Integrated Analysis of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries

Timur Gül

Supervisor and Examiner Assoc. Professor Jan-Erik Gustafsson Division of Land and Water and Water Resources Engineering Royal Institute of Technology

Supervisor in Germany Dr. Dirk Aßmann Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy

Reviewer Michael Bartlett Department of Energy Processes Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm 2004

TRITA-LWR Master Thesis ISSN 1651-064X LWR-EX-04-26



Around 2 billion people world-wide do not have access to electricity services, of which the main share in rural areas in developing countries. Due to the fact that rural electricity supply has been regarded as essential for economic development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, it is nowadays a main focus in international development cooperation. Renewable energy resources are a favourable alternative for rural energy supply. In order to handle their fluctuating nature, however, hybrid systems can be applied. These systems use different energy generators in combination, by this maintaining a stable energy supply in times of shortages of one the energy resources. Main hope attributed to these systems is their good potential for economic development. This paper discusses the application of hybrid systems for rural electrification in developing countries by integrating ecological, socio-economic and economic aspects. It is concluded that hybrid systems are suitable to achieve both ecological and socio-economic objectives, since hybrid systems are an environmental sound technology with high quality electricity supply, by this offering a good potential for economic development. However, it is recommended to apply hybrid systems only in areas with economic development already taking place in order to fully exploit the possibilities of the system. Moreover, key success factors for the application of hybrid systems are discussed. It is found that from a technical point of view, appropriate maintenance structures are the main aspect to be considered, requiring the establishment of maintenance centres. It is therefore recommendable to apply hybrid systems in areas with a significant number of villages, which are to be electrified with these systems, in order to improve financial sustainability of these maintenance centres. The appropriate distribution model is seen as being important as well; it is thought that the sale of hybrid systems via credit, leasing or cash is the most likely approach. In order to do so, however, financial support and capacity building of local dealers is inalienable.

Table of Contents


Table of Contents
Abstract ........................................................................................................................I Table of Contents....................................................................................................... II List of Figures ........................................................................................................... IV List of Tables.............................................................................................................. V Acronyms .................................................................................................................. VI 1 1.1 1.2 2 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 Objective ........................................................................................................... 2 Methodology...................................................................................................... 2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply ........................................................... 4

2.1 Decentralised Electrification .............................................................................. 4 2.1.1 Diesel Generating Sets ....................................................................................... 4 2.1.2 Renewable Energy Technologies ....................................................................... 5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 3 Hybrid System Technology................................................................................ 6 Relevance .......................................................................................................... 6 Hybrid Systems in Developing Countries........................................................... 7 Other Hybrid Systems........................................................................................ 9 Technical Aspects ............................................................................................ 11 Grid-based Electrification ................................................................................ 14 Analysis of Impacts ........................................................................................ 16

3.1 Scope of the Analysis....................................................................................... 16 3.1.1 Scenario Definitions......................................................................................... 16 3.1.2 Modelling Assumptions ................................................................................... 18 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 The Concept of Indicators of Sustainability...................................................... 18 Developing an Indicator Set for Energy Technologies...................................... 19 Analysis of Sustainability ................................................................................ 21 Ecological Dimension ...................................................................................... 21 Socio-Economic Dimension............................................................................. 27 Economic Dimension....................................................................................... 33

3.5 Results and Discussion..................................................................................... 42 3.5.1 Results ............................................................................................................. 42 3.5.2 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 45

..................................................................... 75 B...............................................................................................................................................................................1 Ecology........... 104 D..................................... 47 4............ 105 D................... 79 Annex C: Analysis of Impacts ................................................................2 Modelling Results ..............................1 Baseline ................ 60 Technical Aspects .............. 87 C............................1 Hybrid Systems in Indonesia....................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents III 4 Project Examples ..... 86 C................... 93 Annex D: Cost Analysis .................. 101 D.........................3 Economic Issues..............................................................................................................................................................................................4 5........................2 5.............. 49 Project Description ..... 63 Political Factors ........................................................ 49 Baseline ....................................................................................................................... 75 B.................. 70 Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations .................... 113 .................................2 System Design ................................................... 64 Summary and Conclusions .........................2.................................... 49 Aspects of System Dissemination .......................................................................................2 4........1..........................6 6 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia...............................................2 4...............................................................................................................................2..................................................3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources ...2 Socio-Economic Issues.............................................1 Investment Costs...................................1 4...............................1 Scenario Definitions ................................................2 Project Description .1 Calculation of Electricity Demand.................. 62 Assessment of Electricity Demand and Potential for Renewable Energies.........5 5.................... 68 A.............................................................. 47 4.............2.....1... 53 Financing ... 47 4............................................................................... 57 Capacity Building ...................................................................3 5 5............... 66 Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design.............................2 Electricity Generating Costs..................1 5..................................................................... 110 Terms of Reference ........................................................................................................................................................... 53 Organisation ............................................................ 47 4........................................................................................................................................................ 68 A.3 5..................... 52 Key success factors.. 86 C........................................................

......... 28 Figure 3........................................................17 Comparative Assessment of Maintenance Requirements ...1 Specific Investment for Wind Power Plants and Diesel Gensets ............18 Comparative Assessment Regional Self-Supply and Import Independence 40 Figure 3.8 Comparative Assessment of Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance ............................. 32 Figure 3......6 Comparative Assessment of Resource Consumption ..... 23 Figure 3................... 24 Figure 3........................... 26 Figure 3....................................................2 GEMIS Results: Methane Emissions ..... 103 Figure D........1 Principle Circuit of Hybrid Systems .....11 Comparative Assessment of Potential for Economic Development .... 29 Figure 3....4 Comparative Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions ......6 Cumulative Energy Demand According to Resources.........................................15 Electricity Generating Costs in Comparison ........... 39 Figure 3..... 37 Figure 3.................7 Comparative Assessment of Noise Pollution .............................. 84 Figure B............................... 33 Figure 3........9 Comparative Assessment of Supply Equity ........... 25 Figure 3... 38 Figure 3........... 81 Figure B.......................................................................... 25 Figure 3................................................4 Selected Air Pollutants ...2 Specific Investment for Hybrid Systems of Different Capacities.......................... 60 Figure B..................... 43 Figure 3........... 80 Figure B..3 GEMIS Results: Emissions of Air Pollutants.......................................1 GEMIS Results: GHG Emissions .......... 85 Figure D........................ 31 Figure 3.............................12 Comparative Assessment of Employment Effects......................5 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy)..................1 Hybrid Village Systems: Distribution Steps ....................................................................................21 Results Ecology Assessment ..................... 41 Figure 3............. 108 .................... 8 Figure 3............................................................23 Results Economic Assessment ... 30 Figure 3..................................................................20 Comparative Assessment of Future Potential. 44 Figure 5.................. 44 Figure 3.16 Comparative Assessment of Electricity Generating Costs..............................10 Comparative Assessment of Participation and Empowerment....................................4 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for Wind/Diesel ......1 GEMIS Results: Greenhouse Gas Emissions ......... 23 Figure 3............22 Results Socio-Economic Assessment ...19 Comparative Assessment of Supply Security.......................................3 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for PV/Diesel............... 42 Figure 3............14 Comparative Assessment of Investment Costs............................................List of Figures IV List of Figures Figure 2....... 85 Figure B............ 104 Figure D................ 108 Figure D..................... 22 Figure 3.... 83 Figure B........5 GEMIS Results: Cumulative Energy Demand of Primary Energy ....................................13 Comparative Assessment of Impacts on Health ...... 36 Figure 3..............2 Comparative Assessment of GHG Emissions ..................3 GEMIS Results: Air Pollutants ............

