foundationforlndia,Lgg4,AccountabilityandDecentralizationint,lrbanGovernance,Pub|ication held on October 7' New Delhi' No 2/95, Report from the National Workshop planningcommission,tgg6,ReportoftheTechnicalGroupont/rbanPlanningsystem'Governmentoflndia'
New Delhi. Volume Planning comntission, Ninth Five Year Plan 1997-2002, Government of India, New Delhi'

II, ThematlC Issues and sectoral Programmes'

Policies and Land use control Measures in India' Ribeiro E F N, 1981, An overview of urban Land Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi'

SinghBN,lggg,FinancingtJrbanlnfrastructureDeve|opmentinLo,?!-?.!g,ye,4,Internationa|Seminaron FinancingandPricingofUrbanlnfrastructure'8-9Febtuary'HSMI&DTUDP'NewDelhi' in lndia: Towards an Agenda for Action' Based on sivaramakrishnan K C, lgg3, Managing urban-Elyironnent for Management of urban Environment in India' contributions for workshop on Role of cities
Aug 26-28, Bangalore' Peopte? The Politics and Prograss of Decentralisation' sivaramakrishnan K C, 2000, Power to the Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi' centre for Policy Research' New Delhi' an K C, Problents of GOvernance in south Asia, sivaramakrishn

References

sivaramakrishni},\3:,r1i"{!!l!{t,i{{#i:*rFiftv

years orswaraj: Hishriehts and shadows,

sundaram P s A' 1993, Legal and Institutional Fnmewoyk.for.Land Assembry, pubtished in Managing our Metropolise - New Directions rot il;; c*lury, school of planning and'Architecture, New Delhi. suresh V, 1998, Indian Experience in urban taadr suppry
Issues in lJrban rnfrastructure Financing-commercialisation, Hl)Dco,New Delhi. swindale I D' 1994, Towards a Land use Policy in India,RGICS paper No. 7, Rajiv Gandhi Institute for Contemporary Studres.

suresh

V' 7998' Key

and sanitation,HuDcq New Derhi.

t"*t t'lf"i"3:lry
Venkateshwarlu

The Times Research Foundation, L992, seminar on Legal aod Institutional Fraorework for urban Land Management in India_Issues parers, Calcutta.' Planning organisation, 1982, Regionat ptanning Efforts in India,Government of India, visian 2021: An Agenda for shaping the !)rban Infrastructure.

u, t997, India's tlrban

34

iltt ruilnI

0r uRBAlilSAItotl

STUDY FUTURE OF URBANISATION
t, 't.
AFGANISTAN
.
CiUJANAT -

,:].,:.
'---.. ,j-;
tNola

...,, |'..j

...

11.

,

MA,taRASriRi._,';'

I , I i
PAKISTAN

I

JA*rlrU &
KASHITIR

'
'rt
_.:

;tl
AIIDXFA PRAOESH

tau||

{AI'I.J

RAJASTMN

,

I

t

a

i-*ry':'L.-::
\ *
runoxv*
aHAR

--tr'ttot-

fl{oesn I
I

,

tsA}IGLA.
DESH

THAIL.AND

BAY OF B€NGAL

L€GET{D

lnternationg!Bolindaqr
S|ate Bdundary

*
ARABIAN SEA
-.|-+..--F

State CaPiiel Raiiway National Highway Goldan Quad|angle & H"D. Cctridof

,,;

Em*rging lnier-State U$an Soridcr
Emerging lFJ.ra-stai€ Urban Cor.icia.

t*:
INDIAN OCEAN

,:1ia,i:::

Energbg Urben Beg;+n
Glass - i C;liss hy

&

2c2i

EMERGI}IGURBANcoRR|DoRs|NSELECTEDSTATES
& ?AIIIL }IADTJ GUJAFAT, TAHARASHTRA , KAR}IATAKA, ANDHRA PRADESH

Pfrffiil
GilSLttllc[$

urrsl9JrreJ"tHsFljilp-H!"!1.gtutll=e{[18[!"tsll

Maharashtra

G0llftllrs

I. U. III. ry.

Introduction

-

P' 39

The State's Urbanisation: Trends and Issues New Geography of Investments

-

P' 40

-

P' /M

Spatial Manifestation of Economic Growth

-

P'

/'8

A. B, C. v. A. B. C. D. E. VL A. B. C. D. E. F.

Present SPatialPattern - P.48 Emerging Urban Corridors - P. 49 SPURs - NCU, Urban Conidors - NATMO

P' 57

Problems, Issues and Constrainls

-

P, 52

SpatialPlanning and Land Use- P.52 Regional Infrastructure - P.54 Urban Infrastructure Seruices - P, 55 Urban Environment- P.57 Investment Requirements - P. 67

Urban Governanceand Management- P,62
74th Constitution Amendment

Ac'.- P. 62

Role of Local Bodies in Future Urban Growth P. Role of State and Sectoral Agencies

Metro Areas and Metropolitan Planning Committees - P. 54 Rural Urban Integration and District Planning Committees - P. Managing Urban Corridors- P.66

-

il

-

P. 63

65

References- P. 57

iltt turun:

0t unBlillsAiloll

37

Mahuashtra

il.

H}_l|Jlff"_g[J'|,I-|$_lll0-l

:

rrrilN trr ts$||$
c#in

region iJtnJmost urbanised, within urbanisation leyel of 7L,5zo/o, followed bv Vidharbha (30.27o/o) and ttlistern Maharashtra 1zs.+soto1. th. least urbanised' concentration of populatiirn in urban_ areas is higher t'han 50 per cent of the total population in the districts of Greater Mumbai e}ao/o),Thane (64.74o/ot, ruudpri ioi.si;/"1 and pune (50.76oh).

Maharashtra is the most urbanised state, with 3g.5g per cent of its population living in urban areas in 1991' The level of urbanisation has -about increased from 31.u pJr rgzr to 3g.69 per cent in 1991 and this has always been-higher tLa1.ttr.e coirerponoing rigures at the nationat tevet. Maharashtra districts as per 1991 census is divided into roli regions, namely, grih;n Naumoai and Konkan;having 30 western Maharashtra; Vidharbha and Marathrvaoa. rne region-wise anatyiis orir"na, in urban population indicates thatthe Brihan Mumbaiand-Konkan

2'L

rv.i.tt*ioi?;;; A.;bi"jl,

Growth Trends in Urban population
The urban population.in Maharashtra, spread over 29i UAs and towns, with decadal growth rate of 38'69 per cent, has nearly doubled during ini tast two decades. An urban agglomeration (UA) forms a continuous urban spread normally consisting of a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths, or two or more physically contiguous towns together, or a city and one or more adjoining towns with or without outgrowths forming a continuous sprqrd., The decadal growth rate has, however, -maiglnally reduced from 39.99 per cent during the decade L977-8r to 38.66 per cent in 1981-91. The number oi ctads I and II unsltowns, ano Class III towns have increased consistently from 1971 to 1991 from 18 to 2i, L6i" Oi''io rot respectively while the number of Class IV, V and VI towns together have declined from 162 in tgZf io ffS in 1991 (Table 1.1).

2'2

zeiri

Table 1.1: Urban Population by size-Urban Agglomeratlons in Maharashtra

Class Class Class Class Class Class

I

1B

25

II III
IV
V

lo
61

z0
82 91

90
58

27 28 103 83

48,83
19.91

43.43 51,41

39.62 3.51

3L.17

42
16

40
10

(t23.63
16.90

VI

t4
Total 257
Towns and Urban

(-)s.27 -\7.24 -)39.07

Source: Census of

India

276

291
7997 with

39.99
Populah'on t907-7997

38.66

Part-II-A(ii) - A Series Unbalanced Urbanisation

Urban population in Maharashtra is unevenly distributed among the various towns of different sizes. The number of cities with population of more than 1 lakh size has increased from 17 in 1971 to 33 in 1991. The three metropolitan cities of Greater Mumbai, Pune and Nagpur together contained almost 55 per cent of the total urban population. The 33 cities with more than 1 lakh population size accounted for 75.13 per cent of the total urban population, 30 towns in the population range of 50,000-99,999 accounted for 6,93 per cent, while the remaining L7.94 per cent is distributed in remaining 273 other towns with population of less than 50,000 size in 1991 (Table 1.2).

2.3

l4aharashtn

Table 1.2: Growth in Number of Towns in Various Population Sizes

100000 + 50000-99999

L7

25
65

2000049999
10000-19999 5000-9999 Below 5000

64.70 11.10 11.70

29 25 89 100

7L.57 7.82 11,90 8.71

33

30

tt4
102

75,13 6.93 11.59 6.35

98 7n

8.80
3,40

48
1()

46
tt

t4

0,30

100.00 307 100.00 289 Total Statistical Handbo* for Maharashtrq 7994 Source: Census of India 7997, 5ertes 7 ' India' Part II'A(ii) 'A Series

336

100.00

per cent of The Greater Mumbai UA alone had more than 41 per cent of the urban population and 16 Agglomeration with 12.60 million population totat poputation in the State. The Greater Mumbai Urban consists'of Greater Mumbai Municipal Corporation (9.9 million); Kalyan Municipal Corporation (1.01 million); Thane Municipat Corporation (0.80 million); Ulhasnagar Municipality (0.37 million); New Bombay (0.31 plus cities of million) and tiira Bhayandar Municipality (0.17 million). Next to Mumbai are two other million per cent of the urban population of the state. pune and Nagpur which together accommodate only about 14

2.4

2.5

Greater Mumbai's over-dominance in Maharashtra is due to its diversified economic base comprising and industries, financial institutions, port, public and corporate sector headquarters. The industrial, trading 40 per commercial activities of Mumbai make a big contribution to the country's economy' It contributes per cent state's domestic product and accounts for 50 per cent of the import and export, and 40

cent of the of central revenue generated through excise and income tax. Greater Mumbai has the largest number of registered working iactories numbering 7,609 (1992), which formed 32 per cent of the total number of fa&ories in Maharashtra and also the largest number of workers, forming about 37 per cent of the total in number of workers in the state. About 68 per cent of the total workforce in Greater Mumbai is engaged (25 per cent), as of 1991 (MMRDA, 1999). manufacturing (43 per cent) and services sector

Mumbai MetroPolitan Region

2.6

the Maharashtra's position as the most industrialised and urbanised state in India is largely due to over an area Mumbai Metropolitan Region's (MMR) predominance in the state economy. The MMR extends of 4,355 sq km and co-mprises of Municipal Corporations of Gr-eater .Mumbai, Thane, Kalyan and Navi urban Mumbai, Miia-Bhayandar, Ulhasnagar, Bhiwandi and Vasai-Virar; 16 municipal towns; 7 non-municipal suburban districts, and centres;'and 995 villages. Its administrative limits cover Mumbai City and Mumbai parts of Thane and Raigarh districts'

Population Projections
According to Population Projections for India and States (1996 -2016) by the Registrar General, propoftion of tndia, the urban-population in Maharashtra is estimated to reach 39,13 million in 2001with the population is projected to 57.16 million urban population'tototal population being 42.50 per cent. The urban (Table 1.3). The Population Projections.bv the nV iOf:-lonrtituting 50.45 per cent of the total population nlgirtrrt General o? lndir ii based on demographic factors. However, the impact of investments in new locations will industries and infrastructure in the wake of economic liberalisation since 1991 in various taken into accentuate the urbanisation process and bringing more migrants. These aspects need to be

2.7

illt rurum 0t uRBAlllsArl0ll

4t

/iahuashtn

account while projecting the urban population, Hence the R,G! projections are cgnseruative and may be treated as trend-based demographic projections.

Table 1.3: Urban Population Projections - Maharashtra 2021

113.31

Source: Registrar General, India (1996); Population Projections for fndia and Stats 1996-2016 *
Based on grcwth bend during 2011-2016

District Level Projections
Trend-based projections have been made for level of urbanisation at the district level for 2021 baseo on the 1981-91 growth rates. The region-wise level of urbanisation by districts for 1991 as well as 2021 nas been shown in the following two tables (Table 1.4 and 1,5).

2.8

Table 1.4: Level of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions 1991

0-15
15-25

Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg
Raigarh

Satara

Bhandara, Gadchiroli Yavatmal, Buldana

Nil

5

Sangli, Ahmednagar,
Dhule

25-35 35-45
45 - 100

Nil

Nil

Solapur, Kolhapur, Jalgaon Nashik
Pune

Akola, Amravati, Wardha, Chandrapur
Nit

Jalna, Parbhani, Nanded, Bid, Latur, Osmanabad Aurangabad

t2
8

Nil

Thane, Greater Mumbai

1

Nagpur

Ni/

4

LoU = Level of Uftanisation

42

IIIT TUTUIT ||I URIAIIIEATI|tII

Maharashtn

and Regions 2021 Table 1.5: Level of Urbanisation by Districts

0-15
15-25 25-35
35 -45 45 - 100

Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg
Nil Nil

Satara

Bhandara, Gadchiroli
Nil

Nil

5 3 11

Raigarh

Dhule Solapur, Sangali, Kolhapur, Ahmednagar Jalgoan

Yavatmal, Buldana, Wardha,
Akola

Jalna, Bid Parbhani, Osmanabad,
Nanded

Thane, Greater
Mumbai

NashiK Pune

Amravati Chandrapur, Naqpur

Latur Aurangabad

.l

1

Lou = Level of Ltrhanintion

five districts-of Ratnagiri, may be seen that urbanisation will spread all over Maharashtra except in in the lowest range of the level of Sindhudurg, iatara, Bhandara and Gadchiroli which may continue to be Mumbai, ,ioinisatiJn (upto 15 o/o) while atl remaining districts would change to the higher range. Greater pune and Nagpur will be joined by tne Oistricts of Nashik, Chandrapur and Aurangabad in the highest Thane, range of 45-100 per cent (Map 1.1 & 1.2).

2.g

It

Projections at Urban Centre Level (Class I Cities)
Assuming the growth rate of urban population to be the same as during 1981-91, there will be 59 Class I cities inciuding 11 metropolitan cities by 202L, as against 27 Class I cities including 3 metropolitan cities in 1991 (Map 1.2).

2.10

mt tuTum 0t un8ffiFATl0x

43

Maharashtra

ilt.

uuL""!"l00"Dlttf

y 0r trursilrHrs

Industrial policy
A new 'Industry, Trade and commerce PoJicy of Maharashtra'was announced in December 1995. The basic approach orI.: nelv.rylicv includi; (a) slgng arpoo,t-l; tiilratisation, (b) Transparency and simplification of procedu.ru, (c)-Privite sector'participalion'in oeverop*nt efforts and, (o) rnrust or] with a view to achievins poricy obiectivk,'l6e'iorro*ine H3#il||:t#"tflflH,resions.

3'1

ud;ff";

o ro develop industrial ..townships, ranging from 2000 hectares to 7000 hectares in

size, w*h infrastructure at ninq different rocationi i..111yr9,irri;;iN;;"r), sinnar (Nashik), Nandgaon Peth (Amravati), waluj-shendre (Aurangabad), Kushnur_ tNano'eJl,'rcagal-Hatkanangale (Kolhapur), Mahad (Raigarh), Nivli,Phata (Ratnagiri) and indapuripJ..i. ih6 industriat townships wi1 provide integrated effluent collection, treatment ano oijposa't ivr["*, iouquate power and telephone connections, and social infrastructure.

O

Single window system.

D

To encourage privatisation of government undertakings.

o o

To develop aqua-parks along the coast through Maharashtra Industrial Dwelopment corporation (MIDC) where necessary infrastructure like cold storage, packaging, warehousing and ponds for
pisciculture would be provided.

To introduce ceftain modifications in 1993's Industrial Location policy of Mumbai Metropolitan Region permitting expansion, substitution and diversiflcation of product, provided there is reduction rn source pollution and there is no additional power or built-up area requirement.

Industrial Location Policy and Urban Development
Industrialisation has influenced urban growth in Maharashtra to a great ocent and high lwel of urbanisation in the state is associated ryith industrial development. The Indultrial Location polic/envisages balanced regional development through a programme of setting up of industrial townships, growth centres and mini industrial areas. all over the state. By way of removal of control regime, tne pofiiy proposes to modify Maharashtra Land Revenue Code 1966, thereby permitting industrial deveiopment witnin specifieo industrial zones, The Industrial Policy seeks to encourage the industries in areas other than Mumbai-ThanePune belt, thereby providing impetus to the urban development around industrial estates and growth cenres.

3.2

The revised Regional Plan for Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) for 1996-2011 has reiterated its policy for poly-nucleated spatial structure for development of the region, through development of growth centres' In an effort to decentralise industrial activity from Mumbai, new industrial areas were carved out in MMR with basic infrastructure, good transport links, provision of wholesale markets and a package of incentives' Certain chemical industries that require special treatment facilities also moved to'specialised zones' New sites have been selectively developed to accommodate shifting of population and economic activities to other areas. The shifting of the wholesale vegetable market located in the heart of Mumbai Island to New Mumbai followed by the shifting of other commodity markets such as those of onions, fruits and steel has relieved congestion in the core city, The policy of decentralisation has shown effective results in the case of MMR and is perhaps a good example of the process of decentralisation.
Tilt HfruBt 0t

3.3

un8ilil$tft0tl

Maharashtra

3.4Theinstitutionalinfrastructureforachievingtheobjectivesofpromotinoanddevelopingindustriesa|| ioinoralion (cl-Dco), Maharashtra Industrial is through city and_ Industr"r o*"roprlni" over the state of Maharashtra (SIICOM)' (MIbC), State, Iyultfluiini inu.tt*ent Corporation Development corporarion and new Nanded have been Mumbai, r"* il;;;;;Od n.* Nashik etc. The new township, if r,rruipimpri r:v-tni ru.* Town Development Authority' MIDC through clDco, and devetoped 9hi1l.1*J tlnrougn provision of serviced industrial plots' The in tne stile accelerates the process oi'inoustriatis'ation of growth cenires.covering the entire state' mini-industrial MIDC has been responsibru'ioi-.rltorithment of .na .uniitr goveinment growth centres apart from setting-up areas to cover all the taiukas in the state, inoustriat development of the underdeveloped the industrial townships. sIIcoM encourages.no'p[rioto of such dJcisions to be taken by entrepreneurs in favour areas of the state ano innuenie, in" to.itional to attract industries in therefore, making serious efforts areas through financiat .itiitun*. The state is, oair*aro arias other than the industrially developed locations.

Industrial and Infrastructure Investment

3.5

Maharashtra continues to attract a significant amount of new policy. A district-wise analysis of total investments and is actively pursuing the country's liberalisation containing information up to industrial and infrastructure prqeAJ investment based on CMIE's database (Table 1.6) (Map 1'3)' March 1999 has been used to determine the investment destinations in Maharashtra gt. tZg,+Ol crore taking place in Maharashtra, industrial projects account for 56 Of the total investments of per cent while infrastructure projects (Power, Road, Railways, Shipping, Airway,land JE!:oIl-4-,4fft ihe analysis clearly shows that breater Mumbai, with its adjoining districts - Thane, Raigarh and Ratnagiri, 19 percent accounting for 6l per cent investment; Pune and Nagpur districts accounting for about and investmenl are emerging as by far the most preferred destinations for new investments in industry have been directed at areas adjoining the cjty rather than in infrastructure Oabte i.61. The new investments 'Such growth is contributing to the extension of the cities or leading to the formation of new the city itself. part of mane district falling in Greater Mumbai UA, has a larqe number of projects in growth areas. iranufacturing industry including infrastructure such as rail and road links with Greater Mumbai accounting for 14 per cent of the total investment. South of Thane district are Raigarh (falling within the urban influence of Greater Mumbai) and Ratnagiri districts which have attracted the highest arnount of investment as compared to the remaining districts in Maharashtra. Raigarh district is receiving investment in manufacturing such as steel lnd steel products, railway and ship containers and chemicals and petrochemicaii. Both Raigarh and Ratnagiri districts account for 35 per cent of the total investment in manufacturing industry and infrastructure. East of Raigarh and adjoining it is Pune district with Pune city at its centre. pune is the junction of important routes connecting Munrbai to Solapur and Nashik to Kolhapur. In westem Maharashtri, Pune provides a vital link between the cities of the North and those of the South' pune has attracted considerable investment particularly in automobile and its ancillaries. Indian companies and also multinationals are investing in Pune. Pune district accounts for 18 per cent of the investments in manufacturing. Export-oriented floriculture and the cultivation of upmarket horticultural products such as per cent mushrooms are alio making their presence felt in Pune district. Chandrapur district accounts for 6 of the total investment in manufacturing industry and infrastructure'

in various stages of impt-mentation.

in industrial and infrastructure projects The CMIE's database "CAPE(" provides details of investments

*"t'

3.6

The Status of the Projects indicates that out of 419 projects, 204 have been completed, 134 are under implementation while 81 are under proposal stage. (Table 1'7)

ilrt Rrrum 0t uRBAxl$Iloll

45

Maharashtra

Tabre 1.6: District-wise rndustriar

/

rnfrastructure rnyestment (up to March lggg)
'Rs,

in crore

1

2
?

Greater Mumbai Thane [aqgarh Ratnagiri Sindhudurg
Nashik Dhule

792t.39
8311,69 10097.52 14903.61

t0.97
11.51

7L67.76 9542.29 7370.33
11608

13.17 17.53

15088.65 17853.98 L7467.85 26511.61 2824.69 2336.03 5.00 332.55

11.91 14.10

4
5

t738.7t
1381.93
0

13.98 20.64 2.41
1.91

13.54
)1
7.')

t3.79
20.93 2.23
L.B4

6
7

8
9 10
11

lelgqon
Ahmadnagar
Pune Satara Sangli

tz
r.t
15

242.15 52.90 L2703.48 150.00 90,41
174.L2

0.00 0.34 0.07
L7.59

0.21
0.13

Solapur Kolhapur Aurangabad

u.l+
0.28 4.59 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.37
0.63
:r.

201.5 3311.55
0

108s.98 954.1 s.00 90.40 80.00 2758.5 29L6.5 128.00 350.00 672.00 371.80
0

1.99

t.75
0.01

n 17 n 1(
>,u

/

t32.9
15461.98 3066.s

0.00 0.26 0.10
T2.2L

IO

lalna
Parbhani
Bid

t7
1Q

46.00
0

4.47 59.00
0

19

Nanded

tv 2l
22
23

Osmanabad Latur
Buldana Akola

0 0
0 0 0

3140

4.62 59.98
1236.00 0

s.36 0.24 0.64 r.23 0.68 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.58 0.01
0. 11

2.42

2tB.4L 524.12 873.5 3683.35
0

0.t7
0.41

50.47 qo nn
0
U

3140

4.62 sq qR
LZ

z'r
25 26 27 28 29 30

Amravati Yavatmal Wardha
l,,lagpur Bhandara

0.69 2.9L 0.00 0.04 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.05
1.00

35.60 269.61 457.60 6939.98 L07.57

394.00
1435.69

or

Chandrapur
Gadchiroli

236t.72 704.74

0.15 3.27 0.98

52.91 5772.00 4.63

2.27 0.00 0.72 2.64 0.10
10.60

I

T.OU

269.61 851.60 8375.67 160.48

v.zL 0.67
o.o

I

u.15

Total
Sourcei CMIE CAPEX

0.01

72203.78 100.00 57263.46 100.00 (55.77o/ol (44.23o/ol Datahase, March 1999, as oO@

8t33.72 709.37

o.+l
0.56

t29467.24
(100o/o)

100.00

Maharashtra

Maharashtra Table 1.7: Status of Proiects in

1

't +
5

Greater Mumbai Thane
Raioarh

9

IO

t2
IO
15
3

zt
19
5

zt
.tl
-7

fi
I5
4
30
1

Ratnagiri
qinrlhr
rall

.t

rro

2

L 22 0
3

0
2 1
U

6
B

Nashik
Dhule Jalqaon

6
0

4
1

7
3

t
10 11 1') LL L4 Lf 16 L7 18
19

Ahmadnagar
Pune Satara Sanqli

0

2
L2

32 I

4l
I I I I

85
2

0
1

4
1

o
5

Solapur Kolhapur Aurangabad
Jalna Parbhani
Bid

4
5 1')

4
3

0 0
5
1

v
20

n
1

0 0

0

I

20
2L

Nanded Osmanabad

Latur
Buldana Akola
U

22
23

0
1 I

1 1

24 25 26 27 28
ZY

Amravati Yavatmal Wardha Nagpur
Bhandara

0
1

3

5

3
1

0
10

I
6
0
1
1

4
z5
2 10 2

I
z
1

30

Chandrapur Gadchiroli

7 0

S;nrce. CMIE CAqEX DaaEEe, narcn tggg, as obtained from the Ministry of Industry

Total

134

204

81

419

IIIT FUIUBT

OT

UBBAIIISAII|lII

47

Maharashtra

tu.

9!J}Al"r#l#y"$.jj'{Jil 0r r8oxoiltc Gnowill
PRESENTSPATIALPATTERN

The (r;il:i;;"ws rocationsstate. crass map of of a, (1 lakh and above) and other urban centres I cities II and Iir iJt"s"ii";. It shows crea1y the dominant urban corridors along major routes of communications with a roc* ol'r-rrlLbai and relatively fewer urban centres in the western and.ihe south-eastern parts of tne state.-t'linaiurnir. - Goa coast appears to be a fi::ffi:??f;',fl!i!1.1:'#f;#[ffi'l?:.T:',1i;'o commerciai .aiuiti.' n."u oeen anJ ar!-tar-iis'pr.c",

Major urban centre.s are located arons 'Level of Urbanisation and Urban centr"s-rggi'oriqaharashtra :lg.nrlwav.routes in the

A. 4'L

malilillll

"icp

Urban Sprawl
Analysis based on satellite imageries bring out the fact that spatial growth for the following seven cities for which data is avaibble from Maharasntrl Remote s""mg nipli;.iions centre (MRsAc), has been "r rapid as compared to population growth (Table 1.8). For instance city, the annual expansion of built-up area has been six times the annual population growth. For solapur, it is four times while for pune and Sangli cities, it is three times. Greater Mumbai hasllso experiencei

4'2

[ih;;,

out*.to expansion by two and a half times as compared to its population growth. These cities are located-in the emerging urban corridors along the major transpoft routes where the tendency of smaller urban centres coalescing with the large cities is discernible.
Tabfe 1.8: Urban Sprawl: 1988

-

t9g7

1

2

4
5

Aurangabad Greater Mumbai Kolhapur Nagpur Nashik
Pune

48.574 237.126
35.857

73.517

4t2.002
74.207
208.560

51.35 73.75 101.32

5,71

142.245
62.359

.io.bz
103.74 131.34 86.25 73.92

6
8

t25.927
38.510 36.063

Sangli

r27.052 29L.322 71.725
62.721

8.19 17.26 5,18 11.52

8.73 3.37

1q?
3.6s 6.37 4.48 3.52 2.06

14.59. 9,58
8.21

Solapur

Source:

l.

Nagpur 2. Census of fndia, Towns and llrban Agglomerations 7997 utith their poputattbn Part-II-A(ii) - A Series
MRSAC,

Tglt-lggl

48

illI ruru[t

0f un[AltsATt0ll

Maharashtra

B.

EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

Rapidly Growing Metropolitan

/

Urban Regions

the 4,3onthebasisofthepresentplselofhighways,rai|waysul9.d.'.-topographyofthestate,ceftain these uiba-n corridors are given in (rulap i.S)' rne popuiit-ion'and area of urban corridors ur..rn.rgini these corridors are located some rapidly

i. f.r;ltl'Io'-w'tnln Tabte 1.9 and the uot,,lio?ui'"J#iit regions as follows: gr;;ng metropolitan regions/urban
1. Mumbai MetroPolitan Region 2. Pune Metropolitan Region 3. NagPur Metropolitan Region 4" Nashik Urban Agglomeration
Table 1.9: Population of Urban Corridors

1

Mumbai - Thane (to Ahmadabad) Mumbai

1,33,28,698

43.64

2,42,29,682

42.39

2

Amravati - Nagpur J
4
5

-

Nashik

-

Dhule

-

6t,2L,778
26,09,817 11,79,810 L4,02,643

20.05

t,L9,47,723
62,48,869 15,96,690

20.90

(excluding Mumbai) Mumbai - Pune (excluding Mumbai)
Pune - Solapur (excluding Pune) Pune - KolhaPur (excluding Pune) Coastal Corridor ( Mumbai Raigad Ratnagiri)

eq4
3.86 4.59 0.37

10.93 2.95 3.92 0.26

22,43,269
1,49,581

6

-

-

t,r2,095
8,96,239

Pune

Aurangabad - Jalgaon (excluding Pune and Jalgaon)
8

-

Ahmadnagar -

2.93

33,63,253

5.88

Aurangabad
Nanded

-

Parbhani-

9,46,528

2.77

24,03,220

4.20

(excluding Aurangabad)
9

Solapur-Parbhani (excluding SolaPur & Parbhani)

3,54,308

1.16

9,46,306 5,321181593

1.66

Total iource: Census of fndia
*

2,68,501916

87.92

93.10

frojetd illl tuilnt
0l uRBAtlsAIl0ll
49

Maharashtra

Ahmadabad-Mumbai-pune Corridor 4'4 This is an inter-state corridor, which includes Mumbai-pune stretch of northwards includes surat, Vadodatu inJ nnruol'bad in Gujarat. oiitriili"iirring Maharashtra. Its extensron within Maharashtra srretch include Pune' Raigarh' Mumbai.and ih;t;; .J"f industrialised atons the nnmaoabao_w;ilJ;;; which"has s.", i.rg. ir".stments. The bert is highry rvumoat-pune-tj;d;;:; Hishway and conrains percentage of urban a hish ooryt$lon anc ractory erpioyrent in the state, tn terms of urban popuration, this 'urban corrldor accounts for more than half or the iotat poputauon in fir" rt.tu and 27 per cent of the total number of towns having more than 100,000 poprfition in 1991. Major f ntra-state Corridors
Major intra-stat" emerging along the-National Highway which :-9ltld-o'.'.t Golden Quadrangle containing Mumbai--t',lainlt-o-nute-latgaon-Amravati-Nagpur. forms a part of the National part of this corridor has expressway proposal' A number of growth centres and industrial estates ire being developed along this corridor' what is emerging in this urbln corridor poly-nodal is uroan centres which are sparsely located.

4'5

4'6 south - east of Greater Mumbai is Pune dishict with Pune city at its centre. It is at the junction of the important routes connecting Mumbai to solapur and Nashik to Kolhapur. pune - Kolhapur and pune solapur corridors are the othei inha-state majo? coridors. pune korn-apur corridor also forms paft of Golden Quadrangre Nationar Highway system. This corridor arso has proposar for expressway.
Table 1.10: Administrative Status of Urban Corridors

1

Mumbai

-

Thane (to Ahmadabad)

2

t
3

2

Mumbai - Nashik - Dhule - Amravati Nagpur (excluding Mumbai) Mumbai - Pune (excluding Mumbai) Pune - Solapur (excluding pune)
Pune - Kolhapur (excluding pune) Coastal Corridor (Mumbai Raigad
3

I
58 9

'|

'l

17

J 4
5

I
1 1

2

zv
15

2

4
1 T

6
7

-

-

Ratnagiri)

0

4

Pune - Ahmadnagar - Aurangabad Jalgaon (excluding Pune and Jalgaon)

-

q

I
0 0

I
l<

?

8

Aurangabad - Parbhani-Nanded (excluding Aurangabad)

4 1

0

Solapur-Parbhani (excluding Solapur & Parbhani) Source: Census of fndia, 7991
M. Corp

7

0

-

Municipal Corporation. M - Municipatities,

Cf _ Census fowrs

50

ill

ruilnr

0; uBBAxtsATt0ll

Maharashtra

Minor Intra-state Corridors

4.7
O

are: Minor intra-state corridors emerglng Pune - Aurangabad

-

lalgaon

D
O

Aurangabad Solapur

-

Nanded

-

Parbhani

Urban Regions

4.Slnadditiontomeabovecorridorsandmetropolitanregions,thefo|lowingurbanregionsare
emerging:

l.Coasta|regioncomprisingofRaigarhandRatnagiridistricts 2.UrbanregioncomprisingpartsofYavatmal,Ako|aandParbhanidistricts

3.

Urban region comprising parts of Yavatmal and Chandrapur districts

C. 4.g

SPURs'NCU, URBAN CORRIDORS - NATMO
The National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) in its recommendations on Spatial
Priority

urbanisation Regions (sPURs) identified the following sPURs in Maharashtra:

1. Bombay-Thane- Panvel- Nashik-Dhule 2. Ahmadnagar- Aurangabad- Nanded- Bid 3. Pune- Sholapur 4. Akola-Amravati-Nagpur-Bhandara 5, Ratnagiri-Goa- Karwa-Mangalore

4.10

Later, National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO), published a map on Urban in Corridors in India, based on a study on 1991 Census, which gives the following urban corridors to note Maharashtra with the range of urbanisation level as indicated below (Table 1.11). It is interesting - Thane portion has shown above 60 per cent urbanisation that in Amravati - MumbaiCorridor and Mumbai 15-25 and 25-40' level, while in other potions of the same corridor, the level of urbanisation ranges from llap't.a indicates the three corridors identified by NATMO in addition to the SPURs suggested by NCU.

Table 1.11: Urban corridors of Maharashtra and Urbanisation Level, 1991
Amaravati - Bom Naqpur - Bilaspur

25-40' 15-25; >60 >60; 15-25 25-40; 15-25

S"*c": nuti"nut

Atlas Thematic Mapping (NATMO), 7993

4.LL

bY The corridors identified in this study (Map 1.5) reflect near similaritY to the corridors identified more continuous along the NATMO as well as SPURs by NCU (Map 1'4). The corridors now emerging are

transDort routes.

iltt turunt

0r uRBAlllsArl0ll

Maharashtra

rssul$

ffilt

G0

ilsnilfis

A. 5.1 o

SPATIAL PLANNING AND IAND USE
The emerging issues related to spatial plannrng are;

urban corridors are-developins..a-lory the transport corridors joining major metropolitan cities in the state' some of these corridorilike r"iumoai - A'hmadabad oiiqr*tli - Bergaum are arso inter-srate urban corridors along National Highways. Most of n" .o*ooi h-ave a poly-nodal structure, with continuous or non-continuous sprawl. These corridorr rnay or mav'not coincide with administrative jurisdictions of the local bodies.

D

The pattern of development as emerging in the urban corridors is either an intensively devetoped poly-nodal region (Mumbai - Pune) orlpa-rsety or oiscontinuousrv ieveropeo regions such as Mumbai - Nashik - Nagpur and others.. The existing taige/;;t.p;iL;;liJr-in tn.r. corridors are expanding outwardly and coalescing with smaller ulban centres. The urban areas are thus expanding into agricultural land and cause urban sprawl. The relationship uetween various land uses would have a considerable impact on the environment.
There is a need to plan the area falling in th-e gorrjdors at the regional level. This needs a planntng approach to prescribe different functions of the 'Nodes' as *eii as the intervening spaces, and thereby establishing a functional urban settlement system in the emerging urban corridors, The Maharashtra legislation or regional planning can be an useful instrument to define and delimit a region for preparation of Regional plan in a longer perspective.

D

D The corridors are developing without D D The institutional set-up for planning

adequate infrastructure provision. Development of infrastructure will entail high cost, if not well planned from the vet beginning, The cause and effect of urban environmental problems spread across various jurisdictions and sectors. The coastar Region wourd need carefur planning in the context of coastar ecology.

and development in the urban corridors is such that urban and rural areas are treated as separate entlties. As per the existing institutional set-up, rurai ftinntng and rural bodies are looked after by the Panchyati Raj Instituti6ns. Similarly the tviunicipaliti* root after urban areas under their jurisdictions. Besides, ihere are parastatal organisations which are special purpose authorities operating at the state and city levels.
serious

D

disruption, if it is not well planned. The main road artery would need- to be designed with restricted access to the Nodal Centres, so that long distance traffic is unhampered by development on either side, which could be provided through service roads. By increasing tne oeptn of development along the urban corridors, the provision of infrastructure services would become more economicit ano efficient.

In this paltern of development, the sisting transport corridor might become subject to

Broad Land Utilisation Pattern
Land is one of the major natural resources. Central to the issue of land and other resources is the role of urban areas and urbanisation process. Settlements comprising both rural and urban occupy about 6 per.cent of topognphically usable land at the national level. T'here -has been a significant increase in area under human settlements increasing from 4.09 % of total in 1951 to 6.2 o/o in 198i. Current tr.ends indicate that population increases and better transpoftatlon networks would require nearly 3 %o extra land over the next 10 years' Since urban expansion is inevitable through a shift from prime agriculture to non-agriculture

5'2

IilI

TUTUIT OT UNIAXIETTIOTI

Mahanshtra

process' to deal with. the whole urbanisation peripheries of cities, this calls for interventions in Map 1'6' uses in the is depicted witn tne'e;r;;ils;,oa; corridors A broad rand use patrern pattern perspective pattem.of broad land utilisation useful to discuss the prevailing and It would be The pressure on land is bound to unOer ainei# tJt"gt;G such as in Maharashtra i.e., the claims. ;nipeting"ii1ses' on. land for various uses with the growth of population'giving rise to increase tuc'h as urbanisation' communication system forestryano rini puilo no-n-agii*rtu; uiei under cuttivation, pi.r"nt rJno utiii-tio'' ptttutn for t970-7t' 1980-81 and 1992-93 comprising roads, railway#. ;r ctassification are given in the Table 1'12' the million hectares of reporting area in the state' The following table indicates that out of 30.758 area) 0.g66 million hectares of land (2'82o/o of the reporting extent of land put to non-agricultural uses was 1980-81, and further to the reporting area) by in t97;-TL,increasing toToi-rirrion hectares 1liw" of1992-93.. The urban population of Maharashtra 1.15 million hectares (3.74o/o of the reporting area) by with a growth rate of 38'88 per cent' This increased from 21,99 miliion to 30.54 million ouring'r98r-r991 uroan centres-apart from sprawl of fringe areas of indicates that there nu, Ou.n densification of exisinf iecreased from 5'417 million hectares (17'61% of the large cities. On tne otner-ni-nO,linO ,nO"t forest has of the reporting area) in 1992-93' However' reporting area) in LgTO-7Lto 5.334 million hectares(17.34o/o others" has been developed and used for some of the area uncler "barren and unculturable lind and from 67 '620/o in 1970-71 !o 73'31% in cultivation as the percentagi ;f rr.. under cultivation has increased has

;il;r.,ilr";g

5.3

J;; ;l;il il;

;;il; ;;.it 5.4

pur.'"nt g" under and "barren, unculturable land and others" category period. ionespondingly declined from 11.g5olo to 5.60% during the same 1992-93 while

the

Table 1.12: Land Utilisation Pattern of Maharashtra (1970

-

1993)
(area

in

O(M hectares)

Land under Forest Land not available for cultivation a. Land put to non'

5417

l,

/.oL

5329

t7.33

5334

t7.34

-1.62

0.09

ubb
1802 1873

2.82 5.86 6.09 67.62

1048

3.41 s.65 6.47

1151

3.74
5.60

2t.02
-3,61

9.83 -0.81

agricultural uses

b. Barren and unculturable
land

t737
1990

L723

c.

Others

Land under cultivation

20800

20654

67.t5
100.00

22s50
30758

73.3L 100.00

-0.70

9.18

Reporting Area

S;urce: CMIE, Indi{s

30758 100.00 307s8 Agricultural Sector, July 7996

pattem The pace and level of urbanisation would be very high by 2021 in Maharashtra. The spatial depicted on the broad land use likely to emerge as a manifestation of prospective urbanisation has been It is plan (Map f.O;. fne rate of urbanisation is bound to raise the pressure on the urban land fufther' social optimum economic and evident that the land should be put to different uses in a manner that leads to areas. The appropriate land use pattem will not only remove .ffi.i.n.y of land in both the uiban and rural in existing urban the existing problems such as congestion, traffic bottlenecks and squalor as obtaining the need for initiating a study of the existing areas but *iit atso help in optimising the future growth. There is a

5,5

iltt twum

0t uBBAlllEATl0ll

Maharashtra

B.

land use patterns which would ryt gnly help in the id_entification-of major problems of urban land but woutd also be helpful in suggesting guioetinei ulolt'ff'.'p""pectives of urban rand uses in the state.

REGIONAL INFMSTRUCTURE
Regional infrastructure includes power, roads,

railways, ports and terecommunications part of the system covering a wider part of Ui. ui":r.in.dequate'infrastuil;"'affects the growthas a rate of the economy' It is widely recognised that huge investments are required in the infrastructure sector particurarry given the fact that urban areas, -urbanisation .particu6rf large,cities in r-la'riarainlra,'-.ru u*p.r,"ncing rapid economic growth. The process of economic groMh and ire ifose[l inter_tinteO. The secondary and tertiary sectors contribute nearry g0 per cent or tni cop of the state.