..................4 Range of Investment Costs for Hybrid Systems ........ 69 Table A............6 Electricity Generating Costs of Wind/Diesel Systems [€/kWh] ....... 105 Table D.2 Investment Costs for Small-Scale Wind Power Plants............................. 20 Table 3........................................................... 80 Table B.... 111 Table D.................................................................................1 Scenarios and Technologies for Rural Electrification........................ 102 Table D......... 19 Table 3........ 68 Table A............ 95 Table C..1: Initial Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets...............................9 Electricity Generating Costs of Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia ..... 82 Table B....................... 96 Table D............. 68 Table A................ 102 Table D.............6 Investment Costs of Different Scenarios for Rural Electrification ...................................1 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis .............................List of Tables V List of Tables Table 3.2 Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Energy Technologies .......................................................................................... 106 Table D...................................................................................... 109 Table D..................... Inner Mongolia........................... 36 Table 3....5 Electricity Generating Costs of PV/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]....7 Electricity Generating Costs PV/Wind....1 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia ................................ 93 Table C.....................................................................3: Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices .................... 111 Table D.............4 Main Modelling Assumptions.................. 101 Table D..........................................1 Standard Household Characteristics................................7 Electricity Generating Costs for Different Scenarios...................... 16 Table 3.........3 Performance Assessment Scheme................3 Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets.................... 35 Table 3............. 71 Table B..............................5 Share of Technologies for Electricity Generation.....................4 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis .... 34 Table 3..........................................................................................5 Specific Investment Costs of Hybrid Systems........10 5 kW Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices .............8 Investment and Operating Costs of Different Household Systems. 84 Table C..................... 70 Table A.................................................................................2: Electricity Generating Costs for Diesel Gensets ......................... 49 Table A.....1 Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions ..........2 Air Pollutants. 106 Table D....................... 112 ....2 Rich Household Characteristics ................................ 38 Table 4.......3 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy) ...................3 Peak and Base Loads for Different Village Sizes ....

inverters Solar Home System World Health Organisation . produces i. produces i.e. different solar energy systems SMA Regelsysteme GmbH.Acronyms VI Acronyms AC CED CSD DC EMS GEF GHG GTZ KfW OECD PV Schueco SMA SHS WHO Alternating Current Cumulative Energy Demand Commission on Sustainable Development Direct Current Energy Management System Global Environmental Facility Greenhouse Gas Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Photovoltaic Schueco International KG.e.

1 Introduction 1 1 Introduction Recent research on the development of the world’s energy state and the future development scenarios show alarming developments: 1. In response to the lack of electricity supply in developing countries. Today. This lack of access to electricity mainly applies to rural areas in developing countries. 2002). their improved access to modern energy services has been regarded as essential for sustainable development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. A pos- . The effect of increasing global CO2-emissions will be the consequence. thus. is the instable energy provision due to the fluctuating nature of the resources. Social benefits related to improved energy services include poverty alleviation by changing energy use patterns in favour of non-traditional fuels. This is mainly due to the goals that are associated with the development of energy infrastructure. Developing countries. however. will account for more than 60 % of this increase (IEA. Around 2 billion people world-wide do not have access to modern energy services. 2002. 2002). Global consumption of primary energy resources. especially in Asia. however. which are especially suited for decentralised electricity generation. the combating population growth by shifting relative benefits and costs of fertility towards lower rates of birth. Recent approaches meet this challenge with a focus on decentralised systems for the electrification of rural areas. Without states taking heavy financial initiatives. are the effect that can be expected from better energy services. i. however. the compatibility to climate is better than for currently used options.4 billion people or 18 % of the world’s population without electricity supply (IEA. A major problem related to the application of renewable energies in decentralised systems. 2002). which had been attributed to energy services in the past. and progress being made over the last 25 years has applied mainly to urban areas (The World Bank. is likely to increase. the situation in 2030 will remain more or less unchanged with 1. could not live up to experiences. solar and hydro power. 2002). but additional measures are required as well. 3. is to improve access to modern energy services.e. Renewable energies use environmentally sound technologies: their consumption does not result in the depletion of resources. energy services are indeed seen as a major driving force to economic development. 2. productivity increases or improved economic opportunities. 1996a). without on the other hand increasing reliance on fossil fuels. and their application strengthens the security of energy supply by using local resources. The outstanding key role in economic development. Higher availability of jobs. time that could be used for education or employment instead. and the creation of new opportunities for women by reducing the time for the collection of wood for cooking and heating (WEHAB Working Group. which is a major occupation of women in developing countries. major ones being economic and social goals. with the increase being mainly based on fossil fuels. The challenge. Main hope is here attributed to the application of renewable energies as wind. by catalysing the creation of small enterprises or livelihood activities in evening hours (WEHAB Working Group.

For the assessment of sustainability in Chapter 3. Finally. The findings of this research were then discussed with project developers at the fair Intersolar in Freiburg/Germany on June. . However. Chapter 4 then describes experiences with projects in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia.1 Objective The objective of this paper is to analyse and assess the sustainability of the application of hybrid systems for rural electrification in developing countries. 2003. while the potential of other such possibilities is briefly discussed as well. an indicator system on the three dimensions of sustainability – ecology. which needs to be ensured by setting the right framework. site visits could not be held and. and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) on August. 28th. 1. This approach. this analysis is performed in comparative terms on the basis of an indicator set developed here. These key success factors are related to aspects of financing. A number of projects applying hybrid systems for electricity generation have already been carried out. the different systems for energy provision being important for the comparative assessment of sustainability are presented first. a literature research was performed first. socio-economic and economic issues . 1. Solar Home Systems and biogas plants for electricity generation. Moreover. chapter 6 gives a summary and an outlook to the perspective of hybrid systems in developing countries. is just now stepwise gaining importance. 2003.1 Introduction 2 sibility to solve this problem is to backup the renewable energy generator with another power generator in a so-called hybrid system. 7th. organisation. where hybrid systems were applied. the extension of the conventional grid is considered as well. which have already been applied in developing countries. several are currently under implementation. 14th. Several factors have been limiting to this work. as well as with experts from Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) on July. The different options for rural electrification are then investigated and compared with regard to these indicators. 2003. In this paper. The sustainability of hybrid systems is assessed relative to the other potential decentralised electrification scenarios: diesel generator-based mini-grids. Another objective here is to find key success factors for the application of hybrid systems. The objective in investigating key success factors is to maintain the sustainability of a project for rural electrification with hybrid systems. capacity building and others. the information here is limited to the findings of the literature review and the developed. accepting that sustainability is an ongoing dynamic process.2 Methodology To pursue the above objectives. Due to the absence of respective surveys. Firstly. which are of importance for any decentralised rural electrification project and especially for hybrid systems. therefore. while chapter 5 then outlines the key success factors for the application of hybrid systems. although being known for quite some years already. Special attention is paid to hybrid systems. has not been investigated yet and shall be matter of this paper. the question whether and to which extent these systems satisfy the expectations on rural electrification projects with regard to sustainable development.

the findings of this analysis are always to be seen as strongly generalised and their applicability must be proven anew in each case.1 Introduction 3 Moreover. . Therefore. the analysis of hybrid systems in developing countries in general can come only to rather vague results. What proves to be right in one country can be completely wrong for another country.

Different technological options are in practice. locally. 3.e.. In a next step. 2. Generally. This problem can be met by using a group of diesel gensets. Raptis.. The approaches of local and decentralised electrification are obviously closely connected and can be met by similar technologies. Finally. J. The objective is to provide a technical background for the evaluation of these options in the following chapters. With diesel gensets. Moreover. They provide a simple solution for rural electrification and can be designed for different capacities.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 4 2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply This chapter gives an overview on potential solutions for rural energy supply. In cases security of supply is not of major importance. the electric current is produced within the village itself. this chapter will also briefly discuss the centralised approach of the extension of the conventional grid to rural areas. decentrally. will be presented.. by erecting or extending stand-alone regional mini-grids. 2000). which is due to the fact that they work very inefficiently when running just at fractions of their rated capacity. including technical aspects to be considered and main applications. being adapted to the needs of the consumers. the different hybrid systems.1. by supplying single consumers and load groups. power supply in developing countries for rural areas takes place in three different ways (Kleinkauf. most commonly diesel generating sets and renewable energies. by expansion of interconnected grids. The voltage of the generator is often adjusted to be higher than the required 220 Volt for the household because of high losses within the local distribution lines (Baur. 2. Typically. Those of importance for this paper are described more detailed firstly in the following. 2000). W. which are in operation in developing countries nowadays. the effi- . 1996/1997): 1. Diesel gensets have problems with short durability. potential other hybrid solutions will be discussed against the background of applying them in developing countries. 2. i. the decentralised approaches of regional mini-grid systems or local supply of single consumers can become competitive due to lower investments and maintenance costs compared to large scale electrification by expanding interconnected grids. accepting that no electricity can be supplied in times the genset is out of commission. with the other gensets providing backup (ESMAP. due to repair or maintenance. centrally. the options of importance for this work are discussed more in detail.1 Decentralised Electrification In highly fragmented areas or at certain distances from the grid.1 Diesel Generating Sets Small diesel-power generating sets (diesel gensets) have been the traditional way to address the problem of the lack of electricity. F. single diesel gensets can be applied for electrification.

Moreover. and biogas for local mini-grids or single consumers. The photovoltaic modules are usually installed on rooftops.. but increases overall system costs. Moreover.1. be adapted to individual needs. In 2001. wind farms.2 Renewable Energy Technologies The use of renewable energy technologies is a very promising approach towards meeting environmental. The application of inverters to provide alternating current (AC) at a voltage of 220 Volt is possible. the battery offers the possibility to meet peak load demand for short periods of time. A.000 gallons of industrial fuel and diesel and putting the sensitive ecosystems of the islands to high risks.. D. Diesel gensets are typically just operated for around 4 hours in the evenings. which can be used in gas burners or motors 1 More potential renewable technologies include stand-alone wind turbines. A common 50 Wp can supply lighting and a TV/radio for several hours per day (Preiser. hydropower and larger-scale photovoltaics. areas are far away or isolated (i. 2 Anaerobic conditions: in absence of oxygen. The systems work at voltages of 12 or 24 Volt. Pneumaticos. spilling out 145. L.. they convert the insolation into electric current. Solar Home Systems Solar Home Systems (SHS) typically include a 20.. S. frequent start-up and shut-down procedures decrease their lifetime as well. The originating gas consists of 55 to 70% from Methane (CH4).. M. K.e. social as well as economic goals associated with rural electrification. the capacity can technically be expanded easily and.. excrements from animal husbandry) for the production of biogas under anaerobic conditions2. islands) from higher developed regions so that the regular supply with diesel fuel becomes a logistical problem and an important financial burden even in countries. is more a problem related to infrastructure. where fuel is heavily subsidised. 2000). . and very often old motors from cars are used for the purpose of electrification. On a local level. Biogas Biogas systems utilise micro-organisms for the conversion of biomass (i. Cosgrove-Davies. as experienced for example at the Galapagos Islands.1 Both are presented in the following. One of the basic problems for the application of diesel generating systems in developing countries. Schaeffer. 2001). J. 1996). which is used for loading the battery. the tanker Jessica ran aground close to San Cristobal. especially rural. F. Moreover. 100-Wp photovoltaic array and a leadacid battery with charge controller supplying energy for individual household appliances (Cabraal. which requires high cross-sectional wiring in order to avoid high losses (Baur. Many. Sheriff. The electricity current is provided in direct current (DC).2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 5 ciency of operation is between 25-35% (Turcotte. 2001). thus.. The battery supplies electricity to the consumer during evening hours and in case of insolation shortages due to unfavourable weather conditions. the transportation of diesel fuel can result in severe environmental damage. 2. two technologies are of high importance: Solar Home Systems (SHS) for supply of single consumers.

2 Hybrid System Technology Hybrid systems are another approach towards decentralised electrification. 1995). Hybrid systems can technically be designed for almost any purpose at any capacity. M.1 Relevance One of the main problems of solar as well as wind energy is the fluctuation of energy supply. The presentation of these other potential options is left for section 2. 1 m3 biogas is necessary (GTZ. In developing countries these other technology options have not yet gained importance. basically by combining the technologies presented above. 2. general technical aspects and potential applications.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 6 for the production of electric current3 (Kaltschmitt. Biogas systems are widely used in India and China for the supply of single consumers or local mini-grids. where the organic substrate is decomposed in the three steps hydrolysis. radiant heaters. solar cells and wind power plants” (Weber. 1999a). but complementary energy supply systems at the same place. They can be designed as stand-alone mini-grids or in smaller scale as household systems. A system using complementary energy supply technologies has the advantage of being able to supply energy even at times when one part of the hybrid system is unavailable. This section wants to discuss available technology options. this has so far been limited to pilot projects in industrialised countries. biogas lamps. Although other renewable energy resources than solar and wind can in principle be used in hybrid systems as well.e. i. incubators and refrigerators working on biogas (GTZ.. Main component of a biogas plant is the digestion tank (fermenter). 1999a). the system components.. 2000) or for gas cookers/stoves. So far. .2. 2. A hybrid system can be defined as “a combination of different. Main applications for rural electrification in developing countries include independent electric power supply for 3 To generate 1 kWh of electricity. acidification and methane formation.2.3. including Photovoltaic Generator and Diesel Generating Set (Diesel Genset). R. three different types of hybrid systems have been applied in developing countries. Photovoltaic and Wind Generators. This can be avoided by the use of hybrid systems. resulting in intermittent delivery of power and causing problems if supply continuity is required. Wind Generator and Diesel Genset.

Usually. which might not be satisfied by the renewable system alone. A future option might be the hydrogen fuel cell.. A storage system to guarantee a stable output during short times of shortages.4 2. etc. . The batteries act as “buffers”. . i.e. controlling the battery not to be overloaded.. Moreover. i.2 Hybrid Systems in Developing Countries A common hybrid system for the application in developing countries generally consists of the following main components: 1. 4 Personal Comment given by Mr. 2.Desalination Systems. a diesel genset. a DC/AC inverter needs to be installed additionally. 5. on June 28th. etc.Irrigation systems. Hospitals. Georg Weingarten.Missions. W. i. TV/radio. Schools. 6.2.4.Farmhouses. plugs. . The complementary resource produces the required energy at times of imminent deep discharge of the battery.5 4. All these components and the problems related to their application are further described in section 2.or long-term storage. . in cases of low sunlight or low wind.e. at Intersolar-Fair.e. Rotating masses can be used for shorter time frames (seconds). Installation material (safety boxes.).2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 7 - Villages. 2003). 3.). 5 Storage systems in hybrid systems in developing countries are usually battery aggregates maintaining a stable output over a time frame of one or more days. 2003). . A charge controller regulates the state of load of the battery. using the energy surplus to load the battery. cables. maintaining a stable energy supply during short periods of time (Blanco. At favourable weather conditions. A charge controller. J. . at the same time loading the battery.1 shows a principle overview of how to combine PV. A secondary source of energy for supply in case of shortages. A primary source of energy.1. Hybrid systems are applied in areas where permanent and reliable availability of electricity supply is an important issue. 2003. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. Residential Buildings. Figure 2. which can be avoided with hybrid systems. Germany. . The appliances (lighting. a renewable energy resource.Hotels.2. Maintaining high availability with renewable energies alone usually requires big renewable energy generators. the renewable part of the system satisfies the energy demand. wind and diesel generators in a hybrid system (Roth.Radio Relay Transmitters. Freiburg. combustion aggregates need to be used for medium. the battery serves to meet peak demands.