5'6

Power
The state government announced its new power policy in January 1gg6 for a state-level initiative to complement the efforts of the central gouetnmeni and accelerate the development and implementation of power projects in the state' The new policy is a reflection or tne iurtnei liLlralisation of the national power policy' The state government is identifying and offering projects ror priuaie Urban power supply is an essential infrastructure. This.presents a problem picture 'nuestment. of both growing shortfalls between demano and supply as well as erratic supply owing to inadequate distribution n6tuorr and poor management. The picture is particularly serious in metropolitan and large cities whose demand for energy has continued to increase rapidly' There is a need to restore a balance between demand and supply position of power in urban areas. Roads

5'7

5'8

Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. Development of Nofth-South and East-West corridors wilt b-e incorpoiateO in the alignment of the Golden Quadrangle supplemented by additional work along North-South and East-west expansion with four laning. The proposed upgradation of the National Hlghwaysas well as likely proposal for expressways in Maharashtra has been depicted on the Map 1.3. The rualionai Highway Act wai amended in,

Highway system through upgradation of the National Highways on the Golden euadrangle, linking Delhi,

National Highways in the country. The central government has decided to strEngthei ano imfrove t'lational

The focus of road development in the Ninth Plan is on multi-laning of high-density corridors of

1995

inadequacy of funds for road development programmes, the Government of Maharashtra took a decision rrr, July, 1996 to implement some important schemes of road development through participation of the private entrepreneurs in the state. The privatisation envisages the private entrepreneurs to recover their investment by way of charging the toll. The Bombay Motor Vehicles Tax Act has since been amendea to fermit tott arrangement. A nodal agency - the Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC), with 5t per cent government equity pafticipation, has been formed to oversee speedy implementation of proposed road projects through privatisation. This company has already undertaken works costing nearly Rs. 3,5b0 crore in urban areas and it is proposing to take up other works costing nearly Rs. 6,000 ciore. T'he firsi stage of 69 km Mumbai-Pune expressway has already been opened to traffic wfrite the second and third stagei? worr are scheduled to be completed by April, 2001. The Maharashtra government is planning to ixtend the Mumbai-Aurangabad expressway up to Nagpur through an arrangement of levy of toil.

to encourage private sector to develop and operate road projects. Taking into consideration the

Railways
The total length of railway routes in the state by the end of March 1997 was 5,554 km. This was 8.9 per cent of the total length in the country (62,725 km). Out of the total railway route length of 5,554 km in

5'9

54

TIIT FUIURT ||T URBAIIISAII|lII

Maharashtra

meter broad gauge, ?42 km (9'8 per cent) under Buildkm (73.3 per cent) is covered the state, 4,070 have also introduced the -under under nur.* gtui;' inu fnJiun ntilways oauoe and 942 km (17.0 per cent) The BoLT scheme has private seio'i i".irii.g?ot ign investment' 6wn-Lease-Transfer (BoLT) scheme for eleitrificalion' acquisition of rolling stock' launched in the area of gauge tonuliiion, been a determined or nrroges. The staie government is making telecommunication systems-ini .on.tiuaion in order to stimulate areas in tqanarasntia-ivlinring under-?ev.eloped for effort to increase the railway network p,9uiJ6O proictive assistance to central government nu, development in sucn regions. The state network railway rair*avs-'n tti" rtut", in orderto increase the construction, modernisafl5n and operation or of which 382 km in Maharashtra nailway'project in Maharashtra. A good example is the 760 rm ronran state' state was promoted and supported by the

Ports

5.10

Nehru Port (Nova sheva.within New Maharashtra has two major ports - Mumbai Poft and lawaharlal industrial development of Maharashtra, but are also Mumbai Area). These.t.-oiirportr'nce not only for the their size and location' The central of strategic importance for the economy of the country, by virtue oT in port development' There government announceo inew pott policy to facilitate private sector investment With a view to develop multi-user port are 4g notified minor ports Jonb tfr. coustline of 720 km in the state' petroleum and chemical containers, facilities capable of handling all-types of cargo like bulk and break bulk, ports in the state through private sector to deveiop all the 48 minor

the state government has-decided ports at Alewadi pu,trcipution, As the first step, the government has decided to develop seven minor

Redi Dighi (Raigarh), Dabhot (Ratriaqiri), Jaigarh (Ratnagiri), Ratnagiri, Vrjaydurg (Sindhudurg) and (Sindhudurg).

iininil,

C.
5.11

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES

The rapid population growth in urban areas coupled with unplanned and haphazard development is per cent of leading to a widening gap between supply and demand. The 1991 Census indicated that 58.80 facilities, when all urban-households in Maharashtra had access to safe drinking water, toilet and electricity considered together. On the whole, the quality of urban services and their coverage have been inadequate to keep pace witf, the growth of population. Hence, the issue is not only to be able to provide adequate infrastructure for the new growth but also to bridge the existing deficiencies.

Water SUPPIY s.LZ As per Census 1991, nearly 90.50 per cent of urban households in Maharashtra had access to potable drinking water (tap connections, hand-pumps and tube wells). The above percentage figure might be an overstatement, as the same may include water availability located outside the house, intermittent water supply and water quality from hand-pumps and tube wells of doubtful quality.
As per Status of Water Supply and Waste Water Collection, Treatment and Disposal in Class I and II Towns, Central Pollution Control Board, the data on per capita water supp-ly shows thatthe Class I cities in Maharashtra had an average of 176 litres while the Class II towns of 101 litres in 1988. These averages must have declined with thi increase in coverage of water supply as well as population by now. Access to water supply is acute for the urban poor. The data on percentage of slum p€pulation serued by water supply in 1988 ihows that only 59.80 per cent of slum population in Class I, 73.30 per cent in Class II and 60.60 per cent in Class III towns had access to safe water supply'

5.13

In a recent study on Maharashtra Urban Infrastructure Fund (March, 1999), sponsored by MMRDA for preparation of a long term Capital Investment Programme for 78 municipal councils and corporations in

5.L4

ilt

ruruBt 0t unBAilsllloll

55

Maharashtra

Maharashtra' placed as ml1y a9 41 local bodiestraving.water suppry p"il;t,i]'r to iso rp.o iorJTJi'n berow the normative water suppry 90,000 councils have very low -p,li",iiilicouncir) some of the municipal ilprrauonl. lev9l1^oj (class A council) has over.100 rpca whire Mira Bhayandar 9o.pi1'yi1.i ano niJrlJoiip lciass bl a9 ip.d.in; water suppry revers in the rocal bodies of Marathwada and vidharbha r"gif.;rr5ihu lo*.rtli M;#;;'rhi;;-. Despite considerabre efforrs to deverop new water sources,-Mumo.i ir unior" ,11tng g"g."d due to increase in popuration and geographic expansion of.the area. rne witer slonrv or z,gs0 rrJin'id6 represents an average of 130 lpcd wth intermittent water derivery to conruiJis'r*'plrioolr*giilii*; to 5 hours per day.
levels (varying from 90 lpcd for

*.i"t-.-f ii ii

;;d;.

5'15 The economic ""-t,S.:jfigYidinqwatgl include the financiat costs of abstracting, transporting, storing, treating and distributing water. Scarcity orwatei, mism;;A;;;iof water resources and pollution are some of the factois leading water to inciease in water costs. proper pricing of water is fundamental to demand management.

5'16 Water supply is becoming a serious issue in Maharashtra. This calls for water supply planning on a regional basis for using surface as well as ground water resources, The constitution of District planning / Metropolitan Planning committees may hel-p to address this issue since-invironmental conservation and allocation of natural resou.rces are specificaily mandated tasks for these committees, Although g0.50 per cent of the urban households have been covered witn water supptv iacilities, there is an iniquitous distribution of water pafticularly for the poor. Because of disparities in distriortion system, the urban poor suffer serious deprivation of this basic necessity. There is .n'rnpr"iaountuo shortage of water In Mumbai. M.ore than 40 per cent of the population does not have r.."s, io trt ;;ter. The per capita avaitabil6y of water continues to be low, about 130 litres per capita per day, as against in average requirement of 200 litres. 70 per cent of the population in Mumbai get only 45 lpcd'only. inoin"i issue is that about one - third of the water drawn from distant sources and-treated at nign cost ii loJ aue to teakajei-e*, pri.ing policies fail to promote conservation of water. If these trendslontinue. there is a real danglr tnaimoie ano more urDan areas may run out of water in future.
In addition to the backlog, the infrastructure requirements to accommodate the incremental urban population need to be incorporated in the city plans. There is a need to assess the requirements of basic infrastructure facilities in a long-term perspective. The sectoral issues with regard to water supply which need to be resolved are:

5'L7

D Promotion of the principle of full cost recovery, o Involvement of private sector in water supply and sanitation systems, wherever feasible. o rransparency in the provision of subsidies targeted towards the poor, B The minimisation of leakages/unaccounted water with emphasis on conservation, reuse and
recycling.

O

Protection of drinking water sources.

Sanitation and Sewerage

5.18 The problems of sanitation and sewerage are the areas of great concern, pafticularly in metropolitan and farge cities. In Maharashtra, the coverage of toilet facilities is just above (64.450/o) tne rut InOia .i"rugu of 63.90 per cent as per 1991 Census. In the study on Maharashtra Urban Infrastructure Fund by MMRDA, it
that only 28 out of the total 78 local bodies have an underground sewerage system. The coverage of the system in all these towns varies between 10 per cent to 50 per cent. The n6rm idopted for
was found
provision of an underground sewerage system is availability of a minimum
56

of

110 lpcd of water'suppry.

I[t

tuTUnt

0F

unsAxtsAltotl

Maharashtra

from 80 per Amonothe|argercities,theStatusofWaterSupp|yandWasteWaterCo||ection,TreatmentandDisposalin poprratio,i;;t.9t { l*-t-t*":t"e wstem varying and 25 per 1988 tCpCiil iiA]..t", tt u ctass i cities in in Nagpur' Si pei cent in Pune in Kolhapur, OO p.i cent in Greater Mumbai, 75 per cent ",-ttt
cent in Nashik.
problem' 5.lgIfwatersupp|yandsanitationareconsideredtogether,whi|e'.th.enumberservedhasnodoubt w?1i, 919!Ynut been another major number noi i".*o *iil suil remain ";'y hii". increased, the issues'

wlto

related trppiy, sanitation, health and environment are closely

number of sewage treatment.facilities' and a large Very few Cities have conventional sewerage and The urban safe inO nygie-nic wastewater disposal facilities' cities and towns are yet to be provided with than in isolation' The an ini'egrated manner rather wastewater management should be undertaken ln a-nd disposal are issues that require a holistic wastewater generation, ioii"Alon, conveyance, treatment population with sewerage and drainage facilities and the huge approach. Given the lo* .o".t.S" oirtUin receive priority in dealing with the problem' investment requirement, the rapidly growing towns should

5,20

Solid Waste Management
such as Mumbai, upto 90ier cent of thswaste being collected and disposed daily' The urban areas is unsatisfactory with only 50 - 60 pei cent of the waste

the larger cities urban areas. while in some s.Zt solid waste management is a major problem in theis collected and disposed, theofsituation in other generated
waste from municipal wastes' The domestic *Jstes. There is also an rirgent nied for segregating hazardous of wastes at the.city level collection and transpoftation of municipal waste need to be streamlined. Recycling picking and recycling need to be better organised' The the urban local bodies. Rag

pei capita generation is-increasing rapidly. There is a need towards reduction and better handling of

i"qrir"

present efforts in technology application need to be upgraded in dealing with market wastes.

attention by

D.
Water

URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Limited Water Resourcs 5.22 Water resources are limited and there are local scarcities. The principal source of drinking water The lakes serving continues to be from suface streams. There is no ground water supply system in Mumbai. is carried by large steel pipes. Ground water is a prominent Mumbai are nearly 175 km away and water

water source particularly in smaller cities. Apart from the water shortage, there is a problem of deteriorating issues require a long-term quality. The water quality and water scarcity issues are closely linked. These water resource management to make optimal utilisation of water resources

Water Resource Ma nagement In water resource planning, there is a need to have equitable allocation to meet the requirements of -development and utilisation plans must be developed for reallocation of various sectors. Water resource In water according to changing priorities and maintain quality standards in critical water catchment areas. demand and supply side. There is a order to meet the wateinelds, initiatives are required both from the mechanlsms, need for conservation of water resources. This can be achieved through effective maintenance in the industrial sector which can help to overcome the problems of pilferage and leakages. Water recycling could be can provide greater availability of water for consumption of households. Demand management interventions. achieved through financial incentives and technological

5.23

IIIT IUIUR: |lT URBAIIISAII||II

57

Maharashtra

WaterAllocattbn
There are increasing conflicts between various- sectors with regard practices are not effective to. water demand. The present at meeting needs in terms v'lil'qru,,rv as the responsibirity in the area of water resource managemenf "] has been iraqmenteo between u.iioua.agan ies. secondry, pricing

5'24

ilh il#i

ffJrffi]::;ffi;rf;*il'ffi.ro'
Wastewater

airoc'iron.'ine

arrocatio;;jil;;"eed to be estabrished

has

tnroush

5'25 The major sources of pollution of natural watercourses,-including coastal waters, are the discharge of wastes from urban centres' This is causealue to dumping dr ,"ti".i""inousehold and industrial into canals, rivers and coastal waters. noouf g3oritres wasres or'un"treit; and about 21 million tonnes of industrial effluents are dumped into rvantm cieur *3i1, c'rn of Mumbai from the main land' Most of the towns do.not have t"*"r"g" Gems and in cities where sewerage system exists there are no sewage treatment plants, or where available, the capacity g"tr by population growth. In case of majority of cities, sewage gets treated "rl-rti,pped in a primary-treatnrent'ptant followed by a secondary treatment plant and the cities use treatment units like dxioair,ln;il;. ;; chembur, an eastern suburb of Mumbai' a huge conglomeration of industries comprising a fertiliser unit, iwo olr refineries, a petro-chemical unit and a power plant exist' This is now known as the hot spot in tne rvumoal lr,tunicipal corporation limits and declared as an environmentally sensitive area by the central go*rn*nt. The special water pollution problems in Mumbai that deserve to be mentioned are:

;;*g. irrrt;dff;,"ti;

O

Pollution caused by domestic wastes

o o

of the city)

Unauthorised dischar.ge of oil, fibres, solids and other toxic substances by sewage and open nallas' (These include effluents from a large nurb"r

the industries into the of tanneries in central parts

organic wastes from a large number of buffalo stables located in the northem parts of the city

Solid Waste Management

5'26 The problems related to solid waste management are the inefficiency in service delivery due to poor availability of equipment and vehicles for handling, transporting and di'sposing the solid wastes. The uncollected solid waste is. often scattered on open spaces, drains and roads, and is a major cause of insanitary conditions and diseases in urban areas. Given the high level of organic content in municipal solid waste (upto 30%), the waste.s can be used to generate by-products like gjs, energy and organic manure instead of dumping in landfills' This can help to partly recover the coslts of solid' waste iranagement, However, this would require usage of appropriate technology.
the primary source of air pollution is automobiles, industries, fuel burning, solid waste dumps, and wind blown dust also make a significant contribution. With the increase in the number of vehicles, emission load of various pollutants has shown a significant increase. The principal pollutants emitted by vehicles in Mumbai is estimated to account for 7t per cent of carbon monoxioe, iz-pei cent hydro-carbons, 10 per cent oxides of nitrogen, about 1 per cent sulphur dioxide, and about r ier cent particulate matter' The vehicular pollution load has increased to 659.57 tonnes/day in Mumbai lceCb rsssl. Under the Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Programme (MEIP) assisted by the World bank, a draft

Air Pollution 5'27 In Mumbai,

Maharashtra

Region has been prepared by Action Plan.for Mumbai Metropolitan Environmental Management Policy and t" control the vehicular and industrial pollut6n' the Environment Department'*niJnl""r"

Land Degradation

urban sprawl has. resulted in depletion of natural concentration of urban population and the 5.28 on land as well tanJ oevetopment is exefting. direct pressure resources. Environmentally inappropriate urnan inappropriite development are hillsides' as on surrounding ecosystems. Particulatfy tut..ptiOf" to floodplains, wetlands, coastal areas, and forests' VulnerabilitY Areas

5'2gAsafo||ow-upoftheYokohamaStrategyforSaferWorld:Guide|inesforNationa|Disaster has prevention, Prepareclness and Mitigation, the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India prepireo a Vulnerability Atlas of India. The Atlas contains the following hazard maps:

1. Ea{h Quake Hazard MaP 2. Wind & CYclone Hazard MaP 3. Flood Hazard MaP
These three hazard maps are useful to find the areas of very high, high, medium and low risk hazard zones in the state.

Earth Quake Hazard Areas: According to the Earth Quake Hazard Map of Maharashtra, some pafts of Ratnagiri, Satara and Raigarh districts are covered under high damage risk zone. One should not forget the experiences of Lathur earthquake in 1993, with a magnitude of 6.3 on Richter scale, even though it falls under very low risk zone. Thane, Pune, Kolhapur, Sindhudurg, Nashik and Dhule districts along with some parts of Sangli and Chandrapur are covered under moderate risk zone. Rest of the state is covered under low and very low damage risk zone.

5.30

Wind and cyclone Hazard Areas: The coastal belt along Thane, Rajgarh and Ratnagiri districts, Chandrapur. Gadchiroli districts and some parts of Wardha, Nagpur, Yayatmal districts fall under moderate damage risk zone - A and rest of the state except Sangli falls under moderate damage risk zone - B.

5.31
5.32

Flood and Drought prone areas: Sangli, Solapur, PLrne, Ahmadnagar, Bid, Aurangabad, Jalgaon, Dhule, and Nashik districts fall under drought prone areas.
The vulnerability Atlas gives a clear picture of the vulnerable areas in the state. There is a need for effective planning regime together with enforcement of building codes while planning the urban areas' The urban regions and urban corridors in Maharashtra fall under moderate damage risk zone 1 of wind and cvclone, while 3 districts paftly fall under high damage risk zone. There is a need for proper disaster prevention management structures, hazard resistant construction, upgradation of existing buildings, installing of warning systems to be considered while making the development plan for the urban areas. The local bodies should adopt land use zoning regulations and buildings byelaws with disaster resistant features in urban areas, including coastal areas.

5.33

-

Role of Urban Local Bodies

5.34

The subject matter of urban forestry, protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects is included as item 8 in the Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution which was added by the T4" Constitution
IHT FUIURT ||F UREAIIISAIIOII

59

Maharashtra

Amendment Act' 1992' It is in this context that the rore of urban rocar bodies in management of urban environment need to be examined. Traditilnatty, tne uroin ro1-J' environmental manaoement runaioni, have deen performing wni.r'r'i.rutu'to o.irc-uio"n J."iri..r, _uooies The municiparities have arso been pefforming the licensing functions. oiuioiiv, $r.-rrni.ip.'i,tr* *ir,o continue to pray However, in the new these rores. ir ne.eri.rv-to;i:;g: of rnunicipar concerns for urban environment management with due Il.'; unoetstanJing of the rinkages-d;; infrastructure ancl environmental health' The Municipal a.tr .*ino.o by th" ;t.t. i;;nformity of the services, poverty 74th constitution Amendment provides an "environm.r'tii r"poft" t6 o" .romitteo--by the municipal administration ii""'p".ted to promote i-con.e,.n ro,. :ffi[tt#:^i,'|nol?ff#li'ifi:torporation/municipar .ouniri

-I"*r,li

tj;;jffi;[J; iiii

ttiili

The objectives for urban environment management at the local level should include: (1) comprehensive collection of information and analysis, to resolve differences among various agencies involved in environmental managemenq (2) preparation of environmentat manafiment strategy and action ptan; (3) carrying out studies on vulnerability and risk assessment; (4) establisning adequate institutionat and 'rnanage;Lnt regulatory framework to plan and implement the environmentar plan; and (5) enhancing the capacity of the concerned agencies for better management of the eivironment and realisation of aoove mentioned objectives.

5'35

Role of State

the state government and devolution made with respect to the performance of functions as may .byentrusted to be municipalities, including those in relation to protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects.

!'36 The protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects are the functions of the state. Sch-emes need- to prepared
be
The central and state government's role would involve actions on several fronts towards effective Legislative reforms

5'37

urban environmental management. These include the following:

o
D D

in central laws on

development and municipal adminiskation

environment and state laws governing planning and

Institutional reforms with a view to define the organisational hierarchy in matters of urban environment management, coordination of roles of various agencies and for ensuring public
participation

assessments

Re-definition of the functional domain of the various agencies involved in urban environmenr management with a focus on monitoring of pollution levels and for undertaking health risk

o
1.38

Training and human resource development with a view to meet the new challenges on this front

The planning and development legislation would require modifications to: establish a linxage between the planning procedures and implementation mechanisms, establish coordination mechanisms involving the planning and development authorities and the urban local bodies, redefine the development controls and modify the regulatory framework, In addition, municipal laws would need to be reviied to
provide for the new role of local governmenb in management of urban environment.

60

IllI

HTTUBI

0t uRlruilsATt0ll

Maharashtra

E.

TNVESTMENT REQUTREMENTS

5.3gseveralcommittees.groupsand!?,kl?T,oinstitutedbythegovernmentaswel|asresearchby gap-between requirement and provision t"iiir:riti"^i have attempted i"";;i*;i; tne academic and research at comn€n basic there has been no agreement to arrive point' of urban infrastrucrure ;;'i.".: u;i"rtunately rlonttnuf"tt all ihe estimates do concur on one leading to wloe variations in the estimateJ' definitions, larqer everyday and appears to be gap beMeen provision 1n! recuiremglt ilG;;l; st"wing i.e., the are initiated'
unbridgeable unless urgent remedial measures

5.40 The investment requirement

provision' operation and depends upon the norms and standards for the national few finanin-l norms and standards are available at maintenance of municipal services. only a (ZC)' Planning t"ti.ei includinq those Zakaria C'ommittee committee has level for provision of urban infrastructure tnO no other (OnGJ' Except Zikaria Committee' Commission (pC), Operationi Research Group 'Oniy ZC and PC have considered the six core urban suggested norms for operations and maintenanaa' waste disposa|, roads and street |ighting. services, i'e', water supply, Sewerage, drainage, solid
bodies.of Maharashtra would require an has been estimated that by the year 2001, the urban local if the deficiencies in the existing investment in basic infrastructure and services of about Rs' 4758 crores, population have to be provided an access to a level of services are to be eliminated and all sectioni of urban Commission's low range' The modicum of core seruices, according to norms proposed by the Planning manaders !hoo:9 to raise financial requirements will however increase to Rs. 6417 crores, if the municipal the other. hand' the services according to norms proposed by the Planning Commission's high range' On for standards laid down financial requirements wrll dip to is. +ZOS croies, if the municipal government adopt crores relates to 2001 population which is by the Zakaria Committee. ihe financial requirement of Rs. 6417 fi["fy to be around 39,13 million. Thereforefinancial requirement for 2021 at 1995 prices will be about Rs' 9374 crores for the projected 57.16 million urban population in Maharashtra.

s.4L

It

5.42
AD, the

in ir4aharashtra, the Maharashtra Urban Infrastructure Fund, MMRDA has worked out a requirement of Rs. 102gg.46 crore at 1997-98 prices. Sewerage and sanitation account for the largest investment requirement of 37o/o, water supply 21Vo, storm wateidrainag€, l3o/o, roads !2o/o, solid waste management 7o/o and others 100/0. To reduce the investment gaps with respect to accepted benchmarks and existing service levels, there is a need to develop proper mechanism for financing and fund allocation'

year 2005 Based on the existing shortfall in infrastructure services and the additional demand by the 'A' and 'B'Class Municipal Councils total investment requirement for 78 Municipal Corporations and

ilt

rurunt 0f uBlAlllS[rl0ll

61

Maharashtra

ut.

l'Jjl/Al_Sgln_laljlriltiltlf tcH[rltr
74II{ CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT ACT
The amendment legislation

A, 6'1

Functional Domain
in the context of the not incorporate any major changes in tne eiitwhile 74h constitution Amendment in Maharashtra croes functional ;;;;; of municipal corporations ano municipal councils by the respectiv-e Municipal Acts, except certain new functions

as find mention in the Twelfth schedule' Fufther, the conformity ri*i niue not provided crarity on the functions and finances of the urban local bodies' Ttre tendency to issign mlnicipat irn.tioni i" rp!*r agencies at the city and state levels persists' such functions-include. planniig and implementation oiirunlcipal services like water supply and sewerage' constitution of special authoriiies for urban r;d;;[lanning, and execution of land development and housing schemes is another feature. The planning Jno oeJetopment authorities have taken awav the above tasks and have thus created a dualityin td ;il;;r.";iii'itrr.turu.

fi

by state departments or parastatals. For example, there iJ a state level water und s"*.ruge Board in Maharashtra apart from planning and development authorities ror different cities and regions. Maharashtra also set up the city and Industriat Devetopment corpor.ii* J'lr"o#iirr=; an. State Industrial Investment company. The Maharashtra Mehopolitan water suppiy and sewerage Board looks after capital works with some retail responsibility, while tne municipat corporations and councils, CIDCo and MIDC for the areas developed by them. The Maharashtra Housing and Area oeveiopment Authority undertakes housing schemes and can function as special planning Authority for designated areas. CIDCO also performs the role of new town development authority, operatirig in New Mumbai and a numoer of other cities. The company structure has given it more flexibiiity in ptaniing and development including involvement of the private sector. The MIDC undeftakes the development of industrial estates and maintain the services within the estates.

to create an autonomous local functional domain since even those functions as oetelateo to municipal bodies, are being performed

6'2

The delegation process under the constitution Amendment Act was expected

ii#o);;

Local Autonomy and State Control Under the Bombay Provincial Municipal Corporations Act, 1949 applicable to the municipal corporations areas in the state, almost all civic functions relevant to urban planning and development and the recent amendments to the act have expanded the list of functions. However, water supply and sewerage works costing over Rs. 10 lakh are entrusted to the Maharashtra Jeevan pradhikaran, lformeity Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board) for execution, A number of tasks related to the iunctioning of the city such as city transport services are handled by other agencies. MIDC develops industrial estatJs. CIDCO is another state agency that has developed many new townships. These two state agencies function as planning and development authorities for the designated areas. The decisions regardiig the proposals to locate industrial estates or townships are taken by the concerned state agencies lit<e CIOCO, 'SttiOlut ano MIDC with the approval of the concerned state department. The State Industrial Development Corporation performs the task as the planning authority under the Maharashtra Regional Town 'planning Act, and generally functions as the local authority for the industrial areas. The lack of co-ordination and consufation at the stage of establishment of these townships as well as in the provision of trunk services pose problems of taking over the services and levy of taxes by the municipal corporations. The lack of integration of industrial location plans of the state agencies and the municipal corporation arise as the consultation between the state level departments in charge of urban development and industries appear to have not been carried foruard at the local level. Hopefully, the preparation of the District plan by the District plannrng Committee, would lead to an integration of spatial, investment and maintenance issues in areas where the
62 TIII ruruM |l; UBETXISAII|III

6.3

Mahanshtra

p_r:adhikaran in the pranning and deve|opmentoftheindustria|areasbythestatgagenciesaretaking'p|ace.Thepreva|enceofthreedifferent oi'lrrnutuiiitu-:i,.u.n of prannrns .,j1ffiil;;;k;;rhe t .ri infrastructure 6".uut" of parattet planning and execution water .uppr'"JnJ **"i.gu ,Vrturnriiifilrfi execution of punti ror'ttre new townships and areas' lines and sewage ttluit*t't

sewer

6.4Themunicipa|bodiesshou|dbea|lowedtoperformtheassigned-tasks.Loca|autonomycallsfora of .te.r. arsi-gn*"nt of functions and devolution of executive authority, continuity or ,tnlJriu, levels of government' clear focus
of higher financial resources, ano rreeoom'fiom interference

Problem of Industrial Estates as virtual local authorities not 6.5 The operation of the industrial development agencies in Maharashtra but differing development i"p*tentative tocut l-oue'ntent for these areas' only creates the problem "i """ a irL-ttme city' The civic affairs of an industrial tclwnship and service charges for various contiguous .r".t .".0 io be admiiistered by democratically elected municipality. Fragmentation and Coordination
cities' The issue is one of lack of The problem of gaps and duplications.are far greater in the-larger discharge of various functions, as also the failure to adequate legal mandate"titn" rnuii.ipal body for thE The division of responsibility with the involve the elected bodies in the planning of sectoral investmlnts. with the local bodies for the operation and special agencies for capital investment ano ffre responsibility the elected representatives and maintenance of capital works has always been a contentious issue between are multi-municipal, require a the special agencies in a number of cities. Metropolitan areas, many of which which functions can be performed by the individual careful assessment of what tasks are metropolitan and
municipalities.

6.6

B. 6.7

ROLEOF LOCAL BODIESIN FUTUREURBAN GROWTH

In the context of emerging urban corridors, the role of local bodies would have to be more specific vis-i-vis other parastatal organisations. Some issues which need to be considered are:

O

in addition to the Should the urban local bodies be called upon to pedorm regulatory functions management' municipal funCtionS, namely, water supply, sewerage and. drainage, solid waSte community health? maintenance of roads and street lighting and
planning and generation should urban local bodies involve themselves in the tasks of socio-economic Authorities? of employment opportunities for which there are Planning and Development

o fl

to Should the elected urban local bodies not have the final say in the decisions relating priorities and related investment proposals? This means that the developmental planning strategies, approval of representative lbcal go-vernmeits should have a predominant role in policy making and authorities may pedorm development ptans ,,ihile professionally equipped planning and development
the actual Planning tasks. with the local Another new issue relating to the functional domain of urban local bodies is concerned needs to be considered in the context of agenda for urban environment management. This issue with such tasK' technical, managerial and financial capacities of the local governments to deal

O

ilIt TUruff ||T UNBAilISAfl||II

53

Maharashtra

o

class sizes of iie lragar-eanchayats at the other, a question arises.as to the technical, manaseriir"d .ro riritili.i'lpacities of different levels of urban government or whether there would be a need for atternaflve instiiltionat arrangements to cover the smaller towns and the .rural areas in transrUon to urban areas,.

In view of the functional assignments to.rnunicipar governments covering different municipal areas such. as the mJtropotitanitties,

"d;;; ;;

o C. 6'8

inclusion.of urbanising.fringes within the territorial boundaries.of adjoining municipar for a long period is an issue ,ini.r,-*"oi to areas be consideria in-in" .ontext of such fringes drawing heavily on the municipal services of the adjoining municipailtier *iJ-.,or, paying for the same.

rhe non

ROLE OF STATE AND SECTORAL AGENCIES

since 74b Amendment has changed the nature of relationship between the state and municipal body' the control exercised by the state g-overnment on urban local bodies need to be clarified elaborately. There is a need for restructuring the iunctions of the municip.iiti"r,-*rros committees and planning committees with an effective and transparent accounting mechanism for proper functioning of the bodies.
There is a need for the state government to join hands with the local bodies in regional planning and provision of urban infrastructure, Local bodies or MPCs or DPCs alone cannot manage the regional planning exercise, which extends over.several districts, especially in the case of urbin corriclors. so there is a need for state-municipal partne,rship in this regard for planning a large region across many districts. Meanwhile, the MPCs and local bodies can be involved in' the piepar.irn

6'9

tt*itur" plans and detailed prans respectively for the concerned areas. The DPCs can prepare framework of intei-jurisdict'onii ipatiar ano sectoral linkages. Preparation and implementation of action plan need to be monitored and guided propeny by the state based on the guidelines prepared for District Development plans and Metropolita-n Deveiopment Plans. This requires a monitoring body and institutional arrangement at the state level.
planning process based 9# Amenclment, needs to be restructured on traditional /4-' ^ Jh: "ntire
corridors which are likely to emerge in near future.

#

land use principle envisaged under the provision of considering the future urbanisation pattern and many new urban

6.11 Due to multiplicity of organisations, especially between municipality and government departments, there is a lack of coordination between the organisations. The functions of [he organisations are not defined clearly which leads to overlapping functional jurisdictional assignments.

D.

METRO AREAS AND METROPOLITAN PLANNING COMMITTEES

much in isolation. The 74" Constitution Amendment stipulates Metropolitan planning Committee as a mandatory inter-institutional platform with two-thirds of the members comprising elected representatives of the urban and rural segments of the metropolitan area and the remaining one-third as nominees of the state and central governments.
64

6.12 Most of metropolitan cities are urban agglomerations comprising several municipal jurisdictrons. These urban agglomerations in most cases have reached their present dimension and coniiguration over a period of time. The growth has overrun traditional boundaries. Managing growth in the metrdpolitan cities is not just an inter-municipal issue but also involves stakes of several depa-rtments and agencies of central and state governments. Because of the variety of tasks, multiple organisations have the responsibility for the discharge of various functions. Such agglomerations, however, need a metropolitan wide vision, plannrng, advocacy and action. Sources of water, disposal of waste, traffic and transport, drainage, abatement of air pollution etc', are examples_of jtems where one city corporation, or the municipality alone may not achieve

Illt fulunt ff

unBAiltsAilotl

Mahanshtra

of other the main city corporation but also a number metropolitan area encompasses not.only area influence 6.13 The tn. ;rain-citv corpdration. These metropolitan is an orderly rocar bodies, both urban .nj;";;il;ir"r"drng that there ou.t t""",ii years' To ensure plan the life and economy of the suirounding areas ..*O io be drawn up in association with the p*p"i ptan's ro. tnese development of the vast and state 6rese cities are also undertaken by central of the main city. Consid#Oie investments in the tnese investment plans and requirements of government ageneies. It'ii-rl."riuw io co-oroina't"emetropolitan city.

"*i,

it*t

6.L4InJanuary2000,theGovernmentofMaharashtrapassedanActprovidingfora45memberMPC 45 tne Mumbai Metropolitan Region' out of with jurisdiction over for every metropolitan area incLuOin'g -memoers' the are to be elected form amongst the elected members of members of the MPC, ao government will the metropolitan area' The state municipalities anO cnairpeisons of the Panchayats in nominateachairpersontotheMPC.Eightmemberswillbenominatedfromamongsttheofficia|softhe MLCs, four other members will be from Municipalities, planning anO-O"u"fopteit Authorities, MLA5 and transpoft, environment and urban industry and trade having expertise in urban development, urban principal Secretary or Secretary of the Urban Development Department and community development. ihe ex-officio members of the Divisional Commissioner of the concerned revenue division will be the MPs, permanent invitees wetiopotitan planning Committee. Apart from this, there will be spec'nl -from

and other state officials' The Government of India organisations such as Railways, Telephones or Port Trusts provides that the state government will nominate an officer as the Secretary of the MPC' The Act also plan. Uumbii Metropolitan Region Development Authority will assist the MPC in preparing the development

The Development Auth-ority thus becomes a technical arm of the MPC. This approach has

been

recommended by the centrai government and various expert bodies to enable better use of a development authority's technical resourceiand also make it more effective and accountable to a politically representative passing of body like the MpC. It is too early to analyse the experience because all that has been done is the

enabling legislation. Though the Act came into force from June 1999, the MPC itself has not been constituted.lhe Chairmanship of the committee and decisions regarding other nominated members are still to be taken. There is also some confusion about the possible conflict of jurisdiction between the MPC on the one hand and the DPC for Thane and Raigarh districts whose jurisdiction overlap with the metropolitan
region.

E.
6.15

RURAL URBAN INTEGRATION AND DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTEES

Under the 74ih Amendment to the Constitution, one of the provisions is the creation of District planning Committees and their role in preparation of long term and short term plans. A district development olan would form the basis of socio-economic planning at the district level and this would provide spatial iramework for District Planning Committees envisaged in the Constitution Amendment. Maharashtra has taken steps towards constituting the DPCs by enacting a separate District Planning Committee (Constitution process and Function) Act in October 1998. The DPC represents an attempt to initiate an integrated planning in a District. The draft by consolidating development plans prepared by panchayats and municipalities development plin to be prepared by DPC is envisaged to have regards to matters of common interest such as sharing of water and natural resources including spatial planning. There are territorial overlaps, in cases -major part of the revenue district fall within a metropolitan area such as Mumbai, a functional where a DPC separation between the DPC and MPC need to be considered to resolve territorial overlaps between the and MPC.

ilIT

TUIURT

OT

UREAIIISAIIOII

55

Maharashtra

F.
6'16

MANAGING URBAN CORRIDORS
Besides existing cities and towns in

the urban corridors, there will be more number of cities and towns added to these urban corridors ov zoz.L inese urlan coriio"" ."rro be pory-nodal urban cenrres with continuous urban sprawls or sparsely roiateo nodes. since th; these nodes are very fast, the local bodies may have to bear the brrnt oi iarg" scale the development of such corridors aue to ureiiweak urbanisation- anJmiy not find ample resources for organisational and financial set up. Moreover, peripheral areas are more vulnerable the to haphazaro.ano rinptanil;r;;; without basic services, as the local bodies have unclear operationar ..u.poniioitit[. towards these areas.

;;;*il;

these kinds of problems, these local bTs.t n5e! to be amalgamated with the adjoining municipalities. This kind of approach of planning for the fast growing urb-an conidors need to be orought in line with the 74rh Amendment.

In the urban corridors, it is a common fact that, the fringes which falls under panchayats or gram panchayats, absorbs the urban services of the nodes i.e., metro-potit n iiii"s. To overcome

6't7

Maharashtra

nffmilGts
AnnapurnaShaw,lggg,ErnergingPatternsofUrbanGrowthinlndia,inEconomicandPoliticalWeekly,
APril 17-14.

BuildingMaterials&TechnologyPromotioncouncil,tggT,VulnerabilityAtlasoflndia'MinistryofUrbanAffairs',
New Delhi'
Census of India

State District Profile 1991' 1991' Totals: Rurat - l/rban Distibution' Paper-2 of census of India, 1991, Provisional Poputation

, L99t, Maharashtra

Censusoflndia,!gg!,TownsandtJrbanAgglomerationslgglwiththeirPopu|aflon1901-1991Paft{I.A(ii).A
Agricultural sector, A Compendium of Statistie' centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, 1996, India3 1999' centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, 1999, Agriculture, september, ReportPart - I National overview' centre for Science and Environment, 1999, The Citizens Fifrh !995, Sustainable Urban Development: City & Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra Limited, The Case of Navi Mumbai' in Maharashtra since Independence, Diwan G R, lgg7, Technical papen of tJrban and Regional Planning Activities Congress, 29-31 December, Mysore, Retrospecb and ppspect,46tr' National town & Country Planners Infrastructure Report: Policy Expert Group on the Commercialisation of Infrastructure Projects, L996, Indian Reports, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi. Inieratives for Growth and Welfare, Volume 3 Sectoral Vol. 6, No. 6. Fernandes B G, 1999, India's Cities in Crisis in Spatio Economic Development Record,
Series.

'

Practice in Spatio Gopal K. Kanhere, 1994, Maharashtra: The Pioneer State in Urban and Regional Planning Vol. 1, No.1' Economic Development Record, Government of Maharashtra,1998, Annual Plan 1999-2000: An Overview' India Today Special fluruey,1995, Maharashtra Stoking Growth, December 1995, Pg t76-t92.
M. V. Telang and others, L996, Frame Work for Regional Sustainable Development: A Case Study of South Maharashtra Regionin Spatio Economic Development Record, Vol.3, No' 5'

Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority, Maharashtra lJrban Development Proiect. Ministry of Surface Transport, 1998, International Congress on Expres Highways development in India, Background PaPers. Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority,1999, Maharashtra tlrban Infrastructure Fund' 1996 Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, !999, Regional Plan for Mumbai Metropolitan Region 2011. Nalinakshan K & Ajit Kumar Jain, Clean City Concept An Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management. (Mimeo) Mapping National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, L993, India-tlrban Coffidors: A Note on Thematic and Technology, calcutta' Approach, NATMO Monograph No.12, Department of science National Commission of Urbanisation , L988, Report of the National Commission on Urbanisation, Vol' No. 59. National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1997, Financing lJrban Infrastructure in India, Research Study Series National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1998, IndiaS urban Sector Profile, Research Study Series No. 61. i995, Nigel Harris, !995, Bombay in a Gtobal Economy Structural Adjustment and the Role of Citiein Cities

ll'

Vol. 12, No. 3.
planning Commission of India, L983, Task Forcs on Housing and Urban Development: Planning of Urban Develoqment' New Delhi. Registrar General, L996, Poputation Projections for India and States 1996-2015, Census of India, 67

ilrI luruRt

0r unmrlsATl0ll

Maharashtra

Sinha R C, Issues Involved in Road project Finance.(Mimeo) sukthankar D M, 1995, special Number on the seventy-Fourth constitution Amendment and the conformity Legislation' Urban India, vol. XV, :anuary-:uni rgss, t'{0.r, Niti"..i imtitrt" of urban Affairs, New Delhi. The Times Research Foundation, L992, IndiaS t/rban Enuironmenf, yol. I,II & m. Town and country Planning organisation, 1995, tJrban and Regional planning and Development in India, Ministry of Urban Affairs and employmeni. --'

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GUIRR[T

G||IIIEIIIS Introduction

-

P. 83

il.
ur.
ry.