1 Principle Circuit of Hybrid Systems 2.2. . The solar generator can provide about 100% of the electricity during summertime. 2003. From a perspective of financial competitiveness. Typically. on June 28th.1.. H. A project at Montague Island even reached an 87% decrease in fuel consumption (Corkish. in climatic regions like Germany a PV/Diesel hybrid system is designed to provide around 50% of the electricity from photovoltaic during winter. Freiburg. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. the observed fuel saving varies over the year. Georg Weingarten. As can be seen in Figure 2. Puls. at Intersolar-Fair. the rest being supplied with the diesel genset. 7 Personal Comment given by Mr.2. in principal. Compared to the common solution for rural off-grid electrification using diesel gensets alone. at Intersolar-Fair. Georg Weingarten...5 m/s already (Sauer. while in winter this figure is less.2. R. the hybrid solution using photovoltaic offers great potential in saving fuel. The CO2 emissions decrease correspondingly..2 Wind/Diesel Wind/Diesel combinations are. Bopp.6 depending on the regional conditions and the design of the system. Experiences show annual fuel savings of more than 80% compared to stand-alone mini-grids on diesel genset basis. D. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. 2000). Germany. Lowe. built up in the same way as are PV/Diesel systems. Germany. If wind 6 Personal Comment given by Mr..2.7 2. et al.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 8 Solar Generator Charge Control G Wind Generator Charge Control Battery Inverter Mini-Grid / Appliances G Diesel Generator Charge Control Figure 2. 2003. G. on June 28th. since PV modules provide direct current.1 PV/Diesel Combining Photovoltaic arrays and a diesel genset provides a rather simple solution and is feasible for regions with good solar resources. they can be applied in regions where average wind speed is around 3. 2003). Freiburg. R. PV/Diesel hybrid systems require a DC/AC-inverter if appliances need alternating current. Naturally.

2. Generally. at coastal or mountain areas with high degree of solar radiation..2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 9 speed is sufficient.1 Biogas Hybrid Systems PV/Wind/Biogas ASE GmbH as the performing organisation has created an autonomous hybrid power supply systems for the purification plant of Körkwitz. for a hikers’ inn in the Black Forest of Germany (Kaltschmitt. being replaced by the diesel generating set when low winds occur over longer periods of time. being able to feed up to 30% of surplus energy under good performing conditions into the public grid. A. In regions. wind and biogas for energy provision. breakdowns in energy supply are possible.2. The PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system has proven successful in Germany. However. however. however preparing the energy management for further expansion using biogas in a decentralised cogeneration plant..3 Other Hybrid Systems The hybrid systems implemented in developing countries so far do not reflect the whole range of potential solutions. Here. . the wind turbine is in charge of the provision of energy.2. This is obviously due to the fact that PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid systems involve a higher share of renewable energy resources. In the first stage. it must be doubted whether this effect of further reduction of diesel use can trade off the higher investment and operation costs.3.. i. 2. combinations in hybrid systems are worth discussing. For the application in developing countries. M. the situation is different for PV/Wind systems. where two different resources complement each other. G. a PV/Wind hybrid system might ideally be supported by an additional diesel generating set for times of extremely unfavourable weather conditions. Thus. accurate assessment of the resources is essential for the decision on the appropriate system design. A PV/Wind hybrid system is able to provide energy all time of the day.g. 2003). This kind of hybrid system has been implemented e.2. While for the other hybrid systems applying diesel gensets. if weather conditions are favourable.3 PV/Wind and PV/Wind/Diesel In some regions the exploitation of both wind and solar resources can become favourable. which is not suitable for some non-household applications. hospital electrification. Wiese. The main components of the system include a 250 kWp solar generator and a 300 kW wind turbine with 3 inverted rectifiers connected in parallel (Neuhäusser. The objective was to provide 80% of the necessary energy. combining any renewable resource with others is conceivable. Of utmost importance is here that wind and solar energy supply complement each other so that energy provision is possible over the whole year. using the renewable energy resources photovoltaic. 1996). the battery maintains a stable system. During short periods of time with low winds. the system was implemented using just wind energy and photovoltaic arrays. situated close to the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Germany.2. i. being highly reliable and resulting in a further reduction of diesel compared to other hybrid systems.e.e. 2. the objective in designing the system is to maximise the exploitation of the renewable energy resource. depending on the availability of resources.

or some kinds of fuel cells can be used to generate electricity in addition to the wind turbine. wind has the potential to take over electricity supply. wind resources are better at high elevations. During the research for this work it was found out that these kind of systems are currently tested in developing countries in South Asia (ITDG. Especially in winter. here engine generator sets. A reasonable statement on the applicability therefore cannot be given here. when river flows are low. Since the combination of wind and hydropower offers just limited advantages. Modelling simulations proved that the availability of wind energy is upgraded by applying biogas systems additionally (Surkow. For constant electricity generation. the two resources wind and hydropower tend to complement each other to some extent (Iowa. both resources might become low. so that the potential should be more closely investigated. Depending on the management strategy and the scenario used for the type of consumers. more detailed information could. the adaptation of this hybrid system for rural electrification in developing countries seems unlikely especially from a financial perspective.2. Wind/Micro-Hydro and PV/Micro-Hydro While hybrid systems with large-scale hydropower generators seem unattractive. while hydro generators on rivers are usually at lower levels. for some locations the situation might be different. This is due to the fact that the participating companies have been declared insolvent since implementation and the new operator of the systems could not be identified.3.2 Hydropower Hybrid Systems Wind/Large Hydropower On a seasonal basis. it is unlikely that these resources are combined in a project in developing countries. 2003). A key role can be assigned to the size of the systems’ gas storage tank and its operating management. However. not be obtained.. Moreover. during late summer. which is produced in an anaerobic digester. microhydropower is more feasible. R. Wind/Biogas The concept of a Wind/Biogas system is to some degree similar to Wind/Diesel hybrid systems. Combining three different types of renewable energy systems certainly involves investment costs too high for this purpose. another energy resource would therefore be necessary. Generally it is thought that biogas plants instead of diesel gensets as backup for wind or PV systems offer an environmental benign approach towards rural electrification. conventional gases as propane can be used instead. Micro-hydroelectric generators are turbines that are able to op- . The engine is fuelled by biogas.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 10 Information on the performance of the installed system and about the further expansion with biogas could not be obtained within the framework of this work. since this opportunity does not seem economically attractive. 2002a). However. so that the feasibility of Wind/Large Hydropower systems needs to be assessed for each case individually. and the combination of both is then disadvantageous. 2. However. however. small gas turbines. Instead of the diesel genset. If the production of biogas is at times not sufficient. 1999). additional secondary energy needed from conventional fuels (propane or diesel) accounts for 7-11% of the total amount of electricity.

since here start-up and shut-down procedures are less frequent. including general technical aspects and problems of the system’s components as well as technical management aspects. Moreover. however.1. 2002b). strongly depending on the way of operation. is still matter of research and currently more applicable for industrial purposes (Iowa.1 General Aspects General problems occurring with the elements of hybrid systems are not only specific for hybrid systems. Here. especially those specific to the adaptation in developing countries.4. These plants are often locally available and CO2 neutral.2.000 hours for generators with capacities less than 30 kW (Kininger. Problems and other general technical aspects. . being mostly produced in the industrialised countries. a gasification system might be applied as well. the application in hybrid systems is advantageous in this respect. and the accordingly missing infrastructure for maintenance of renewable energy technologies.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 11 erate under low elevation head or low volumetric flow rate conditions. rapeseed or sunflowers. 2. The diesel generating set The non-continuous use of diesel generating sets always results in a reduction of lifetime due to the frequent start-up and shut-down procedures. Vegetable oil can be made available by peanut plants. frozen in winter). are briefly summarised below.. To improve the situation of diesel dependence.1. Although the production of vegetable oil requires an additional initial investment. gas turbines or fuel cells.2. In comparison to other technical devices. with figures from 1. a hybrid system applying wind or PV support can be attractive. This. motor generating sets have a wide range of operating hours. 2002c). this can be traded off with later cost reduction due to fuel savings. being suitable for small rivers (Iowa. producer gas is made from biomass in a fluidised bed gasifier and used to fuel internal combustion engines. 2. as was further outlined in section 2. but also common for the use of the single elements. The decrease in efficiency is 1% for every 100 m above sea level. 2002).5 °C above a temperature of 20 °C (Wuppertal Institute. Instead of conventional diesel gensets. A careful assessment of water resources is therefore essential. 2002).4 Technical Aspects This section gives an overview on different technical aspects related to the application of hybrid systems in developing countries. Lack of infrastructure for renewable energies One of the key disadvantages of renewable energies is the fact that they apply new and not yet widespread technologies. A holistic approach to create this kind of infrastructure and to make the use of renewable energy technologies in developing countries sustainable is imperative for energy planners and development aid organisations. to mention but a few. generators using vegetable oil for operation offer a potential solution. Where rivers have inconsistent flow characteristics (dry in summer. and another 1% for every 5. In comparison to the application of diesel gensets alone. This approach.000 – 80. diesel generating sets are rather sensitive to climatic and geographic conditions. makes their adaptation in developing countries a rather difficult task. F.

This is due to the fact that an accurately working charge controller increases performance and lifetime of the battery bank. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. Effect of temperature: The nominal capacity is usually given at a battery temperature of 20°C. The optimal performance of this component highly influences not only the system’s performance. both high and low temperatures should be avoided as far as possible (IEA.8 - - The Charge Controller The charge controller in renewable energy systems has two fundamental functions (IEA. The use of storage systems in hybrid power plants has a twofold effect: on the one hand. thus significantly reducing the utilisable capacity. daily control both of battery acid level and voltage are fundamental. Most controllers additionally regulate the current to the load in order to protect the battery from discharge. resulting in the need for suitable operation and management system. thus reducing the battery’s lifetime significantly. The following major aspects need to be considered when designing a battery bank for hybrid systems: Capacity Design: When designing a battery bank installation. a battery installation should be designed based on the 80% of the nominal battery capacity (IEA. too. Freiburg. Low temperatures slow down the chemical reactions inside the battery. Thus. at Intersolar-Fair. Regulation of the current from the renewable energy generator in order to protect the battery from being overcharged. it also influences the overall performance costs of the system. On the other hand. 2. The end of life of a battery is reached when capacity has declined to 80% of the nominal value. the battery offers support in times of peak demands. on June 28th. is of high importance for the system’s reliability and highly influences the system’s maintenance costs (IEA. 1999a). Furthermore. it is important to note that a battery’s capacity decreases over lifetime. resulting in lower overall costs. 2003. . is a very sensitive and crucial part of the system. 8 Personal Comment given by Mr. Germany. in most cases lead-acid batteries. where the nominal value is given by the manufacturer. High temperatures result in an increase of corrosion velocity of the battery’s electrodes. overcharge and a low electrolyte level should be avoided. Therefore. Deep discharge to less than 50% of the capacity. the storage of power is meant to bypass short times of power shortages. The charge controller. 1998): 1. The performance of a battery bank is controlled with the help of a charge controller. the longer the battery’s lifetime. which cannot be met by the renewable energy source alone. In order to guarantee this. Georg Weingarten. 1999a). the application of a charge controller is essential.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 12 The Storage System The storage device of hybrid systems. though being one of the least costly components in renewable energy systems. The more optimal the performance of the battery bank. which guarantees that the battery is neither over-charged nor discharged too deeply. 1998).

which is often difficult. 2003. 4. Germany. without increasing the overall costs significantly. 1998): 1. the charge controller is giving the dispatch strategy. Battery banks in hybrid systems are generally relatively smaller and cycled more than. This increases the importance of regular equalisation and makes the cycle life the main factor determining the battery lifetime.000 cycles. The fact that power is available on demand in diesel genset supported hybrid systems eliminates many of the vagaries associated with the fluctuating nature of renewable energy resources. Concerning the diesel genset itself. the diesel genset runs at full loading.e. 1998). deciding when to turn it on. and when to switch the genset off. 1998). many charge controllers cannot be properly adjusted. charge controllers are relatively less costly for the overall system. meaning the load current minus the current available from the renewable energy generators. charge currents can be rather high. and not only that battery specifications are not always available. Main problems related to batteries and the charge controller in hybrid systems include temperature control. 2001). PV/Wind hybrid systems). one needs to distinguish two different scenarios: firstly. Georg Weingarten. there are four major differences for diesel genset supported hybrid systems compared to “simple” systems with renewable energy technologies alone (IEA. using the power which is not required by the load to charge the battery bank (IEA..000 – 3. For the aspect of charge control. 3. During this time. sometimes it is even left to the user to switch on the genset (IEA. is different for hybrid systems using diesel gensets as a backup. . on June 28th. A typical cycle life of hybrid systems’ battery banks consists of 2.e. is also to minimise costs for diesel fuel and maintenance (IEA. 9 2. or to start the genset when the net load. i. batteries are also usually the first component suffering from abuse (Turcotte. Since hybrid systems are typically designed for higher loads than pure renewable systems. at Intersolar-Fair. Other dispatch strategies are to turn on the genset only when the load is reasonably large and to run it at a loading to supply just enough power in order to keep the batteries from being discharged.. in addition to the former. S. Freiburg. exceeds a certain threshold. the loading at which to operate. There. 1998). Since the genset is switched on in times the renewable energy resource cannot meet the demand. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. D.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply 13 For hybrid systems. however. making the charge control simpler. the control of charge and discharge basically works as it does in systems with just one renewable energy resource. the main objective of applying charge control is to maximise the battery’s lifetime. This dispatch strategy is commonly quite simple: it can be determined by a low voltage point of the battery and a voltage point at which the battery is fully charged. in hybrid systems relying on renewable energy technologies for power supply alone (i. F. Especially if the diesel genset is oversized. in pure photovoltaic systems. the objective of system control. Pneumaticos. 9 Personal Comment given by Mr. This gives potential for more costly controllers with higher functionality. The situation.. Sheriff..

2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply


Inverters In cases where the power supplied by the renewable energy generator is given in DC, a DC/AC-inverter needs to be installed additionally. This is due to the fact that most appliances needing AC current are less costly than those requiring DC current. There are different inverter models available, which are not to be discussed within this work. All of these models, however, need to meet the following requirements (Kaltschmitt, M., 2001/2002): optimal adjustment to the renewable energy generator proper energetic inversion to DC current compliance with the principles of netparallel operation

Inverters for hybrid systems are nowadays still considered as problematic and are in need for further development (Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F.; Pneumaticos, S., 2001). Common problems related to their application in hybrid systems include faults during transition and difficulties in starting the generators. Moreover, available models often loose their parameters when being reset, and some faults additionally require manual reset (Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F.; Pneumaticos, S., 2001). Modern inverter technologies available on the market not only provide the normal functions of an inverter, but additionally integrate the charge control. These appliances allow with their integrated system management an automatic control of the energy sources, the charging state of the battery and the power demand of the loads. Energy Management Systems Energy Management Systems (EMS) are a modern possibility to improve supply security of hybrid or other systems applying renewable energy resources. It serves the function of the charge controller in a more flexible way, while at the same time serving additional functions. An EMS anticipates expected loads and prioritises them, co-ordinates the application of the different generators and optimises the exploitation of the renewable energy resource, and decreases the maintenance requirements by optimising the operation of the batteries (Benz, J., 2003).