The State's Urbanisation: Trends and Issues New GeograPhY of Investments

-

P' 84

-

P' 87

Spatial Manifestation of Economic Growth

'
-

P' 90

A. B. c:
v.

Present SPatial Pattem - P' 90 Emerging Urban Corridors P' 97 SPUR; --Ncu, Urban corridors - NATMo

-

P' 93

Probfems, Issues and Constraints

-

P' 95

A. B, C. D. A. B. C. D. E. F,

SpatialPlanning and Land Use- P,95 Regional Infrastructure - P. 97 Urban Infrastructure Services- P.99 Urban Environment - P. 702

Urban Governance and Management- P. 707
74th Constitution Amendment

Act- P. 7O7

Role of Local Bodies in Future Urban Growth P. P' 708 Role of State and Sectoral Agencies

Metro Areas and Metropolitan Planning Committees - P' 709 Rural Urban Integration and District Planning Committees - P' Managing Urban Corridors- P.770

-

-

707

lO9

References- P. 713

",|lflgl_!allJjl,,_,,.._.__virlq,lji.,.lrt*vraqrwj4k/t/rr4,r4.E?.h,?,!.y.,ns..!"r:.;v"tg,.s
of Jo*l:, Levers of Urbanisation Growth 2.2 poputation gLgrrqniti,i'pr,ii,ljij and and urban Areas _ Rates by Regions _ p. g4 peripherat p, 85 poputation nro;ections j?91. ?.9 Urban il b,.i-i.ra, _ zozL _ p. ss Table 2.4 Levet of Urbanisation'bt ;ilril;; Regions _ LggL _ p. g6 Table 2.5 Levet of Urbanisation Ov oiiiri.t, Jni n gion, _ z,zt _ p. 86 Table 2.6 Category-wis_e Indu*riit unO infrJiu.turat Investmen t_ p, gg Tabre 2.7 District wise Industriar irJ rriiuJrr.iure Invesrmen t- p. 89 Table 2.8 Growth of the Ahmadaoao citvi r-giil 96 _ p. g, poputation of Urban corriiiri'_ i'it JaPle ?,9 Table 2.10 Administrative
Table Table Tabte

2'1

Number

2.11

Status of UrO.* CtrnO" rs _ p, 92 Land Utitisation pattern of euiarat tfg'70_93) _ p,

96

4txt///En'.y/.?.{nr.///in?/i/r44!?t///.//

ilsr 0r ilAPS

9;/e.444rt!,.!rtat.t/t;/8./!nn//7r8jJq/.//:.*r2"8-r/j

Map 2.1

Map2.2 Map 2.3 Map 2.4 Map 2.5 Map 2.6

Levef of Urbanisation and Urban Centres _ 1991 _ p. 7Ig Anticipated change in Level of Urbanisation from 1991 2o2L p. District-wise Investment in Infrastructure and Industries _ p, Spatial Priority Urban Regions - NCU, Urban Corridors _ NATMO _ p. Emerging Urban Corridors and Urban Regions _ 2OZl _ p. Broad Land Use Pattern and Emerging Uiban Corrido rs _ p. 123

-

fi5 IIZ Ltg l2I

82

Tm rurunt 0f unsAltsAlt0tl

rilTn0[ucTt0ll
(196,024 sq k1),.tenth most populous state in the Gujarat is the seventh largest state in-area 2'11 per cent per annum' Bestowed country and has a poputation oril.:r million (r99i))incieaslng'at *itn a1 pofts, aOundant mineral wealth' skilled manpower' multi-product with a long coastline of fOOO only among the industrialised and urbanised free trade zone at Kandla, Gujarat today ranks toono not ,tit", or India but also with respect to the inflow of investments.

1.1

ft

has undergone structural changes' Since its early stage of industrialisation, the state's economy (SDP) in Gujarat was27'24 per cent in 1981, which Secondary sector contriOution to State Domestic Product t-ikewise, tne share of tertiary sector has gone up from has gone up substantialfyio li.2+ p.t cent in 1995. perioo. Rtt this is. accompanied by a rapid pace of 31.2g per cent to 3g.g0 fer cent during the same areas where investments are being made' The urbanisation particularly iri tne targe'citles and in the environment and infrastructure have not received implications of such .nungut on ion-g tatt employment, adequate attention.

t.2

pace' infrastructure economic development are progressing at a rapid tne sustained growth of industry and impedimen$ to inadequacies and environmental deterioration are two ano drought have brought into sharper focus the crisis of economy in Guiarat. rne tecinr earthquake to policy makers and citizens alike' The key to availability of water. rnii nis been a cause of coricer-n -a.onorla growth and environmeni lies in an efficient bottom-up strategy in harmoniously managing ut especially with respect to emerging centres of regulating and directing tf,"-pnyii..igrowth of ,rU.n investment.

1.3

Though high levels

of

.t

t'4Withthesignificantchangesthathavetakenp|aceinrecentyears,thisstudytakesafresh.|ookat two decades, nearly half the population will be in the dynamics of urbanisation in fiujarat where in unoin.t consideration of the emerging urbanisation urban areas, In this context, this report seeK to stimulate economic arowth' infrastructure' pattern in Gujarat witn critical issues of spatial manifestation of environmenta|concernsandurbangovernanceandmanagement.

il.

!#"-#E:-F""!"1"!"tr11#tr"IlAI,.IJJ$muus$urs

Gujarat is the second most urbanised stale^!31.19oi! compared with the country after Maharashtra (:e.Og"zo). 25.71o/oin 1991 ii nur-ZZS Unrn"*ri,?iin".n ,rO.n population for A1-India) in (1991)' The urban population of 1a.25 milliori ritt in.t i..o'it r golouigi"*ti ,.;il oi':+.se per cent during 1981-91 aJ against 4L'42 per cent.11.!he pteuious oecao"'rlgzr,-srl- Io""i stip*.r'cent of the totar popuiation growrh during 1981-91 was in urban areas' Urbanisation in t19 rt.t" ni, iJnl", in the districts of Ahmadabad, Vadodara, Bharuch, Surat and varsaO Oeiaul:^:l Jamnagar' Porbandar' ve'auar, ano ldyori.]-o-.".i"rir.nu and in towns tike Rajkot, dilJun-.-qTr i".urse of increaseo iiJoing and industrial activities. There are three metropolitan crties - Ahmadanao,-iurlt cities - Ahmadabad (3'31 million), sriuirr.ii and vadooara i"1n" ri.t". The 6 Municipar corporation miilion), v.Joa.ir'ii.i! miilion;, Rajkot (0.65 Bhavnagar (0'40 million) ano tamnaiai miilion), (bJi6- mitlion) domin.t" tn[ ,ro* scene in Gujirat and they together constituted 51'7 per cent orihe state uroan ioputation-in rgs]. rnur" are 21 crass I cities (of 27 class ri ana tiz imari to*ns o?-r-ess tnan 50,000 popuration ilT$i...............,"t:: size in !!f],t"|,:'r?'

2'L

Growth Trends in Urban population

**

ill

t"*ti

Regional Variations
The state has five Regions, namely, south, central, North, saurashtra and Kachchh. The saurashtra region has the highest concentration of 87 towns of different rii" c6r."r rolbwed by the southern Region with 65 towns and the Kachchh region having the teast number of g towns (Tabre 2.1).

2'2

Table 2.r: Number of rowns, Levers of urbanisation and Urban Growth Rates by Regions

Source : N.f. U.A

nuearch@

Core - Periphery Differential Growth

In Gujarat, urban growth is shifting from core urban to peripheral areas, particularly in metropolitan and other big cities' Smaller settlements in the periphery are thus'"rp*ian.ing a considerable pressure of growth (Table 2.2).

2'3

Population Projections
of Gujarat will be about 59 million by the year 2016: If the same growth rate as that between 2011 and 2016 is taken, the proJected total population for 2021 will be approxlmately 6t mitilon wnite the projected urban population will be about 28 million with urbanisation levei 44.45 per ient. ine population projections by the Registrar
impact

2'4

According to the Projections by the Registrar General

of India (RG), population of the whote

of

General is based on demographic criteria .like mortality, r"rtiriry and migration, However, the investments in new industries in the wake of economic tioeiatisation since 1991 in various

Gularat

while projecting the population' also need to be taken into account locations would bring migrants, which tuf..n as trend-based demographic projections and Hence RG's projections are conservatlve
(Table 2.3).

"iuu-u"

and Peripheral Areas Table 2.2: Population Growth Rates in Municipal

source j

l.t.u.A

Research Study Series (Number 64)

Tabte 2.3: Urban Population Projections in Gujarat

-

2O2a

Source: Census of fndia, 7997, RG' India (7996) * Eased on the growth b'end during 2011-16
D

istrict L eve I Proi ectio n s

Trend based projections have been made at the district level for 2021 based on the 1981-91 growth rates. The region-wise level of urbanisation by districts for 1991 as well as for 202I have been shown in the following two tables (Table 2.4 & 2.5). It is seen that urbanisation is spreading all over Gujarat. The districts of Ahmadabad, Surat, Vadodara, and Gandhinagar are going to be nearly fully urbanised by 2021. In Jamnagar, Rajkot and Kachchh, urbanisation will exceed 50 per cent. Bhavnagar and Junagadh will be nearly half-urban. Panch Mahals, Dangs, Sabar Kantha and Banas Kantha will be the only exceptions with urbanisation levels of less than 25 per cent (Map 2.1 & 2.2).

2.5

illt turunt

0f uRBAlllsAIl0ll

85

Table 2.4: Levet of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions _

l99l

0-15
15-25

Panch Mahals, The Dangs

Banas Kantha, Sabar Nil

Kantha
Mahesana

Nil Nil Kachchh Nil Nil

4
5 3

Kheda, Bharuch,
Valsad Nil

Amreli

25-35 Ntl Surendranagar, Junagadh 35-45 Vadodara Gandhinagar Bhavnagar, Jamnagar 45-100 Surat, Ahmadabad Nil Rajkot LoU = Level of Utuanisation (o/oage of urbaito totit popuEtnnl

4

Table 2.5: Level of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions

_

2O2L

0-15 15-25 2s-35 35-45

Panch Mahals, Dangs Nil

Sabar Kantha
Banas Kantha Mahesana Nil

Nil Nil

Nil Nil

3
1

Kheda, Valsad,
Bharuch Nil

45-100 Vadodara, Ahmadabad,
Surat

Gandhinagar

Surendranagar, Amreli Bhavnagar, Junagadh Jamnagar, Rajkot

6

Nil Kachchh

2

LoU = Level of Ufuanisation (o/oage of urban to totat poputattbnj

Urban Center Level Projections
Assuming the growth rate of urban population to be the same as during 1981-91, the number of metropolitan cities in Gujarat will increase from 3 to 6 by 202L. There will be +O Ctass I cities including 6 Metropolitan cities by 2021 as against2l Class I cities including 3 metros in 1991, thus increasing the total number of Class I and Class II cities to 73 by 2021. Many new towns and cities will also emerge in Gujarat bv 2021.

2'6

86

TilIIUIURTOFURBAXISATI|III

Gujarat

Industrial PolicY
follows:

as for the year 2000 and beYond has been The main thrust of the Industrial PolicY in Gujarat

D
O

Accelerating the pace of Backward Area Development

oA|mostT0percentoftheareaofthestatehasbeendec|arede|igib|eforincentives
Creating large scale employment opportunities

Dlncreasingtheovera||flowofinvestmentintheindustria|Sector

0
O

resources Accelerating the pace of development of infrastructure and human

Achieving sustainable development Encouraging entrePreneurshiP

O

Industrial Development and Urban Growth
Gujarat is recognised as a leading state in promoting industry in the country. Principal industries are A textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, fertilisers, cement/ sugar, engineering etc. of working factories and two and a half five-fold increase (3649 in 1960 to 18,532 in 1995) in the number fold increase (346,462 in 1960 to 822,200 in 1995) in the number of workers in factories has occurred during 1960-95. Large-scale development has taken place on the Ahmadabad - Vadodara Bharuch Surat Valsad corridor, While the government has itself set up several public and joint sector industries in recent years/ it has focussed more on developing land and infrastructure. Guiarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) has set-up numerous industrial estates all over the state and is developing about 9000 hectares of rndustrial land including 6000 hectares in Dahej and Vilayat, 1000 hectares in Vagra, Ankleshwar and 1300 hectares in Jhagadia in Bharuch district. GIDC is also concentrating on creation of big Industrial Parks including effluent treatment plants, ports, and air linkages in collaboration with the private sector.

3.2

3.3

3.4

Inspite of the efforts of the state government to disperse industrial development throughout the state, industries have concentrated, more or less, within the 'Corridor Region' which can be termed as the core of the state's industrial development. Since 1991, medium and large industries have, however, The disoersed to the coastal districts of the state, such as Kachchh and Jamnagar, Junagadh and Amreli. (i) those depending on import of raw materials new industries coming up in these districts are of two types: foi petrochemical coriplexes, such as refinery project by Reliance Petroleum in Jamnagar district, and (ii) the other for exporting the products, mainly the cement industries coming up in Amreli, Junagadh and Kachchh districts. Urbanisation has closely accompanied these developments.

IHT TUIURT |lT URBAIIISATIllII

Industrial and Infrastructure Investment

i,ir, ,i:;"J?J,:J:r::ffiJ:i#:,iJ;:l'cture investments compired by cMrE (rabre 2 6, 2.7 and
D D

[l?ilffi:
o

of the industrial projects, those in chemical category account for around 7g per cent of the total This implies that the past trend of

Gularat's uttra.iiuenes, for chemicar rnouitiies is

engineering, chemicar and speciar categories account for around 14 per cent of the lrre.general, total investment.

Industrial investment.in

of the total

investment taking place in Gujarat, infrastructure projects inctuding large industrial units account for 86 per cent.

Table 2.6; Category-wise rndustriar and rnfrastructurar rnvestment

l:i:!:;:i::l:

l,, :.i,,,l
1

:,

,,,,'

iU::iiii

:.

t:,iihrm$

rc
'l

General

zoJI..tl
zJ.ro.bd t8784.64

.ih

;il[ ;,,"i

10.95

2

Engineeri!g
Chemical Special

4R

9.70
t /.o! 7.74

3

L.Jt
10.51

42r.23 24203.96 100.00 B 154550.83 L74754.79 Source: Gujarat fnfrastructure Agenda - Viiion mlO, Vot. ti
A

Industry Infrastructure Total(A+B)

0.24

13.54 86.46 100.00

Note: The infrastructure proiects hlclude powe4 teleconnunications, transport, railway, inigation, hotels and restaurants, real estate, recreational services apart from large industrial units such as ceneng refineriei, re,tTtaer, 'storage and *"riioirinq.

Distribution of Investment
District wise analysis of total investment under implementation, as by April 1999, indicates that about 50 per cent of the investments are in the Corridor Region (Central and South Gujarat), followed by 40 per cent in Saurashtra Region of which Jamnagar accounts for 24 per cent. Given thise developments, the Corridor and Saurashtra Regions will experience accelerated industrial devetopment and urbanisation in these regions. Analysis of industrial investment confirm that Bharuch, Surat and Jamnagar districts are the most attractive destinations for industrial investment (Map 2.3). of the total industrial investment of Rs.33,312 crore in the state, Bharuch and Surat account for 42 per cent. Saurashtra Region follows by about 30 per cent particularly in Jamnagar district with 1g per cent (Table 2.7).

3:6

8B

ilt: rurun[ 0r 0R0NilsATt0tl

Tab|e2.7:Districtwiselndustria|andlnfrastructurelnvestmentinGujaratState(incrores)
cantri tl & south Guiarat
1

(5U.4r"/ol
6130.75
3.52o/o 0.660/o 0.54o/o

(65.85o/o)
2393.81
1LJ. t 1 ,11 rtn
.1

(46.76010)
3736.94 735.00 519.60 2.650k
0.52o/o 0.37o/o 2.630/o 26.470/o

7 .190/o

lhrnadabad
Kheda Panchmahals

lr48.t4
940.60 78s8.71

1.24o/o 1.260/o

J

4
5

Vadodara Bharuclr
Valsad Danqs

4.5Io/o

l.lo.vz

--OA5"/"
13.'lu"/o 18.89%
L.q z-/o

37r0.25
37298.37 19882,23 19.s0

o 7 8

4s091.87 26r7s.63
493.87

2s.88%
15.02%
0.28o/o

7793 50 6393.40 474.31

14.llYo
0.01% L.360/o

l:rriirht
\ldllul lll lo_Jgl--

L.+

10
11 -;

Melrsatra

774.21 1360.77

0.440/o 0.79o/o 0.240/o

'

-/0

1,9Oo/o

r74.2r
450.95

U.51"/o 1.38o/o

600.00 899.82
1r J. /
r,

0.43o/o 0.640/o 0.29o/o

Sabarkantha
Barraskantha

413.7r
19912.11 4300.45 42390.16 3266.87

Sau;ashtla
1?

40.L2
ll.43o/o
2.47o/o

29.760/o
1487.s0 ) \1) .q4
b095.
q.q l"/o 6.94o/o 18.300/o

Amreli Iq Blravnaqar Jamnagar 15 Junagadh 16 Raikot 11 Surendranagar 18 X.i.l rrhh
1q

24.330k 1.88%
0.010/o

/r

2s.2t

t7.71

0.05%
2.48o/o 2.48
lOO.OOo/o

3.t1
13928.02

0.00%
8.OOo/o

18424,61 1987.51 36294.4s 3266.87 7.50 3.72 13102.80

42.580/o 13.08%

|.4lo/o
25.760/o 2.37o/o 0.01o/o 0.00o/o

9.30o/o
9.300/o

Kaclrchh
I

8.00%
lOO.OOo/o

825.22

@reAgenda
Spatial Effects

Toti

t742L4.96

33312.O8

140902.88

10O.O0o/o

-vision 2o7Q vol'

rr

Before we What will be the spatial manifestation of these industrial and infrastructure investments? past. In l'988, the recent attempt the future scena;io, it will be useful to review the work done in the had identified 49 Spatial Priority Urbanisation Regions (SPURs) in the National Commission on Urbanisation growth. It was also based on the country. A SPUR was not merely a confirmation of the observed trends of investments and oppoftunities already Commission,s assessment of growth potential and optimising policy and programme for available in that particular re;ion. The commission had recommended a O.u.iopr.nt of these SpURs on-a priority basis. In Gujarat, the SPUR identifled was Ahmadabad-Vadodara'INDIA - URBAN CORRIDORS' based on 1991 Census Ankaleshwar-Surat-Valsad. A subsequent study titled a broacler by Dr B.K. Roy of National Auas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO) identified cent and and likely to have 60 per urOanising region of Mehsana-Surat stretching south towards Mumbai between 25-40 per cent was above urbanisation level; Rajkot - Jamnagar with urbanisation level ranging -both the NCU and the NATMO are confirmed by subsequent another. The two regrons identified by present spatial pattern of economic growth' developments (Map 2.+). We may now proceed to consider the the likely shape in the future and its implications'

3.7

tu.

$,,l,l,IJrl',sJlllf"$"u,.rJ0,_tr".-0Jr0oroftirc0rOwill
PRESENTSPATIALPATTERN

A.

Distribution of Urban population in Regions The Saurashtra Region
The largest numb-e1s of towns and cities (87) are found here. Rajkot, the largest city located main transport axis, is an important center on the for machine inoustriei. gnai;ni-ga, ano Jamnagar also support small manufacturing industries. Reliance Petroleum Limited has now i"t-rq the world,s largest project at Jamnagar with an investment refinery of over Rs.22,000 crore which is ine rargest investment made ar a single location by a private g.roup. The refinery hai.capacity for processing 1g million metric tonnes of crude oil per annum' Location of this industry is due to the avaiiability or oii .nJn.turar gas and easy access ro coast' This investment together with infrastructure facilities uno p.J*tlinkages will induce growth and urbanisation around the project area.

4'L

other new developments worth mentioning are a series of new industrial units such as diamond units in Bhavnagar, Amreli and Rajkot districts, ship-breaking at Alang-g6synagar, diesel engine producing units in and around Rajkot, brass parts units at Jamnagar etc; and cement units at porbandar, Junagadh, Amreli districts. saurashtra region has attracted about 30 per cent of totallnoustrial investment in the state.
The

4'2

lhchchh Rqion

This region which is largely a salt flat has been a sparsely populated area. However its potential for urban development is on the stretch from Kandla to Bhuj and ti're proposed NH corridors linking to Rajasthan and rest of the country. The Central

4'3

-

South Region

The Central-South Gqarat region along the Ahmadabad-Vadodara-Vapi axis already has the bulk of Gujarat's urban population' This trend will continue and the population concentration may intensify. The question, however, is whether the growth will be in the shape of a continuous urban conidor or a discontinuous sprawl with bulges of density here and there. The present trend of groMh in the Ahmadabaci area is a cause for concern. 4 The physical growth of Ahmadabad during the period 1972-96 has been studied by Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority with the help of remote sensing data. The growth from L972 to 1996 in terms of areal expansion is given in the following table $able 2.8). rrom thi table it is clear that the city has expanded considerably since 1972. on an average, the expaniion has been around 4.25 sq km annually. so far it has been possible to incorporate the new areas within city limits, but it is doubtful whether this is possible in future. Similar problems will be faced in other metropolitan regions of Vadodara and Surat.

4'4

5

90

Int R|TUII 0f u[EAItslTtotl

City: 1972'96 Table 2.8: Growth of the Ahmadabad

1

2
3

t972 t975
1982
1989

97.97 110.70 134.40 161.13
16.73

23.70

4
5

z6.r5
34.90

1996

i96.03

Wt"t

5.58 3.39 2r.4t 5.35 19.89 4.99 2t.66 Ar@ - 2077, Volume r: AuthoritY 17.80

Remote Sensing and GIS APProach

B.

EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

prompted urban corridors' Ahmadabad In Gujarat, as elsewhere, transport corridors have invariably the coastal region, the emergence of an Surat region is a typical instance. However, in the case oi ports and industries near the coest' urban corridor is mainly due to the development of a number of new given in Table 2'9 and administrative The population and area of various emerging urban corridors are in the Table 2.9, the concentration oJ urban status of the corridors is given in Table z.ro. nt seen population in 1991' will population along the corriiors is very high constituting 81.13o1o of totat urban in"r."r" to 93.1-9% in2021 . The concentiation of urban population is predominant in case of Mahesana urban population of the state in 1991 and increasing to - Ahmadabad - Valsad corridor with 59.88% of with 3 municipal corporations. The coastal corridors will 71.5go/o in 2O2i. This corridor covers 9 districts have 12.72o/o of the total urban population of Gujarat in 2021 and passing through 6 districts and 2 municipal corPorations.

Table 2.9: Population of Urban Corridors

1

2

- South Corridor (Mahesana -Gandhinagar Ahmadabad - Vadodara Bharuch - Surat - Valfqdl Coastal Corridor - I (Bhavnagar - Porbandar Nofth

-

95,32,998

s9.88

L,99,84,L67

71,58

9,92,798

5.96

t7,5L,L99

6.27

okha)
3

4

Coastal Corridor - II (Okha - Jamnagar - Morvi Gandhidham - Bhuj) (excludinq Okha) Ahmadabad - Rajkot Junagadh (excluding Ahmadabad)

-

8,95,739

6.29

18,00,207

6.45

-

tl,39,454
1,151601389

8.00

24,82,48t 2,60,181054

8.89

TOTAL
*Prcjeded

81.13

93.19

Source: Census of fndia, 7997 and 7987

IAI

furuil

0t unEAlll$Iloll

91

Table 2.10: Administrative Status of Urban Coridors

MC

-

Municipal committee, M

-

Municiparity, Np

-

Nagar panchayal vp

-

viilage parrchaya, oG - outgrowth

The Nofth-South Urban Corridor
This corridor which has developed in the north-south axis along Ahmadabad-Mumbai rail and road routes has a concentration of'Nodes', comprising Ahmadabad, Nadiaal nnind, vadodara, gnaiucn, surat, Navsari, Valsad and Vapi; and further extending to Mumbai along the corridor. Large-scale deuetopment nas taken place on this corridor. The share of this (Central and Soutfr Gujarat) region, comprising eight districts, -pop-utation has been significant and increasing over the years. About 60 per cent of tni state,s uroan i. ln this corridor region which contains the state's three largest metropolitan cities - Ahmadabad, Vadodara, and Surat. During the past three decades, the corridor has extended further north of Ahmadabad and includes towns like Gandhinagar, Halol, Mehsana, and Unjha. It is likely to extend further northwards along the transport corridor. The following pattern is discernible in this corridor:

4'7

o

This corridor has the strongest economic base.in Gujarat. Roughly two-thirds of the state,s domestic product is produced in this region, including about three-fourths of secondary and tertiary sector production. Much of the state's output move through this corridor to Mumbai. pioximity to the major rail and road links and also to important resource base, which includes a rich agricuiture resource and oil and gas deposits make the 'corridor region' highly urbanised.

O

D D This corridor fufther extends upto Pune through Mumbai in Maharashtra in the form of an inter.state
corridor.

However, development in this region is uneven. It is intense in the districts of Surat, Vadodara, Ahmadabad and Gandhinagar with urban areas being continuous and coalescing with each other. The Mehsana district in north, Bharuch and Kheda districts in the centre and the Valsad district in the south of the region at the Maharashtra border, are relatively sparsely developed. The hally eastern paft of the region is much less accessible and developed with a large tribal population. About 75 per cent of the industrial units functioning in GIDC estates are in this region.

Corridor along the Coast
Stretching from the Gulf of Kachchh to the Gulf of Khambat, the coastal area forms a distinct region. Ten ports have been identified for development by the state and it is anticipated that 50 per cent of the total industrial investment coming to Gujarat will be port-based. Considerable investments in the port sector
92 TIII TUIURT
URBAIIISAII|tII

4'8

OT

tininfrastructurefacilities|ikeroadsandbroad.gaugerai|way|inkshavebeen with an equal investment In InrrasLr,l"::;:,'""::",1:.,;:;-.;'ul; three sub-corridors asfollows: sub-cot by the state fall in The new po't roitlont Jio*iinto initiated.

oTheflrsfconsistsofportsofO.k!a.'P::tt'4Rozi'JamnagalRefiTles'Navalakhi'Kandla'Mundra ports'will be linked with Rajasthan duf of Kachchh. fne,oaO-c-Jnnectindnttu and Mandvi around and ultimately to Northern States' Bhavnagar, Mithiwirdi, A|ang, Pipavav, Ahmadabad with ports of Dholera, o The secondconnects
Simar and Veraval'

o 4.g

expressway. and Maro|i, which wi|| be |inked to the The f,,dconsists of Dahej, Hazira, Vansi-Borsi

Minor Corridors

Ahmadabad on the Junagadh on one side and Rajkot to Two minor corridors starting from Rajkot to proposed expressway connecting Rajkot to other side are emerging. Due to the deveropm;;i area' likely development of this corridor in this Ahmadabad via surendra"nrgri, tilr" is 'Nodes' in the form of metropolitan citles 4.10 The north-south urban corridor has three main cgllinue and around these large cities consideranle?o* .in, (Ahmadabad, Vadodara uro and Mehsana in nofth and E"rlOLr, several otneinoOes - Gandhinagar' Halol located in the urban .orriloi. towards Surat,-tlauiaii Valsad and Vapi have already emerged Ahmadabad, Nadiadad, ViJoOara, Bharuch,

;i;

l"r.ti.

*'l

south.Urbangrowtharoundthesedifferentcentersiscoa|escingwitheachother'

4.llThecoastalcorridors,thoughsparse|ydeve|opedatpresent,.maybegintoexperiencesimi|arbe .i""t. Considerable and continued growth could physical sprawl in the form of non-iontinuout uiOun citieslocateo in the corridor' Until now' cities in Saurashtra expected particularly in unoirouno existing hiqh i11efrty of activities' A poly-nodal and been characl'eiir.o iy .on..nti.tuo ipt..i-and

region have ii tnus going to face a dramatic spatial change' This multi-urban pattern may emerge in future. sur..n[o to municipal limits only' *irr i"qrit" urOan ptanning apf,roacnes not confined region may grow some what more rapidly urban areas along the coast pafticularly in the saurashtra port sector' the port development offers in the than in the past because of huge investments .otinq oi roiuiiont for promoting hinterland industrialisation and tremendous potential for development in terms prepared to avoid poft ctusters arong *itn their hinterl;nd need to be urbanisation. Sub-regional plans of the lop-sided develoPment.

4.tz

tlrhanising Region
4.13Urbanisationwi||spreadaroundAmre|iandtheadjoining.sma||townsduetoindustria|activitiesand to emergince of an urbanising region (Map 2'5)' their linkages with the pti o*erop*ent leading

C.
n

SPURS. NCU/ URBAN CORRIDORS. NATMO

4.L4InlgSS,theNcU,onthebasisofdeve|opmentneedsaswellasgrowthpotential,identified329 Urban of ecoiomif Uomentums (GEMa) and 49 Spatial Priorty urban centres arr over iniia as Generators

li".tispunt).

Gujarat: The NcU has proposed the following SPURs in

1. Ahmadabad- Baroda

-

Ankaleshwar

-

Surat

-

Valsad

illt lufl il

0f uBBAlllsArloll

93

fi;',i.r.liiJ,flJ;i'41ffi#1"Hil:ji:+li3;ffi,*nanisat.n
1, Surat - Mahesena 2. Rajkot - Jamnagar
The NCU's sPURs and NATMo's Urban corridors hgve Map2'4 and emerging urban corridors ana uruaniegion -

(NArMo) in a study based on 1ee1 census,

$1 depicted for the purpose of comparision in 2021.ip"iirrir
ridy
is shown in Map 2.5.

u.
A.

pn0Bulils, lssuts

illll

--q-0--tt.l-I-T"l|'-tls

SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE

5.1P|anningfortheemergingspatia|patterniSbothanopportunityandachallenge.Spraw|, discontinuousurbangrowth,over-densificationin'o*"-pu'ts'wastefulu-Seoflimitedlandandribbon a aggravated further' Gujarat has followed are some ol the known problems, *n"'.n *iri o"

development instrirment of urban development' Its success a land assembly and reacllustment programme as fiincipal in the outskirts of major middle inlome housing'and commercial dev-e]g9ment has been modest so tar. Authorities are perceived as real estate organisations cities are concerned. Gujarat's urban Development future will demand a far more imaginative planning rather than urban planning agencies. Gujarat's urban Demand for land and services will be more than what plotted development and shopping centres require. planning and programmes in advance' slum growth competing and severe. rriifre aOsence otfoiethought coast and large scale industrial will be more pronounced, particularly in new gd"th areas along the

ii

comDlexes.

scale industrral and There will also be social and economic consequences arlsing out of large and understood better, as tt tnfrastructure projects. Income and consumption have to be carefully studied beyond the project sites would have a proiound impact not only on the existing settlement pattern but also - Visron 2010. Who is going to develop such areas with envisaged under Gujarat infrastructure Agenda question that minimum basic services to the migratory population likely to occupy such settlements, is a priced out as it needs to be considered. At Alang or Jamnagar, Dahej or Hazira, the migrants may not be 'spaced out'. Substantive land use changes will happened in other industrial towns in the country but rather planning, take place due to implementation of large-scale projects. This would have serious implications for role to public and private environment and management and calls for examining and assigning specific

5.2.

sectors.

Need for Coordinated DeveloPment
The process of industrialisation and urbanisation having gained unprecedented momentum, the state had identified in t997, ten sub-regions for preparation of Sub-regional Plans, with the help of Consultants. The Sub-regional Plans are expected to incorporate and rnake proposals regarding the strengthening of inter-region and intra-region transportation and communication network and civic infrastructural facilities, besides spatial framework for planning of economic development.

5.3

5.4

The 10 sub-regions identified throughout the state are as follows:
Vadinar and surrounding areas (Jamnagar District) 2. Pipavav and surrounding areas (Amreli District) 3. Lakhpat, Mundra and Mandvi and surrounding areas (Kachchh District) 4. Alang, Manar, Bharpara and surrounding areas (Bhavnagar District) 5. Bharuch, Ankleshwar and surrounding areas 6. Vapi - Valsad Corridor area 7. Valsad - Ahmadabad Corridor area 8. Sanand, Kalol area (North of Ahmadabad) 9. Mehsana, Kadi area (North of Ahmadabad) 10. Dahej and Vagra area (Near Bharuch)

1.

mt furufit 0t usEAlllsArl0ll

95

*a*.un fi" ibo"" i;orn.,n nodes. This approach fragmentary' There is "r". is ove-ra! integrateJ pran oeing Jamnagar Development 1o 'ni"a .rong "nui.rguo-f* ffre. entire area encompassrng Are-a, Refinery witn viJinar, which could provide long-term comprehensive developmenl ir"i;;, rrareioi the su5-regiorii i'i"ntr". Each entity the needed working in the area' particularly Jamnagar Development Authority and Relia-nce p"trol"rr Limited which has rennery' are responsible for planning and sei up tne development of their orn ar"rionry. There is an urgent need to evolve an inter-governmentai and inl""otgini;ti'onal platform ro, prann,ng io deal with various issues in the preparation of Sub-regional Plans' There'is a need to undertake scientinc'ierineation of various -a regions or sub-regions to provide for an overall development-frame oaseo- on rong-term vision, taking into consideration the investments going in the industrial and infrastructure ,".too. It is understood that the state has since initiated action for delineation of the various regions ot. ,uu-iesions based on the above Land Utilisation
Land is one of the major natural resources. Human setflements comprising both rural and urban occupy about 6 per cent of topographically usable land at tne nattnir-Evet. since urban expansion is inevitable through a shift from prime agriculture to non-agriculture uses in the peripheries of cities, this calls for interventions to deal with the wholJurbanisation process. The pressure of land is bound to increase with the growth of population giving rise to competing claims on land for various uses such as urbanisation, infrastructure, industries, agriculture, pasturing anI forestry. rne p.eviiring iutt rn of broad land utilisation pattern in Gujarat i.e., the extent of land under different iategories is given in the fol6wing table (Table 2.11).

arear extent indicate the_areas for pranning immediate anention, sucn-as needing ig;,irLrrr rand into rons-term view' For example, :g"y9;:'.";;; The approach does iot take a tne vaoinaisud-iin,'^":.lflrl, ror Vadinar and surrounding areas only' falling outside theJamnagar o.*rop-,iunt and the Reria-nce i"iihurv p.q.ct Plan will thus focus only-^on-the area. The proposed

5'5

The above sub-regions with their limited

; ilil;;;geo

,;;;.;.

int"r.#n

5'6

oi;;J

Table 2.11: Land Utilisation pattern of Gujarat (1970 _ 1993)
Afl s

in

'(X)0 hectares

Land under Forest Land not available for cultivation a. Land put to non-

I '::

:::'i::::::

:::r:''

i:;i!
lr.::

r573
771
3089 963
1243Q

8.36

1966

10.45

1885

10.02

24.98

-4.07

4.10 16.4r
5.12 66.03 100.00

agricultura/ uses b. Earren and unculturable land
c. Others Land under cultivation Keponlng Area C^,.-^^, r-J:-. Source: CMrc, India's ^^tiE

1067

5.67

1123

5.97 13.85

38.39 -18.97

5.25 4.16

2503
851

r3.30
4.52
66.07

2607

_--

t2435
18822

13206
18822

18825 ngricultiiat Sector,

Jul4giE

100.00

70.16 100.00

0.04 -0.02

6.20 0.00

The above table indicates that out of 18.826 million hectares oF reporting area in the state, the extent of land put to non-agricultural uses was 0.771 million hectares of land (4.106/o of the repofting;rea) in L970-71, increasing to.L067 million hectares (5.670/o of the reporting area) by 19g0-g1, and fuitrer to 1'123 million hectares (5.97vo of the reporting area) by 1992-93. bn thj other hand, land under forest has clecreased from 1.966 million hectares (10.45olo of the reporting area) in 1980-g1 to 1.gg6 million hectares

5'7

has (10.02%ofthereportingarea)in1992.93.HoWeVer,someof.th.e::::ll^.j..barrenanduncu|turable|and t"' tultivation as the percentage of area under cultivation and under " barrer ind others" has been tne "i"O io-io.io"z" i""isgz-gr *nie -The percentageuse pattern of Gujarat increased from 66.03% broad land has corresponoray 0..1ry0. unculturable land and otners,,category of urban population in 2021 will be ihil 90o/o where alonq with emerging urban corridors

d#;JJ'."j ;'"i;;;i

r;;;

conclntrated, is shown in MaP 2'6'

B.
5.13

REGIONALINFRASTRUCTURE
in the and recognising infrastructure as a key input Gujarat with its thrust on industrial development Vision 2010" offering 383

growth process, has

of Rs' 1,16,993 crore' AS Can be expected and as is infrastructure projects with an estimated investment as focuses more on the upper end of infrastructure such usual with exercises or ini, rino, the blueprint parks at the regional level and industrial power, ports, roaOs, raitwiys, aiiports, telecommunications, etc', with needed services.
Power
projects under different Gujarat.s power supply in 1998 was about 9000 MW. There are several installed capaciW in iiag"s or ptanning and implementation. These projects when completed will raise the Gujarat has been thJstate'nV 5S36 wW tjfing the totat to LL774 MW. In the post liberalisation era, investment in the pipeline, the demand experiencing rapid industrial glrowth. with over $_30 billion industrial resources such for power is expected to take-a quantum jump. Gujarat is poorly endowed with natural fuel imported coal' as coal and hydro. The large number of potts in the state will facilitate import of LNG; plants' power fl"pf'tnu and triatural gas, *hich can be used for power generation through port based

pr"i.*J .

nfruprtt 'Cujatai Infrastructilre Agenda:

5.t4

Ports
The 1600 km long coastline of Gujarat accounts for one-third of the coastline of India. There are 41 ports, of which Kandla iJthe major one. Out of remaining 40 pofts, 11 are intermediate and 29 are minor region (4). With major coastal fortr'dirp.rr"d across South Gujirat (13 ports), Saurashtra (23) ancl Kachchh through sea based mega cement plants coming up in Kachchh and Saurashtra, cement and clinker export jmajor role in the marketing of cement. Similarly, proximity of Gujarat coastline to Middle-East witi ptay products for corrftries has bpened up avenues for locating petroleum refineries and storage of petroleum potential port sites. Investments of over hinterland consumption. Investments are converging in and around near Rs.16,000 crore at Hazira, Rs.15,000 crore at Vagra, Rs.20,000 crore in areas near Pipavav and Jamnagar port locations are envisaged.

5.15

ports: Gujarat Maritime Board has identified the following 10 greenfield sites for development of Positra, Rozi (Bedi) and Dholera, Maroli, Vansi-Borsi, Hazira Magdalla (Surat), Dahej, Mithiwirdi, Simar, Mundra. Out of the identified 10 port locations, 4 ports - Rozi (Bedi), Positra, Dahej, Mundra will be integrated port developed by the state and the remaining 6 ports by private sector. The state envisages an of development strategy, consisting of cieation of port facilities, industrialisation and development hinterland. These pots are envisaged to serve as foci infrastiucture facilities like roads ind railways in the pott facilities of regional development. It is estimated that Rs.12,288 crore would be required to create new along with necessary infrastructure during the period 2000-10'

5.16

ilt: turuRt

0t

uRmlll$rl0ll

97 .--,,{

Roads

llil:,fl:il

5'L7 Gujarat has taken the initiative to undertake. four raning of some sections of Nationar Alreadv 165 km of the Ahmadaoaolr"rumt-utf Highways. has been roui ru*i.tcording cent of Ahmadabad Vadodara to GMIE data, oo per investment of Rs. 446 crore has projects including national trignwaysinJ-Jr,ti""'niqn*.v, been compieted. g "tptu*uy ro,. iorrluniig .t un investment of Rs. d6z crore

ii*., ;[h ""

5'18 A comprehensive road policy has been formulat:d.TT entire planning of the road sector has carried out using a multi-modal transportaiion oeen i:g_"], 2010' the total investment required ror tne 1..9r0,1'o t" c["r.t Infrastructure Agenda - vision roal projects is of the order or Rs.19, 951 crore during 2012' of this Rs' 15'019-crore-is-proposed roip*.t.r".tor investmeni. some_or the private sector 1997under implementation include 6 roao over-b'rldges. [rgeas and bridges tnroujn Bor and Vadodara-Harbr -exicuted road road and nto otnui-..d stretches oeinf wth the herp from rL&FS :ffi.113?lttad-Mehsana
Railways

"?il,:'ffiL}ff.gJJ.;*-i:i.i;;;-'.ri

;;ffiil'#

ro,, ran,g ih,Lsi ff r .t .n

5'19 According to Gujlr* Infrastructure Agenda - Vision 2010, for the period 1997-2012 has been worked"ori to Rr.osgl.s the investment required in railway sector crore rorJauge conversion, missing rinks, construction of new broad gauge lines and additionaltr..r.r i"""rri"g.l".sih-;f ai9'k;;.'""' ""oorrr!
with an investment of Rs'870 crore for conversion of meter gauge to broad gjuge uno n.rro,i liuge to oroao gauge. one prqect at a cost of Rs' 318 crore for gauge conversion from cano-'nionamto prr.ipw has been proposed.

5'20

According

to CMIE data, there are seven projects under implementation

Airport

5'21 Gujarat has 11 functional airports including one internationar airport. The proposed industrial activities in Gujarat requires expansion of existing air-ports ano rening up jreenfield airports linked with the industrial development. The state government ano Rlrport Authority-otin-oiu nuu. identified three projects for development which include extension and strengthening of Ahnradabad arrport at an estimated cost of Rs'48'50 crore, construction of new terminal for domestic traffic at Bhuj and expansion of surat airpoft. Besides smaller airstrips are planned to be developed to serve chartered ano private flights. such smaller airstrips include Ankleshwar, Mundra and Vaoi.
fndustrial Park

5'22 of the cMIE's CAPEX list of 413 industrial projects proposed to be located in Gujarat, per 11 cent would use industrial park facility. The pro]ects have been categorised as general, engineering, chemicar and special, depending on the type of industrial park infrastruciure neeoel- Demand-fo1noi,stini pirr,s ,s estimated to be 19,781 hectares for the period 1999-2010. An investment of Rs.7,162 crore has been envisaged for the above industrial parks categories during the above perioJ. About qov" ir tn,s ls pioposeo to be invested by the private sector. An emphasis on the development of industrial parks including Infocities is being laid by the state.

9B

Tltt turunt

0F

uRBftil$ATtotl

Issues: Regional Infrastructure are given below: infrastructure requiring consideration some of the lssues in regional 5.23 for various infrastructure Vision 2010 is an extensive exercise of Gujarat Infrastructure Agenda o The lnuiiont"ntal Concerns as a consequence The ctocument, however, oo., noiiou.n omission sectors. This is a crucial iont.in"o-in tn. vition-2g10 document'
implementatro" "i'inl'rlropor.t, and need to be corrected' corridors mutually along corridors' urban and transport The urban growth in Gujarat is taking.pla.ce tou"tents on highways face the problem of but can also undermine eacn otnei reinforce Rid;" develgRmen!aggravates the problem' within stopovers, jams and abnormald;;;. frequent Poly-nodal urban areas is as mucn as inter-urban movement' the corridors, tne neeo for intra-urban rn. inJiun e"perience of bypasses on national highways has require grearer prunJngln this regard. or sometimes both are bypassed' In the 'nodes' in the corridors not been very nappy. Either developt"nt'oi'ittout*nts is needed about existing and future Gujarat context, Jo-me iar.rul thinking -development coalescing or remaining separate' of

D

i'iffit

olnfrastructura|provisionbothregiona|andwithincitiesarerequiredtoattractnewinvestments.on|y within itansport wiil not be enough' Infrastructure regional inrrastrr]u-rei ,r.n .r-po*"r, t"lelot, transport etc'' also need to be improved the cities sucn as water supply, sanitation, intra-city
simultaneouslY.

C.
5.24

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES

Water SuPPIY

of supply between and amongst the different wide disparities in the population coverage and levels man' towns in Siurashtra remain poorly served' On an class of municipalities exist. To a large e*tent, 0'25 lakh) lpcd in'b'class municipalities (population less than average, present *u,"1- ,uppfy ranges irom.62 is 78 lpcd whereas 1'00 lakh)' The per capita supply to 100 lpcd in 'A'ctass municipafiti-es (population above 28 municipalities have water supply below 40 lpcd' the requirement is of 13itp;d'. Out oi tCg tnuni.ipufiti"s, on surface water' while dependency on ground 28.7t per cent of tn" popli.ii* in municipalig.l-J"p"ito on hand pumps or pressure pumps, Which are water is too high (7L,3o/o). 13 per cent of the tor,vns depend notre|iab|e.Theregionwisepercapita,avai|abi|ityShowsthattheaveragewateravai|abi|ityinSaurashtrais lowest i.e. 53 lPcd.

5'25TherateofsupplywithintheCorporation|imitsis't?l::-.:9:^of140lpcd,whi|eBhavnagarhas tne supply in Jamnagar is lowest at 105 lpcd' However' the highest suppty tevel ai fAO tpcO. The per capita 'corporations is as low as 47 lpcd' The is very poor where supply level situation in peripheral areas of Ahmadabad' on su*aie water sources (rivers/dams or lakes)' Corporations in Cularat ire mainly dependent wells' iurat anO Vadodara, to some extent draw water from tube
Demand-Suppty Gap and Investment Requirement in the Infrastructure Agenda-Vision 5.26 The demand-supply gap for bulk water supply has been analysedcorporations' Based on the demandtn" ii* municipal 2010 for the six largest urban areas, correspond;;it of 160 lpcd' The has been est]mated based on the water supply norm supply gap, investment requirement A number of projects for ai ns.zg.z2 lakh per mld of water. cost of provision or *#il.,is been assumeo and addition of existing water sources and bulk water supply have been proposeO fo, auq;entation

illt turunt

0F

unBAlltATloll

99

;'"n:fiii,.ff K:'&tii".il:W;:rui.i"Water Distribution

distribution network yytitipal corporations mentioned above. The report Infrastructural Facilities-inT." on Requirement of uunictpatifiei ov na, average water suppry rever of

]l

i*io

.rii*atJr#;;;-.n ,pli'?,;liiilli;,. cri* "iris

ii" ioti'r;ii?J cbss D

investment is only.one part of the solution. It is necessary.to make a long term planning of water resources management' As the oemano roi*aiJi'ii',r.r..'r"g,lne availabitity/potential of both surface and ground water is reducing. rt iietiunti.r to make judiciousai"tocation of available water resources by preparing water resources management master plan. There is a need-to separate water supply from water resource management. we need to move from structur.al ,Jrtion, to planning solutions. system

5'28

5'27 The investment required in water distribution systems to ensure that the normative level supply reaches the population nas oeen ;rtiriilo o.r"o tn" p"priattn requrreo to be served. of water of dishibution of water is based on t nort The cost li-nl?go-q* ". ..prt". ?-ri* tii" urban water suppry project for corporation cities wiil need an investment 6 or nr.'aoo.zz crore (77g.2g+ g1..r4) upto 2010 AD.
However

5'29 New settlements are being added to the existing towns and industrial growth centres are coming up without taking into consideration ihe capacity or *ut"rlrpprv system to support such growth. Alocation water between competing uses, whether between one industry and another, one town and another of between town and country has been a contentious or issue in manyparti oi eu;arat, often leading to violence. Narmada water may not be a panacea' tn view Jincreasing demand of water supply and diminishing water resources, the foilowing issues/measures need consideration: O
Water resources planning on a regional basis.

o

setting water availability for different settlements as a defining limit to development. of surface and ground water.

D Legisrative measures to check over-exproitation D Rain water harvesting storage and use. D

ffnff:"iJ:fl:j::" "
o
D

water conservation through leak detection, minimisation of transmission losses and water conservation in industriar and residentiar pr.r-ii.,

recycling

6v'irit.or.
ano

Measures to prevent/control pollution due to indiscriminate disposal hazardous substances in land and water courses.

of solid waste, effluents

control and abatement of pollution of water bodies from municipal and industrial wastes.
conservation.

o
5'30

water tariff structure to ensure proper pricing to enable cost recovery, demand management

ancl

Water Regulatory Authority

the Government of Gujarat is considering creating a water Regulatory. Authority to exercise control ovei all water users in the state. It is also setting up a special purpose vehicle for planning, o.rigni.g-u;iiilpiur"n,ution of the groundwater
100

According

to the

Gujarat Infrastructure Agenda

-

vision 2010,

T[[ tuTUnt 0f u88AlilS[Tt0ll

has also initiated steps pipeline network. The state government management contracts and leases'

to prepare for privatisation needs including

Sudace Water Drainage and

Sewerag

..^..,h-

rr.,

surface 5'3lTheprovisionandmaintenanceofsurfacedrainagereceive|ow.priortWinmosttowns.Inmany fiequentty olocreo' the problems oJ and outfalls are inadequate, "no ai'iit'J* cities, collectors numah waste are discharged into '."rp"""0. tne problem. Among corporation cities in Surat where large t*olnit oJi"auiiiiurano drainage are most evident rnunug"rli oDen channels. Inadequate solid waste have underground sewerage su,tace Orainage';etwlrk, all other cities Jamnagar, which h=as-iexcept p"l cent oflhe population depend on septic tanks' In Ahmadabad, Vadodara and surat, rnoui io at 10 networks. and Bhavnagar is comparatively lower The proportion or sucrr population in lu*,iugut etc. cesspools and 12 Per cent resPectivelY'

'system' 'ilt 5.32Amongstthenon-corporationcities,34outofl43(59%)municipalitiesdonothaveany of The report on 'Requirement se*etage

,0 municipalities r'taueundergrouncl sewerage. fris estlmaieO lnat the fund requirement for providing Infrastructural Facilities iriNlnrcipafities"by GITCO on crore (excluding the municipal corporations), basecl sewerage to all municipuriti"i **ro be il.40g.90 treatment' have treatment plants for sewage Rs.1000 per capita. Though all the.municipal..coiporat'ons rn"tt is a substantial need for enhancing these about their operaUoi ttut"' doubts have o""n ""pr".riJ facilities.
5.33Thedemandandsupp|ypositionana|ysedforsixMunicipa|Corporationsbasedondemand-supp|y for infrastructure Agenda' The investment gap and investment ruqrii"rbnt'nas been estimated in Gujarat treatment Rs'367'70 crore tOtalling to Rs'1641 crore sewage collection is Rs.1273.56 crore and for sewage for 2010 AD.
Solid Waste Management per to 93 per cent in the cities 5.34 The daily solid waste collection peformance varies between 67 cent manually' sanitary land task of waste loading of Gujarat. Most of the non-corporation cities carry out the is a critical problem' The average solid filling is not practiced. Hospital waste collection .nd itt incineration per day and the estimated investment as waste collection in all class of municipalities is 10.40 tonnes of projects in solid waste treatment ancl projected by GITCO is about Rs.37.30 crore. The estimated cost as given in Infrastructure Agenda - vision disoosal for Ahmadabad and Jamnagar Municipal corporation
2010 is Rs.10.91 crore'

MuniciPal Roads

Incaseof candDClassmunicipalities, puccaroadsareintherangeoff.otos.o,per.:e$whilethe measured.through road density in the Class remaining roads are Xitciaorstone paved, The road availability areas' I cities including corporation areas appears to be fairly adequate' Amongst the corporation have a towns

5.35

Corporation cities as well as class Ahmadabad, Surat anO ah;aga, appeai deficient. Other the fund requirement for upgrading the roads into fairly high level of roao Jensity.ine bffCO has estimated pucca {mounting to Rs'247'72 crore for municipalities'

New TownshiP Projecb

5.36 The state government

around major ports. Gujarat Urban Infrastructure near the large cities, in emerging industrial areas, and projects at an estimated cost of Rs.321.56 crore' noenOa - Viiion 2010 has identified 2 new township

has started the process

of identification and planning of 20 new townships'

ilt

rurunt 0l uf,BAlllslrl0ll

101

In addition to the above,-township requirements for ports envisaged in the Guiarat Infrashucture'ns;"J...whether and industrial park at g locations have been tnese to*nsrrips remain as isolated enclaves focat points and integrating et"meniilol or i.Girro.n areas remain to be seen.
Private Sector participation
To suppoft the ma-ssive industrialisation, and the up GIDB (Gujarat Infrastructure oevetopmeniBoard)infrastructure needed, the state government has set which-*iri the pace of privatisatron of infrastructure in the state' The Asian o"u.ioprunt e.nt tnoeJ n.i gil"; ibort Rs.700 crore for the purpose to the state' The state has enacted in Rpril rsgg a framework for private sector participation' GIDB in Vision 2010 document through private sector and only 30 per cent from the public sector. "*irrg"r?o croe h;s iet up guioetines inuotu"ment of private sector in SiiilJil:lit;,$l#:fifl"mecnanisms, me.r'Jni*s to?aise runds rrom the capitar mirkets and prepare

5'37

-in.*rr.

soi-L;

;;"iii"j p*fft;'#rtment
roiii!

D.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT

;;::JrT;:f#:":fi:t]fl?[ffjfl:r
Water

5'38 The most critical environmental concerns in Gujarat include problems of water scarcity, pollution from industrial wastes and emissions, excessive water pollution due to industrialisation, loss resources and exposure of population of natural to natural and man maoe n#ioi. rne wholeiiirriioiirlr.rg,ng to reverse the situation. environmentar concerns in
tne Jeveiopment Gujarat' as a whole suffers from permanent-water

scarcity. Two in every five years are drought years' The rainfall varies-from 1800mm in Dangs to 340mm in riuininrr.'tie main source of surface water is rivers' Most of the rivers are seasonal which-are dry qrrougloyi ihe'y".i. rnu.u are onry four perennial rivers (Narmada' Tapi, Rurna) flowing m_ainiy tnrouln soutnlm cu;arat. Except southern Gularat, 1a|]-1"9 rest of the state is dependent on ground *.t"t. ine main .jasons ioi i..i.rtv oF water in the state is low recharge of water due.to geo-iyororogl;aiconditions the (hard ro.r.ionJitions) in 56 per cent of geographical area of the state, where the total the recharge rate is 5-10 per cent only, The critical districts include Rajkot, Jamnagar, Junagadh, Amreli, gnavnaqiriio
Kachchh.

5'39

il"Jil1l3;.?i?J:1fii%diif#pins
Conflicts over Water

5'40 According to a ground .water exploitation analysis in Ahmadabad, Banas Kantha and Mehsana, the extraction of ground water exploitation is more than 85 per cent. rn nan"r*r, the extraction is double that of recharge' In Gandhinagar and sabar Kantha, ihe extraction was 65 to g5 per cent. Gandhinagar also receives surface water from the Dharoi dam. only half of the n"uo-or-*.t"r for industrial and domestic purposes is met by ground water' Thus in these districts, ground water extraction is totally unsustainable. In at unn,.irate or s to 8m. rhe g,;,no water tabie in nortn cu;arat
'n

towns and villages' Also, available multiple rorr."ur have to oe tapp.o 'to meet the urban drinking water requirements' All large cities of the state have started looking towards I'liimaoa dam to meet their current

between urban and rural users, between agricultural and domestic users and, between industries ano aomestic users. The analysis of all the conflicts prove the point that large cities get priority over the smaller onii. nr far as the major uses of water are concerned, irrigation gets.priority over drinking water. This is speciaiiy the case with population of small

5'4r There have been conflicts over water mainly of three kinds: those

and allocated 3582 MLD of water for domestic requirements. Narmada Tribunal has and future water needs and 661 MLD has allocatei tttfusuui' for drinking water industrial use. Of tnis, zgZi md has been been allocated for industrial use' Issue of access has accentuated over the past four decades' The drinking water problem in Gujarat 5.42 *n"t" the chemical industries have severely co'ril-J' to water is becomrng sertous, especially in tne 'egtn, city plans to take up Sabarmati riverfront nn*aO-aOaO polluted the water ,"rori.", in many locations. R;jk;i;ities nivi atso staked their claims on Narmacla devetopment using Narmada waters. Vadodara *ittunt immediate attention and need to be resolved' water. Such issues of sharing of water resources users had to be resolved through couft 5.43 The Conflict Over water between urban and ruralriparian nghts of farmers down stream of over tne intervention. The Gujarat High court intervened built.to supply water to Ahmadabad and bn;rol Jut Ahmadabad city in river iio.r"tuti where in rgze "itt nJwlen the people and the industries' between the people Gandhinagar cities. Conflicts over drinking watet have become common features in the State' Such and government anO Oetween urban aid rural areas water resources on ,one hand and rising demand for conflicts are arising o".rur" or declining availability of when completed is expected to meet the growing economic activities on the other. Sardai Sarovar Project

#

waterdemandoftheagricu|ture,drinkingwaterandindustria|units' Drought in Gujarat
water in Gujarat has further brought to limelight the alarming conditions of per cent of the annual precipitation recording a .mere 30 scarcity in the state. Tni rains friO faiteO with given to developing and maintaining local water harvesting average. Insufficient attention has been

5.44 The recent drought
structures.

ground water, though the Large inclustry rn the coastal region makes its own demand on scarce requirements through a desalination plant' Reliance petrochemical Complex claimJthat it meets water into the limestone belt without proper outfits such as Gujarat nmuuja cement have been permitted to mine against incursion of salinity' appreciation of the fact that tlris constitutes the only barrier

5.45

5.46Fortunately,nowthepeop|eofSaurashtraandKachchhhaverealisedtheimportanceof|oca|Waterand making check dams and bunds bodies and are cleaning ,p 5no'o.up"nin9 the tanks and sarovars,
resorting the watersheds through NGOs'

Pollution from Chemical Industries
been highly polluted by water sources in Ahmadabad, Vadodara, Bharuch and Surat districts have private sectors. A study by the Gujarat Pollution the chemical industries o.r"rgrg i. both the public and the and Nandesari (near Vadodara) are control Board shows that th;three industrial estates, Vapi, Ankleshwar units in Vatva and Narol in Ahmadabad, dyeing among the 19 most porluted places in the country. Chemical ind piinting units in Bharuch, Vadodara and surat have polluted water sources.

5.47

5.48

polluting industries in GIDC estates' In Bharuch clistrict also has very high concentration of water About 27 per cent of the small-scale units Bharuch district, one of the important GIDC estates is Ankleshwar' units jn GIDC estates) are in this estate' and g0 per cent of the medium and large-scale units (of the total of medium and large scale units are Among the small scale units more than half the units and two-thirds effluents' chemiial industries and textile mills which generate large scale chemical

IIIT fUIURt OI URBAIIISAII|lII

103

Pollution from Toxic fndustries 5'49 A number of plantq copper smeltrng units and paper and pulp industries are coming ry!:o:hemical up' particularly in Jamnagar, Amerli, gnaiucn and surat olstriai !vc, one of the compounds petrochemical industries, generates of hazardous chemicals ano anecs not only human health but also the flora and fauna in general' The new targe-inoustries expected on tne coast of saurashtra and Kachchh, particularly the large petrochemical proJ;ds, are expected to be health hazards for the people those riving around specially
and working in these'petrochemicar comprexes.

Environmental fmpacts of Mining
GEB (Gujarat Electricity Board) has commissioned two 70MW rignite based thermar power prants Panandharo In Kachchh di-strict' Mining at and the tocation of thermal po,i.ipr.nt have added new economic activities in this salinity.utr:9lud agriculturally backward region. ftretpen cast mines have created external dumps rich in sulphur and

5'50

water, coming out from the mines and the waste of reverse osmosis plant of the GEB his increased the salinity of River rlti. ns a resut, villages downstream of the river have been affected. tn pananoarra;;, will continue for another 20-25 years' The already acquired cultivable lands, after mining, will be lost'as oegraoeo land, water resources are polluted and will be exhausted soon if the tienO continuJi

therefore always emanate soz fumes. The-saline

ili;g

Air Pollution
to mining activity of Desert Ecology (IDE) Bhuj' it was found that about three-quarter of the populauJn wele ,rnaring from respiratory diseases. People attributed their health problems to mining activity.
Industries and vehicular emissions are posing a serious health hazard in urban areas of Gujarat. The number of registered motor vehicles has increased more than three-fold in the past decade. These vehicles are petrol driven, with two-stroke technology, due to which the emission levets are higher. It is estimated that carbon monoxide increased by six{oldiduring 1981_96. Industries are another major cause of air. pollution. Gujarat has regrstered a rapid growth in the number of factories in the last two decades. In 1995, chemical i.Jriir"i .ro chemical products emerged as a leading industrial sector accounting for 15 per cent of the totat ractories. ]ne or industries shows the largest concentration in the north - south corridor lnnmaoaoaa-vadodara-Surat-Vatsad) and Bhavnagar-Jamnagar-Ralkot The continuous sulphur smoke causes blackening of vegetation. Air pollution due has affected people's health. In a survey carried out in lne regLn bt the institute

5'51

5'52

5'53

$ffiil;;;tion

industrial activity are experiencing high levels of industrial pollution.

belt in saurashtra. These two .orrioors with a high concentration of

5'54 Common air pollutants are sulphur dioxide njlrggen djoxide (No2), dioxides of nibogen (Nox), !so3), suspended particulate matter (sPM), carbon monoxide (coj and leaJ.'Cularat pollution control Board monitor ambient air quality at Ahmadabad, surat, Vadodira uno vupi iprrl levels in all the cities exceeo wHo's residential standards' In the industrial areas, though the level ii wiinrn prescribed standards, in many cases the general levels are high. The other two parameters No2 and so2, the levels are within the permissible limits.

-

Ahmadabad

5'55 The Ahmadabad study by centre for Environmental Planning and rechnology, Ahmadabad (1995) detailed micro air pollutant levels close to major city roads ana tne-coniribution of vehicles to the health threat from co, Nox, soz, and lead - found poltutants at the ambient level are generaily not beyond wHo
104

ilIruilnl0f unmtFlliltx

standardsbutatpafticu|artimesandplacesexceedstandardsbyfactorsoftwoormore.TheAhmadabad of rnap overlavs determined the'spatial *ui.r'pJrrriio"iin; 1,19y^iil;9;; series study findings indicate: (i) low income study also considered borne disease;'.n ;;;iil: ihe networks are at a very distribution of the incideni" o:r *it", no watei suppty and.sewerage high density areas where th"r.l, living in high density areas househords riving in glrti;"nturiti, and cholera;liiifo*l^t""i" h-o-useholds and cholera; (iii) high high risk of contracrrng risk ot contiacting gastroenteritis, wphoid the networKs ur. ojj"'ri,-n u"iv nrgn where meoium to low risks of the same diseases' group residents in the ,u*" uilui uLo iui
and medium income

Pollution Control
been 5'56Mostofthe|awsre|atingtopo||utioncontro|andenvironmentsafetycameintoforceintheeighties. gre stiputJeo parameters by.the.industrial units, which had some laxity in adhering to prescribed bv the There has been wm tne liliri,-ouiiiont as ilso -the standards the setting set up prior ro that. rn oilr"i io .otiy n-u19.9r of measures like supporting poltution Cont of eoarO, tne staie i, .ont"ti6tinO Gujarat disposal of effluents in inoustrilictuitlrs, facltities for collection and common efftuent.ff;;tm;t plants up of the machinery more strrciimpr.r"ntution of.the laws, strengthening and hazardous*ur,"r,n ruin.tuit"rr, Gujarat Ecology Commission is thtl;duttti"s' The urro of the Gujarat Pollution Control Board and "ppo'liig progrurr" iiinpi ,nour the technical assistance of the world Bank' preparing state Environmental Action pollution; 15.a.il99,'covering the sectors of (1) Industrial It is a two years pro,ect, starting fromLand j"giio.ti"" (do-physical aspects); (5) Land degradation (2) Energy; (3; urnanisation pro."ir; (4) and Marine Environmenu (8) Biodiversiw (socio-economic aspects); (6) Hydrologic ,"qi*"r;li) coastat

i

ionservation; and (9) Wetlands'

VulnerabilitY Areas of India has prepared a Vulnerability Atlas of India 5.57 The Ministry of urban Development, GovernmentWorld: Guiclelines for Natural Disaster Prevention' in 1997, based on tne-iotonaro Strateqy fot iufeidisaster prone areas in Gujarat and urges planners' preparedness and Mitigation. Ii clearly id[ntifies the the National hazard resistant construction and idherence to builders, civic and otneiiutnorities to ensure wind & Cyclone gur"ru of Indian sEndards. The Atlas contains Eafthquake, Building code prepared ov in" for all the states' ffooO Hazard'maps for India and also separately

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5.53Earthquakesareconsideredtobeoneoftheworstnatura|hazardscausingwidespreaddisasterand death' utu rutriu" and normally affect large areas causing loss of human lives. The impacts of earthquakea on Richter Scale which occurred 6'9 injuries and damage to structures. The recent..[i'q;ik;oimagnitude 6frul' Anjar and Bhachau with population of on 26,n January, ZOOf, siruif in the Western Cri.t+iff"tting riost powerfulto strike India since August 15' r,02,t76;51,200; .nO iiioil *ipectivery in ts'9i;a;ffre in 1903' one in Bhavnagar in 1919' Dwarka in quake in iachchh 1950 in Assam. eanier thire was ! majoi the ulqln areas of be seen ln tne iartnquake Hazard 1ao of Gujarat, 1940 and Bharuch in 1970. As may district with 30'72olo level of ion" in the Kachchh Bhuj and Gandhidham fall in very nign Oamageliirt parts of Rajkot and fall ,il;; nign oamage risk.zone alongwith urbanisation. lamnagar uno llo*i iowis atso of urbanisation i'e'' 47 and 40 per districts are projected to fi*t a"very hig-h level
Jamnagar districts. These cent respectivelY bY 2021 AD'

Wind and CYclone Hazard Areas

5.59In1998,acyc|onewithawindspeedofl40km/h,hitKand|ainthewesternstateofGujarat'ki||ing people were made people. It is estimated that more than 20,000 1,100 people and injuring more than 4,000 were also either irreparably 1'200 crores a result of the cyclone and propertiei wortn Rs'
roofless as

ilrt rurunt 0l unBilF[Il0ll

105

damaged or destroyed' The entire coastal belt or^!1iagt falls under very high damage risk zone B and mocterate damage risk zone A' The ctass t clties srrch as Bhuj, Gandhidnam, Jamnagar, porbandar and Bhavnagar fall under very high dam.g"iirk B. Banas K.;ih";;;;;.ana and some parts of Kachchh under mooerate zone. Rest or ure iarts in the state fa1 liTtj:T"tl"r:"vered under row damaoe

-

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rt*'-

-

;'"V.r'S3i?',fi'ff:i:'rti:ffl5::Xt?.:i.n

Flood and Drought Hazard Areas 5'60 Area liable to floods.includes surat and Gandhinagar and scattered pockets mainry arong the Banas' saraswati' sabarm-ati, r"rani, rrr-armaoi,"rl'pi rrver anc ri"*r'tJii" rau,". The rainfail pattern rs erratic and this has made cedain areas of "tn.i the state extremely susceptible todrought and famine conditions. The state has faced at least.three-orougnt yea;in tne tast io v"-ri.-in" *orst affected are the districts nru. no perenniarriver irowins throush tne area-nor in oo

5'61 Gujarat is frequently ravaged by almost all natural disasters i.e. earthquake, drought, cyclones, etc., various geo-climatic tto"::^ui9^1,:Ti:r r"".;sient shoutcl oe consideieo white making tong term poticy for the fast developing urban areas in Gularat.ihis will reduce tne bss oilire and property wnicn affects the planned development or the aiways urban areas. There is a need io,. hazard resistant construction and upgradation .prop.,. disaster management, or existing land use zoning regulations to reduce the vutneraoitiiybuildings. ir"lo..r bodies should take init-iation rn or tn"e crisastJrl Building byelaws with disaster resistant features need to be strictly followed in uroan areas falling in high and moderate risk zones.

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74Th

CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT ACT

The 74th Amendment has provided an opportunity to make urban governance,a positive and gives democratic step by taking governance down to the people. The amendment through the 12"' Schedule an illustrative iist of tg municipal functions to the urban local bodies. The amendment has empowered the state legislature to entrust the functions to the local bodies to enable them to function as units of local selfgovernrient and provide essential and basic services to the urban conlmunity. The Constitution Amendment ilso devolved certain functions, not within the functional domain of the local bodies earlier. The examples are urban planning (an obligatory function arising out of the constitutional provisions relating to creation of District planning tommittee and Metropolitan Planning Committee), social and economic development,

6.1

urban poverty alleviation and urban environmental management and maintaining the ecological balance.

6.2

ULBs are responsible for various functions listed in the 12'n Schedule did not various functions in the conformity legislation among 'obligatory' functions. For example (i) incoroorate urban planning, including town planning, regulation of land use and construction of buildings, (ii) urban forestry, protection of environment, and promotion of ecological aspects are included under 'discretionary' functions. The overlapping of functions between municipalities and the other agencies of the state government thus continues. It is necessary that the functional domain of the municipalities and various ispects of functional responsibilities are clearly defined. Another problem relates to the development of industrial areas outside the local authority area by establishing industrial estates. The operation of an industrial development agency as virtual local authority creates the problem of non-representative local government.

In Gujarat where

Gaps and Duplication

6.3

development authorities have also not been able to co-ordinate spatial and investment planning. Despite the proliferation of authorities, there are serious gaps in infrastructure services as well as planning, environmental management and pollution abatement.

provide

The Town Planning Legislation provides the framework for preparation of Master Plans but does not the institutional framework for co-ordinating spatial and infrastructure development. The

Accountability and Citizen's Partnership

6.4

As per the constitutional mandate, locally elected municipal bodies have to adjust to the concept of public accountability in urban governance. The municipality is closest to the people in respect of various elements of day-to-day life. This requires enhancing the accountability of municipalities. If municipal accountability is to be related to its constituents, the greater involvement of citizens in the activities of municipalities is imperative. At present, the involvement of citizens in decision-making is minimal.

B. 6.5

ROLE OF LOCAL BODIES

IN

FUTURE URBAN GROWTH

planning and overall development of urban areas, and responding to the problems of physical growth, infrastructure and environment since their level of governance is closest to the people. However, the local bodies should have, among others, the necessary attributes, such as: (i) comprehensive boundaries including both the main city and developing periphery; and (ii) wide functions enablinq them to interrelate constantly the factors of rapid urban growth. Whether the urban area including peripheral development is covered by a single jurisdiction is crucial to the ability of local body to plan, service, control, and protect

Local bodies are the traditional focus of urban management and can provide effective leadership in

iltt

tuIURt 0t URB$llEAiloll

r07

water resources and make waste disposal arrangements. Unfoftunately, the urban local bodies lack these attributes and are geographically and functionally fragmented. In Ahmadabad, where municipal boundaries have no doubt expanded to take the new areas of urban settlements in its periphery within its jurisdiction, but only after peripheral areas have been partly developed with minimum public services and low level of regulation and control. The second type of fragmentation is functional with municipal functions being divided among several agencies, such as urban development authority and parastatal organisations controlled at different levels of government. Most commonly, peripheral areas are fragmented between municipal jurisdictions and functions which need to be brought together in responding to urban growth, including planning and development control; extension of water supply and sewerage, drainage, road network; parks and open' spaces and environmental health. These shortcomings are most acutely felt in large cities. Responsiveness and efficiency also get undermined in the case of large municipal corporations by the diffusion of authority between elected representatives and state-appointed executives. The territorial jurisdiction of the metropolitan cities as well as other large urban areas also pose serious problem in controlling haphazard growth and provision of services in their peripheral areas. Another problem relates to the industrial townships emerging on the urban corridors, which stand alone, but need to be integrated into the main city jurisdiction for the purposes of integrated service provision. Still another problem is peripheral townships leapfrog unsuitable pockets of land aggravating the problem of extension of infrastructure, padicularly their integration with the main cities, all located on the nofth - south uroan corridor in Gujarat.

6.6

Poly-nodal Pattern of Development in Urban Corridorc
Given the fact that metropolitan and other large cities as 'nodes' in the nofth-south corridor are expanding outwardly and coalescing with smaller urban centrcs, managing urban growth is not a mere municipal or even an inter-municipal issue but involves both urban and rural areas. Municipal bodies look after urban areas under their jurisdictions while the Panchayati Raj Institutions are responsible for rurar areas. Besides, there are parastatal organisations operating at the state and city levels. Appropriate institutional set up for planning and development would have to be created to evolve coherent policies for management and integrated development of urban corridors. In the absence of such a set up, uncontrolled and spontaneous growth will continue to occur. The multi-nodal structure of the corridors may or may nor honour the traditional administrative boundaries of the local bodies. Hence the need for a setup with democratically elected representatives of local bodies - both urban and rural, having a predominant role in policy making as well as preparation of development plans and governance has arisen. There is no model as yet evolved to deal with the governance and management of poly-nodal, multi-municipal, inter-district urban corridors. We examine below the existing instruments available to deal with the situation.

6.7

The tasks by the state entails devolving powers to local boclies to develop as an autonomous, accountable and responsive municipal organisation which can achieve the mandates of local selfgovernment. There ts a need to take up second round of legislative exercise to provide clarity to the package of functions to be handled by municipalities and precisely describe the functions of Municipalities. Wards Committees and Planning Committees. The role of municipalities and parastatals such as watei supply board and urban development authorities and their relationships need to be defined clearry. Administrative reforms to develop an accountable municipal bureaucracy, an effective and transparent public accounting mechanism also need to be developed.

C. 6.8

ROLE OF THE STATE AND SECTORAL AGENCIES

6.9
the

.,Clarity on the controls to be exercised by state government on urban local bodies is needed because the naiure of state-municipaf relationships. There is atso a need to define a clear role for the public and citizens groups in the monitoring of local affairs in addition to
74th Amendment has fundamentally altered

108

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participation through elected representatives in Municipalities, Wards Committees and Planning Committe€s. Provisions also need to be made in Municipal Acts for the production and delivery of services through privatisation and public-private partnerships.

D.

METRO AREAS AND METROPOLITAN PLANNING COMMITTEES

6.10 Most of the metropolitan cities are urban agglomerations comprising several municipal jurisdictions. The metropolitan area encompasses not only the main city having a municipal corporation status but also a number of other urban and rural local bodies, surrounding the main City Corporation. The metropolitan area exefts considerable pressure on the surrounding fringe areas in several ways. Large investments in metropolitan areas are undertaken by multiple organisations including central and state government agencies. It is necessary to coordinate the investments, plans and requirements of the metropolitan area. Such metropolitan areas, therefore, need metropolitan wide perspective, planning and action. The 74h Constitution Amendment mandatorily prescribes the constitution of Metropolitan Planning Committee (MPC). The MPC is required to integrate urban and rural planning, facilitate the development of regional infrastructure and promote environmental conservation. Conceivecl as an inter-governmental, interorganisational collaborative platform for preparation of proper plan for the metropolitan area in association with the main city, the MPC has not been setup in the state so far. The MPC is expected to be a democratically set up body comprising two-thirds of the total elected representatives of urban and rural local bodies to undertake the exercise of metropolitan development planning. The reason for not setting up an MPC in the state appears to be lack of political motivation as well as the ambivalence on the future role of Development Authorities, which exist in the metropolitan cities. The 74'n Amendment has provided a valuable opportunity to the Development Authorities to be more purposeful and make more effective use of its technical resources by becoming the technical arm of the MPCs. This approach can make the Development Authorities more relevant and accountable by engaging them within the structure of urban governance/ as envisaged in the Constitution Amendment. The state government needs to consider these important aspects in the context of planning and development of metropolitan cities.

E.
6.11

RURAL.URBAN INTEGRATION AND DISTRICT PTANNING COMMITTEES

As urbanisation increases, the need for integrated planning for urban and rural areas will become much more important. The District Planning Committee (DPC) represents the first attempt under the 74th Constitution Amendment to initiate such an integrated planning process rather than separate plans for urban and rural areas. The twin functions of the DPCs are to consolidate the plans prepared by the panchayats and municipalities in the district and to prepare a draft developrnent plan for the district as a whole. In preparing the draft development plan, the DPC would have regard to nratters of common interest between the panchayats and municipalities including spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources, and the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental conservation. The DpC is to consist of elected representatives to the extent of four-fifths of the total number representing the rural and urban local bodies in proportion to their population. The state has constituted the Dpc.
The spatial configuration of urban corridor extending over several districts of Ahmadabad, Vadooara, Bharuch, Surat and Valsad in the state and in some cases extending as an inter-state corridor sucn as Ahmadabad- Mumbai- Pune will need somewhat different arrangement to deal with the governance aspect. The institutional mechanisms for planning and development of areas which fall under the jurisdiction of

6.12

more than one district, fast growing rural areas which are identified for location of industries, industrial townships with rapidly growing peripheral areas need to be workecl out since the 74th Amendment does not provide guidelines for such situations. This is all the more impoftant for urban corridors fallina in interdistrict situation. as in Guiarat.

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F.
6.13

MANAGING URBAN CORRIDORS

The planning approach of metropolitan cities and urban centres along the urban corridors need to be brought in line with the 74th Amendment. Since these urban corridors are experiencing rapid growth, the fringes draw the necessary urban services from the core municipal areas, to overcome this problem, the local bodies should be amalgamated with the nearby municipality for effective delivery of urban services for these urban corridors. While municipal reforms and metropolitan planning arrangements will be major improvements, there is also a strong case for the state government to participate in the functions of regional planning and infrastructural development. The regional planning exercise would need to be taken up for the urban corridors extending over several districts. Such exercise cannot be left to the local governments or to ihe MPCs and DPCs entirely. It is felt that state-municipal partnerships may be appropriate to take up the task of preparation of regional plans and sub-regional plans. In this background, the role of MPCs can be seen as providing broad 'structure plans'subject to which the local bodies may prepare their'detailed' plans. Similarly, the DPCs could provide broad framework that take into account the inter-jurisdictional spatial and sectoral linkages. The urban and rural local bodies may keep the above in view while preparing their development plans. Likewise the development of infrastructural facilities which require huge investments cannot be left to the municipalities. Suitable partnerships are essential in this regard. Thus, the regional planning and infrastructure provision functions can be regarded as )oint' responsibilities of state and local
bodies.

110

TilT TUIURI |lT UNBAIIISAII|lII

nffrnilGrs
Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority, L997, Revised Drafr Development Plan of AIJDA Vol.2 Surueys, Studies and Analysis.

20jJ ADpart-I
part-Il

Ahmadabad Urban Development Authority, L997, Revised Drafr Development Plan of A'IDA - 20J1 AD Policies, Proposa ls a nd Prog ra mmes. Ahmadabad Urban Development Authbrity, 1999, Ahmadabad, AUDA cas6 the Ahmadabad

of201l

AD.

Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology, 1995, A Report on Comparative Enuironmental Risk Assessment ofAhmadabad City, USAID, New Delhi. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, !996, IndiaS Agricultural Sector, A Compendium of Statistia. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy,1999, Agriculture, September, 1999. Chitharanjan K V, 1998, Vadinar 1ub-Regional Plan (p/anning Methodology). Government of India, 1996, Second United Nations Conference af Human ,etilements: Habitat

ll,Istanbul

1996.

Government of India, 1999, Development Commissioner (S.S.I), Ministry of Industry, Small Scale Sector. Government of India, t999, Economic Survey l99B-99. Gujarat Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organisation Limited, 1999, Report on Requirement In fra structu ra I Fa ciIi ties in M u n icipa li ties.

of

Gujarat Industrial and Technical Consultancy Organisation Limited, 1999, Ahmadabad, A Note on Slum

Improvement in Municipa litiu.

Gujarat Infrastructre Development Board, Infrastructure - The Foundation for Prosperous Gujarat (Brochure) Gujarat Infrastructure Development Board, 1999, Gujarat Infrastructure Agenda, Vision 2010.

Gujarat Municipal Finance Board, 1999, Ahmadabad, A Profile of Manageriat/Finance/Infrastructurat position
Municipalities in Gujarat State.

of

India Today,2001, Cover Story: Deathquake. February 12, pg, 5g-69 Industrial Extension Bureau, Government of Gujarat, Gujarat: The Land ofOpportunities. (Brochure)
Kundu Amitabh, L992, Urban Development and urban Research in Indla.

Mahadevia Darshini, 1998, Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation: Case of Gujaraf, Research Foundation for Science Technology and Ecology, New Delhi. Mahadevia Darshini, t998, Deve/opment Dichotomy in Gujarat, Research Foundation for Science Technology ano Ecology, New Delhi. National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation, 1993, India-Urban Corridors: A Note on Thematic Mapping Approach, NATMO Monograph No.12, Department of science and rechnology, calcutta. National Highways Authority of India and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) (1998), International Congres on Exprus Highways Development in India, Background papers. National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1998, lJrban Sector Profile: Gujarat Ruearch Study Series 64. Regional Housing and Urban Development Qffice, USAID, 7995, A Report on Comparative Environmental Risk Assessment of Ah mada bad Oty. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 1991, Provisional Population Totals: Rural - lJrban Distributpn Papen2 of 1991, Census of India 1991, Office of the Registrar General India,

Tru TUIURT

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111

Agglomerations 1991 with their Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 1997, Towns and urban India 1991, Office of the Registrar General India. population 1g01-1gg1paft-Il-A(ii) series, census of District Profile 1991, Census of India 1991, Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 1998, Gujarat State Office of the Registrar General India.
Reliance Petroleum Limited,

!997, Seventh Annual Report 1997-98'

Cleanest city in India, UMP ' Swamy H M S and others, 1999, Transformation of Surat from Plague to Second AIILSG. enter golden period, The Times of India. Ahmadabad, Entrepreneurs can help Saurashtra's industrial sector 15-03-2000. in India' Town & Country planning Organisation, L996, Urban and Regional Planning and Development

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I. U. UI. ry,

Introduction

-

P. 727

The State's Urbanisation: Trends and fssues New Geography of Inyestments

-

P. 728

-

P, 734

Spatial Manifestataon of Economic Growth

-

P. 738

A. B. C. V. A. B. C. D. E. W. A. B. C. D. E. F.

Present Spatial Pattern P. 738 Emerging Urban Corridors - P. 739 SPURs - NCU/Urban Corridors - NATMO

-

-

P. 740

Problems, Issues and Constraints

-

P. 741

Spatial Planning and Land Use- P. 747 Regional Infrastructure - P.742 Urban Infrastructure Services - P. 743 Urban Environment - P. 746 Investment Requirements * P. 749

Urban Goyernance and Management
74th Constitution Amendmen

-

P. 750
750

t

Ac'.

- P.