Grid-based Electrification

Finally, the centralised approach of extending the conventional grid to rural areas is the last option to be described here. Grid-based electricity is delivered to consumers at three different levels (Baur, J., 2000): 1. The electric current produced in conventional central power plants is transported via high-voltage transmission lines at a voltage of 60 – 200 kilovolt over long distances; 2. On a regional level, the electric current is distributed to the villages via mean-voltage grid, normally at a voltage of 10 - 22 kilovolt. 3. Inside the village, the electric current is transformed to the voltage level of 110 – 220/230 volt of the households.

2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply


Compared to European standards, the conventional grid in developing countries lacks redundancy. This leads to lower costs on the one hand, but to less reliability on the other hand as well. Grid-based electrification is often highly favoured by rural population despite the problems with reliable electricity supply. However, the extension of the conventional grid is often not feasible from an economic point of view. Factors to be considered include10 distance of the village from the grid, number of households to be connected to the grid within the village, and household density in the villages, meaning the distances between the different houses.

Moreover, the fact that many developing countries are heavily dependent on fossil fuels makes grid-based rural electrification unattractive not only from an economic, but also from an environmental perspective.


For further reading see: (Cabraal, A.; Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Schaeffer, L., 1996) and (Baur, J., 2000).

3 Analysis of Impacts



Analysis of Impacts

Although several projects with hybrid systems for rural electrification have been carried out already, surveys investigating these systems are so far very limited. In fact, no socioeconomic survey discussing the adaptation of hybrid systems in developing countries has been conducted to date. This problem led to the idea of discussing the application of hybrid systems in developing countries not in absolute terms, but rather to compare their sustainability relative to other likely scenarios of rural electrification, which will be defined in the following section. This chapter, thus, aims to analyse the impacts of rural electrification in developing countries with hybrid systems relative to the different technology options presented above. In doing so, it is tried to find out to which degree hybrid system likely provide a sustainable option for rural electrification. The assessment of hybrid systems compared to the different other scenarios is accomplished with a set of indicators, which is developed in 3.2 and 3.3, making possible a comparison on the three dimensions of sustainability: ecological, socio-economic and economic issues.


Scope of the Analysis

For the assessment, the fictitious case of electrification of a remote village in a rural area in a developing country is discussed. It is assumed that this village is electrified with different scenarios of rural electrification, and their impacts on the three dimensions of sustainability are analysed relative to each other. Table 3.1 gives and overview on the chosen scenarios. Table 3.1 Scenarios and Technologies for Rural Electrification
No. Scenario Technologies PV-Diesel 1 Decentralised Rural Electrification with Hybrid Systems Wind-Diesel PV-Wind 2 3 4 Decentralised Rural Electrification with Diesel Gensets Decentralised Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Centralised Rural Electrification by Grid Extension Diesel Gensets SHS Biogas Country dependent

3.1.1 Scenario Definitions This section outlines the underlying assumptions for the different scenarios for rural electrification, as they will be used for the assessment in the following. Scenario 1: Hybrid Systems The analysis of the different hybrid systems is here restricted to those which have been applied already in developing countries, namely the combinations PV/Diesel, Wind/Diesel and PV/Wind. The reason to leave out potential other technologies, as they were presented in

The scenario “Rural area without electrification” is not included in the analysis.2. For the assessment of hybrid systems. two typical options are investigated here in comparison to hybrid systems: SHS and biogas systems.3 Analysis of Impacts 17 chapter 2. Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets The comparison of hybrid systems with diesel gensets is based on the assumption that the considered rural village is for this scenario supplied by a diesel-based mini-grid. if necessary. It is obvious that in practical cases. but usually for household electrification only. Where appropriate. is that this kind of assessment would be based on too many assumptions and therefore be too speculative. it is thought that the comparison with SHS will be supportive to identify the circumstances under which the application of hybrid systems is reasonable with regard to sustainability. This is due to two reasons: on the one hand. However. . which means that ideal conditions are not assumed. The hybrid systems discussed here are designed for 24-hours electrification of a remote rural village. it is here often referred to experiences of two projects on rural electrification with hybrid systems. this is accounted for here. which more detailed information could be obtained for. However. the electrification of non-electrified areas has been regarded as essential to economic and social development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. 2002. These projects took place in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia. SHS are accounted here because they are applied widely nowadays. It is assumed that the households of the considered village are electrified each with a SHS. only a more limited number of the technical options will be available. Since SHS are not used for productive purposes. Scenario 4: Grid Extension The extension of the conventional grid to remote rural areas is in most cases unlikely due to usually large distances of rural villages to the grid and the corresponding considerable investment necessary for the extension. It is rather a debate on principles but a question of analytical discussion. the comparison of non-electrified areas with the electrification by different technologies seems to be inadequate in technical terms anyway. The different scenarios are all discussed as real application scenarios. operated by a private operator and being implemented privately.3. meaning that a generator is applied for producing electricity. Biogas systems are investigated as village systems for electrification of the considered remote village. Scenario 3: Renewable Energies For electrification of rural villages with renewable energies. they are discussed each for themselves. since it is seen as inappropriate for being discussed here. However. for the assessment of hybrid systems it is seen as important to include grid extension as well in order to accurately determine the quality of hybrid system electrification. and will be presented as examples in detail in chapter 4. the relevant combinations of hybrid systems are discussed as a whole. accepting that the comparison with a hybrid village system is to some extent not accurate. on the other hand. not under the guidance of development cooperation organisations. it is supposed that natural and other conditions for the realisation of the considered technical alternatives are given.

The main assumptions are presented in the following. the latter concept of indicators for societies as a whole has gained importance by understanding the global dimension of sustainability. Especially. thus. Source: Meteosat. A system trying to describe and to quantify the degree of sustainability is the concept of indicators for sustainable development. A number of indicator sets have been developed. summarising complex information and. This electricity demand is then met with the different scenarios for rural electrification in order to comparatively assess hybrid systems. The need for such an indicator system. of which some of the most known on an international level have been set up by the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). how- 11 Global radiation: 1. the annual peak demand of the village was determined according to different possible village sizes. 3. leaving much space for discussion and interpretation. The calculation of investment and electricity generating costs for the assessment of economic sustainability is then performed for different village sizes for the same location.3 Analysis of Impacts 18 Parts of the ecological and economic analysis in the following could not be performed in general terms and required an accurate modelling of the considered remote village and the installed hybrid systems. and 1:2 in the case of PV/Wind systems. The annual consumption results from a calculated specific consumption per household and an additional 40% excess consumption for productive purposes. Most commonly. Trapani/Italy was chosen as an example with moderately suited weather conditions.664 kWh/m2/a. the details of the calculations can be found in Annex A. For the task of evaluating the sustainability of different energy technology concepts. creating a transparent and simplified system to provide information on the degree of sustainability both to decision-makers and the interested public.2 The Concept of Indicators of Sustainability Measuring the degree of sustainability obviously is a difficult task.11 Although this location is not situated in a developing country. Indicators are used to give a comprehensive view on sustainability. 3.1. indicator sets have been developed and used to provide information on the state of sustainability of production processes or societies as a whole. The assessment of ecological issues is performed for a village with 170 households with a calculated annual peak electricity consumption of 48.126 kWh/a. the comparison with weather data from several other locations revealed that this location makes a generalised statement possible by offering average conditions. no approved indicator system has been developed yet.2 Modelling Assumptions For the assessment of parts of the ecological and economic dimension. For the design of the hybrid systems to electrify a village in Trapani. . The hybrid systems are then designed accordingly to meet this demand with the ratio 4:1 in the cases of PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems.