Role of Local Bodies in Future Urban Growth P. Role of State and Sectoral Agencies P. 752

-

t57

Metro Areas and Metropolitan Planning Committees P. 752 Rural Urban Integration and District Planning Committees - P. Managing Urban Corridors - P. 753

-

lS3

References- P.755

IIII

f,IIURT |lF URIITISATI|lT

125

TamilNadu

Table Table

3.1 3.2 Table 3.3 Tabfe 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Tabfe 3.9 Table 3.10 Tabfe 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 3.13 Table 3.14

Urban Population Growth in India and Tamil Nadu - P' 728 Class-wise Urban Growth Rates in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and

Andhra Pradesh - P. 129 Percentage Share of Natural Increase, Net Migration and Areal Reclassification in Urban Population Growth in Tamil Nadu - P. 730 Tamil Nadu Urban Population by Size Class (1971-9L) - P. 73O Urban Population According to Size Class: A Comparison (1961-91) - P. 737 District-wise Urban Growth and Level of Urbanisation in Tamil Nadu, 1981-91 - P. 732 Urban Population Projections in Tamil Nadu for 202L- P. 732 Level of Urbanisation by Districts - 1991- P. 733 Level of Urbanisation bv Districts - 202L- P. 733 Investments Proposed in Tamil Nadu in Infrastructure, Manufacturing and Service, 1999 - P. 136 Status of Projects - P. 737 Population of Urban Corridors - P. 739 Administrative Status of Urban Corridors - P. 74O Land Utilisation Pattern of Tamil Nadu (1970 - 1993) - P. 142

TIST |lT ]NTPS
Map Map Map Map Map Map

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Level of Urbanisation and Urban Centres - 1991- P. t57 Anticipated Change in Level of Urbanisation from 1991-202I - P. 159 District-wise Investment in Infrastructure and Industries - P. 767 Spatial Priority Urban Regions - NCU, Urban Corridors - NATMO - P. 763 Emerging Urban Corridors and Urban Regions - 202L - P. 765 Broad Land Use and Emerging Urban Corridors - P. 767

L26

iltru|l$of

ffilllol

TamilNadu

L""._JII#_I"!".9"!J!].*/.::1".1i'L."./.:4:".|.+'|i;' j
Tamil Nadu with an area of 1,30,058 sq km ranks eleventh among the states of India in size. With a population'of 55.86 million in 1991 it is the seventh largest state in the country. The spatial configuration in terms of rural and urban centres has significantly shifted over the past few decades. Whereas in 196t, only 26.69 per cent of population lived in urban areas, by 1991 it increased to 34.15 per cent. Tamil Nadu is the third most urbanised state with an urban population of 19.08 million in 1991. The level of urbanisation of 34.15 per cent is significantly higher than the all India average of 26 per cent, and only ne4 to Maharashtra and Gujarat being 38.69 and 34.49 per cent respectively. Traditionally Tamil Nadu is one of the well-developed states in terms of industrial development. Tamil Nadu accounts for nearly one fourth of the spinning capacity in the country, one fifth of cement, caustic soda and nitrogenous fertilisers and one tenth of the country's production of sugar, cycle, calcium carbide

1'1

t.2

and finished leather goods. The state is an important exporter of tea, coffee, spices, engineering goods, tobacco and leather goods. Limestone, magnesite, mica, quartz, felspar, salt, bauxite, llgriite and-gipsum are sorne of the minerals found in the state. In the post liberalisation era, the state is emerging ajone of the front-runners by attracting a large number of investment proposals into a large spectruir o:f actiuities, especially in some key areas, like core infrastructure comprising power, transport and communications, and manufacturing

1.3

broad areas, namely, spatial manifestation, infrastructure, environment, and urban governance and management for consideration, and setting a new strategic approach to the future of urbanisation. Within this context, there is an increasing need for research to help, solve problems that have arisen, and to help forestall those that are likely to arise in the future. We need both a grasp of the current conditions and a comprehension of the patterns of change and the.factors contributing for such patterns for adoption of effective rneasures, and setting a new strategic approach to the future of urbanisation.

changes that are taking place in demography, economic activities in the wake of lit'eralisation, and more importantly the spatial growth across the state of Tamil Nadu. The paper raises issues of concerns in four

This paper seeks to stimulate consideration of the emerging urbanisation pattern, as a result of

rtrtm[$Hurunuat

r27

Tamil Nadu

rr",*IltF-"sJ"-rJ,"!j'$"-u"["T"ffi"1$lllp*!h"-I"H!!p,$-.t!Lg*lss"ul!Level and Trend of Urbanisation
population of 19.08 million, The 1991 census shows that Tamil Nadu has a relatively large urban 260 urban agglomerations/towns with level of urbanisation of 34.15 per cent, spread over 469 towns or Class V and 7 clasS VI towns' Among the consisting of 26 Class I, 41 Class II, 68 ClasS III, 81 Class IV, 37 for a population of 5'4 million larger urban agglomerations, Cnennai, the capital city of the state, accounts pre-eminence in the urban which is about ZB per cent of the state's total urban population, indicating its growing industrial cities is another urban agglomeration scenario of the state. coimbatore, one of the fast include Madurai (1'08 in the state with a poputation of 1.10 million. lhe other major urban agglomerations II towns jointly hold 81 per I mittion;, Tiruchirappatii (0.71 million) and Salem (0.58 million). The Class and size class of less than cent of urban population of the stite while the lower categories of towns in the population. In the more urbanised 50,000 population account for only 19 per cent of the state's urban per cent and 79 per cent states such as Maharashtra and Gujarat, the corresponding figures are 84 follows Maharashtra respectively for urban population in Class I and II towns together. Tamil Nadu closely in this phenomenon.

z.t

While the urban population has increased six-fold during 1901 to 1991, the number of urban population among the larger setflements has rncreased fifteen times. This indicates a more dispersed urban over 600 Town Panchayats, described as 'transition areas' number of setflements rn the state. In addition, may in tne Z+,n Constitution Amendment have been brought under the Municipalities Act in 1994, and this 40 per cent. Estimates have caused further increase in the level of the state's urban population to nearly poverty line. show that about 30 per cent of the urban population of the state lie below the

Z.Z

Urban Population Growth
Tamil Nadu's urban growth was faster than the national level during the early decades of the century, but this trend has significantly changed especially in the last two census decades. The rural-urban growth differential provides an indication as to the extent of the slowing down of urban growth relative to iural growth. While the urban - rural growth differential in Tamil Nadu was 33.73 in 195f it declined to 6.4g i; 1991. At the national level, the comparative figures were 32.63 and 16.46, indicating a much faster decline in the growth rate in the case of Tamil Nadu. While growth rates have slowed down even at the national level between 1981-91, the declining trend is much more significant in case of Tamil Nadu, with 27.98 per cent growth rate during 1971-81 and 19.28 per cent during 1981-91, as against 46.39 per ceni and 36.47 per cent respectively at the All-India level (Table 3'1).

2.3

Table 3.1: Urban Population Growth in India and Tamil Nadu

62.44 78.94 109.11 159.46x

41.42
26.41
5c,.25

4t.75
22.59 38.64 27.98 19.28

32.63 5.77

?? 7? 74.20 22.29
15.03

217.6r** Source: Census of fndia, 7987 and 7997 * Includes pdected population of Assant

46.39 36.47

t6.37 26.7r t6.46

6.48

*+ Includes projected population of Jamnu atd Kashnir

128

IIIT FUIUNI

OT

URBAITISAII|tII

TamilNadu

among the states in India. Table 3.2 gives growth rates over the period 1971 to 1991 for urban agglomerations/towns belonging to different size classes in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra pradesh. The growth trend in the six classes of towns in Tamil Nadu is similar to the decadat growth of urban population during 1971-81 and 1981-91. Unlike in the other four states, the declining trend in the growth rate of Tamil Nadu is clearly visible.

2'4 During 1981-91, Tamil Nadu had the least growth rate (19,28%) of urban population

Table 3.2: Class-wise Urban Growth Ratqs in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh

Year

7t-BL
31.9
24.1
25.7

81-91
20.7
14.1

71-81
58.5 47.2 39.4

81-91
42.t
47.3 28.7

71-81
48.8
19.9

81-91
43.4 51.4 31.5

7t-81
67.L

I

81-91
52.9

7t-8r 8r-91
65.2

II
UI ry

20.8

t7.2

VI 26.4 29.7 G)23.4 Source: Census of fndia, 7977, 7987 and 7991

14.4 15.9 18.5 29.5

39.6
3.6

32.t
35.4

(-)27.3 (-)0s.9

(-)23.4
16.9

(-)0s.3 -\07.2 (-)39,1

32.9 19.8 12.8

t7.3
5.4 0.7

79.8
45.9

77.5 11.3 13.4

-15.5
-30.2

(-)21.1
29.5

-)13.0
32.7

(-)36.8 (-)47.4
41.9

-4.0

These changes however do not tell the whole story. In absolute term as well as level of urbanisation Tamil Nadu continues to be high. Significant variations, also, exist within each class size and between the respective decades. Class I cities such as Tiruppur and Erode recorded the fastest growth. Tiruppur UA grew at a rate of 42.83 per cent during 1971-81 and 41.55 per cent during 1981-91, while Erode UA grew at a rate of 62.72 per cent during 1971-81, and 29.51 per cent during 1981-91. Other cities such as Tuticorin grew fast during 1971-81 with 37.80 per cent growth rate, which declined to 13,37 per cent during 1981-91. Even certain large and medium towns such as Sivakasi, Arakonam, Kovilpati and Tiruchengode grew consistently fast. Some small towns, such as Neyveli and Rameshwaram experienced faster growth,

2.5

(25o/o-35o/o) in 1971-81 have slowed down (20%-25%) in 1981-91, In most of the other urban agglomerations, the growth rate is much less than 20 per cent with the exceptions of Tiruppur (42o/o) and Erode (29.5%) during 1981-91.

2'6

Decadal growth rates of metropolitan cities (Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai) which were very high

ComponenB of Urban Growth
An examination of the three components of urban growth, namely, natural increase, net migration and areal reclassification may provide the explanation for such a trend in Tamil Nadu. The contribution of natural increase appears to have increased considerably in the last decade as compared to the earlier decades. The contribution of natural increase was 92.44 per cent during the decade 1981-91, as against 61.13 per cent in 1971-81 and 72.48 per cent in 1961-71. The contribution of net migration in urban population growth during 1981-91 is on the negative side in Tamil Nadu being (-) 2.3to/o, thereby indicating a large volume of out-migration than in-migration to the urban areas during 1981-91. The contribution of the third factor, namely, areal reclassification towards urban population growth, however, shows wide fluctuations over three decades (Table 3.3).

2.7

IIII

IUIUNT OT UNBATISATI||II

t29

Tamil Nadu

Table

3.3: percentage Share of Natural Increa$e, Net Migration and Areal Reclassification in
Urban Population Growth in Tamil Nadu

Natural Increase

(-) 2.31
isation in India, Occasional Paper

No'l'

Pattern of Urbanisation
The number of Class I cities has increased from 16 in 1971 to 26 in 1991. These 26 cities account for for two-thirds of the urban population of the state, while the Chennai Urban Agglomeration alone accounts in 1991, the share 2g per cent in 1991. Although the number of Class II and III towns have also increased in t'he total urban population fras decreased in both Classes of towns as compared to 1981. Class IV, V and VI towns show a decline in both the number and in the share of urban population. This pattern is broadly similar to India as a whole - reflecting a general trend towards concentration of population in the Class I cities (Table 3.4).

Z.B

Table 3.4: Tamil Nadu Urban Population by Size Class (1971-91)

T

IO 28 56 86 43
11

ZU

II III
IV

37 63 82 37 6

lo 4t
6B
Q1

57.72
14.22 15.11

6?..27

15.95

66.53 14.68
10.91

t2.5r
7.39

37.90 43.77 5.99

26.44
13.55

9.89

37

2.7t
0.35

r.7t
0.L7

6.27 1.46 0.15

VI

(-)4.3e -)16.64 (-)4s.37

5.7t (-)t.2e
-)7.09
29,45

Total
Source: Census

240

100.00 100.00 260 of India, 7987, fndia, Part II'A(i), A seies

z4s

100.00

27.98

19.28

Census of India, 7997, fndia, Paper of 7997, Provisional Population Totals

Three of the cities (Chennai, Coimbatore and Madurai) have population exceeding one million in terms of the urban agglomerations. Chennai is the super-metropolitan city of the state and will continue to attract more population. It has maintained its primacy among the three metropolitan cities in Tamil Nadu. Tiruchirappalli and Salem are likely to join the metropolitan status by 2021 AD. These five cities will continue to dominate the urban scene of Tamil Nadu.

Z.g

urbanisation in the state also seems to be emerging through large-scale industrialisation on a transpoft corridor across the nofthern part of the state, which consists of large urban agglomerations like Chennai, Salem, and Coimbatore. This corridor accounts for the bulk of the urban population (60 o/o including Chennai) of the state, as per 1991 Census.

2.10 The pattern

of

130

ilrrwutetetu$rot

TamilNadu

Urban Growth

-

Concentration and Dispersal

phenomenon of increasing concentration of urban population in cities in Tamil Nadu follows the trend. According to the_,1991 census, the percentage of the urban poputation tiving P!9111 iri cta:;I cities is 66'53 per cent' Even within class I cities, almosi 5o per ient of the urban population is in the 1ve major cities of Chennai, Coimbatorg Tiruchirappalli, Madurai and Salem, In addition, these urban agglomerations have assumed an increasingly important role. This may be attributable to the location of industriat and other economic activities collng-up in the fringe areas of these large cities, resulting in the expanslon of the boundaries of cities. Table 3,5 sum'marises the concentration-facd;mong various size classes of cities/towns.

2'11 The

Table 3.5: urban Population Accordlng to size class: A comparison (1961-91)

Source: Census of fndia, 7991, Emerging

fr

* Excluding Assam and J & K where no census was herd in rggl and 1gg1 respectively Note: cities: > 1,04000; Large tovws: se000-99,999; Medium towns: 2qooo-+s,sis; snatt towns: < 20,000

is the most urbanised district while Dharmapuri the least urbanised (Table 3.6) (Map 3.1).

District-wlse Urban Growth and Level of Urbanisation 2.12 Tamil Nadu has now 29 districts, in place of 21 districts as per 1991 Census, with change in names in some of the districts. However, for the purposes of analysis in this repoft, we have useO tggf Census containing 21 districts for comparability of data with earlier censuses. A'detailed analysis of urban growth rates across the districts shows that the less urbanised districts grew faster, such as Dharmapuri (iZiZvo), Pudukottai (23'97o/o), and Periyar (25.94o/o), where growth ratis were reiatively nigher wiih low level of urbanisation. ChengaFAnna district recorded the fastest growth rate of 48.32 pei cent in 1991. Coimbatore

Population ProJections
According to the Population Projections for India and States (1996-2016) by the Registrar Generat, India, the urban population in Tamil Nadu is projected to be 22.94 miltion in 200i ancl 2g.69 million in 2016 with the proportion of urban population to total population being 36.85 and 41.06 per cent respearvery. Based on the growth trend during 2011-16, the totalpopulation in zOzt is anticipated as72.26 million witn 30.7'1 million urban population by 2021 constituting 42.54 per cent of the total population (Table 3.7). These projections are based on components of growth of population and may be taien as trind based demographic projections. The impact of the economic arowth in the wake of economic liberalisation, if taken into consideration, is likely to accentuate the urban population growth and level of urbanisation further. In the absence of any other source, the study has reiied on the Sbove population projections. The pCIected urban population may, therefore, be taken as conservative figures only.

2'13

Ttrfffmmrfiniltttrfl0t

131

TamilNadu

in Tamil Nadu' 1981'91 Table 3.5: District-wise urban Growth and Level of urbanisaton

1

2
3

Chennai Chengai

4
5

North Arcot South Arcot Dharmapuri
Salem

6
7 8

Coimbatore
Perryar

9 Lu
11

Nilqiri Madurai

100.00 38.93 30.80 15.70 9.37 28.93 50.46 22.0L 48.85 43,93

L7.24 48.32 18.43 16.53 23.23 14.10 19,48 25.94
14.81

100.00 44.87
31.71

15.76

9.50
79.L6 52.59

24.7t
49.76 44.70 26.60 22.94 14.35 21.83 31.70 16.88 11.89

12 13 L4 15

Tiruchirappalli Thanjavur
Pudukkottai RamanathaDuram

26.r3
23.06 13.28

2L.tt
31.62 L7.25 11.54 21.62 26.09 35.17 39.60

Tirunelveli
Kanyakumari Tiruvannamalai Dindisul Pasumpon Thevar Thirumagan Kamarajar Chidambaranar

16.76 16.65 10.93 23.97 19.63 12.53
10.01

IO

t7
18
19

L7.92 11.45
14.43

2t.4t
26.91 37.42 41.19

20
27

-

24.20 12.13

Tamil Nadu India
Source: Census of India 7997
LoU

32.95 23.34

19.59 36.09

34.15 25.72

-

Level af Urbatlisatiotl

Table 3.7: Urban Population Projections in Tamil Nadu lor 2A2L

Source: 7. Census of India 7997 2. Registrar Genera[ fndia (tgg6), Population Proiections for India and Shtes 1996'2076

* Conputed on the basis of growth-trcnd assuned tturing 2011-2016

2.14 The projections for urbanisation level at the district level as well as population size for Class I, II ancl III cities and iowns by 2021 have been made, based on the 1981-91 growth rates, as no other source is making a available. It is anticipated that by 2021 AD, 19 more towns will be elevated to Class I category total of 44 Class I cities. Tiruchirappalli will become a metropolitan city, increasing the total number of
metropolitan cities to 4 in the state (Map 3.2).

TamilNadu

Level of Urbanisation at District Level -2O27 2.15 Trend-based projections indicate that the level of urbanisatbn of the following districts will change from their existing range in the level of urbanisation in 1991 to higher range of the level of urbanisation by 2021. The Table 3.8 places the districts in various ranges of level of urbanisation as per 1991 Census while Table 3.9 according to the level ol' urbanisation as projected for 2021 AD.

D
O

Pudukkottai district from the range of 'up to 15olo' level of urbanisation witl chanoe to the range of
'I5o/o-25o/o'.

Periyar, Dindigul and Thanjayur districts from the range change to the range of'25o/o-35oh'.

of

'L5o/o-25o/o' level

of

urbanisation will

o

Chengai Anna, Kamarajar, Madurai and Chidambaranar districts from urbanisation of'35o/o-45o/o'will change to the range of '45o/o-L00o/o'.

the range of level of

Map 3.2 indicates the districts changing the range in the level of urbanisation during the period 1991-2021.

Table 3.8: Level of Urbanisation by Districts

-

1991

Dharma Tiruvannamalai, Pudukkottai South Arcot, Periya r, Dind igul, Thanjayur, Ra rn-anatnapuram, Kanvakrrnari North Arcot, Salem, Tiruch i rappalli, pasumpon fnevir-nirumagan]ir;;ileli Kattabomman i Anna, Kamarajar, Chidambaranar, Madurai Chennai, Nilqiri, Coimbato LoU = Level of Urbanisation

Table 3.9: Level of Urbanisation by Districts -2021

Tiruvannamalai South Arcot, Ra manathapu rEm, Kanyakumari, pudukkottai Kattabomman, Dindigul, Thanjavur, perivar
Ch.n nu i,
N
i
I

Dharma

NorthArcot,Salem,Tiruchirappa||i,Pasumpon@
g

iri,

Coi

rbutor.,

Mud r r.

i, Chin g.

il*il

ki

r.r.jrr,Ti idilEili..

iltt

FUIURI 0r

uiEAItsAIt0ll

r55

Tamil Nadu

.,,,.tit:,;.;.:.;.,-,.,t,,,...t,,,.,..".,2

ilr.

iltu| GI0Gn[PilY 0] lllul$TttltllTs

Industrial PolicY
With a view to have a balanced regional growth, the state has been promoting industrialisation in the the backward areas by developing industrial estates and a number of steps have been taken to boost development of industry in thi state. In the last few years, new incentives, which include loan of capital in the and tax rebates, have been announced and all procedur:es simplified. These moves have resulted Development of industrial location of major industries outside larger metropolitan and other urban centres. estates and industrial townships is one of the mechanisms adopted by the state to achieve decentralisation of industries to encourage location of industries in the backward areas. The developed plots in these areas provided is offered to entrepreneurs with loans, tax rebates and technical assistance. Common facilities are such centres are Ranipet, Hosur, Navalpattu in these estates for the benefit of entrepreneurs. Examples of and Chithode.

3.1

3.2

Earlier higher priority was accorded by the state to develop Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli and Salem as counter-magnets to Chennai and public investments tertdecl to locate in them. This was followed by development of other medium size cities such as Tirunelveli, Erode, Vellore, Tiruppur and Tuticorin. A number of public sector undertakings got located in the state. Impoftant among them are Neyveli Lignite Corporation, Integral Coach Factory, High Pressure Boiler Plant, llindustan Teleprinters, Hindustan Photo Films, Madras Refineries, Madras Fertilisers, Heavy Vehicles Factory and Pualur Paper Factory'

Ind ustrial Estates/G rowth Centres

3.3

The state government is setting up industrial growth centres and parks with a view to attracting investments in industries. The following industrial estates/growth centres have been developed/proposed by the state public sector undertakings, such as, TIDCO, SIPCOT, SIDCO and ELCOT etc. The Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation and Tamil Nadu Infrastructure Corporation are playing key role in this
process.

O D
3.4

lrtdustrial Estates: Ranipet, Hosur, Manamadurai, Pudukottai, Tuticorin, Gummidipoondi, Cuddalore, Irugattukottai, Varadharajapuram, Nilakottai and Bargur.
Growth Centres: Tirunelveli, Poonrpuhar, Erode, Perunclurai, Gangaikondan and Oragadam.

The state has initiated the process of acquiring about 15,000 hectares of land for setting up industrial growth centres and parks. It is also rn the process of setting up an Expott Promotion Industrial Park at Gummidipoondi at a cost of Rs. 20 crore.

Small Industries Development Corporation Limited (SIDCO) has been promoting and developing small-scale industries all over the state, especially in the backwarcl areas, by stimulating entrepreneurship. It has been reported that SIDCO has established 73 industrial estates and proposes to develop 50 more industrial estates bY 2002'

3.5

L34

iltt turunt

0t unEAlllsAll0ll

Tamil Nadu

Industrial Development and Urban Growth

3.6 Traditionally Tamil Nadu is one of the well-developed states in terms The industrial development pattern discernible in the state is highliglrted below;

of industrial

development.

D Engineering industries are concentrated in Chennai, Coimbatore, Salem and Tiruppur. D The state has a leading position in the manufacture of cotton textile in India and contributes to
more than 25 per cent of the country's exports of cotton yarn and fabrics. The textile mills are in
several locations but Coimbatore, Erode, Karur, Tiruppur, Bhavani and Salem are the main centres.

D
O

The state has a dominant presence in the leather and leather-based industries. The state accounts for more than 45 per cent of the country's expoft of leather and leather-related products. Approximately 21 per cent of India's exports of ready-macle garments are from Tamil Nadu. The two main centres are Chennai and Tiruppur. In fact, Tiruppur has emerged as a major industrial
centre.

D
O O

Madurai - Dindigul belt is for growth of agro-based industries floriculture around Coimbatore, Dharmapuri and the Nilgiris.

of fruits and

vegetables and

An important element of the food processing industry is the marine product segment in the coastal belt.

The state has a strong base in the chemical industry. Manali in the outskirts of Chennai has emerged as a major petrochemical complex. Major chemical and fertilizer plants have also been established at Cuddalore and Tuticorin.

Several large-scale industries are located in the three clistricts of Chennai, Chengalpattu, and Coimbatore. They are also the thrce most urbanised districts. Another feature of these urbanised districts in terms of their functional specialisation as industry indicates that these districts experienced much more rapid growth during the decade 1981-91 when compared to those districts whose economies are agriculture-based (such as Thanjavur). This suggests that urbanisation process is taking place through
industrialisation.

3.7

Industrial Locations

3.8 Broadly, the present industrial locations in the state fall into the following three categories: (1) Locations within the core metropolitan cities - namely export-oriented and electronic Aoods production; (2) Outside core city but within urban agglomerations limits - mainly large industries; and (3) Those that are located into new areas, specially in backward areas or in rural areas, requiring infrastructure facilities. Hosur, Ranipet and Manamadurai are examples of this category. Attempts are being made to develop Pudukottai, Cuddalore and Gummidipoondi as industrial towns with major industrial complexes,
New Investments
With liberalisation of economy and opening up of the state to rapid industrialisation, urban areas are likely to have a greater flow of rcsources from private sector and multinationals apart from public sector investments. According to CMIE data, the total investments in Tamil Nadu in infrastructure, manufacturing, service and others, as of March 1999, was Rs. 1,12,148 crore wofth fresh investments. Out of the above 46 per cent investment (Rs. 51,258 crore) was for infrastructure such as power, road, shipping, airways and telecom and 41 per cent for manufacturing and remaining 13 per cent for 'service and others'. The status of the projects indicates that out of 284 projects, 105 have been completed, 114 are under implementation,

3.9

IllI fuTult 0tu8lNil$ilot|

135

and 65 are at proposal stage. Investments seem to be clustering in the coastal districts of the state. Chennai together with Chengalpattu district have attracted the largest share of total investments in infrastructure, manufacturing, service and others, accounting for 32 per cent followed by Thanjavur 21 per cent, South Arcot 15 per cent, Tirunelveli 10 per cent and Tiruchirappalli 8 per cent, all accounting for 78 per cent of the total investments. As regad investnents in manufacturing is concerned; the same pattern as for total investment in infrastructure and manufacturing is discernible. Here also the major share goes to Chengalpattu and Chennai (38o/o), Thanjavur (30%), South Arcot (11%) Chidambaranar (6%). Thus 75 per cent of the investments again have preference for,the coastal districts. As far infrastructure investments are concerned, the major share again Eoes to coastal districts- Chengalpattu (L9o/o), Chennai (13%), South Arcot (17.55Vo), Tirunelveli (Z2o/o), aggregating to72 per cent (Table 3.10 and 3.11) (Map 3.3).
Table 3.10: Investments Proposed in Tamil Nadu in Infrastructure, Manufacturing and Service, 19!X) (cost Rs. in crore)

I

2 3

4
5

6
7

I
a 10
11

Chengalpattu Coimbatore Dharmapuri Dindisul Kamarajar Kanniyakumari Chidambaranar
Chennai Madurai

976t.3t
706.30 184.00 0
0 0

19.04

i.38
0.36
0 0 0

3349.50

6.53
13.1

67t5.74
1182.81
U

2.31
0

16015.22 577.57 501.10 28.00 200.00 400.00 2732.L0 12s6.98 614.96
0

35.17
1.27 1.10

1326.90 1461.60
0
0 0 0

8.54 9.52
0 0 0 0

0.06 4.44 0.88 6.00 2.76
1.35

0

L344.42 5.00
0
0 n

8.76 0.03
n n

27L03.43 2745.47 685.10 28.00 200.00 400.00 6081,60 9317.14

24.L7

2.45 0.61 0.02 0.18 0.36 5.42
8,31 1.61

t802.77
0.00 285.00 37.99 497.25

Nilqiri North Arcot
Pasumpon

0
U

t2
13 L4 15

0 n 0.12

285.00 37.99 397.85 9.00
0

0.00 0.63

0.08
0.87 0.02 0.00

0.00 0.25 0.03 0.44 0.01 0.00
1.19 15.45

Muthuramalinga Periyar Pudukkottai Ramanathapura
m

63.85 0 0

35.55
0
U

0,23
0 0

n
0 0.71 17.55 3.14 13,49 22.27
0

9.00
0,00 1334,30

16
.11

Salem

18

South Arcot Thanjavur Tiruchirappalli Tirunelveli Tiruvannamalai

362.50 899s.93
1608.50 6913.81 11413,30 0

971.80 5190.84 13884.90 2247.02 81.71 105.52

2.t3
11.40 30.49 4.94 0.18 u,z5

n

3144,00 8000.00
0
n

20.48 52.11
0 0

t7330.77
23493,40 9160.83 11495.01 140.52

20.95 8.17 10.25 0.13

IY

20
27

35,00

0.23

Total fndustry

s1257.55

100.00 45537.56

100.00 15352.47

Source: CAPEX Guide to New Business Opportunities, CMIE, March 1999, as obtained from the

100.00 112147.58 100.00 Ministy of

136

iltt tuluRt 0l uRBAiltsAll0ll

Tamil Nadu

Table 3.11: Status of Projects

I
2
3

4
5

Chengalpattu Coimbatore Dharmapuri Dindigul Anna Kamarajar Kanniyakumari Chidambaranar
Chennai

26
15 3
1

24 8
1

10 7

OU

2n L4
2
1

I
0
5

0

4 0 n

0
2 27 0
6 2 6

I
7 10
1
U 1

1

t4
64
L4
U

8
Y

27 0 0 0
5

IU
11

Madurai Nilgiri

Nofth Arcot
Pasumpton Periyar Pudukkottai Ramanathapuram
Salem

7

L2
13

0
1

2
LZ
1

t4
15 16 77

I
0

0

0
0 2

0
3

0
9
18 5 19
R

4
6 2 6
5
1

South Arcot

4
1

18
19

Thanjavur
Tiruchirappalli

I
1 1

4
2
1

2 9

20

Tirunelveli
Tiruvan na malai

2t

114 Source: CAPEX Guide to New Business Opportu Industry

Total

5

105

65

284

ilII

TUIURI |lT URBAIIISAII|lX

t37

TamilNadu

ru. sPlTl[l lrlllll]tsilrlolls 0f tc0!0-lllF

0n0wu...".

-.-..-..,"-

A"
4.1

PRESENT SPATIAL PATTERN

(i) In terms of level of urbanisation as of 199i, Tamil Nadu can be broadly classified into five^groups: part (Nilgiri-Coimbatore Chennai-Chengalpattu region: highly urbanised and industrialised, (ii) North-West (itl) Central part (Salem-Tiruchirappalli districts): districts): niqhly urbaniiea ani industrialised region; medium urbinised(iv) Southern part (Madurai-Kamarajar-Chidambaranar districts): medium urbanisedand (v) Tirunelveli- Pasumpon districts: medium urbanised (Map 3.L)'

Transport Corridors

4.2

A number of transport corridors have emerged in Tamil Nadu, They are characterised by their centrality and linking up metropolitan and large cities, higher level of resource base, large number of industries, and a constellation of urban centres of varying sizes and growth rates. The concentration of

population along the corridors has increased by more than 40 per cent between 1981-91. Such corridors not have attained over years specialisation and economies of scale ancl have begun to form clusters but do These transport corridors include: enjoy the spatial as well as inter-industry linkages.
1.

Chennai - Coimbatore Corridor

2. Chennai

- Madurai Corridor

3. Madurai

- Kanyakumari Corridor
- Dindigul Corridor

4. Tiruchirappalli - Villupuram Corridor
5. Coimbatore

6. Madurai
7.

- Shencottah Corridor

Tirunelveli - Tuticorin Corridor

The Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002) envisages upgradation of National Highways on the Golden East - West euadrangle, linking Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. Development of North-South and cbrridors- are proposed to be incorporated in the existing alignment of the Golden Quadrangle supplemented by extensions along North-South and East-West extremities. The portions of the above highdensity corridors falling in Tamil Nadu include Chennai-Krishnagiri to Bangalore and Krishnagiri-SalemDindigul-Madurai-Kanyakumari. There would also be a need for high-speed expressway to carry high traffic volumes on select sections in a longer perspective, such as 2021 AD. One such expressway is anticipated between Chennai-Dindigul-Madurai. The above proposals have been shown on Map 3.5.

4.3

4.4

What is discernible in these corridors is a clustered pattern of urban settlements, where small and medium towns are clustered around the following metropolitan and large cities developing as 'Nodes'on the transDort corridor.
(1)

(s) (s)

Chennai (2) Coimbatore Salem (6) Tirunelveli Tiruppur 10) Tuticorin
(

(3) Madurai (7) Erode

(4) Tiruchi (8) Vellore

138

T[t

FUrUnt 0r

unBNlFlrloil

TamilNadu

B.
4.5

EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

trt is anticipated that by 2021, the level of urbanisation in Chengalpattu district in the shadow of Chennai (100o/o urbanised) in the north east will increase to about 69 per cent, followed by Coimbatore (60%) and Nilgiri (53%) districts in the north west. Another group of 3 districts - Madurai, Kamarajar and Chidambarnar in southern part of the state will get urbanised above the state average of 43 per cent by 2021. This will be followed by Salem and Tiruchirappalli districts in the central paft of the state. This study having taken into consideration the transport corridors, clustering of major urban centres emerging as 'Nodes', investments flowing both in infrastructure and manufacturing sectors in various districts of the state together with the anticipated urbanisation level of the districts and anticipated growth of cities in the state by 2021 AD, juxtaposed with location of industrial estates and growth centres, suggests the following emerging spatial pattern in the state (Map 3.5). The population of urban corridors are given in Table 3,12 and administrative status in Table 3.13.

4.6

d J

Coimbatore - Tiruppur - Salem - Vellore - Chennai lJrban Corridor: This corridor is similar to the one proposed by the Registrar General/NATMO from Coimbatore - Salem. However, this will qet extended to Bangalore along the transport corridor.

Coastal Tamil Nadu Urban Coridor: This corridor is identical identified urban corridor.

to the Registrar

General/NATMO,s

Table 3.12: Population of Urban Corridors

I

2

3

4

Krishnagiri - Hosur Coimbatore Erode Salem Krishnagiri (excluding Krishnagiri) Coastal Corridor - I (Chennai Cuddalore - Tanjavur Karaikudi) (excluding Chennai) Coastal Corridor - II (Tuticorin - Nagarcoil)
Chennai

-

-

-

-

69,35,s48
30,99,209

36.35

7,33,36,374 57,51,170

43.38
18.71

t6.24

-

15,49,789 7,00,316
8.12 3.67 64.38

22,09,gtg
10,40,923

7.t9
3.39 72.67

Total
Source: Census of fndia
x Projected

t,22,84,862

2,23,38,185

In addition to the above, the following Urbanising Region is also emerging: Tirunelveli-MaduraiTiruchirappalli covering part of the districts of Tirunelveli, Madurai and Tiruchirappalli with Madurai as the foci of the reoion.

4.7

Tlll

;uilnt

0t uRBAlilsAIt0tl

139

TamilNadu

shortfall as well as provide new urban infrastructure services in the urbanising areas. background, there is a need to identify the dirnensions of the problems.

It

is against this

5,11 The 74h Constitution Amendment envisages significant devolution of powers to urban local bodies. The spirit of the Amendment seeks to achieve a paradigm shift in the role of an urban local body from that of a constrained and indifferent service provider to a more responsive developer of urban infrastructure. The urban local bodies responsible for provision of urban infrastructure services have treated the services as public seruices. Cost recovery and user charges have often been inadequate to cover O&M expenditures, let alone debt servicing. This coupled with limited revenue raising potential of local bodies has led to a situation of increasing shortfalls in service delivery. The progressive transfer of the powers and responsibilities of the local bodies to a multiplicity of the agencies in the provision of infrastructure services
have further aggravated the situation.

5.12 There have been several initiatives in the state to encourage private sector participation in providing urban infrastructure services. The Municipal Urban Development Fund (MUDF), component of World Bank assisted TNUDP has been restructured to create a public-private partnership for financing urban infrastructure. The Chennai Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board used 'operation and management'contracts for the operations and maintenance oF 14 sewage pumping stations in 1992. This was followed by an additional 61 pumping stations, the operation and maintenance of 4 water bore holes, and operation and management contract for a new water treatment plant. The private sector initiatives in
urban water supply has been successful in Tiruppur, where various urban infrastructure services have also been contracted out to private companies and community groups.

Level of Urban Services
supplies vary from 34 lpcd in Town Panchayats to 74 lpcd in Corporauons, significantly below norm of 70 lpcd for Town Panchayats and 110 lpcd for Corporations. Only 57 per cent population in the Corporation areas, 32 per cent in Municipalities and 16 per cent in Town Panchayats have access to safe sanitation. Although 70 per cent of solid waste generated is collected, most local bodies do not have organised disposal facilities. Less than 50 per cent of the roads are provided with storm water drains.

5.13 Water

Sources of Finance for Infrastructure and Services

5.14 The financial position of the urban local bodies is weak. With increasing population pressure, the local bodies have undertaken several major schemes of water supply and drainage by obtaining loans from LIC and the government. The loan is raised by TWAD Board on behalf of the local bodies on state government guarantee. For municipalities and town panchayats comprising medium and small towns, financial
assistance is available from the Centre and state under the IDSMT and IUDP schemes.

5.15 The Tamil Nadu Urban Development Fund (TNUDF) has been set up for improving basic

services such as drinking water supply cum sewerage schemes, shopping complexes, and transpoft in all urban local

bodies of Tamil Nadu. It is being managed by the Assets Management Company (AMC) with the participation of ICICI, HDFC, IL&FS and the state government. The role of TNUDF is to:

O

Fund urban infrastructure projects

D
O
L44

Facilitate private sector participation
partnerships

in infrastructure through joint venture and

public-private

Operate a complementary window- the Grant Fund, for addressing the problems of the urban poor

IIIT FUTUff

OT

URBAIIISAIIOII

TanilNadu

several other cities such as Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem, However, sewerage system has not received the due priority it deserves. Given the high levels of water-borne diseases in Tamil Nadu, water supply

5.30 The World Bank

has flnanced water supply and sanitation

pqects for Chennai Metropolitan Area

ancl

systems need [o be linked with parallel wastewater collection and disposal systems. All the waterways in Chennai have now reached a stage of extreme pollution. Steps taken on its improvement will have a major impact on other environmental issues, such as coastal pollution and recreational facility etc. Likewise, solid waste management also assumes urgency in view of higher population densities particularly in large cities. NGOs like EXNOM have been helping in getting waste from houses to roadside bins and garbage disposal sites, Hospital waste is extremely hazardous and need proper collection, treatment and disposal'

altogether 3,226 industries in the state but wastewater data is available only for 2,115 industries. Of these t,522 are small, 388 medium and 205 large-scale units. The large industries generate more than 85 per cent of the effluents per day, whereas the medium and small industries contribute the remaining 15 per cent. More than 36 per cent of wastewater is generated by four thermal plants. Chemical industries contribute more than 11 per cent of discharges of which nearly 91 per cent is generated by 25 large industries alone. Only 65 per cent of the waste from the large chemical industries are treated. Several industries are located in the three districts of Vellore, Chengalpattu and Chennai. Most of these industries do not have waste treatment facilities. Effluents end up in the land causing pollution of the soil and groundwater. The Palar river which serves as a drinking water source for many urban areas including Chennai city is now getting polluted.

53L fndustrial waste: There are

Much of the effluent generated by petrochemicals, oil refineries, textile, dye, chemical, thermal, steel and spinning mills, cements, tanneries, are discharged untreated. The same problem exists for medium industries like fertilisers, pharmaceuticals, textiles etc. Noyyal river carries untreated sewage and industrial effluents from the towns of Coimbatore and Tiruppur. With no fresh water for dilution, the untreated sewage and effluents severely contaminate ground water. Nearly 90 mld of water is used and discharged from the dyeing and bleaching industry. Major towns along Cauvery river also discharge their untreated sewage into the river. The quantity of wastewater from tanneries is of the order of 87,600 cum per day thereby contributing to heavy pollution load. Bhawani, a perennial river coursing through Coimbatore and Erode is threatened by industrial waste. In order to control pollution from tanneries and textile-dyeing units, 51 Common Effluent Treatment Plants (CETPs) - 28 for tanneries and 23 for textile-dyeing, were proposed in the Eighth Five Year Plan but only 11 CETPs for tanneries were installed.

5.32

Air Pollution
Ambient Air Quality

5.33 Available information indicates that dust and suspended pafticulate matter (SPM) are dominant factors of air pollution in cities. The industrial emissions and vehicular exhausts are major sources of pollution. Sulphur dioxide and suspended particulate matter are the result of burning of fossil fuels. Industries contribute sulphur-dioxide and suspended particulate matter emissions. Vehicles using petrol emit oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and lead, whereas sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulates emanate from diesel-based vehicles. These pollutants cause adverse health effect.

5.34 In Chennai, a total vehicular emission is 297 tonnes per day. Carbon monoxide emissions are maximum due to four wheelers followed by two wheelers. The Central Pollution Control Board data on
ambient air quality during 1987-95 indicate that in Chennai, the levels of sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and SPM are quite high in both residential and industrial areas. The thermal power plant of Chennai also

contributes

to the high level of air

pollution. SPM IIIt
fUIURT

in residential areas of Tiruchirappalli exceed

the

|l;

URBAIIISAIIOII

r47

IIIT FUIUNI

OT

UREAIIISATIOII

L49

Tamrl/iadu

rermissible levels, Despite the limited data on vehhular emissions, there are indications thar many geCOndary Citieg tOo are affectod by vehicular pollution due to consestion as in Tiruppur, Kodaikanar, Coimbatore and Madurai.

Coastal Zone 5.35 Tamil Nadu has a 1000 km
coastline. Petrochemical

FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY
ANDHBA PRADESH

KARNATAKA

14
LqGEND
Stale Soundary Distri.jt Eoundary

1

ERHY *

State Capital District Headquarler

Nalional Highway

DICHERFIY

(u.r.)

t .',,' ^". O--rl. .-...:

.t:-.. :....,.::

:

,.r_rL,i\$s, F,ttjhi.

;i1r

I

^
a
a

1.r(jtCilC

z
LIJ

tixx)cil
:r

In rL
J E.

jll{ ill
li-:.., l

--1.

I0

Y

ul

INDIAN OCEAN

Nnla: r

!lr. ;t

itctlt: l| iieakcln;if| f.ri3t.i.ls irill.! l. l}-]1: i;n:]e $ l".C.l.J.
MAP 3.2

l l

TAMIL NADU

ANTICIPATED CHANGE IN LEVEL OF URTANISATIOhI FROM 1991 TO 2021

lA#l
cer.rrne

I

.,uTi*'
KILOIiIETRE

POLICY RESEARCH

ron

I

FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY
ANDHRA PRADESH

KARNATAKA

LEGENO Stale boundary

EFIRY (U T,)

*

Disvicl Boundary stale capitat
District Headquartdr

Nallonal HiOhway

Othef Boads
Proposed Exp16ssways

IIDICHERRY (U.T )

Golddn Ouadrangle NH . H.D. Corridor

/

Airpods

r
STRAIT
PALK

I &

Seapons

Industrial Estatos
Growth Centres

z
IIJ

a

CLASS

,

POPN, SIZE

J

<t3
;r^i

;
PALK 8AY

I i
.

I \

1000000 100000 50000

< ."'
uJ

I

t<

.;
GULF

\"n
OF

t
|

,,

?0000

i i\r{,. jil f lciti i:r,,r 1 ir tlrl:lr; i:rl fasii i.rcli.r at & llidLsti.!?s

ffi 5 rctr:t [!i r,s tc i !.2,5
I
INDIAN OCEAN
No
r

I

> 11,(irpli, li:.S) l{l i|.i lll

(:l) (:')

(t)
(2)

lnvesim-.nt

(t2)
(2)

!:iilrfts,rl ltacf|]li 1fl fi.. .,: liltii!]i l;iti;ll. l:l ifl! i':.f lil|: :li lir!aajiraallil
MAP 3,3

TAMIL NADU

JUNr 2001

DISTRICTWISE INVESTMFNT IN IhIFRASTRUCTURE & INDI'.JSTRY . 1 999

t
FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY
ANDHFA PRADESH

\\
KARNATAKA

LECEND Stale boundary btstrict Eoundary

'

EFIRY

(u.t.)
l

*

state capiisl

,l
ERNY

Dislicl l"leadqu6dor

NailoR6ll"ltghway

Othsr Roads

(u.r.)

[: J r4 r': . I [ ]

SpatialPrority
Urban Reqion 1988 {As per NCU) Urban Corndor- 1991 (As per NATMOT

J6^ ,
sTnAtl
PALK

J

CLASS

-

POPN. SIZE

2
IJJ

,O
c
ll a ill o

,oooooo
i

00000 50000

J

."r"
GULF OF
MANNAR
'"

PALK
BAY

lu

AO0O0

!.

ugq%

rrrr%,

'ula^'|e

_)

INDIAN OCEAN

TAMIL NADU

SPATIAL PRIORITY URBAN REGIONS . NCU URBAN CORRIDORS - NATMO

A
CENTBE FON POTICY HESEABCH l{!w DILHI

f

FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY

t ^".

-lD i|'l-r

titAP 3.5

I

TAMIL NADU
HMEMGIhJG UNBAN CORRINORS & uRFAl.! REGIOT{S - 20*1
I
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BROAD LANO USE AND EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

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Introduction

-

P.

IZt
p.

The State's Urbanisation: Trends and fssues New Geography of Investments

I72

-

p, 777

Spatial Manifestation of Economic Growth _ p.

7gI

A. B. C. V.

Present Spatial pattern - p. Emerging Urban Corridors- p, SPURs - NCU, Urban Corridors - NATMO _ p.

IBI

IgI

Ig3

Problems, Issues and Constraints- p, IgS

A. B. C. D, E. VI. A, B. C. D, E. F.

Spatial planning and Land use - p. Regional Infrastructure - p. lg6 Urban Infrastructure Services - p, lg7 Urban Environment - p. lgg Investment Requirements - p.

lgs

IgI

Urban Governance and Management
74th Constitution Amendment

-

p.

lg2
p.

Act- p.

Metro Areas and Metropolitan planning Committees _ p. tg4 Rurar Urban Integration and District pranning committees - p. 7g5 Managing Urban Corridors- p. 196

Role of Local Bodies in Future Urban Growth _ Role of State and Sectoral Agencies - p. Ig4

I92

Ig3

References- P, 797

IIIT ]UTURT ||; URBAIII$IIOII

169

Karnataka

ltsr 0t T[BltS
Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12

ofTowns, t99L- P.772 Growth oi Urban Population by Districts - P' 174 P' 775 UrOan eoputation Projections in Karnataka for 202Lievel of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions - 1991- P' 176 i"u"f of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions - 202L- P' 776 Key Industrial Centres in Karnataka - P. 177

Population by size class Distribution of Towns/urban Agglomerations and urban

- 1999 Investments Proposed in Infrastructure, Manufacturing and services Status of Projects in Karnataka- P. 780 PoDulation of Urban Corridors- P- 782 Administrative Status of Urban Corridors- P. 182 Urban Corridors of Karnataka and Urbanisation Level, t99t - P' 784 Land Utilisation Pattern of Karnataka (1970 - 1993) - P' 786

-

P' 179

Map 4.1 Map 4.2 Map 4.3 Map 4.4 Map 4.5 Map 4.6

Level of Urbanisation and Urban Centres - 1991- P. 799 Anticipated Change in Level of Urbanisation from 1991 - 202t- P' 207 District-wise Investment in Infrastructure and Industries- P, 203 Spatial Priority Urban Regions - NCU, Urban Corridors - NATMO- P' 205 Emerging Urban Corridors and Urban Regions - 202t- P. 207 Broad Land Use and Emerging Urban Corridors- P' 209

L70

TIIT

;UIURI |lF URBIIIISAIIOII

Karnataka

IilTN||[UGII|lII
Karnataka is the eighth largest state in India, both in area and population (1991). The total area of the state is 191,791 sq km. The total population of 44.98 million (1991), constituting 5.3 per cent of the total population of India, is increasing by t.92 per cent per annum. Karnataka is the 4th most urbanised state in India among the major states, after Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, with 13.91 million urban population in 1991, accounting for about 31 per cent of the state's total population, Karnataka's capital Bangalore, with a population of 4.13 million, enjoys absolute urban primacy in the state. About one - third of the state's urban population is below the poverty line. KarnaLaka is one of the leading industrialised states in India, contributing 4 per cent of national production in the industrial sector. Some of the manufactured iterns include aircrafts, rail coaches, telephone instruments, electronic and telecommunication equipment, Karnataka stands first in production of electronic equipment. The state also stands first in production of raw silk and is famous in the world markets for its sandal soap and sandal wood oil. The state is rich in mineral resources, such as high grade iron ore, copper, manganese, chromite, limestone, granite and gold. Gold and iron resources, among several other minerals, have strengthened the economy of the state.
basis of information then available, as per 1981 Census data, 329 Towns as GEMs (Generator of Economic Momentum) and 49 SPURs (Spatial Priority Urbanisation Regions) including Urban Corridors within and

1.1

I.2

1.3 It is more than ten years that the National Commission on Urbanisation

(NCU) had identified, on the

between the states in the country. Taking that as a stafting point, this study takes a fresh look into what has happened in terms of changes that have taken place since then; in demography, economic activities in the wake of liberalisation, and more importantly the physical growth across Karnataka. The report raises issues of concerns in four broad areas, namely, spatial manifestation of economic growth, infrastructure,

environment and urban governance and management for consideration. Within this context, there is an increasing need for research to help, solve problems that have arisen and setting a new strategic approach to the future of urbanisation.

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Karnataka

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Urbanisation Trends
population of 13.91 million in Karnataka is the foufth most urbanised state in India with an urban - the state capital with a population of iggr constituting 30.92 per cent as level of urbanisation. Bangalore in the country' Among the 21 about 4.13 million (1gg1), is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas urban primacy in the Class I cities in the state, Bangalore is the only metropolitan city enjoying absolute gap between the size of Bangalore state and it accounts for 30 peicent oftotal urban population. The vast Mysore (0,65 million) coupled with high growth rate l+,p mtttionl and the size of the next largest city, imbalance in Karnataka's urbanisation pattern. ichieved by Bangalore are responsible for much of the

2.L

An important feature of the urbanisation pattern in the state during the decade 1981-91 is that the per cent in decadal growth rate conspicuously decelerated from 50.65 per cent during 1971-81 to 29'62 as a whole experienced a moderate 19g1-91, even though majority ol other states as well as the country decline in urban growth.

2.2

2.3

The components of urban population growth in Karnataka, such as natural increase, migration and reclassification of urban centres exhibit a different phenomenon as compared to the all-India pattern' In LgTt-lI, migration contributed 54.81 per cent to urban growth as compared to 40 per cent at the all-India level, Similarly natural increase accounted for 34.81% growth. The share of urban to urban migration was 53 per cent. karnataka's high urban growth was thus largely caused by migration and natural increase, rather than reclassification of settlements (10.37o/o).

Population Distribution
By Size Class

of Towns

The 13.91 million urban population in 1991 in Karnataka lived in 254 urban settlements. It may be seen that the share of 21 Class I cities, (with over 100,000 population) was as high as 64.70 per cent of the urban population. The smaller towns, especially those below 50,000 population size were in large numbers (85%), but contained only 28 per cent of the population. The 134 out of 254 towns, with population below 20,000 accounted for only about 10 per cent of urban populatlon (Table 4.1),
Table

2.4

4.1: Distribution of Towns/Urban Agglomerataons and Urban Population by Size Class of
Towns, 1991

ClassI

ClassII
ClassIII ClasslV
Class

(100,000&above (50,000-99,999 (20,000-49,999 (10,000-19.999
(Below 5,000

VI

Source: Census of fndia,

799!

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Karnataka

Table 4.3: Urban Population Projections in Karnataka for 2021

Source

:

Registrar General, India (7996), Population Prolbctions for fndia & States 7996'2016

* Computed on basis of growth trend of2011-2016

2.12 Even on this conservative basis, the state's urban population will double in its size from 13.91 million in 1991. This urban growth will have different impacts in the four regions of the state resulting in many
districts experiencing higher growth in urbanisation.
D is tri ct
Le

ve I Proj e ct io n s

for urbanisation level at the district level as well as population size for Class I, II and III cities and towns for 2021 have been made based on the 1981-91 growth rates. The following two tables (Table 4,4 and 4.5) indicate the level of urbanisation of the districts and regions as of 1991 and the anticipated level of urbanisation in 2021 AD. This analysis is based on 1991 Census

2.13 The trend

based projections

comprising 20 districts in the state. The emerging urbanisation pattern at the district level is as foliows:

O O O

Bangalore (U) district will become fully urbanised.

Mysore and Chitradurga districts will change to the higher level 35o/o-45o/o in 2021 from the existing range of 25o/o-35o/o in 1991.

of urbanisation in the range of

Likewise Tumkur and Kolar districts will attain higher level of urbanisation in the range of 25o/o-35o/o in 202t from the existing range of l5o/o-25o/o in 1991.

D In

coastal region, Dakshin Kannada district is likely to emerge as a highly urbanised district, jumping from the range of 25o/o-35o/o level of urbanisation 1991 to the range of 35o/o-45o/oin202L. region, Belgaum, Bidar, Dharwad, Raichur and Gulbarga districts are likely to come closer to the state's level of urbanisation and changing from the existing level of urbanisation range of t5o/o-25o/o in 1991 to25o/o-35o/oin202L.

O In nofthern

O In Malnad region, only Hassan district will attain higher level of urbanisation while Kodagu,
Chickmagalur and Shimoga districts will continue

in the same range.

IHI TUIUR: O; URBAIIISATI||II

t75

Karnataka

Industrial Development and Urban Growth
Karnataka's urban policy as contained in its Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-1997) and continued in the Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002), aims at promoting planned urbanisation and regulated urban growth. The state's urban policy objectives include (i) to evolve a desired pattern of balanced regional development; (ii) to distribute the urban population proportionally among various classes of towns and regions; (iii) to contain the rate of growth of metropolitan and other large cities by dispersing economic activities to identified growth centres; and (iv) to provide a minimum level of services to the urban and rural populations. The strategy for achieving these policy objectives as outlined in the Urban Development Strategy, prepared in 1994, include : (i) the dispersal of urbanisation and equitable distribution of benefits; (ii) the development of counter magnets to Bangalore to slow down its growth; (iii) the establishment of a proper hierarchy of towns; (iv) the establishment of urban and rural linkages between small and medium sized town; and (v) the development of areas with potentials such as the coastal region, industrial growth centres, impoftant towns in the so-called growth areas and administrative towns.

3.3

:

objectives of the urban development policy has been to contain the growth of metropolitan and large cities by dispersing economic activities and to create effective linkages between rural and urban areas. The state industrial poliry identifies a number of urban centres for targeted industrial investment. However, the objective of attracting investments in competition with other states in the context of the liberalisation, has led to a conflict with decentralisation and physical planning policies as market forces push towards concentration of investments in Bangalore. Bangalore has been Karnataka's centre of urban and industrial growth over the past two decades. It is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the country, having specialised in telecommunications and computer hardware and software development. The rapid expansion of industrial activities and the increased migration of people are placing considerable pressure on the city. The state has recognised that the social and economic development potential of other urban centres has not been realised due to absence of adequate levels of investment in urban infrastructure,

3.4

One

of the

Industrial and Infrastructure Inyestment

3.5

According to CMIE data, the total investments proposed in Karnataka in infrastructure (power, roads, railways, shipping, airways and telecom) and manufacturing industries and services, as of March 1999, was Rs, 68,285 crore (Table 4.7). Out of the above, 55 per cent was for infrastructure (Rs 37564 crore) and 45 per cent for manufacturing and service sectors. The status of the prolects (Table 4.8) indicates that out of 260 projects, 72 have been completed, 85 are under implementation, while 103 have been proposed. Investments seem to be clustering in ceftain districts of the state. Dakshin Kannad District of the Coastal

Karnataka is emerging as the most preferred location followed by Bangalore(U), Bellary and Mysore districts. As regard investment in manufacturing and service sectors are concerned, the investments account for 77 per cent of the total investment in the districts of Dakshin Kannad (360/o), Bellary(2s%) and Bangalore (U) (16%). Given these trends, the Coastal Region is poised to leap fonarard in industrial development, while Bangalore(U) will continue to attract investments stimulating its further growth,

t78

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Kamataka

Table 4.7: Investments proposed in infrastructure, manufacturing and services, 1999
Rs

in crore

I
z
3

4
5

Banqalore Urban Banqalore Rural Belgaum Bellary
Bidar

5875.8 0.0 1533.6
1542.3
51lJ.

t5.64
0.00 4.08

4.tL
0.92 2.26 0.00 0.97
29.45

I

7 8
9 10

Biiapur Chikmagalur Chitradurga Dakshin Kannad Dharwad
Gulbarga Hassan Kodagu

847.6 0.0 366.0 11061.6

4833.8 1259,8 301.8 7689.4 61.6 206.0
L2.0
0

t5.73
4.L0 0.98 25.03 0.20 0.67 0.03
U

10709.6 1259.8 1835.4 923L.7 408.3 1053.6
12.0

15.68 1.84

2.69
13.51

0.59
1.54 0.01

11031.8
552.2

35.90

2723.t
48L.7

7.25
1,28

r.79
4.65 0.23 0.00 0.26 0,28 6.89 1,38 0.15 0,86 0.78

366.0 22093.4 3275.3

1t
L2

13

t4
15

Kolar
Mandya Mysore

IO

t7
18 19

Raichur
Shimoga

20

Tumkur Uttar Kannad

767.5 0,0 JJJ.U 565.0 5L76.9 2383.0 53.9 0.0 3505.0

2.04 0.00 0.89

I,JU
13.78

1431.0 72.7 0.0 82.8 88.6 2118.9
425.0

6.34 0.14 0,00 9.33

r9L2.7 840.2 0.0 4L6.6 o)5.o 7295.8 2808.0
101.7

0.s3 32.35 4.79 2.80
L,Z5

0.00
U,

OI

0.9s
10.68

47.8 265.0 24L.0

Total

37563.s
(55olo)

265.0 3746.0

4.11 0.14 0,38 5.48

100.00

3072t.2
(45o/ol

100.00

Source: CAPEX Guide to new Business Opportunities, Industry

Cnfi

68284.7 (100o/o)

100.00

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constituting 76.0Lo/o of the state's urban popuiation as against 9.02 million with 64.850/o of the total urban population in 1991.

Table 4.9: Population of Urban Corridors

15,16,477 Coastal Corridor (Mangalore - Udupi

34,0t,t54
16.09,415

8,r5,740
2,06.66,474

Source: Census of fndia, 7997 * Poected

Table 4.10: Administrative Status of Urban Corridors

Bangalore - Belgaum Mysore-BangaloreKolar (excluding Bangalore) Coastal Corridor (Mangalore-Udupi3 Karwar) Source: Census of India, 7997
1

3

11

36
ZU

58

1

8

119 36

4

1

4

4

1

1

9

J

0

I

18

CC

-

NAC

-

City Corporation, CMC - City Municipal CounciL TMC - Town Municipal Council NMCT Notified Area Committee, MP - Mandal Panchayal OG - Outgrowth

-

Non-Municipal Census Town,

North-South Urban Corridor
Bangalore - Belgaum Corridor extending towards Pune in the North (Belgaum-Hubli-DharwadDavangere-Hiriyur-Tumkur-Bangalore). The concentration of population is predominant in the North South corridor (Bangalore Belgaum) with 66.89 lakh population constituting 48.08% of total urban population of the state in 1991. The corridor is spread in 7 districts, covering 3 city corporations, and 11 city municipal councils, apart from several town municipal councils and non-municipal census towns. The two SPURs suggested by NCU are likely to emerge as two distinct North-South and East-West corridors without any gap. The NATMO study on urban corridors based on 1991 Census, will also get modified as there is likely to be no gap between the portion terminating at Bhadravati and Bangalore. It is likely that a poly-nodal urban corridor with nodes as metropolitan, large and medium cities will emerge rather than sparsely located urban centres.

4.5

-

-

182

IIIT IUIURT ||T URBAIIISAII|III

Karnataka

East- West U rba n Corridor

4.6

Mysore-Bangalore-Kolar corridor extending towards Chennai in the east along with Kolar, Hosekote, Bangalore, Ramanagaram, Mandya and Mysore will have a strong potential for its linkage to Chennai. It had a population of about 15,16 lakh in 1991 and will increase to 34.01 lakh by 202t i.e., 12.51% of the state's urban population. This corridor passes through 4 districts covering 1 city corporation and 4 city municipal councils besides several non-municipal towns as per 1991 Census.

Coastal Corridor

4.7

The NATMO's recommendations do not include a coastal corridor. An urban corridor identical to SPUR from Mangalore to Karwar along the National Highway is likely to emerge, This had a population of of 8.16 lakh in 1991 and it is likely to double to 16.09 lakh in 2021 with 5.92olo of the state's urban population. The corridor covers 3 districts with 1 municipal committee and 1 city municipal council and several non-municipal towns as per 1991 Census.
NCU,

Urbanising Regions

4,8
O

Two urbanising regions are likely to emerge in addition to the above urban corridors:
Hospet-Bellary-Raichur: This Region is similar to the SPUR suggested by NCU. Bijapur-Gulbarga-Bidar: This region will emerge as an urbanising region instead of an urban corridor extending upto Bidar (as suggested in NATMO study).

B C.
4.9

SPURs- NCU/ URBAN CORRIDORS- NATMO
The National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) in its recommendations on Spatial
Hospet-Bellary-Raichur Tumkur-Bangalore-Hosur-Mysore-Mandya Belgaum-Hubli-Dharwad-Davengere-Harihar Ratnagiri-Goa-Karwar-Mangalore Priority

Urbanisation Regions (SPURS) include the following SPURs in Karnataka:

1. 2.

3. 4,

4.10 Later, National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO), published a map on Urban Corridors in India, based on a study on 1991 Census, which gives the following urban corridors in
Karnataka with the range of urbanisation level as indicated below (Table 4,11). Map 4.4 indicates the two corridors identified by NATMO in addition to the SPURs suggested by NCU.

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Table 4.11: Urban Corridors of Karnataka and Urbanisation Level, 1991

Hubli

-

Dharwad
15

Source : National Atlas Thematic Mapping (NATMO

)

1993

-

25; >50

4.11 The corridors identified in this study (Map 4.5) reflect near similarity to the corridors identified by NATMO as well as SPURs by NCU (Map 4.4). The corridors now emerging are continuous along the
transport routes, unlike NATMO's identified corridors, which were not continuous throughout the transport routes. The SPURs recommended by NCU along transport routes provide for the continuity of the corridors, if taken into consideration.

184

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A.
5.1

SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE

The poly-nodal settlements in the transport corridors would be the destination for future investments and economic activities. The physical growth of the poly-nodal centres will take place along the transport axis, over spilling the boundaries of formal municipal jurisdictions. If the urban corridors are not recognised, then the implication will be of sparsely located creeping sprawl of settlements which may not be a continuous development. If these corridors are recognised, then a poly-nodal structure in the form of metros/urban centres will emerge on the corridors. This will need various planning approaches to prescribe the functions of the Nodes as well as the intervening spaces, thereby establishing a functional settlement system in the urban corridors. Apart from Bangalore metro city, the corridors will include some of the emerging new metropolitan cities such as Mysore, Hubli-Dharwad, Mangalore, Belgaum located on both the North-South and East-West urban corridors. The corridors would thus include metros which would be multimunicipal entities. How do we deal with planning, provide infrastructure, address the environmental issues, and management and governance aspects of the emerging urbanised spaces in the corridors require fuller consideration in the context of future urbanisation in the state. Coastal Karnataka is fast emerging as a corridor. In this corridor, urban and industrial growth is concentrated along a narrow coastal strip, 300 km long, from Mangalore to Karwar in the north. Along the coast line, there are 21 minor ports, a medium size harbour at Karwar, a fishing harbour at Malpe, and a major deep sea harbour at Mangalore. The new Konkan Railway connecting Mangalore with Mumbai is expected to promote further impetus to urban growth and industrial expansion. The existing National Highway passing through Mangalore and Karwar to Mumbai is already providing access to the major industries. There is a need for preparing a Coastal Environmental Management Plan for protecting the ecosystem and conservative use of natural resources for this corridor. Two urbanising regions have been suggested, namely, Hospet-Bellary-Raichur; and Bijapur-GulbargaBidar, The Hospet-Bellary-Raichur urbanising region was identified by the NCU as a Spatial Priority Urbanisation Region (SPUR), The trend based projections indicate that there would be 5 Class I cities and another 5 Class II towns in this region by 202t AD. BUapur-Gulbarga-Bidar are located in the backward region as being developed by the Karnataka government. All the above three nodes are Class I cities and have experienced high growth rate varying from 31% to 66% during the decade 1981-91. Based on the growth rate of 1981-91, the cities in terms of population are expected to grow by three times the population size in 1991, with aggregate population of 6.44 lakh for all the three cities to 18.22 lakh in 2021. The high growth rates indicate their potential for development.

5.2

5.3

Land Utilisation

5.4

Land is a vital resource, which is consumed to accommodate the growing population. Land is also a non-renewable resource, once convefted to habitation use is generally non-retrievable. It would, therefore, categories

be useful to discuss the prevailing pattern of land utilisation i.e., the extent of land under different of use. The pressure of land is bound to increase with the growth of population giving risg to competing claims on land for various uses such as urbanisation, infrastructure, industries, agriculture, pasturing and forestry. A broad land use pattern of the state along with the emerging urban corridors is
depicted in the Map 4.6.

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185

Karnataka

Table 4.12: Land Utilisation Pattern of Karnataka (1970

-

1993)
000 hectares

Land under Forest Land not available for cultivation a. Land put to nonagricultural uses b. Barren and unculturable

2890

t5.26

3033

15.92

3075

16.74

4.95

4.36

938 839

4.95 4.43

1066

5.60 4.43 8.87 65.18 100.00

1204
801 0

6.32

13.65

13.01

844

4.20
0.00 73.34 100.00

0.60

0.03

land
1930 10.19 1689 c. Others 12346 724t8 Land under cultivation 65.17 18943 100.00 190s0 Repofting Area Source: CMIE, India's Agricultural Sector, luly 7996 13970 19050

0.58

0.02

The present land utilisation pattern of Karnataka for L970-7t, 1980 -81 and 1992-93 are given in Table 4.12 above. In 1992-93, land reported under non-agricultural uses was 1.20 million hectares compared to 1.07 million hectares in 1980-81. The growth rate of land put to non-agricultural uses was thus about 13% while the urban population of Karnataka increased from 10.73 million to 13.91 million during 1981-91 recording a growth rate of 29.64 per cent. This is indicative of the growth concentrating in existing urban areas with sparse development of their peripheries.

5.5

B.
5.6

REGIONALINFRASTRUCTURE
Regional Infrastructure such as power, roads, railways, telecommunications, are required

for

rapid

economic development. Urbanisation in itself is an important factor stimulating demand for regional infrastructure. When regional infrastructure capacity as well as supply is inadequate in rapid urbanising areas, it will lead to serious constraints on economic development. For industrial development, well functioning network of regional infrastructural services is a prerequisite. Such development demands quality services with assured reliable supplies.

Power
The total installed capacity of power in the state was 2,985 MW and the total energy generated was 12,041 million units in 1990-91. It is estimated that by 2001, the demand for power in the state would be 6,630 MW, with an annual energy requirement of 34,846 million units. The planned availability is expected to be around 5,529 MW, with an annual energy availability of 28,872 million units. Thus, the deficits are likely to be of the order of 16.5 per cent in demand and 17 per cent in energy supply. The Karnataka Power Corporation has added 600 MW capacity in 1999. With the upcoming KPC Bidadi Power Corporation's 300 MW Naphtha based project, the gap between demand and supply in the state is expected to be bridged by the year 2001. This will further boost the investments in industries by the private sector. Roads Karnataka has 128,900 kms of roads including 1,968 kms of National Highways. The highway network is inadequate, as it is only 1.60 per cent of the total road network while the state highways constitute 9 per cent. The central government has decided to strengthen and improve National Highway system through upgradation of the National Highways on the Golden Quadrangle, linking Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Calcutta. Development of North-South and East-West corridors will be incorporated in the
186
IHT TUIURT ||1 UBBAIIISAII|lII

5.7

5.8

Karnataka

alignment of the Golden Quadrangle supplemented by additional work along North-South and East-West expansion with four laning. The proposed upgradation of the National Highways as well as likely proposal for expressways, as falling in Karnataka, has been shown on the Map 4.3. The construction of the Bangalore-Mysore expressway is progressing. The completion of the bypass to Hubli has enabled connections to major cities.

Railways
The rail network in Karnataka was 3,090 kms including broad gauge, metre gauge and narrow gauge in 1990-91. The state has been persuing to have all the trunk routes on broad gauge, so that a faster and economical broad gauge fosters economic development. As a result of its efforts, a number of sections have already been converted to broad gauge.

5.9

Telecommunacations

5.10 Telecommunlcations is one of the prime support services needed for rapid growth of the economy. This sector has grown rapidly in recent years. With the announcement of the National Telecom Policy in May 1994, efforts are being made to make available telephone on demand and cover all settlements. The private sector is playing an impoftant role in achieving this objective.

C.

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES

water Supply
is a limiting envelope in Karnataka. Though there is 100 per cent coverage of urban areas by drinking water, the overall urban water supply in the state is not adequate, with as many as 143 towns having a supply of less than 70 lpcd much below the minimum recommended norm. The recommended Ievels are 100 lpcd, 80 lpcd and 70 lpcd for City Corporations, City Municipal Councils, and Town Municipal Councils and Town Panchayats. Poor water supply and inequitable distribution characterises the situation in

5,11 Water

most of the towns making the poor most vulnerable to health risks. Karnataka Urban Water Supply and Drainage Board is the state organisation for the execution of water supply and drainage schemes in urban areas of the state, except Bangalore. The Board had launched 17 new schemes to augment the water supply in various towns.

5.12 The most pressing problem of Bangalore is that of water supply. Bangalore gets a supply of

540

million litres of water per day, of which one-third is consumed by industries. The remaining 360 mld works out a domestic consumption of 76 lpcd for a population of 4.13 million (much below the national norm) recommended for City Corporations by State Finance Commission. For the likely population of 7 million in 2001, the per capita availability will be much less. The 4'n stage of Cauvery Water Supply Scheme envisages an additional quantity of 540 mld of water into two phases. The project is estimated to cost Rs. L072 crore and is expected to add 270 mld of water in its first phase to the existing supply thereby improving the per capita supply. There are definite constraints on increasing the quantum of water supply because water is pumped to the city from the Cauvery River, 100 km away and 1000 ft below the elevation of Bangalore, In the long run, water will surely be one of the limiting factors for Bangalore. There is a need to take up wastewater recycling for supply of water to industrial consumers. Like Bangalore, Belgaum also falls short of the per capita norm of 100 lpcd.

5.13 The problem of ground water exploitation is acute in Bangalore urban and rural districts where about
50 per cent of the state's large and medium scale units are located resulting in over-exoloitation of ground water, encroachment of prime agricultural land and in-filling of water bodies and tanks.

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5.14 The Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is responsible for all aspects of water supply and sewerage in Bangalore metropolitan area. But neither the BWSSB Act nor the Karnataka Municipal Corporations Act provide for integrated management of sewerage, sanitation and solid waste, as well as control of environmental pollution. The responsibility for control of environmental pollution vests with Karnataka State Pollution Control Board. Thus there are three separate authorities functioning under different laws making integrated management of the above three services difficult in the metropolitan area. A reference may be made to Gujarat Municipal Corporation Act empowering the Municipal Corporations to have an integrated management of all the three services. The BWSSB Act also does not confer power on the Board for the control of exploitation of ground water.
to explore alternative methods to help augment as well as conserve water. The options include recycling of water which can be used for industrial and non-domestic purposes, The treatment plants put up by BWSSB cover only the primary and secondary stage. If the treatment is extended up to territory stage, it should be possible to use the treated effluent for non-domestic purposes. The next option is rainwater harvesting which can improve the ground water around the many tanks existing in the

5.15 It

is essential

Bangalore metropolitan area. The use of water can also be reduced by water conservation strategies, There is also a need to check wastages, leakages and unaccounted water supply. Much of the Southern Karnataka is desperately short of water. The Coastal Region is most severely afFected by lack of safe water supply with saline intrusion. The per capita water supply vary from 8 lpcd in Kundapura to 130 lpcd in Dandeli. The entire region suffers from low coverage of water supply. The heavy reliance on bore wells is becoming problematic due to increasing levels of ground water pollution as well as saline intrusion. The households experience severe shortages and depend on expensive water from vendors.

5.16

Sanitation

5.17 Very few cities in the state have underground sewerage systems. The large City Corporations of Bangalore and Mysore have sewerage system. Other cities and towns like Gulbarga, Hubli-Dharwad,
Mangalore, Davanagere, Udipi and few others have paftial system.

Solid Waste Management

5.18 In most towns, the disposal of garbage poses a problem. The arrangements for collection
sites have exceeded and their locations are too close negative health impacts.

and

disposal of garbage are inadequate and are being carried out in a rudimentary manner. Hazardous wastes and wastes from hospitals are also disposed off at landfill sites. The capacities of existing waste disposal

to

urban areas. This is directly contributing to

Bangalore generates about 2000 metric tonnes of solid waste and the magnitude of hazardous waste is growing. Although collection efficiency in Bangalore is high (68%), it is around 50 per cent in smaller towns, The uncollected solid waste fills open spaces, drains and roads and is a major cause of the insanitary conditions and diseases. In Bangalore, the disposal is through sanitary landfill in the city's outskirts. Composting as method of disposal is limited. With a large number of hospitals, dispensaries and nursing homes, a lot of hospital waste is generated in Bangalore city. Disposal of hospital waste is an area that is yet to receive adequate priority. Bangalore requires a comprehensive solid waste management plan,

5.19

with community involvement for waste collection and disposal, house-to-house collection, recovery of
resources and compost from waste.

188

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D.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Water

going to b€ limited' This is a serious constraint 5.20 The availability of water resources for urban areas is seirch f91 new and unpolluted sources will looming large on the horizon. As the state utUanisii, thJ per is consumed for domestic use with 30 to 40 continue. W6hin urban areas, 60 to 70 per cent of watir growing faster industrial and commercial uses are cent going to inclustry, commercial and other uses. The more preclous' than iom-estic use. Water for domestic use would become and polluting water sources' Since 60 to Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation are both exhausting pollution is a direct threat to public 70 per cent of drinking water is drawn from surface sources, iheir

5.21

intrusion of saline water in coastal health. As far as ground water is concerned, over-exploitation and Karnataka is becoming a serious problem.

Allocation policies and 5.22 Recenuy, an important shift in thinking is on managing the demand. for different sectors' The urban mechanisms are required to address the ever-increasing watei demands

*.t"iirppfv

Poor tariffs has aiso been affected by poor pricing policies and operational arrangements. have an adverse effect on water use and conservation' and to ensure as 5.23 There is a need to look at water supply and sanitation in an integrated manner for fresh water. There are various much wastewater is reused or recycled so as to bring down demand metering, water options available to conserve water-leak detection and preventive maintenance, treatment to meet conservation at household level and reuse and recycling of water after necessary industrial requirements.

Wastewater and Sanitation

5.24 Ot the total wastewater generated in most cities, only partial wastewater is collected and of what is of the collected, only a part goes th-rough some form of treatment. In Bangalore, nearly three-fourth

large, the wastewater gbnerateO is collected and has primary and secondary treatment facilities. By and Wastewater management is a serious problem in mode of disposal is on agricultural land and into rivers. major cities of the state. The waste water management should emphasise the importance of water conservation and wastewater reclamation and reuse in cities' rubber tyres Mysore city, there are a variety of industries like automobile, textile, paper, chemical, it into the main sewerage system, and fertiliser. They generate large amount of wastewater and discharge is responsible for and in the peripheral areas into the rivers. The investigations have revealed that Mysore for irrigation heavy metal pollution through electroplating waste. Effluents of some industries are utilised prrpor"r. Irrigation with el6ctroplating waste is very undesirable. This example indicates that industrial can be met. This wastes should not be discharged into iewers unless standards of the discharged effluent

5,25 In

provide common effluent may require industries of sim]hr category to be spatially concentrated so as to treatment plant to make them cost effective.

Air Pollution 5.26 Air pollution due to various factors has come to stay in urban areas with its environmental concerns. and domestic Bangalore city is no exception. In Bangalore, air pollution is caused by industrial, commercial
causing large-scale air souices. The point sources of pollution are mainly large and medium scale industries non-point. Small-scale industries burning emissions, while vehicular exhausts constitute the most dominant
189

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up..fuel for processing, hotels and households using cooking fuels are some other sources. The routine pollutants in urban air inciude sulphur dioxide, nihogen oxidJs and suspended particulate matter, Besides, there is a severe threat from a range of othei toxins such as carbon monoxide, lead, benzene, hydrocarbons etc.

and nitrogen oxides had shown increasing trend. The major vehicular pollutanti comprjsed of carbon monoxide, hydro-carbons and oxides oF_nitrogen with a percentage distribution of 64.2, zs.a a;d-g.o"pi, ..nt respectively in 1994 (CPCB). Pollution from the increasing number of vehicles, particularly traro a'nO tnree wheelers is a serious concern for air pollution and is.likely-to seriously undermine public health. The city,s growth, vehicular population increase, transport inadequacies and rojd infrastructure - all have a bearrng on air pollution in and around Bangalore city.

5'27 The ambient air quality monitoring by the Karnataka Pollution control Board in Bangalore during 1985-89 indicated that the suspended particulate matter was within timits, but sutphur ;i;;iJ.

Vulnerability Areas

5'28 The Government of-India in the Ministry of Urban Development, has prepared a Vulnerability Agas of India, as a follow-up of the Yokohama Strategy for Safei worid: Guidelines
Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation, which contains the following hazard maps:

for

National Disaster

1. Earth Quake Hazard Map 2. Wind & Cyclone Hazard Map 3. Flood Hazard Map
Based on the above Atlas, the hazard areas have been identified in the state.

Hazard Areas:rhe coastal districts of Karnataka upto about 4g kms from the shore rs indicated as moderate damage risk zone, which falls in parts of Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannacla districts along with urban centres of Mangalore, udupi and Karwar. Some parts of Belgaum, Shimoga, Chikmagalur, Kodagu, Hassan and Mysore districts fall under low damage risk zone. The iemaining areas fall under very low damage risk zone. An earthquake was reported i'n 1843 in Bellary oistrict"witn a magnitude of 6'0 on Richter scale while Tumkur was affected with a magnitude of 5.0 on Richter scale in
1919.

5'29 Eafth Quake

5'30 wind and

Bidar, Gulbarga and some parts of Raichur district) is indicated as moderate damage risk zone remaining districts are covered under low damage risk zone.

cyclone Hazard Areas: The entire coastal belt upto about 65 kms from the shore (i.e., - g wnite tne

5'3t Flood and Drought prone areas: Mangalore, Udupi, Gulbarga, Bidar and Raichur districts fall under drought prone areas.
5'32 As a long term policy, location of future urbanising areas and expansion of existing cities and towns must be taken into consideration along with various vuinerable areas in order to minimise loss of life anct property from natural hazards. The vulnerability atlas can be a quite useful tool to identify areas vulnerable to natural disasters. Land use tools such.as zoning, building codes need to be used to reduce risk from natural hazards. The hazard consciousness, organisational itructure at the national, state and municipal agencies to deal with potential of damaging housing stock and related infrastructure need to have prepareclness, and capacity for timely mitigation measures aimed at reducing physical, economic and social
190

IIIT fUIUNT

OT

UNXATFAN|IT

Kamataka

up techno-legal regime for vulnerability to threats. There is a need for formulation of a strategy for setting of the area' enforcing dlsaster resistant construction and zoning of land use based on vulnerability

E.

INVESTMENTREQUIREMENT

Norms of Urban Infrastructure Services 5.33 The investment requirement depends upon the norms and standards formulated for provision, operation and maintenance of municipal services. At the national level, very few financial norms and standards are available for provision of urban infrastructure and services. The impoftant among them are:

a.
b.

Norms as suggested by Zakaria Committee (ZC) Norms as suggested by Planning Commission (PC) Norms as suggested by Operations Research Group (ORG)

c.

Among these only Zakaria Committee has suggested norms for O&M of core municipal services. Out of six core services, (i.e. Water Supply, Sewerage, Drainage, Solid Waste Disposal, Roads and Street lighting), the ORG have suggested per capita financial investment norms only for water supply and sewerage. As these norms are not comparable with Zakaria Committee and Planning Commission norms, these have not been utilised to compute fiscal requirement for provision of core services of the state'

5.34 It has been estimated that by the year 2001, the urban local bodies of Karnataka would require an investment in basic infrastructure and services in the range of Rs.1907 to Rs.2572 crores, according to norms proposed by the Planning Commission. On the other hand, financial requirements will be around Rs. 1709 crores, if the municipal government adopt standards laid down by the Zakaria Committee. This financial requirement of Planning Commission (high range) relates to 2001 population which is likely to be
around 18 million. Therefore financial requirement for 202t at 1995 prices will be about Rs. 3885 crores for the projected 27.19 million urban population in Karnataka.

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6.1

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74T'{ CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT ACT

Karnataka has amended the Municipal Acts to meet the requirement of the 74th Constitution Amendment but no major amendments have been made in the existing legal frameworks. The urban local bodies (ULBs) in Karnataka are governed by the Karnataka Municipal Corporations Ad, L976, and the Karnataka Municipalities Act, 1964, and the Amended Act of 1994. Now ULBs have been reconstituted into a four-tier system: City Corporations with a population of more than 3 lakh, City Municipal Councils with a population of 50,000 and above, and Town Municipal Councils with a population of 20,000 and above, and Town Panchayats with not less than 10,000 population. There are 215 urban local bodies in the state comprising 6 City Corporations, 40 City Municipal Counciis, 81 Town Municipal Councils and 88 Town Panchayats. Additional functions have been assigned to ULBs by the Amendment Act, 1994. Many of the functions assigned to the municipalities are being discharged by sectoral agencies; impotant among them are town planning and land use regulation, water supply and slum clearance. The State Finance Commission has expressed the view that all the functions of the Twelfth Schedule should be performed by municipal bodies and not by other agencies,

Functional Domain and Local Autonomy The functional domain prescribed under the 12th schedule in the Constitution Amendment is of discretionary nature. This has led to the perpetuation of the present position and patchwork amendments. The Karnataka government is yet to vest town planning functions to the municipalities and lay down the functions of wards committees in the acts. The functions and responsibilities of the wards committees are not defined in the Acts but are contained in the draft rules published under Karnataka Municipal Corporations Act, 1976. The amendment to legislation relating to special purpose agencies and town planning laws reflecting the thrust of the 12s schedule is yet to be initiated, The role of parastatals and fragmentation of responsibility thus continue in the state. The parastatals are controlled more or less directly by the state government, and cannot be considered to be autonomous. It is necessary to clarify the functions to be performed by municipalities of different sizes and do away with overlapping discharge of same functions by state depaftments/parastatals and the municipal bodies. ClariW of functions and territorial jurisdictions are also important to ensure accountability to the electorate and eliminate the encroachment on the municipal domain by state and city agencies.