3.. T. In a first step.2 0.1 0.3 0. provide the basis for the indicator set being developed within this work. and also offering a comprehensive view on the their weak points from a perspective of sustainability... M..2 Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Energy Technologies Dimension Criteria Climate Protection Ecology Resource Protection Noise Reduction Indicator Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh Consumption of Unlasting Resources Noise Pollution Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance SocioEconomic Issues Overall SocioEconomic Matters Degree of Supply Equity Potential for Participation and Empowerment Potential for Economic Development Individual SocioEconomic Interests Low Costs and Tariffs Economic Issues Maintenance Economic Independence Future Potential Employment Effects Impacts on Health Investment Costs per W Electricity Generating Costs per kWh Maintenance Requirements Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply Supply Security Degree of know-how Improvement Weighting 0. the results being obtained by such an indicator set can provide a data base for the evaluation of the sustainability of a society as a whole.3 0. R.1 0. is apparent and has been highlighted in a number of studies already.1 0. On the other hand.3 0.3 Analysis of Impacts 19 ever.1 0.05 12 Compare for example: (Aßmann. socio-economic and economic issues – needed to be broken down to a set of criteria describing these issues.1 0.25 0. however.4 0. it allows a “relative” comparison of different technologies. 2003) or (Nill. W. A. This led to the following set of indicators: Table 3. 2000). In a next step.1 0.. Krewitt. the three dimensions of sustainability – ecological. Marheineke. Voß. They do.. D. a set of indicators measuring these criteria was developed. evaluating their current state of sustainability relative to each other.2 0. 12 On the one hand. with the indicators weighted relative to their importance for the respective dimension according to the author’s opinion.3 Developing an Indicator Set for Energy Technologies Available indicator sets for measuring the sustainability of energy technologies have been found to be inappropriate within the framework of this work since they are commonly adapted to the conditions of industrialised rather than to those in developing countries and they include too many indicators.3 0. Friedrich.1 0. .

DomDom. 2002) and (Barnes.3 Performance Assessment Scheme 2 Comparatively very good performance 1 0 -1 Comparatively poor performance -2 Comparatively very poor performance Average performComparatively good ance or no statement performance possible 13 As examples: (Barkat. The comparative assessment of hybrid systems with the other scenarios of rural electrification with regard to the different indicators is done with the following assessment scheme: Table 3. The weighting of the indicators is explained as follows: For the ecological dimension. The discussion of sustainability in this chapter does not account for benefits or problems related to electrification in general. the indicators are then summarised for each dimension individually according to their respective weight for the dimension. and the assessment of these kinds of general benefits of rural electrification has been matter of a lot of research work during the last years. can be covered by other means.3 Analysis of Impacts 20 The discussion of the relevance of the different indicators to the three dimensions of sustainability is left to the sections below. for example donor organisations. emphasis is given to climate and resource protection due to their high importance for environmental sustainability. - In order to come to a conclusion on the performance of hybrid systems on the three dimensions of sustainability. . The extent to which technologies meet this objective should be weighted accordingly. This set of indicators tries to give a holistic picture. investment costs. a detailed determination of differences can only be discussed on concrete case studies. while this work needs to stay on a more generalised level. weighted high as well. the indicator of electricity generating costs is seen as being of highest importance because these costs are to be covered by the customers directly. As an example. 2002)... moreover. A. is of key importance for the reliable performance of the electricity supply system and. where each indicator is presented and analysed for different energy technology options. Among these criteria. et al. gender issues are not taken into account although this issue might be important in individual cases. D. meanwhile. The constricted number of indicators allows to give significant statements on the chosen criteria by being investigated intensively. For the economic dimension.13 However. For the socio-economic dimension. the indicators for economic development and employment effects are emphasised in the weighting due to the fact that economic development is one of the major objectives of rural electrification. A. Maintenance. aiming to analyse the three dimensions of sustainability as comprehensive as possible. the criteria of low costs and tariffs as well as maintenance are seen as most important criteria because of their high influence on the success of electrification projects.. thus.

transport. 3.e. NOx. recycling. For the relative comparison with the other scenarios. the main results are presented here.3 Analysis of Impacts 21 It must be emphasised at this point that this assessment scheme only gives information on the relative sustainability of the different scenarios compared to each other. CH4 = methane. CH4 or N2O14 due to their contribution to the greenhouse effect over a time frame of 100 years. CO = carbon monoxide. Conclusions on an absolute degree of sustainability cannot be drawn from this. this electricity demand was met with the different technology scenarios. 16 Available at: http://www.4 Analysis of Sustainability This section analyses hybrid systems on the three dimensions of sustainability with the help of the indicators set up above. Annex C.oeko. All of these emissions occur not only during operation of energy supply systems. All of these gases are emitted as products of combustion processes. however. For the modelling in GEMIS. The emission of air pollutants is here measured in SO2-Equivalents per kWh. For the extension of the conventional grid. gives chapter for a justification of the results. only the results are presented here. a free download software provided by the German Öko-Institut. 14 15 CO2 = carbon dioxide.1 Ecological Dimension 3. N2O = nitrous oxide (laughing gas). but during their whole life cycle including i.1 Climate Protection The degree of climate sustainability is here determined with two different indicators. since it is not a detailed life cycle assessment. and South Africa) are chosen as representatives.4. three country examples (Brazil. For a better reading. CO2Equivalents aggregate the different greenhouse gas emissions as CO2. this section presents only the assessment for hybrid systems in detail. 3. Air pollutants are emitted in combustion processes as well. and compares them relative to the other options for rural electrification. shall be shown as a relative comparison rather than as in absolute figures. are closely linked to the occurrence of acid rain and have severe impacts on human health. The details of the modelling assumptions and a detailed discussion of the results can be found in Annex B. NOx = nitrogen oxide. dust or CO15 due to their acidification potential.16 The results of this analysis. They can be assessed with the help of GEMIS (Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems). production. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are here measured in CO2-Equivalents per kWh. SO2-Equivalents aggregate different air pollutants like SO2. and Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh. operation. then. . Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh.4. SO2 = sulphur oxide.

000 30. which similar greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to. It shows that hybrid systems can be assessed as being supportive for the objective of decreasing GHG emissions compared to conventional energy systems. Compared to conventional energy systems. 60.1 GEMIS Results: Greenhouse Gas Emissions The comparison of GHG emissions per kWh shows that especially PV/Wind hybrid systems are highly preferential.000 10.1.000 40. The GHG emissions resulting from diesel-based hybrid systems are higher due to the application of the diesel genset. Figure 3.2 summarises the results of the analysis of GHG emissions on the basis of the comparative assessment scheme. PV/Wind systems result in lower greenhouse gas emissions than all other scenarios except SHS.1 shows the modelling results of GHG emissions attributable to the different scenarios for meeting the electricity demand of the chosen village.1. South Africa and China. diesel-based hybrid systems are advantageous.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica Figure 3.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh Scenario Comparison Figure 3. In comparison to purely renewable energy systems. their performance is therefore worse. .4. The scenario of grid extension is described with the chosen countries Brazil.000 20. however.3 Analysis of Impacts 22 3.000 Greenhouse Gases [kg CO2-Equivalents] 50. Purely renewable hybrid systems as PV/Wind are here performing even better than dieselbased systems.

4. . the application of diesel-based hybrid systems is associated with more emissions of air pollutants compared to the grid of Brazil. They are therefore strongly disadvantageous in this respect. Diesel-based mini-grids result in the highest amount of air pollutants due to NOx emissions in the combustion process. Thus. China and South Africa rely mainly on coal with the associated high SO2-emissions from sulphur bound in the coal.1. the amount of air pollutants is considerable in the case of biogas. The other hybrid systems suffer in their performance mainly from the emission of NOx in the combustion process of the diesel generator.1. While Brazil applies mainly hydroelectric power and therefore hardly has significant emissions of air pollutants.3 GEMIS Results: Emissions of Air Pollutants While SHS almost do not result in any emission of air pollutants due to the absence of a combustion process. 800 Air Pollutants [kg SO2-Equivalents] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Figure 3.3 Analysis of Impacts 23 2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension Figure 3.2 Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh Scenario Comparison The comparison of emissions of air pollutants again shows a preference for the PV/Wind system. PV/Wind systems are advantageous in any case. while they emit less air pollutants compared to the grids of China and South Africa. The comparison with the conventional grid clearly shows a high dependence on the respective energy sources used in such grids. These emissions result mainly from sulphur bound in the substrate.2 Comparative Assessment of GHG Emissions 3.