6.2

Multiplicity of Agencies

6,3 At the state level, the multiplicity of institutions dealing with urban services and planning has posed a constraint to an effective management. In Bangalore, municipal - related functions are spread across a multiplicity of agencies. These include: the Bangalore City Corporation, Bangalore Development Authority (BDA), Karnataka Housing Board, Karnataka Slum Clearance Board, Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation, Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Karnataka Water Supply and Sewerage Board for the peripheral areas and City Municipal Councils under the BDA, the Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development (BMRDA) and Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Finance and Development Corporation. The continued fragmentation and duplication of municipal functions by multiple agencies, not accountable to the public, undermine effective urban service delivery, overlapping jurisdictions and conflicts, There is a need to review the functions of these agencies and streamline their functions with due regard to the status of local bodies as units of local self-government. The State Finance Commission (SFC) 1996 has recommended that " all functions of urban development boards constituted in the state should be brought
192
Tltt fltruR: 0t uRBAlllsATl0ll

Karnataka

functions of the Bangalore Development under the jurisdiction of the respective municipal bodies. Even the to Bangalore City Corporation' They can Authority and Town ptanning Oiganisation have to be transferred not function independently hereafter." Gaps and Co-ordination

There are gaps and duplications in planning and provision of services, For instance in Bangalore, there are three enactment (iown Planning Act, BMRDA Act, BDA Act) for achieving the objectives of planned development. The fringe areas are administered by different agencies' This has led to fragmented administration and unauthorised development and constructions in the peripheral areas, Except the pollution Control Board's efforts to control water and air pollution, the implementation of the environmental management strategy is not taken as the responsibility of various organisations under the urban development department, although the State Minister for Urban Development is the Vice Chairman of the state body for environment.

6.4

Problems of Co-ordination

6.5

the Town Planning Department or Development Authority before approving layouts. The relevant laws, such as those relating to BDA and BMRDA in Bangalore, need to introduce clarity in responsibility for coordination and planning permissions within and outside the municipal limits. The agencies like BDA and BMRDA should have power to co-ordinate investment planning, environmental management and take up advocacy of large city needs at higher levels. At the state level, institutions like Karnataka Urban Infrastructure Development Finance Corporation (KUIDFC), Directorates of Town Planning and Municipal Administration should work together in the prioritisation and convergence of investment needs with linkages to the approved urban investment strategy etc. There is thus a need to initiate an action plan for legal changes, develop co-ordination mechanisms for various activities as well as investments.

Considerable power to approve development of land vests with the Revenue Department in terms of conversion order and alienation of land to the non-agriculturists under the land legislation. Planning powers are weak outside the planning area. The village panchayats generally do not always seek permission from

B.
6.6

ROLE OF LOCAL BODIES

IN

FUTURE URBAN GROWTH

Under the 74th Constitution Amendment, municipalities have been made responsible for protection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects. This requires a clear assignment of the above functions to municipalities having due regard to their traditional functions as well as the role of the existing state environmental agencies. It would be important to enlarge the scope of the traditional municipal functions to

include environmental management in addition to pollution issues related to household energy, industry and transpoft, waste recycling, resource utilisation and sustainability. Municipalities should continue to perform traditional environmental management functions relating to water supply, sanitation, solid waste management and community health. The municipalities would continue to perform licensing functions for premises used for several non-residential functions. Improvement of environment at the local level requires incorporation of environmental standards and norms in the urban planning process. In the context of policies for economic liberalisation and delicensing of industries, environmental guidelines have become much more important for guiding their location. The role of local government in the task of dealing with noxious effluents of the industry would become equally important. The local bodies can become a major player in registering the polluting industries so that pollution profile of cities can be mapped,

61

The municipal laws would need to be amended with a view to provide for the following: (1) the new role of local government in management of urban environment, (2) the new imperatives for measuring

tff flfiuil

0I

unlfllls[il0l

193

Karnataka

quality of living and work environment, (3) the new responsibilities for monitoring of pollution levels and for undeftaking health risk assessments, and (4) the involvement of community based organisations.
Local authorities require a wide range of skills and capabilities to deal with environmental planning and urban service delivery. Skills are needed in the areas of water supply, sanitation, drainage, solid waste management, ground water protection and air pollution. Unfortunately, most of the local bodies suffer from a low level of technical skill. There is also a need for citizen groups and NGO's to play a larger role in the monitoring of environmental impact and their collaboration needs to be established by the local bodies.

6.8

C.
6.9

ROLE OF STATE AND SECTORAL AGENCIES

The key actors crucial to urban environmental management are the central and state governments, urban local bodies, private and popular sector. At the state level, the Department of Environment and Forests performs executive functions similar to that of Ministry of Environment and Forests at the cenrre. Town and Country Planning Directorate is entrusted mainly with the task of preparing development plans for urban areas of the state and enforcing zoning regulations. The State Pollution Control Board plans ano executes state-wide programmes for prevention and control or abatement of water and air Dollution and ensure compliance with provisions of relevant Acts. At the same time other levels and agencies of the state and central governments are also involved in this task. For any effort towards improving urban environment to succeed, various different agencies will have to be brought together. Environmental planning and management at the state level should focus on selecting policy instruments to meet pollution control, waste management and land management in urban areas. A combination of several instruments such as pricing, taxation, regulation, investment, etc., would be needed. Public support will have to oe mobilised for application of these instruments. The constitutional amendment stipulates environmental tasks such as allocation of natural resources between rural and urban areas for the District planning Committees and Metropolitan Planning Committees. These tasks are inter-jurisdictional in nature and can be performed only through a collaborative and inter-institutional arrangement. These committees are representative in character with representation from the state level agencies. In metropolitan city of Bangalore, several organisations are involved in urban management. However, there can be no escape from this situation as different agencies perform various tasks which are different in nature. The MpC for Bangalore need to be constituted to address the problems of environmental protection having crosssectoral dimensions. The responsibilities for management of urban environment would thus have to oe shared between the central, state and local governments consistent with their capacities.

D.

METRO AREAS AND METROPOLITAN PLANNING COMMITTEES

5.10 The Bangalore Metropolitan Area comprises Bangalore City Corporation (BCC),7 City Municipal Councils (Yelahanka, Byatarayanapura, Krishnarajapura, Bommanahalli, Dasarahalli, Pattanagere, Mahadevapura) and 1 Town Municipal Council (Kengeri). The fragmentation of the metropolitan fringe
beyond the Bangalore City Corporation limits has recently been reduced by abolishing the Sanitary Boarcs and Notifi'ed areas and consists of seven Ci$ Municipal Councils and one Town Municipal Council, as indicated above. It covers an area of 1280 sq km, of which BCC has a jurisdiction over an area of 223 sq km, Of ihe total 1280 sq km of Bangalore Metropolitan Area, 780 sq km is earmarked as 'Green Belt' and 500 sq knt as 'Conurbation Area'. Bangalore Metropolitan Area is facing major management problems particularly in the context of its multi-municipal situation, besides emergence of a number of specialised agencies established for specific functions. The Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) is the Planning Authority for the metropolitan area which includes all municipal areas and the periphery, and is also a line agency responsible for land development and housing construction, on the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) model. BDA prepares devqlopment plans under the lbwn and Country Planning Act. The Bangalore L94

ilII ruruNt ||T URBAIIIEAII||II

Kamataka

programming and coMetropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) is a strategic planning, thus ordinating agenJy for orderly development'of Bangalore Metropolitan Region (8,000 sq km), and with limited success in achieving co-ordination between pertormsha-nagement functions. BMRDA has met
various agencies.

6.11 Managing growth in the metropolitan cities is not just an inter-municipal issue but also.invoMes several deplrtments anO agencies of central and state governments. The size, scale and complexity of problems in a metropolitan area like Bangalore are such that it is impossible to put all the tasks and agencies within a single organisation. Because the tasks are numerous, multiple organisations for their
discharge become inevitable, Such a agglomeration itself needs a metropolitan wide perspective, planning, advocaiy and action. Items like sources of water, disposal of waste, traffic and transport, drainage, abatement of air pollution etc., are examples where one city corporation, or a municipality alone cannot

deal with the problems by themselves in isolation. The Metropolitan Planning Committee has been envisaged under the Constitution Amendment, as an inter- governmental, inter-organisational collaborative forum with two-thirds of the members comprising elected representatives of the urban and rural segments of the metropolitan area and the remaining one - third as nominees of the state and central governments. The MPC is thus essentially a participatory and democratic platform for metropolitan planning which covers not merely physical planning but other related crucial aspects such as formulation of metropolitan vision, capital investment co-ordination and metropolitan level advocacy. MPC should be seen more as a continuing mechanism for harmonising policies, strategies and programmes of various agencies. The multimunicipal metropolitan area of Bangalore, where central and state government agencies have significant policy and investment role, has a critical need of a MPC. The MPC for Bangalore metropolitan area has not been set up so far. However, the Bangalore Agenda Task Forc€ has been constituted by the Chief Minister. This Task Force, besides Chairman and members, has representatives from business, science and technology and other fields, and deals with various civic issues of the city.

6.12 The reasons for not setting up an MPC in the state appears to be ambivalence and confusion about the purpose and the role of the MPC. There may be a perception that in case a separate MPC is established, it may undermine the role of Bangalore Development Authority as well as may result in its surplus staff. This may be a mistaken perception, The MPC is expected to be a high level, democratically set up body, which will bring to the whole exercise of metropolitan development planning a constitutional
mandate.

6.13 The role of both

BDA as a planning authority and BMRDA as an organisation performing planning and

coordination functions, needs to be reviewed in the context of setting up MPC for Bangalore metropolitan area. Since the MPC has to perform the function of preparing the development plan, there can not be too many planning bodies in Bangalore, The issue that arises is which of the two bodies - BDA or BMRDA could be made the technical secretariat of the MPC, on the same pattern as in Maharashtra, to make it more purposeful and accountable within the structure of urban governance, as envisaged in the Constitution Amendment. In Maharashtra, the Mumbai Metropolian Region Development Author.ity will assist the MPC in Mumbai in preparing the development plan, This approach has been recommended by central government and various expert bodies to utilise the technical resources of development authorities and make them more effective. The BMRDA should act as a professional body and assist the MPC in preparing the development plan as well as co-ordination.

E.

RURAL.URBAN INTEGRATION AND DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTEES

6.14 Between the fast urbanising and the intervening rural areas, there will be a variety of common problems like the sharing of water and natural resources, drainage and communication etc. Municipal,
TilT TUTURT OT URBIIIISATIOII

rvf
I & II.

Planning Commission Government of India, Ninth Five Year Plan 1997-2002, Vol. -

Rao B. Bhaskara and Rao M. Nageswara, t997, Urban Futures: Karnataka in ShelterA HUDCO-HSMI Publication. New Delhi.

Ravindra A, 2000, Creating

a

Well Governed and Managed CiU Case Study: Bangalore'

iltt rurunt 0t unBNrEAII0ll

t97

Karnataka

industrial and hazardous wastes are already spilling over into the watercourses in the rural areas. Such problems can not be seen in isolation and must be boked into from the point of view of the interrelationships of rural.and urban areas. This needs an urban-rural platform. The District planning Committee

;;'.ffi;j;;;iil;l,.;;ffi;

Karnataka

Sharma

I

P and Thippeswamy M N, Priuate Sector Participation in Bangalore Water Supply and Wastewater Sector.

The committee on urban Management of Bangalore city, tggT , Report submitted to the
Govern men t of Ka rnata ka.

Times of India, New Delhi, May

3t,

L999, pg.l2.

Times Research Foundation, 7992, Indias lJrban Environment vol.

I,u

&

III, calcutta.

Times Research Foundation, t992, Metropolitan Bangalore A Management Perspective, based on a Research Study Sponsored by BMRDA, Calcutta. Times Research Foundation, Seminar on Bangalore 20a0

0ctober9&10,1987,
New Delhi.

-

Some Imperatives for Actions Now,

Town and Country Planning Organisation (1995), lJrban and Regional Planning and Development in India,
Vagale L R, 1997, Trends in Urbanisation in India and Their Impact on Settlement Structure: Focus on Karnataka in 46th National Town & Country planners Congress.

198

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2t?

|

TAMIL NADU +
(<\

I r- .1a {,.n1. i ) l.i) X .lt 1r),1:r ,lr) & ,,'a.,jr)3f ,.il'r I i..: ir:,,'i] . 14) Ej .,: l: {il,r

*

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1,

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r

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i r

:

KARNATAKA
AANTICIPATEP CHAI\{GE IN LEVEL OF URBANISATION FROMI 1991

0

50
KILOMETRE

100

NEW DELHI

I

FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY
MAHARASHTRA
qs

p "t'

LEGEND State Boundary District Boundary

*
ta

State Capital District Headquarter

National Highway Proposed Expressway Golden Quadrangle NH - H.D. Corridor

/

ANDHRA PA RDES

.I
H

Ai|porls

I

I'
!E

Seaports lndustrial Estates

LU

a z 1
dT

tI

a

GroMh Centres

POPN- SIZE

t

( ) () .. ,,

ioooooo
100000 50000 20000

lnvestmenls {% to total) Infrastructufe & lndustfl es

TAMIL NADU

+

(s

t

t( t

I > 15 (upto 35) (2) (2) X l0 to 15 (l) 5 tolo ffi (4) ffi 2.s to 5 (10) n.25 [l No investment (])

Note Figures r. brackets rnd.ale
rumlrer
o,r

distrct. ia !ng r. that range

L l*.,. KARNATAKA

DISTRICTWISE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE & INDUSTRIES - 1999

:r A#

JUNE

2OO1

.o
KILOi'ETRE.

rool

CENTRE FOR POLICY RESEARCH
NEW DELHI

I rurunE oF uRBANlsATloN sruDY

,

i

'^ "r5r -.1-:''+",.. ,k;,'"^^
l'-\
Q*"^"*
'oo4". .roo

at-.

., -*- , -

-.woERsAD

LEGEND ,-

, . * . * -

State Boundary District Boundary

siate capital
District Headquarter Hailway National Highway

PA

DHRA
CLASS

a v
o
a

-

POPN. SIZE

1000000 100000 50000 20000

lllTfTJ !..L.]..IU

Spatiei Pr o.ity llibar. qeo ons (As per NaU)

- lg8d
1991

i-'::11:1 Urban Conidofs -

i;,.:i.::;l

(As pef hIATMO)

TAMIL NADU

+ $,o

(''',,
I
$e

t(

,^

c

KARNATAKA

SPATIAL PRIORITY I',|RBAN REGIONS. NCU URBAN CORRINORS - I{ATMO

FUTURE OF URBANISATION STUDY
MAHARASHTRA
.s

t
I

p "g

I
-.

LEGEND State Boundary District Boundary State Cepital Districi Headquarler Railway National Highway

.
* o *-. -----* a a)

Proposed Expressway Golden Quadrangle NH - H.D. Corridor
Industial Eslaleg
Growth Cantres

/

ANDHRA
rA
Ff

utr)

n

CLASS

,

POPN. SIZE

O
lll .

loooooo
100000 50000 20000

c o

SXtt

:,r:ri,i:r.:il

: r:. rl) ,):.,4,.::, :r,:ii!,

KARNATAKA

EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS & UNBAN REGIOhIS . 2021

CENTHE FOR POLICY RESEARCH
NEW DELHI

FUTURE OF URBANISATIOH STUDY

tj:

:l-

l

LEGE D

,
1 .';

Slat€ Boundary

Dbtricl Boundary

* .
,
i

Slate Capital

DistrictH€ad$.,arter
Raihflay Natio{ral Higbway

.- mm'
CIASS

.af

F,€rd f,rf.ir 6ir

.

POPN. SIZE

,

|

'o*ooo
10000c
5O0C0

.\ ii

:

r:

, i:P!

'".. -

"*l

{l ll t lll .
ili'..d------.,-,-O

- -T- .- r;r

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--.---s

r&e!!.a.{!:- "-, - - - - - - - - r/q .! *.:a&lt{€qe***'t.:l*..' ls!.tld.!c*- - - - -, - - - -- - " s 1* l ii{*isr..!ci " - - - - - -- -a A r..d!rt**l.4,- -... - - -.! i...r.is.&ar6q ---- -,.,,. tiii{i|a *,3dr*.*.....-.-''--.-'-"3 5*r&&!!n!r.*i - - -*.- - . -- -f

^-"---,----,t

-l

-*--___-rJ c",**... - -.-..- -*-. - ! ------- ----tJ
*r4{|- - - ----"-

----'------u - - - -- - -

ar

KARNATAKA
BROAD LAND USEAND EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

unBlilrslTr0x

illr unBil $$l0PtEilr GlllllHlcls lt NilDHRI PRNDTSH

Andhra Pradesh

r.t$ 0l G0llTtllrs

1 II. UI. IV.

Introduction

-

P.213

The State's Urbanisation: Trends and Issues New Geography of Investments

-

P' 274

-

P' 278

Spatial Manifestation of Economic Growth

-

P' 222

A. B. C. V. A. B. C. D. E. VL A. B. C. D. E. F.

Present SPatial Pattern - P' 222 Emerging Urban Corridors- P. 222 SPURs - NCU, Urban Corridors - NATMO - P' 224

Problems, Issues and Constraints

-

P. 225

Spatial Planning and Land Use - P. 225 Regional Infrastructure - P' 225 Urban Infrastructure Services - P. 227 Urban Environment - P' 228 Investment Requirements - P. 237

Urban Governance and Management- P.233
74th Constitution Amendment Act

Role of Local Bodies in Future Urban Growth P. Role of State and Sectoral Agencies P. 235

-

P. 233

Metro Areas and Metropolitan Planning Committees - P. 235 Rural Urban Integration and District Planning Committees - P' Managing Urban Corridors - P. 239

-

-

233 237

References- P.240

ilIT

TUIURT O! URBAIIISAII|lII

zLL

Andhra Pradesh

ltsl 0t llBlts
Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table
5.1 5.2 5.3

5.4
5.5

5.6 5.7 5.8
5.9

Urban Population Projections in Andhra pradesh for 202L _ p. 276 Level of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions _ tggL _ p. 216 Level of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions 2O2L - p. 276 Investments Proposed in Andhra pradesh in Infrastructure, Manufacturing and Service, 1999 - P. 220 Status of Projects - March Lggg - p. 22t Popufation of Urban Corridors - p. 223 Administrative Status of Urban Corridors - p. 224 Land Utilisation Pattern of Andhra pradesh (1970 -93) _ p. 226 District-wise Municipalities in Andhra pradesh - p. 23g

-

lt$

0t ttilP$
Level of Urbanisation and Urban Centres - 1991 p,241 Anticipated Change in Level of Urbanisation from 1991 - 2O2t _ p. 243 District-wise Investment in Infrastructure and Industries p. 248 Spatial Priority Urban Regions - NCU, Urban Corridors - NATMO _ p. 242 Emerging Urban Corridors and Urban Regions - 2O2L p. 24g Broad Land Use and Emerging Urban Corridors- p. 2Sl

Map 5.1 Map 5.2 Map 5.3 Map 5.4 Map 5.5 Map 5.6

212

I[T

FUTURT

|l; UNBATISAII||II

L tilil0llucil0]l
Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India, both in area and population. The area of the state is 2,75,045 sq km with a total population of 66.50 million (1991), growing at the rate of 2.42 per cent per annum. About 17.89 million or 26.90 per cent of the total population of the state lives in 213 UAs/towns (19e1). Andhra Pradesh is strategically located. It has the second longest coastline (1000 km) in the country, providing several gateways for international trade. It is within easy reach of major Indian metropolises Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai and Bangalore, The state also has emerging economic centres of national impoftance. Visakhapatnam, an important pod city, is the fastest growing metropolitan city while Hyderabad, the capital of the state, has the third highest growth rate among all the metropolitan cities in the country.

1.1

L.2

1.3 Andhra Pradesh has a great deal of agricultural wealth. It leads in the production of poultry, fruits and rice. Besides, it has got large reserves of oil and natural gas, both on-shore and off-shore. It abounds in iron ore, limestone and dolomite, beach sands, copper, manganese, lead, zinc and mica and other rare minerals. Infrastructure development is creating demand for the state's key minerals - coal and limestone, such as in power generation and construction. Andhra Pradesh is rapidly building up the Information Technology sector. The strength of its three regions - Telangana, Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema lies in their natural resources - Telangana in maize production and horticulture; Coastal Andhra with extensive coastline in industrial development; and Rayalseema in mining and quarrying. The three regions have the potential for development for location of related industrial activities by optimal utilisation of natural
resources.

This report seeks to stimulate consideration of the emerging urbanisation pattern, as a result of changes that are taking place in demography, economic activities in the wake of liberalisation, and more importantly, the spatial growth across the state of Andhra Pradesh. The report raises some key issues of concern in areas, namely, spatial manifestation of economic Arowth, infrastructure, environment, and urban governance and management for consideration, and setting a new strategic approach to the future of
urbanisation.

L.4

iltt tuI0Bt 0I uRBAlllsAil0ll

2t3

Andhra Pradesh

Tabfe 5.1: urban popuration projections in Andhra pradesh ror

2o2t

Source: Census of fndia, tgSt ana States 7996-2Ot6

ni

* Computed on the growth trend during 2011-16

District Level Projections

2'10 Trend based proJections indicate that by 2001, besides Hyderabad, which is already fully urbantsed, the level of urbanisation of the Rangareddy and Visakhapatnam districts will be more than 50 per cent. By 2011, Rangareddy will join the urbanisation level of Hyderabad. ey iozt, visakhapatnam *itn un urbanisation level of 82 per cent will closely catch up Hyderabad and'Rangareddy followed by Krisnna, cuddapa and Karimnagar becoming almost hali-urban fiible 5.2 and s.3) (rvap 5.1 and s.zl. r"tap s.z indicates the districts where the level of urbanisation will change significantly from 1991 to 2021, Table 5.2: Level of Urbanisation by Districts and Regions 1gg1

-

Mahbubnagar, Medak, Vizianagaram, East Godavari, West Godavari, Parkasam. Nellore Visakhapatnam, Krishna

Chittoor,
Anantapur

Cuddapah,

Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam

Table 5.3: Level of Urbanisation by Dastricts and Regions 2021

East Godavari. Vizianagaram, West Godavari, Parkasam

Medak, Warangal

Chittoor, Anantapur
Visakhapatnam, Krishna Hyderabad, Rangareddy,

2t6

ilt

TUIURT |lT URIAIIISATI|lII

Andhra Pradesh

Projections for Urban Centres

2.11 The proportion of urban population in Class I cities of the state has increased from 56.14 per cent in 1981 to 66.98 per cent in 1991. Assuming a similar growth trend as during 1981-91, it may be envisaged that there would be a total of 39 Class I cities by 200t, 57 by 2011 and 81 bV 2021 from the existing number of only 32 Class I cities as per 1991. Census. Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration has had a

consistently high growth rate since 1961. As per trend based population projections, Hyderabad UA may be about 10 million size while Visakhapatnam UA may exceed 3.5 million by 2021. Six cities viz., Vijayawada, Guntur, Warangal, Rajamundry, Cuddapah and Ramagundam may join the rank of metropolitan cities by 2021 (Map 5.2). Many new towns and cities will also emerge in the state.

IHT fUIUNT,|tT URBAIIISAII||II

2r7

Andhra Pradesh

H'*IH"#9Al#/lJAl-lJ;HEIi"*."*""*",,".,..,,..".."",'".-..--,".-*
Industrial Policy
In tune with liberalisation of economy, the locational policy has been significantly amended. There is no requirement of obtaining industrial approvals from the central government (except for the industries under compulsory licensing) for locations not falling within 25 kms of the periphery of cities having a population of more than 1 million. However, notified industries of a non-polluting nature may be located within 25 kms of the periphery of cities with more than 1 million population. Other industries are permitted only if they are located in designated industrial areas set up prior to July 1991. The new industrial policy, therefore, changes the nature of licensing and shifts it to the state and city level authorities as urban
planning responsibilitles.

3.1

The government of Andhra Pradesh with a view to achieving the objectives of rapid industrialisation and balanced development has set up Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation Limited (APIIC). The APIIC identifies and develops potential growth centres in the state with infrastructure facilities to cater to the needs of small, medium and large-scale industries. The APIIC also identifies land for industrial estates. APIIC's industrial estates are either undeveloped or under-developed and have not been attractive to investors. In such a situation, why some locations could attract the entrepreneurs while others
could not do so are matters worth examination.

3.2

3.3

The new Industrial Policy of Andhra Pradesh, envisages a strategy to identify nodes of industrial development and intensively develop 'Industrial Parks' providing facilities for industries in selected areas with a view to attract investment to these Parks such as:

1.

Wadepally - Nalgonda District Krishnapatnam - Nellore District Kakinada - Visakhapatnam Belt (Parawada, Vakalapudi, Peddapuram and Konapapapet)

2. 3.

3.4

In addition to the above, the following Specialised Complexes are being set up to promote speciflc product based industries:

D
O

Apparel Export Promotion Park at Gundla Pochampally with an Area distance of 18 kms from Hyderabad

of 170 acres located at

a

Chemical Complex at Pydibhimavaram, Area 1500 acres in Srikakulam District

D
O O O

Industrial Park at Srikalahasti, Area 600 acres in Chittoor District Industrial Park at Kuppam, Area 900 acres in Chittoor District Industrial Park at Karimnagar in Karimnagar District
Export Promotion Industrial Park at Pashamylaram, Area 300 acres in Medak District Knowledge Park (ICICI), in Rangareddy District

D
3.5

The Cyber Towers in the Hyderabad Information Technology and Engineering Consultancy (HITEC) was set up by the APIIC in collaboration with Larsen and Toubro at Madhapur in Hyderabad over an area of 158 acres of land with 5.8 million square feet of high quality built-up space comprising the first phase of development. The total cost of the prqect is Rs. 1,500 crore. This is already attracting a host of Info-Tech
218

iltt rurunI0tunmrFATt0ll

Andhra Pradesh

global I.T players_ like Microsoft,.Oracle, Companies to*CyBERABAD". It is now a preferred location for Information Technology Baan and Metamor. Another initiative includes setting up of the Indian Institute of government and the private sector InfoTech in Hyderabad, as a collaborative effort between the companies. There is a proposal to have an additional IT Centre in Visakhapatnam.

Industrial Development and Urban Growth 3.6 Andhra pradesh has also been trying to promote industrialisation in the backward

areas of the state, with Andhra pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (APIIC) as the implementing agency. The cost of

setting up each Growth Centre is around Rs. 25-30 crore. At present, the contribution of financing of centra-l government is in the ratio of 2:1. The Government of India has sanctioned the following four Growth Centres, which are under development at present:
1. Bobbili in Vijayanagaram

District, Area 1500 acres

2. Ongole in Prakasam District, Area 1500 acres

3. Hindupur in Anantapur District, Area 1500 acres 4. Damarcherla in Nalgonda District, Area 1500 acres

spite of the efforts, however, the concentration of industrial and commercial activities has mainly continued in three areas. These are: (i) Hyderabad (ii) Vijayawada-Guntur and (iii) Visakhapatnam.

In

Industrial and Infrastructure Investment 3.7 Our general approach has been to use the CMIE data to analysis the industrial and infrastructure investments in various locations at the district level in the state. According to CMIE data, the total
investments in Andhra Pradesh in infrastructure and large and medium industries and others, as of March 1999, were of the order of Rs. 82,324 crore. Out of the above, 52 per cent was under manufacturing, services and others (Rs. 42,500 crore) while the remaining 48 per cent (Rs. 39,824 crore) was for infrastructure. The status of the projects indicate that out of 251 projects, 101 projects had been completed, 64 are under implementation, while 56 are under proposal stage, and announcements have been made in respect of 30. The manufacturing, services and 'others'sectors have attracted a major share (52 per cent) of investments, dominated by chemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, fertiliser, cement, sugar, cotton yarn, engineering, paper and paper products, and non-metallic mineral products. In the infrastructure sector, the power projects dominate the proposed investment with 86 per cent while remaining 14 per cent are for roads, railways, shipping, telecom and airports. In the 'others' category are included hotels and commercial complexes, transport services, storage and distribution.

3.8 Investments in infrastructure sector seem to be clustered in certain districts of the state. Coastal Andhra is beginning to emerge as the most preferred region for investment in the state with Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Nellore districts accounting for about 61 per cent of the investment. Karimnagar, Kurnool and Hyderabad districts have attracted infrastructure investments to the extent of 30 per cent (Map 5.3). This map also indicates the proposed Expressways and Golden Quadrangle - National Highway Network: one along Coastal Andhra and another in North - South direction via Hyderabad. Investment in manufacturing sector as well goes to the same three coastal districts aggregating to 51 per cent. In addition, Cuddapah and Chittoor districts have attracted investments to the extent of 25 per cent. 3.9
The total investment in infrastructure and manufacturing is also concentrated in coastal Andhra, namely, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari and Nellore accounting for about 60 per cent. Only Hyderabad in

IIIT ;UTUNT

OT

URBAIIISAITOil

/.

L9

Andhra Pradesh

the Telangana region has investments over Rs. 5000 crore, accounting for 9 per cent of the investment in the manufacturing, service and others sectors. The overall investment preference appears to be for existing centres' The Rayalseema region appears to have received the lowest investment. The most dramatic development in the state's economy relates to the software sector of the IT industries. A large number of InfoTech enterprises such as Microsoft, IBM, Motorola, Oracle, Baan and Wipro have already sit up their IT operations in Hyderabad. There are proposals to create Industrial Parks at various locations. The state has decided to give incentives in the form of state owned land on lease and ancillary township development rights for highway projects (Table 5.4 and 5.5).

Table

5.4:

Investments Proposed in Andhra Pradesh in Infrastructure, Manufacturing and Seruicg 1999 'Rs. in crore

Adilabad
1

Anantapur Chittoor
Cuddapah
East Godavari

100.00 257.56
118.35

0.25

t72.93
811.93 2777.77
3762.63 3219.85 64.76 580.75

0.67
', 11

272.93 1069.49 2896.12 4238.54

0.35 1.30 3.51 5.15 21.55

0.6s 0.30
1.20 14.13

10.84 14.68 12.56 0.25

.|
5

475.9r
5525.00 385.75 2348.50 4237.00 2763.40 1192.s0 2439.60 0.00 270.58 0.00 5018.00 0.00 0,00

8901.10 4591.30

52.76 27.22

t7746.95
450.51 7520.55

6 8 9 10
11

Guntur
Hyderabad Karimnagar Khammam
Krishna

o.97 5.90
10,64

2.27
2.95 3.58

0.s4 o 1?
6.06

6.94
2.99 6.13

7s4.85 918.68
143.00 125.93 55.02 269.43 652.07 1740.20

4991.8s
3682.08 25.00 0.15 0.21

4.45.
1.65

0.s5
0.49 0.22 1.05 2.54 6.79 0.00 0.00 2.58 0.83

Kurnool Mahbubnagar Medak Nalgonda Nellore Nizamabad
Prakasam

1360.s0 2565.s3
93.02 940.01 652.07 6758.20 0.00 0.00

3.L2 0.12 1.14 0.79 8.21 0.00 0.00 1.38

t2
13 14
15

0.00
0.68

37.00
400.00

2.37

0.00

t2.60
0.00 0,00
1.06

16
1-'

0.00 0.00
660.27

18 19

Rangareddy Srikakulam Visakhaoatnam Vizianagaram Warangal West Godavari

42r.97
0.00
13663.00

53.50

0.31 16.98

1135.74

0.00
34.31 0.09

2r2.28
8133.93 29.30
338.41

2t2.28
2864.10 2466r.03
64.30 338.41 674.30

0.27
29.95 0.09 0.42 0.82

20

3t.74
0.11 1.32 0.79

2l
23

))

35.00 0.00

0.00
1.18

47r.00

203.30

100.00 25628.29 100.00 16872.00 100.00 82324.4L 100.oo Source: CAPEX Guide to new Business Opportunities, CMIE. March. 7999, as obtainea from tne Uinistrryf

Total

39824.12

Industry

zzv

Illt

tuTUm

0F

uRlAlilstTt0rl

Andhra Pradesh

Table 5.5: Status of Proiects

-

1999

1

2

Adilabad AnantaDur

3

3

Chittoor
Cuddapah East Godavari

0 3

0 2

0 0
3

0
0

3
2
11

4
5

I
0 7 0
5

4
5

0 4
2
11 2 2

5

9
2

I
0
I

9 28

6 7
R.

Guntur
Hyderabad Karimnagar Khammam
Krishna

4
39

16 0 3
3
3

1

9 10
11

z
2

1
1

4 x
9 4
7

3
1
1

t2
13

Kurnool Mahbubnagar
Medak

0
I

0

5 15

0
1

4
1

t4
15 16 L7

Nalqonda Nellore
Nizamabad Prakasam

4
0 0 10

2 6
5

22
13

2

2

t2
0
0 3

0

0
8 2 9

0 0
1

0
0 22 7 35

18 19 20

Rangareddy Srikakulam Visakhapatnam
Vizianagara m

4
6
1

I
t4
0

o
0 0

2l
22 23

z
3
1

Warangal West Godavari

1

0
0

4
5

4

0

25L 30 101 56 64 Total CMIE, March 7999, as obtained from the Ministry of So"re: CAPEX Guicle to new Business Opportunities, Industry

ilT TUilNI

OT

UNEATISAII|III

22L

Andhra Pradesh

tllt/!FJns8?!Es,/Eln.!tt/./,ar.+-

tu. splilil, MAlil]r$rlil0ts 0t rc||il0iltc 0n0m[
PRESENTSPATIALPATTERN

A.
4'L

Existing Urban Regions
There are substantial variations in the distribution of urban population in Andhra pradesh across districts. Three distinct areas can be identified as major urban regions in Andhra pradesh. 1,elilesi area of influence among the three urban regions goes to the (1) Hyderabad urban region followed by (z) Visakhapatnam and (3) Vijayawada-Guntur urban region. The various urban regions have the following characteristics:

o
D

Hyderabad urban region is spread over the districts of Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak in the Telangana area. Hyderabad, the leading metropolitan city of Andhra pridesh, is also the primate city of relangana region, besides being the capitar of Andhra pradesh. Visakhapatnam urban region covers the districts of Visakhapatnam, Srikakulam and Vizianagaram. This is a highly industrialised region besides having a major port on the east coast. calcutta/Haldia and Paradip ports together handle only as much load as Visaihapatnam. Various industrial activities are getting concentrated in Visakhapatnam. Important power projects like NTPC and Hindujai nave been announced' Well known companies have shown keen interlst to set up fertilisers and petrochemicals, power plants etc,, in Parawada at Visakhapatnam. Andhra pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation has proposed to set up an industrial park at parawada, SO lffii from Visakhapatnam city, Vijayawada-Guntur urban region covers the delta areas of the Coastal Andhra. This is the most prosperous agricultural region in the country. Along with this, it has developed good agro-based industries. The percentage share of urban population to total population in the relion isiign onty after Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam regions.

D

Clusters of Development

4.2 Andhra's extensive coastline is making it possible for location of clusters of developmenf around its three cities - Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada and Kakinada. Thanks to existing transport and communication links, industrial estates and ports, these clusters are emerging as preferred-location for investments. Other major clusters in the state are Hyderabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Tirupati, Anantapur and Nellore,

B.
4'3

EMERGING URBAN CORRIDORS

On considering the pattern of investment in industry and infrastructure, connectivity through National Highway network and proposed Expressway and Golden Quadrangle network for various regi6nal urban growth areas, it is found that the growth centres are coalescing to form two main urban groilth corridors and two minor urban corridors. They are:

1.

North

- South corridor from Rangareddy -

Hyderabad

cities like, Adoni, Nandyal, Guntakal, Proddatur, Cuddapah, Hindupur and Tirupati towards the south. The corridor is likely to have about 113.2 lakh population in 2021 AD against 55 lakh in 1991. The corridor passes through 6 districts with 3 Municipal Corporations, besidls 6 Class I cities

- Kurnool - Ananthpur - Hindupur

including

222

TIIT FUTURT |lF URBAIIISATI|lII

Andhra Pradesh

and 2 class

2.

towns of smaller sizes. These two corridors have proposals for expressways besides the existing rail network' Nofth - South corridor A lateral corridor from Vijayawada to Hyderabad connecting the coastal and is a possibility. It will have 39.76 lakh population in 20?t1 as -against 21 lakh in 1991 excluding 2 Hyderabad. The corridor passes througn 4 districts with 4 Class I cities (1 Municipal Corporation), class II towns and 9 class III towns besides other towns of smaller sizes'

II towns and other

3.

4.

population A minor corridor extending from Hyderabad - Nizamabad towards North with 7.43 lakh in 1991 is likely to emerge and will have 11.92 lakh population by 2021. The conidor spreads through 4 districts with a Municipal Corporation, 4 Class II towns, 7 Class III towns and other small towns. Coastal corridor extending from Visakhapatnam to Ongole, and possibly further south towards Nellore and Chittoor on the coast. The corridor covers 9 districts, 10 Class I cities, 12 Class II towns and 29 Class III towns, with Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation besides several other towns. The urban population was 47.72 lakh in 1991 which is likely to increase to about 99 lakh (27o/o of total urban population) along this corridor by 2021 AD.

The corridors of transpoft are thus transforming to form poly - nodal urban corridors (Map 5.5).

Table 5.5: Population of Urban Corridors

1

Hyderabad Hinduour

-

Ananthpur-

55,tt,r73
2L,00,327

30.81

L,r3,t7,759
39,76,286

31.23 10.97 3.29

2 3

Hyderabad - Vijaywada (excluding Hyderabad)
Hyderabad - Nizamabad Adilabad (excluding Hvderabad) Coastal Corridor (Srikakulum - Vishakhapattam Kakinada - Guntur - Ongole - Nellore)

tt.74
4.15

-

7,42,609

Lt,92,236

q

47,72,tL3

26.67

99,18,515

27.37

Total
Source: Census of fndia, * Projected

t99t

1,31,26,222
and 7987

73.37

2,64,O4,796

72.86

iltt rurunt 0t uRBAlllsAiloll

223

Andhra Pradesh

Table 5.7: Administrative Status of Urban Corridors

f,yderabad - Ananthpur- Hinduour 2 Hyderabad - Vijaywada (excluding Hyderabad)
1

6

3

0
2

7

a

l.

4

6
5

4 0

3

4

Hyderabad - Nizamabad Adilabad (excluding Hyderabad) Coastal Corridor (Srikakulum

-

.|

1

0

Vishakhapattam - Kakinada Guntur - Qngole - Nellore) Source: Census of fndia, 7997
MC

-

9

1

6

29

t7

-

Municipal Commiftee, M

-

Municipality, p

-

panchayat, OG

_

Outgrowth

4'4

and Warangal is also emerging in the northern part of the state.

Urbanising Regions: Additionally, an urbanising Region, comprising Ramagundam

-

Karimnagar

C.
4.5

SPURs

-

NCU/ URBAN CORRIDORS - NATMO

development would benefit the backward areas in a much better fashion than the mere development of totally new growth centres proposed by the central government. The Map 5.4 shows the above spuRs in Andhra Pradesh. Out of the 49 SPURs, the following were identified by the NCU in Andhra pradesh:
1. Hyderabad-Mahboobnagar-Nalgonda-Kurnool-Anantapur 2. Adilabad-Nizamabad-Karimnagar-Warangal

Based on the configuration of 329 Generator of Economic Momentum (GEMs), the National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) had identified 49 Spatial priority Urbanisation niglons'iseuns) in the entire country. These regions vary in size and in many cases cut across the state boundaries and the

3. Nellore-Tirupati
4. Visakhapatnam-Rajahmundry-Vgayawada-Gunrur

The National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO) later identified Urban Corridors in the country on the basis of their intensity of urbanisation, based on 1991 Census, which are identical to the Urban Corridors identified by the Registrar General. In all, 25 urban corridors have been identified all over the country. The two urban corridors in Andhra pradesh as also depicted on Map 5.4 are:
1. Hyderabad

4'6

- Warangal

2,Andhra Coast The urban corridors identified in the present study (Map 5.5) are similar and confirm the urban corridors, and SPURs identified by NATMO and the NCU.

224

I[T

TUTUNT |lF UNBATISATI||II

Andhra Pradesh

U.

pn0BuMs, lssuls

illll

G0llsTn[l]lTs

A.
5.1

SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE

India' Between 1981Urbanisation is taKng place much faster in Andhra Pradesh than in the rest of per cent for India' gt, tf'" state's urban popJlution grew by 42.64 per cent, compared to 36'19 -Larger The Class I cities urban centres have been consistently growing at a faster rate than smaller urban centres. growth in future is likely to accounted for nearly 67 per cent of tne totat urban population. Economic (Registrar General, India), Andhra Pradesh's accentuate this trend. According to trend based estimates urban population will become about 36 million plus by 202t, more than twice the size of 1991 urban population, constituting 39 per cent as the share of urban population in the state. According to the document "Vision 2O2O - Andhra Pradesh" the share of urban population in the state is expected to increase to 43.24 per cent by 2020. Whatever may be the projections, it is certain that larger cities will dominate the urbanisation scene. There will be increased concentration of population in larger urban agglomerations. The state may have six more cities with a population of over one million, in addition to the two of 1991. This calls for initiating new approaches for spatial planning, management and financial reforms to respond to the urban growth pressures.
These transporV urban corridors have been emerging over the past two decades. As mentioned before, the NCU and the NATMO had already pointed out their emergence. Whether these corridors are officially recognised or not, they are a part of Andhra Pradesh's urban reality, The choice is between within imaginative planning approaches to prescribe different functions of the 'Nodes' as well as the intervening spaces, and thereby establishing a functional urban settlement system within these emerging urban corridors or allowing them to continue as a creeping urban sprawl.

S.Z

The developing urban corridors will have a variety of impacts on the settlement structure. Within these corridors an appropriate framework for development and management of 'Nodes', is required particularly in metro cities where economic and environmental changes would be rapid. The impact of the corridor development would need consideration of the following:

5,3

O

There will be a high degree of interaction between two nodes particularly between two metropolises, This will cause higher growth around the nodes resulting in urban sprawl and smaller settlements coalescing with each other. The concentration of activities will put additional pressure of development.

O O O O

The influence area of the 'Nodes' will get further enlarged. This will lead to accelerated growth of low-density urban sprawl along the corridor axis. The sprawl will likely to be in the form of spontaneous development without basic services, but adding in cost of development later on. The main corridor transportation system will need to be suppoted by a secondary system of road network and other communication facilities.
Changes in the land utilisation pattern may be dramatic. The urban corridors would take away a considerable portion of agricultural land. Unless planned, linear spread of urban activities may be inevitable, Environment would become extremely important. Air and water pollution in and along the corridors will rise significantly.

Andhra Pradesh

Land Utilisation natural resources of India and is also a non-renewable resource, The pressure on land is bound.to increase with the growth of population giving rise to competing claims on land for various uses such as housing, infrastructure, industries, agricult-ure, -hofticulture,'rec.eition and other uses. Land prices will rise sharply. The prevailing patterns of land utilisation i.e., the extent of land under

5'4

Land is one of the major

different categories of use are discussed in the following Table 5.8. The broad land use along with emerging urban corridors is depicted in Map 5.6.

Table 5.8: Land utilisation pattern of Andhra pradesh (1970

-

1993)

'in'000 hectares

Land under Forest Land not available for

6337

23.09

62L3

22.64

6281

22.89

-1.96

-1.96

cultivation
a. Land put to nonagricultural uses b. Barren and unculturable

2L22 210L

7.73 7.66

2168

7.90
8.53 4.38 56.55 100.00

2426
2058
0

8.84 7.50 0.00
60.77 100.00

2.17
11.38

2.t7
11.38

2340

land
c. Others L375 5.01 1201 Land under cultivation 15505 55.51 15518 Reporting Area 27440 100.00 27440 Source: CMIE, India? Agricultural Sector, July 1996

L6675 27440

0.08

0,08

In 1992-1993, land re-ported under non-agricultural uses was 2.43 million hectares compared to z.!7 million hectares in 1980-1981 at a growth rate of 2,17 while the urban population of Andhra pradesh was increased from t2.49 million to 17.89 million during 1981 - 1991 with a growth rate of 43.23 per cent.

5.5

B.
5.6

REGIONALINFRASTRUCTURE

Visakhapatnam, Nellore, Vijayawada and Ananthpur will need to bi constructed. The deficiencies in tne state pots need to be removed. The shortfall in power supply being 27o/o would require substantial increase in capacity to meet the demand. Telecommunication links between these cities and to other Indian states would also have to be provided for. Regional infrastructure is thus a pre-requisite for economic development. Future growth will be possible only with upgradation and expansion of existing regional infrastructure.

Regional infrastructure of three types - trunk, specialised and arterial, will need to be created. Regional infrastructure comprising roads, power, portS, telecommunications, airpods, etc., is required to connect key urban centres. For instance expressways connecting Hyderabad, Warangal, Karimnagar,

The huge investments expected in the next few years particularly around metropolitan and targe cities and in industrial areas being developed by the State Industrial Infrastructure Corporation, will stimulate higher urban growth. The emerging urban corridors will require special measures to deal with the problems of infrastructure and services. Primary urban infrastructure such as water supply and sewerage are not available outside the municipal limits because these services are provided only within the municipll limits' The fringe zone of the large cities comprise nagar panchayats and gram panchayats. The provision of basic infrastructure in the urban corridors outside the nodes particularly in the fringes of large cities will

5'7

Andhra Pradesh

in transpoft and remain unattended if no specific measures are taken. This calls for larger investments and community facilities, all within a cocommunications, power, water supply, sewerage, housing ordinated framework of economic and spatial planning of the corridors.

apat, such urban growth will, also, aggravate the existing shortfalls of various basic services with concomitant environmentaf strain in the existing urban areas. The constraints and problems, which could undermine the growth are: inadequate water supply, inadequate coverage through sewerage and

5.g

Trends

storm water drainage services, problem of disposal of domestic and industrial wastes, unsustainable ground water drawl, pollution of water courses, environmental pollution etc.,

C.
5.9

URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES

According to 1991 Census data, only about 40 per cent urban households in the state have access to all the three services, namely, drinking water, toilets and electricity; while 7 per cent had access to none of

these. In Srikakulam district, 23 per cent households are without any of the three services while in Hyderabad only a small propotion of 1.51 per cent do not have access to these services. Towns in Telangana region are worse in terms of water supply and drainage. A survey of urban services by the Depaftment of Municipal Administration and Urban Development in 1994 shows that only 13 municipalities in the state have a satisfactory level of water supply; 6 municipalities have no protected water supply and 8 have more than 75 per cent deficit while the remaining fall in between the range 25-75 per cent deficit. The same survey indicates severe shortages in other services as well.

5.10 Poorenvironmental conditions pafticularly in the Class I
a combination of factors such as:

cities of Andhra Pradesh can be attributed to

D
O

The increasing gap between population growth and municipal service provision. The poor operation and maintenance of existing services as also poor quality of service delivery.
Piecemeal and sectoral solutions to infrastructure improvements often lead to transferring the problem elsewhere (e.9. improved water supply causes drainage problems). In many of the towns,

O

problems are compounded because of industrial effluents polluting ground water, soil and air (Chittoor, Qutubullapur, LB Nagar, Kukatpalli and Malkajgiri).

D

State Government Depatments like PHED, Pollution Control Board and Directorate of Town and Country Planning have a major role in improving the environmental situation of urban areas. Unfortunately, lack of comprehensive and holistic approach to infrastructure by the concerned agencies worsen the problem of access to services.

Water Supply
As per'Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor'surveys carried out in 32 Class I cities, the per capita water supply in 19 cities is below 80 lpcd. In slum areas, the supply is hardly 25 -50 lpcd. Due to shortfall of water supply, more ground water is extracted lowering the water table. All the municipalities provide intermittent supply for /z - 6 hours daily or on alternate days. The supplies are staggered and the timings for water supply are erratic. There is no metering for domestic supply. However, meters have been installed on commercial and industrial consumers. The quality of water is poor due to pollution at source/

5.11

leakages in the transmission and distribution systems and water supply is not equitably distributed in

TIIT TUIURI |lF UBIAIIISATIOII

227

Andhra Pradesh

different paft of the city. Water sources are also being polluted by the wastes discharged by the towns located on the upstream of sources.

5'12 There is a need for better management of water supply delivery, sewage collection, treatment and disposal' Potable water continues to be scarce in many urban areas, particularly for the lower income groups. Extending existing supplies through water conservation and reuse and using other sustainable methods can achieve universal coverage of potable water. Modern technologies and management approaches should be followed for increasing the efficiency of water use. Reusebf the wastewa[er can conserve water. Considering the high cost of water bound sewerage systems, a combination of conventional and low cost sanitation measures need to be pursued. Greater involvement of private sector.
NGOs, and user groups will be required.

Sewerage and Drainage

5.13 Sewerage being absent in most of the cities, open drains collect storm water and also serve to carry sullage and sewage. This causes environmental problems. The drains are also poorly maintained ano flooding of streets are common in the monsoon. Several sewers are blocked and sewage overflows from several manholes creating frequent health problems. Sewage treatment plants at Eluru, Guntur and Tenali are defunct and untreated sewage used for irrigation. Untreated sewage is mostly discharged into the drains, and thereafter into Visakhapatnam port area along with industrial wastes.
Solid Waste Management

5.14 There is always a backlog in collection and transportation of solid waste to the disposal site in most urban centres. The problem consists of inadequate arrangements and facilities for the collection of domestic waste and street sweepings lack of control over the dumping of construction debris lack of
capacity for the transpoft of all the refuse in the duping yards, insanitary disposal of garbage

transportation of the waste, to private parties.

no mechanism to handle hospital wastes separately. Some municipalities have given collection

etc.

There is
and

5.15 Urban local body in each urban area would need to plan waste disposal by classifying waste generation (solid and biomedical waste, sewage) according to source and collection points, and then implementing a suitable disposal facility. The functions of the local bodies need to be strengthened througn institutional, legal and financial mechanisms to help them discharge these environmental functions.

D.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Water
Sources of Water
both surface and groundwater resources thus becoming cause of concern for the availability of sources of water for cities. Most of the "easy to exploit" sources have been fully developed and as cities grow, the search for

5.16 Improper disposal of urban and industrial wastes is causing deterioration in water quality in

new unpolluted and more costly sources goes on. The competition for water requirement between agriculture and industry is becoming severe in the state. There are thus multiple users and there is a need for management of this scarce resource of water.

228

IIIt

fUTURT

OT

URBAIIISAII||II

Andhra Pradesh

Problems caused by existing industries pockets, it is important to provide 5.17 Since industrial development is taking place in concentrated are engulflng industrial environmental safeguards. It is also seen that expanding residential areas prominent over a period of time' At Jevelopments. Confilcts of use not apparent in the beginning become problems. Planning and the micro level, water and air pollution and waste management become serious zoning measures have to be dynamic.

5.1g The pollution caused by the industries is mostly confined to cities like Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. Industrial wastes of varying pollution potential are discharged by major and medium industries. Chemical

polluting industries such and pharmaceutical industries discharge hazardous wastes. Apart from the above, pollution. as paper, distilleries, cement factories located throughout the state also cause environmental

Water Pollution

areas like Jeedimetla, Bollarum, and Sanathnagar etc, Modern industrial development, particularly chemical industries in Hyderabad started with the location of Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals (IDPL) at Balanagar. Establishment of IDPL resulted in the proliferation of chemical and pharmaceutical industries in Jeedimetla,

5,19 The water pollution problem is caused by existing major industries and the problem is severe particularly in Hyderabad. A number of small-scale chemical and pharmaceutical industries are located in

Kukatpally and surrounding areas. Their location has been the source of most problems of pollution in Hyderabad since the same are located in the catchment area of Hussainsagar as well as in the windward direction of Hyderabad. A host of industries have come up on the upstream of all water channels of Hyderabad. All these industries are required to provide common effluent treatment for the group of industries in each area. The water quality monitoring results, however, indicate that organic and bacterial pollution still continue to be predominant pollution in water bodies. Several lakes have been inundated with effluents from industries, including Hussainsagar. Hindustan Polymers Industries in Visakhapatnam has contaminated ground water sources.

5.20 The survey of 'Water Supply, Wastewater Generation, Collection and Treatment' by Central Pollution Control Board at the all India level, indicates a large part of municipal sewage flowing in untreated form in nearby receiving water bodies. In the case of ground water, contamination of the sources is pafticularly serious because this can lead to permanent loss of valuable high quality drinking water. The pollution of surface and ground water from untreated sewage, industrial wastes and dumping of garbage is evident in Visakhapatnam. The nallas carry raw sewage and the system of garbage disposal only breeds disease vectors. Since human consumption of groundwater is inevitable in areas where protected water supply is not available, pollution of groundwater can lead to disastrous consequences. There is critical need to develop the institutional capacity to plan, finance, and efficiently operate and maintain conventional
wastewater treatment systems.

Air Pollution

5.21 Ambient air pollution emanates from three major sources - energy generation, industry, and transDortation all of which tend to increase with economic growth. For air quality management, the
ambient air quality in and around Hyderabad is being monitored through air quality monitoring stations. Air pollution from major industrial units such as the steel plant, a refinery, a fertiliser plant and a zinc plant and the vehicular exhaust due to heavy traffic movement in Visakhapatnam cause air pollution which is continuing unabated. Air pollution from dusty port cargo will also continue to increase till such cargo is shifted to the satellite port. Kothagudem Thermal Power Plant and air polluting industries cause air pollution in Kothagudem area. Sensitive areas have been'identified where location of industries with air pollution potential has been prohibited. The role of the local authorities in identifying the numerous small

ilft tuunt

0F

uB8Axl$il0l|

279

Andhra Pradesh

sources of air pollution and measures
specifled.

to prevent further

aggravation

of the problem also need to

be

Fragile Coastal Zone

being converted into more lucrative non-agricultural activities as well as into shrimp farms, creating environmental problems. Using land use tools to guide the siting of industrial and residential development away from environmentally sensitive areas, can greatly improve environmental quality. A mapping exercise in this regard is in progress by central pollution control Board.

5'22 The state has a long coastline running from Ichapuram in north to Sullurpet in south. The fragi6 and sensitive area is facing rapid deterioration because of untreated wastes, erosion, and uncontrolled aicess to biological resources taking their toll. The discharge of city wastes into fhe sea such as in Visakhapatnam as well as over-extraction of ground water resulting in saline intrusion are special problems. paddy fields are

Urban Form and Envaronment

5.23 Environmentally inappropriate urban land development is exerting direct pressure on land as well as on surrounding ecosystems. The relationship between various land uses and the pattern of development have a considerable impact on the environment. The cities are expanding into fertile agriculture land. The density and spatial forms of development also have environmental implication such ls high costs with congestion. In this context, an understanding of the spatial dimensions of problems is required for the appropriate form of interventions, Also, co-ordination is required among different institutions havrng different jurisdictions so as to ensure comprehensive environmental management.
Vulnerability Areas

5'24 Floods, draught and cyclone frequently ravage Andhra Pradesh. As a follow-up of the yokohama Strategy for Safer World: Guidelines for National Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation, the Government of India has prepared a Vulnerability Atlas of India. The places with risks of earthquake hazard, wind and cyclone hazard and flood hazard areas as per above Atlas are discussed below: 5'25 Earth Quake Hazard,4reas.'Eventhough Andhra Pradesh does not fall under very high and high risk zone, some of the urban areas are indicated under moderate damage risk zone, are.,Warangal, Kharimam, Guntur, Ongole, Kakinada, Eluru and Machilipatnam.

5'26 Wind and cyclone Hazard Areas.'The entire coastal belt of Andhra Pradesh upto about 60 kms from the shore is covered as very high damage risk zone. This includes the two major metropolitan pockets of Andhra Pradesh, i'e., Vizag and Vijayawada - Guntur - Tenali areas with high population concentration. Moderate damage risk zone covers almost 75 per cent of Andhra Pradesh including Hyderabad, Nizamabad
and Adilabad. Flood and Drought prone areas: Areas liable to floods include Machilipatnam and Kakinada towns and scattered pockets mainly along Godavari and Penneru and other rivers and water bodies of the state. The ravages caused by torrential rains and consequent loss of life and property threatened by floods during January and September, 2000 was severe not only in the districts of Warangal, Medak, Nellore, Nalgonda,

5.27

Kurnool, Adilabad, Mahboobnagar, Rangareddy, Krishna and Cuddapah, but also

in

Hyderabad and

Secundrabad.

5.28 As a long term policy, location of future urbanising areas and expansion of existing cities and towns must be taken into consideration juxtaposed with various vulnerable areas in order to minimise loss of life and property from natural hazards. The Vulnerability Atlas can be an useful tool to identify areas vulnerable
230 Tltt tuIURr 0t uRBllilsATt0ll

Andhra Pradesh

need, to be used to reduce risk from to natural disasters, Land use tools such as zoning, building codes at the national' state and municipal natural hazards. The hazard consciousness, organisational itructure and related infrastructure need to have ;G;.r to Oeat with potential of damaging housing stock social

aimed at reducing physical, economic and preparedness and capacity for timely miggation for setting up techno-legal regime for vulnerability to threats. There is a need fJr formulation of a strategy on vulnerability of the area' enforcing disaster resistant construction and zoning of land use based

t.urrrit

Role of Urban Local Bodies
supply, sanitation' 5.2g while municipalities will continue to perform traditional functions relating to water concerns into local solid waste management, there is a need for the incorporation of environmental traditional ptanning system. As enviiaged in the Twelfth Schedule, it would be important to enlarge the pollution issues related to ,.op" oi municipal functionJso as to include environment management including

sustainability. The role household energy, industry and transpoft, waste recycling, resource utilisation, and of'no objection certificate' of local governments in regard to industry has not been very clear. The system for wastewater discnargeslnd emissions administered by the State Pollution Control Board has transferred to the responsibility fromlhe domain of local bodies. Though State Pollution Control Board will continue play a major role in controlling pollution, there is a need to develop appropriate inter-relationships between iocal bodies, development authorities and pollution control board for better coordination. Role of State

5.30 The state needs to plan the use and management of its environmental resources in an integrated way. Environmental resource planning involves the framing of an integrated blueprint for the planned use of itate,s resources. All water bodies and ground water in urban agglomerations need to be protected and
conserved by suitable law and appropriate enforcement mechanisms.

5.31 A major cause of environmental degradation in Andhra Pradesh today is the lack of integrated environmental planning. Often, departments, municipalities, local authorities and industries use environmental resources according to the priorities of their individual sectors, without much regard to the overall needs of the state or the sustainable use of its resources. To proactively manage environmental resources, environmental resource planning will have to be made a central component of policy making at
the state level.

E.
5.32

INVESTMENTREQUIREMENTS

Several committees, groups and task forces instituted by the government as well as research by academic and research institutions have attempted to estimate the gap between requirement and provision

of urban infrastructure services. Unfortunately there has been no agreement to arrive at common basic definitions, leading to wide variations in the estimates. Nonetheless all the estimates do concur on one
point, i.e., the gap between provision and requirement is huge, is growing larger everyday and appears to be unbridgeable unless urgent remedial measures are initiated'

5.33 The Eleventh Finance Commission has recommended an amount of Rs. 2000 crore for all municipalities in the country to be transferred out of the consolidated fund of states for the period of grant to the states is to S yeari (2000 - 05), of which Andhra Pradesh share is Rs. 164.66 crore only. The the municipalities as institutions of selfspeed up the process of decentralisation and developing
government, by supplementing the resources of the local bodies'

ilt

ruruRt 0f uRBAlllsArl0ll

23t

Andhra Pradesh

5'34 It has been estimated that by the year 2001, the urban local bodies of Andhra pradesh would require an investment in basic infrastructure and services of about nr. jo+iirorus, accorcling to norms proposed by the Zakaria committee. The financial requirements will be in the ranll Rs. 2946 crores to Rs. 3973 -nornrs crores if the municipal managers choose to raise the services according to ,in'.'tiinn,ng commission, Government of India. The figure of ptanntng ihigh range) retates to 2001 population which is likely to be around 23.44million. Therefoie the 2021 requrrement at 1995 prices will be about Rs. 6143 crores for the projected 36.24 million urban population.

c;'fi&;;

pr";;#'il

232

Tl|l tuTUnt 0r uREAlilsATtotl

Andhra Pradesh

ur. unBril A.
6.1

Gou[nililGF rX-n"*UHt$-E[!,"t]J

74TH CONSNTUTTON AMENDMENTACT

Act, 1992 peftaining to Only some of the mandatory provisions of the 74th Constitution Amendment composition, nomenclature and structural aspects of ULBs, have been adopted by the state. These include State Election Commission, etc' term of office of ULBS, constitution of State Finance Commission and (DPCs) and Metropolitan Ho*"u"r, provisions relating to the constitution of District Planning Committees piinning'iommittees (MpC-s), and discretionary provisions like devolution of additional functions and financei to the local bodies have not been incorporated in the amended Acts. a result, amendments in other relevant Acts having a bearing on the municipalities and municipal to remove ambiguity corporations have not been carried out. Also, serious efforts have not been made previous Acts. For between the provisions of the new Acts and the rules and regulations framed under the -xample, of ULBs has been made viz., corporations, under the amended Acts, a three-fold classification grades viz., selection municipalities and nagar panchayats. The municipalities, however, continue into five grade,'special grade,?irstgrade, second grade and third grade. There are 116 urban local bodies including grade and 15 7 corporations, S seiectlon grade, 13 spe-ial grade, 18 first grade,32 second grade, 22 third nagai panchayats in the state. the five-grade classification of the local bodies was not amended and the

6.?.

As

same continues.

6.3

With a view to ensure participatory governance and transparency and improve services, the state has instituted a state wide Janmabhoomi programme in urban and rural areas in which resources from different sources are made available. The programme is implemented through self-help groups such as Water User's Associations (WUAs), School Education Committees and other community groups. The lanmabhoomi initiative closely involves the people in the choice as well as execution of development works of a defined nature and value. Prioritised requirements of each slum/neighbourhood are consolidated in the form of a Community Development Plan. The municipal ward is the unit for planning and monitoring. A committee with the ward councillor as chairperson with an officer of the municipality and local members oversee the programme. The Disti'ict Collector allocates funds from lanmabhoomi funds for such works which can not be funded through municipal resources'

B.
6.4

ROLE OF LOCAL BODIES

IN

FUTURE URBAN GROWTH

Functional Devolution

The 74th Constitution Amendment incorporates the 12th Schedule suggesting functions to be entrusted to the urban local bodies. The Constitution Amendment empowered the state legislature to entrust the functions to the local bodies to enable them to function as units of local self-government and
orovide essential and basic services to the urban community. ULBs are responsible for several functions listed in the 12th Schedule, various functions in the conformity legislation. Thus the functional domain of however, did not incorporate ULBs has remained limited. There are 9 functions out of the 18 functions included in the 12th schedule which are being peformed by the state level departments since they were not entrusted to municipalities. These include: (1) Planning for economic and social development, (2) Fire services, (3) Urban Forestry, Drotection of environment and promotion of ecological aspects, (4) Promotion of cultural and aesthetic poverty aspects, (5) Prevention of cruelty to animals, (6) Bus stops, (7) Regulation of tanneries, (8) Urban

6.5

In Andhra Pradesh, where

IIII fUIURt

|lT UNBATISAII|lII

233

Andhra Pradesh

alleviation, and (9) Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded' The government now proposes to endow the local bodies with the functions tike planning for economic and social development, protection of the environment and promotion of ecotogical aspects and urban povefi alleviation based the report of the Expert Committee constituted in 1995. The bill has already been drafted and may be introduced in the legislature in due course.

Local Autonomy
Issues relating to autonomy of local bodies and the control of state government have also not Deen amended. As a result, the conformity legislation has not made any im[act in streamlining the urban governance in the state. In the context of the thrust for decentralisation of urban gou6rnance ano responsive provision of services, there is a need to rethink the role of municipal boiies and evotve measures to build up their organisational capacity. Local autonomy to municipalities, calls for a clear focus on executive authority, clear assignment of functions and devolution of financial resources.

6'6

Citizen Pafticipation and Accountability
As per constitutional mandate, locally elected municipal bodies have to adjust to the concepts of public accountability in urban governance. The municipality is closest to the peopie in respect of various elements of day-to-day life. This requires enhancing the accountability of municipalities. If municipal accountability is to be related to its constituents, then the greater involvement of citizens in the activities of municipality is imperative.

6.7

Territorial Dimension
There is a problem of territorial dimension for the growing bigger cities for the control of peripheral development' There is a problem of integrated service provision on one hand and decentralisation of services for responsive delivery on the other. Another problem relates to the incorporation of industrial townships and village panchayats adjoining a large city. Often the peripheral townships leapfrog unsuitable pockets of land and this aggravates the problem of extension of infrastructure such as in Hydtrabad and Visakhapatnam metropolitan cities.

6.8

Multiplicity of Agencies
The state government, over the years steadily diverted the responsibilities in the functional sphere of municipal bodies and has assigned the planning and development functions as well as municipal services, like water supply and sewerage etc., to parastatal agencies at the city and state level. This has happened even when functions are expressly delegated to the municipal bodies. The examples are Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board, Public Health Engineering Department (for the eniire state except Hyderabad), Urban Planning and Development Authorities for different cities; state level Housing as well as Slum Clearance Board etc. Andhra Pradesh has also set-up Andhra pradesh Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation for the financing and provision of urban infrastructure. The State Industrial Investment Corporation undertakes the development of industrial estates and maintains the services within the estate, The Industrial Corporation also functions as providers of urban infrastrucrure, such as water supply for the industries in the Vizag Region. The urban development authorities function as planning authorities besides assuming the role of developer of land and housing.
The different roles as performed by the parastatals have not been brought out in line with municipal laws, making the urban local bodies dependent on parastatals for providing services to the citizens. The growth of special purpose agencies with erosion in the powers of municipal bodies have not made any significant impact on the governance of cities. This raises the question of empowering the local bodies to
t5.+
TIIT TUIUBT ||F

6'9

6.10

UNBAilI$II|lII

Andhra Pradesh

and develop as institutions of self-government. This has resulted into administrative fragmentation is therefore necessary that urban local bodies be made bureaucratisation in urban gouirnance. It enabled to act responsible for various functidns as envisaged in the Constitution Amendment and should be of executive authority, and independently in order to perform their [asks efficiently with a clear focus devolution of financial resources.

Problems of Co-ordination

6.11 The town planning legislation provides the framework for preparation of master plans, but does not planning' The orovirle the institutional framework for co-ordinating spatial, and infrastructure investment powers in the Town Planning Department. Rndhra pradesh Town Planning law concentrates all planning Under a separate Act, Andhra Pradesh has established Urban Development Authorities for the bigger cities
but their co-ordinating role is not clearly spelt out.

G.12 The state government has been operating different schemes for infrastructure provision. The problem again has been the division of responsibilities among two or more departments. The responsibility for monitoring central and state schemes for urban development is divided between the Directorate of Municipal Administration and the Directorate of Town Planning.

C.

ROLE OF STATE AND SECTORAL AGENCIES

6.13 There is a need for the state government to participate in the functions of regional planning and infrastructural development. The preparation of regional plans would need to be taken up for the urban corridors extending over several districts. It is felt that state-municipal partnerships may be more
appropriate to take up the task of preparation of regional plans and sub-regional plans. In this context, the

role of MPCs and DPCs providing broad framework taking into account the inter-jurisdictional spatial and sectoral linkages become important. Likewise the development of infrastructural facilities at regional and local levels require huge investments which cannot be left to the local bodies. Suitable partnerships are essential in this regard as well. Thus, the regional planning and infrastructure provision functions can be regarded as )oint'responsibilities of state and local bodies. government, the state has to devolve powers to local bodies to develop as an autonomous municipal organisation. The functions of municipalities, ward committees and planning committees need to be defined clearly along with a transparent accounting mechanism.
6.14 To achieve the mandate of local self

-

6.15 Since 74th amendment has changed the nature of relationship between the state and municipal body, the control of state government over urban local bodies need to be elaborated. Urban services through privatisation and public-private partnerships need to be made in Municipal Acts.

6.16 Multiplicity of organisations that have overlapping functional jurisdictional assignments is one of the causes for improper services and lack of coordination in the organisations. These can be eliminated by having joint committee to ensure coordination among various organisations as in the case of Tamil Nadu.

D.

METRO AREAS AND METROPOLITAN PLANNING COMMITTEES
74th Constitution Amendment has made

it mandatory for the constitution of MPCs. While the and the manner of constituting the MPCs is left to the discretion of the state legislature, it is composition mandatory to have not less than two-thirds of the seats from among the elected members of municipalities and chairpersons of panchayats in the metropolitan area in proportion to the ratio between the population
6.17 The

ilt

ruruRt 0t unBAilsliloll

23s

Andhra Pradesh

of the municipalities and the panchayats in that area. Provision can also be made to provide representation to Government of India, state government and other organisations to facilitate in carrying out the functions assigned to MPCs.

6'18 The Andhra Pradesh has not incorporated the mandatory provision in the amended Act. The government proposes to amend the Andhra Pradesh Urban Areas (Development) Act, 1975 empowering the government to constitute MPCs together with the composition, term, powers and functions etc., and a draft bill to that effect has been prepared.
Governance of Hyderabad

6.19 The governance of the most impotant urban area, namely, Hyderabad - the state capital

requrres

corporations in the country. In recent years, the numerous residents associations in Hyderabad have shown strong interest in the Corporation's work and have also co-operated effectively in several of the Corporation's projects and reform measures. Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has taken several initiatives such as reforms of its property tax by introducing area-based system and self-assessment of property tax. It has also started a single window facility on a neighbourhood basis for various services. However, there are some minus points as well. No election of Hyderabad Municipal Corporation has been held and the management vests with the Municipal Commissioner.
practice is already adopted in the local bodies of the state. The Mayor, under the Hyderabad Corporation a Municipal Authority. The Andhra Pradesh Government, on 25.4.1998, had notified the proposed creation of the Greater Hyderabad city by merging nine adjoining municipalities and one Gram Panchayat in the limits of Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad. After hearing the objections, the government altered the limits of Hyderabad city into single corporation of Greater Hyderabad - inclusive of two cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad and also covering areas of 9 municipalities and one gram panchayat, through its order dated 20.4.1999. The elections to the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation nas been delayed since the task of delimiting the civic wards has been initiated by the corporation. The problem of elections has not been addressed so far causing a major gap in the governahce. The highly complex problems of Hyderabad requires somewhat different arrangement to enable the Mayor to share his responsibilities with others. In this connection, the Mayor-in-Council system, as is already working satisfactorily in Calcutta Municipal Corporation since 1980, may be worth emulating. The Mayor-in-Council system is a more organised substitute for Standing Committee which ensures greater accountability. Under this system, the Commissioner is accountable to the Mayor-in-Council as represented by the Mayor.

special consideration. The diversity in living conditions, infrastructure facilities and needs in the different parts of Hyderabad is not unique. The Hyderabad Municipal Corporation is one of the better-managed

6.20 Under the present Act, the Mayor of the Corporation is to be elected directly by the voters. This

Act, is not

6.21 On the other hand, if the Mayor is made into a full-fledged executive and a municipal authority, he will become the most important chief executive in the city. There could be clash of personalities and interest between the political leadership of the state and that of the city, which will not be in the least interest of either. Systematic arrangements are, therefore, needed to enable the Mayor to share his responsibilities with others. Governance of Hyderabad is also constrained with the presence of multiplicity of agencies, It has a number of parastatal agencies including Hyderabad Urban Development Authority
(HUDA). HUDA is a planning authority and also undertakes development projects. The Vice-Chairman is the chief executive of HUDA and is appointed by the state government. The planning approach is not strong enough as HUDA mainly concentrates on works. Hyderabad is a metropolitan city and managing its growth is just not an inter-municipal issue but also involves several depatments and agencies of the state and central government. Hyderabad requires metropolitan planning perspective. There is also a need to bring all

236

IIIT fUIURT

ff

UNBATTSAII||II

Andhra Pradesh

being a body preoccupied with execution of stakeholders including private sector at a platform. The HUDA planning, advocacy and action' works is not in a position to bring the exercise of metropolitan development
MPC

for Hyderabad

6.22

city comprising many Hyderabad, like other metropolitan cities in India, is also an inter-governmental private sector has a crucial role to play as agencies of the central and the state governments. Besides, the .vision - 2020 for Andhra pradesh'. Formulating a strategy for Hyderabad future, keeping eivisaged in the bringing together the different rural and urban needs are impoftant issues' The

that uilion in view and 74th provision for setting up oi a-tqelropolitan Planning Committee which is mandatory under the has not Amendment is in response to this need. The enabling law for Metropolitan Planning Committee passed by the been incorporated in the conformity legislation by the state. The recent Ordinance MPC with 15 nominated and 30 elected members is a Maharashtra government envisaging a 45 member MPC in model worth considering. Imporianily, it makes the MMRDA the technical secretariat to assist the planning and investment coordination is a preparing the metropoliian wide plan. Metropolitan wide strategic critical tJsk. Such a task can be performed by HUDA by providing its technical expertise and becoming a to be technical arm of the MPC, as in the case of MMRDA. Likewise a MPC for Visakhapatnam also needs wing of the MPC to assist in preparation constituted on the similar pattern. VUDA can become the technical of the metropolitan wide perspective plan'

E.
6.23

RURAL URBAN INTEGRATION AND DISTRICT PLANNING COMMITTEES

Under the 74th Amendment, it iS mandatory to constitute in every State at the district level a District planning Committee (DPC). The DPC is expected to consolidate the plans prepared by the Panchayats and the Municipalities in the district and prepare a draft development plan for the district as a whole. The

District planning Committees are thus required to take up integrated planning for urban and rural areas. The need for such integrated planning becomes all the more impoftant in view of the rapid urbanisation taking place. District wise number of corporations, municipalities and nagar panchayats are given in the Table 5.9. Matters relating to their composition, manner of election, functions etc., were left to be decided by the state legislature. However, in its composition, not less than four-fifths of the total number of members should be elected from amongst the elected members of the panchayats and municipalities in a district in proportion to the ratio between the population of the rural and of the urban areas in the district'

fllt turunt

0t uRBAlllsArl0ll

Andhra Pradesh

Table 5.9: District Wise Municipalities in Andhra pradesh

1

Adilabad

2 3

Anantapur Chittoor
Cuddapah East Godavari I
1

6
7

1

4
5

4
2

I

7 7 5

z

Guntur
R

8
9

t
10

I
10
11

Hyderabqd Karimnagar Khammam
Krishna

1

I
5 3
1

1 L

3 2
3

t2
13 T4

Kurnool Mahbubnagar
Medak

2

z
2

4 6 4 4
5

i5
16

Nalgonda Nellore
Nizamabad Prakasam

4
3
3

4
3
3

r/
18

4
10
1
1

LJ
LV 2L

22

Rangareddy Srikakulam Visakhapatnam Vizianagaram Warangal West Godavari

4
11 3

i
1

4

5

4
4
1

4
7
1

2

source: Regional centre for tlrban ana

rniiroinenaBtuaiil4raerata4Tffi

7

94

1(

8

116

6'24

lt

share common natural resources such as water and land etc,, besides transport and communications/ mandi centres etc. the agricultural land at the periphery of urban centres are susceptible to conversion into urban uses' The water resources have to be shared between irrigation, drinking or industry. The water quality and water scarcity issues are closely linked such as downstream water supply being directly affected by .pollution upstream by municipal or industrial wastes finding their way into ;djoining streams. The problems can be tackled.through integrated planning only at the district ievel. It il thu; expected that integrated planning of urban and rural areas will receive serious attention. The District plan thus should include the components of:

of and other physical and natural resources, the integrated development of infrastiucture, -enviror*entat conservation and the extent and type of financial or other resources, The urban and rural areas have to
water

common interest of the panchayats and the municipalities including spatial planning, sharing

is mandatory for the DPc to prepare the draft development plan keeping in view matters of

D

transport linkages
social infrastructure

waste dumps and protection of natural and other drainage channels. 238

protection of suface water and ground water catchment zones including identification of solid

iltI

FUIURT

0t UltAItsAIt0tl

Andhra Pradesh

"i

,{

j

neighbouring districts on Regional Plans should be prepared by srgYplxg.the Authority' b" a need for establishing inter-district Regional Planning

the above aspects' There

;;irb

conformity 6.25 Andhra pradesh has not provided for the Dpcs in the government to constitute District Planning the amend the AP Town Planning Act, 1920, empowering A draft bill to that effect has prescribe the composition, term, poweis and functions etc'
Committees and been prePared'

legislation. There is a proposal to

F.

MANAGING URBAN CORRIDORS

and other urban centres with corriclors containing 'nodes'in the form of metropolitan cities heavily upon the municipal services the urbanising fringes are experiencing rapid growth. The fringes draw is a need to

6.26 The urban

gram panchayats. There from the core areas. such fringe areas are town panchayats and with the adjoining financially viable remedy such situations-by arialgamation of such local bodies rnuch easier. municioalities. This will make the tisk of planning and development

6.27 Theapproach for planning of towns and cities along the urban,corridors would and the need ri." *iir,inJ7+6 constilution imendment. In the true spirit of the Constitution Amendment related to

need to be brought in

of functions foirational inregration between spatial and economic development, both the sets need to be devolved to the urban local spatial and socio-economic planning as well as development would [[ii*.-rn" i+ii nr"nOr"nt provides a framework of spatial and economic(i)development of urban areas' Panchayats/Municipalities at The Constitution Amenclment provides for a three tier structure comprising: and urban regional level; and (iii) local level; (ii) District and Metropolitan Planning committee at district pofic' formufition at the state level. It envisages that at local level, panchayats and municipalities would district prepare plans for the respective rural and urban areas, which would then be consolidated at the Planning Commiltee ievel by District planningL Committee. For the metropolitan area, the Metropolitan

plans can thus *outO prupur. similar drift development plan. The district and metropolitan development plan at the corridor level. In order to integrate meet the iequirement of the formuiation of the development the the entire system of planning and development, planning functions need to vest in municipalities on harmoniously' In same pattern as envisaged f6r the DPCs and MPCs so that the entire process functions a whole or covering major part of metropolitan region, .ur" of projects having-bearing for the district as This will the MpC anO OpC should act ai co-ordinating agencies for effective planning and implementation. call for appropriate structuring of local bodies and formalising the arrangement'

illt

turuRt 0t uRBAlllsArl0ll

z5Y

Andhra Pradesh

NTTTRTIICTS
Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure corporation Limited, Status Note on the Actiuities of ApIIC. Business Today, (December, 1999), The Best States to Invest in. Central Pollution Control Board, 199g, Annual Report jggT_gg. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, !999, Agriculture, September. centre for science and Environment, 1999, Nationa/ averuiew: The citizen,s Fifrh Report New Delhi. Dinesh Kumar Mahendra, and others, 1995, Impact oflndustrial wastewater - A Case ofJeedmetla Estate, Hyderabad. (Mimeo) Exped Group on the Commercialisation of Infrastructure Projects, !996, Indian rnfrastructure Report: Policy rmperatives for Growth and welfare, volume r s"aorar neporti, Ninlt'roi]ira'n-ie] 1ew oerni. Government of Andhra Pradesh and Department For International Developmeni, Andhra Pradesh lJrban servlces for the Poor: Drafr Design or Reform & tLrban seruices Components. Government of Andhra pradesh, I99g, Andhra pradesh Wsion _ 2020. Government of India, Ministry of Urban Development, 7993, National conference on {Jrban water supply & Sanitation Policy. Government of India, Ninth Five year plan jggT-2002, Vol. I and II. Ministry of Industry, Government of India, 199g, Annual Report 1997_98. Ministry of Industry, Government of India, r9gg, sIA statistics, Vol. IV, No. g. Ministry of Surface Transport, Government of India, L998, rnternational Congress on Express Highways Deve/opment ln India, Background papers. Ministry of urban Affairs & Employment, 7997, vulnerability Atlas of India, Building Materials & Technology - ' Yvr'rvrvY' Promotion Council, New Delhi. Mohanty P K, 1994, National Foundation for India, Report from National worKhop on Municipal Decentralisation and Governance in Accountability and Decentralisation in Urban Governance. Municipal corporation Hyderabad, 1999, public Notification - Filing of self-Assessment. National Atlas and Thematic Mapping organisation, 7993, India-lJrban Corridors: A Note on Thematic Mapprng Approach, NATMO Monograph No.12, Department of science and rechnorogy, carcutta. National Commission of urbanisation , t988, Report of the National commission onUroanisatior, vol. tt. National Institute of Urban Affairs, 7997, Financing Llrban Infrastructure in India, Research Study Series No. 59 National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1998, lJrban Sector Profile: Andhra pradesh., Research Study SeriesNo.63. Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, 1999, Regiona/ Meet on Devotution of Functional and Financial Powers to Urban Local Eodies, Status Papers, Osmania University, Hyderabad Registrar General & census commissioner, t99t, provisional population Totals: Rural _ Urban Distribution Paper-2 of 1991, Census oflndia 1991, Offrce ofthe Register General India. Registrar General & Census Commissioner, 1997, Towns and urban Agglomerations j99j with their population 1901-1991 Patt-II-A (ii) Series, Census of India 1991, Offrce Jflhe Register General India. Task Force on urban Development and Housing, vision 2020Andhra pradesh.\I4imeo) The Economic Times (November 1, 1999), Andhra pradesh: Industry. The Times Research Foundation, 1993, Managing llrban Environment in India Towards an Agenda forAction. Calcutta. Town & Country Planning Organisation, 1996, Llrban and Regional Planning and Development in India, New Delhi. Venkateswarlu v, L997, India's L/rban vision 2021: An Agenda for shaping The urban Future.

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