2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension Figure 3. Scenario Comparison The comparison of CED with GEMIS shows expected results: fossil fuelled scenarios involve a higher amount of non-renewable energy for the production of energy.5. GEMIS is used as well.4.4 Comparative Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions 3. because most developing countries apply a significant share of fossil resources for electricity generation. The reason to investigate the CED rather than just the consumption of non-renewable resources is that the depletion of all resources is crucial for the environmental performance of energy systems. the availability of unlasting renewable energy resources as for example firewood is to be ensured as well. 17 Source: GEMIS. both during operation and for the construction of the power plant. This shows the assessment with GEMIS in Figure 3.3 Analysis of Impacts 24 For the comparative assessment. Wind/Diesel and biogas systems. The conventional grid is concluded to perform worst with regard to the emission of air pollutants.17 It is therefore a measure to describe the extent to which renewable and non-renewable energy resources are consumed in order to provide electricity.2 Resource Protection The degree of resource protection is here measured with the help of the indicator “Consumption of unlasting Resources”. PV/Wind systems and SHS are evaluated to perform comparatively best. For the assessment.1. . A comparatively good performance can be attributed to PV/Diesel. which is a measure for the whole effort on energy resources (primary energy) caused by the provision of products or services. GEMIS investigates the cumulative energy demand (CED) in kWh.

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250.000 200.000 CED [kWh] 150.000 100.000 50.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Non-renew able Renew able Others

Figure 3.5 GEMIS Results: Cumulative Energy Demand of Primary Energy Thus, here again PV/Wind systems are to be distinguished from diesel-based hybrid systems. PV/Wind systems involve a similar CED as do biogas systems and slightly more than SHS, while diesel-based systems here come out worse. While in comparison to diesel gensets, all hybrid systems perform better with regard to CED, the situation is different concerning the conventional grid. Since the CED as well strongly depends from the energy mix of the respective countries, it is here decided to give preference just to PV/Wind systems and rank diesel-based hybrid systems similar to the conventional grid. Figure 3.6 summarises the results of the assessment of this indicator on the basis of the assessment scheme.
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension

Figure 3.6 Comparative Assessment of Resource Consumption Noise Reduction Noise reduction is here measured with the help of the indicator „Noise Pollution”. Noise is a ubiquitous environmental problem, being more than just disturbing. A stringent interpretation of the term “health” as given by the World Health Organisation (WHO) allows to call noise a health problem (WHO, 1948). The effects of noise on health reach from aural detriment or deterioration to extra-aural health problems or the perturbation of well-being (Helfer, M., 1998/1999).

3 Analysis of Impacts


Although the absolute figure of noise pollution measured in decibel is of importance to measure the effect on human health, it is here abandoned to do so. This is due to the fact that on the one hand reliable data could not be obtained; on the other hand mitigation measures on severe noise pollution are available and applied in developing countries as well.18 Thus, this section is based on own assessment of the author, leaving out noise being generated during construction phase, as this applies to all scenarios. Assessment of Hybrid Systems PV modules do not create noise during operation. For the case of a PV/Diesel system, thus, the diesel genset is the only part generating noise during operation and through start-up and shut-down procedures. The noise originated by the diesel genset, however, can well be cushioned by building a capsule, i.e. a powerhouse, which is taken into consideration for the assessment here. Wind turbines create an additional buzzing noise by their rotating wings. This effect can be recognised as being disturbing. Moreover, the power distribution lines of the mini-grid further contribute with a buzzing noise as well. Scenario Comparison The comparison of the impacts of the different technologies shows a disadvantage of windbased hybrid systems, being due to the noise generated by the wind turbines.
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension

Figure 3.7 Comparative Assessment of Noise Pollution For PV/Diesel hybrid systems, the assessment here is less negative. Still, the application of the diesel genset is disadvantageous in comparison to SHS. For the comparison with diesel gensets, hybrid systems are all seen as advantageous, because cushioning measures are usually not applied for diesel gensets in developing countries. The comparatively good performance of the extension of the conventional grid on this indicator results from the fact that electricity generation does not take place in the village itself, by this not being disturbing to its inhabitants.


Personal Comment given by Georg Kraft, German Bank for Reconstruction (KfW), on July 7th, 2003 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

3 Analysis of Impacts


3.4.2 Socio-Economic Dimension Overall Socio-Economic Matters The discussion of overall social matters, reflecting overall interests and needs for sustainable social development, is based on a number of different indicators: Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance, Degree of Supply Equity, Degree of Participation and Empowerment, and Potential for Economic Development. Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance can be seen as key factors for project developers in developing countries. The history of development aid projects has many examples of projects, which failed due to a lack of cultural compatibility and the corresponding lack of acceptance. This indicator, thus, tries to investigate whether major cultural obstacles exist and whether this or other factors can lead to problems with regard to acceptance. It is obvious that an assessment of cultural compatibility and acceptance in global terms can just be rather vague. Especially cultural compatibility varies strongly not only between countries, but even within different regions. However, it is tried here to assess the cultural compatibility of hybrid systems by extracting experiences obtained within projects and by referring to studies addressing this issue. For this purpose, detailed information only on two projects in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia could be reviewed, because other detailed project reports could not be obtained. Assessment of Hybrid Systems The final reports of projects applying hybrid systems for rural electrification in Inner Mongolia (GTZ, 2003) and Indonesia (Preiser, K. et al., 2000) do not indicate that cultural reservations must be anticipated. Neither is there any evidence that rural electrification through solar or wind energy would reveal any potential cultural obstacles.19 However, although cultural compatibility is likely not to be problematic, problems with the acceptance of the application of hybrid system can always arise from poor system performance.20 Commonly, rural population is familiar with good-quality energy services through information given by relatives or friends who live in grid-electrified urban areas. A system promising electrification on a 24-hours basis, but not working reliably, can soon lead to dissatisfaction. Moreover, it can be expected that in areas where renewable energies have not been applied yet, hybrid systems will be met with scepticism and caution by rural population.


Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur, GTZ, in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th, 2003. 20 In Subang/Indonesia, for example, it was observed that consumers were dissatisfied due to technical failures or temporary breakdowns of a PV/Diesel hybrid systems. Thus, a connection to the grid was stated to be preferential by the consumers (Preiser, K., et al., 2000).

2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Biogas. Assessment of Hybrid Systems By being a decentralised system.21 In the assessment. priority is given to the matter of equal access to electricity. thus.. based not only on literature.2. 14th. but also on own estimations by the author as well as on conversations with project co-ordinators of the GTZ. it is assumed that the use of renewable energy technologies is a rather unknown approach for most people in rural areas. 21 22 With Jörg Baur and Roman Ritter. From a financial perspective.. However. Without taking external costs into account. The assessment of cultural compatibility shows that conventional technologies as grid extension and diesel gensets are likely to result in less cultural obstacles or problems of acceptance since these technologies are wellknown to rural population. Surveys and project descriptions dealing with electrification in developing countries have been analysed. however.2 Degree of Supply Equity Supply equity basically refers to two different aspects. widely independent from national political matters.2 is based on the assumption that all systems are working well. faces severe cultural obstacles due to religious or social Figure 3. Low total costs are used as an additional criterion for the comparative assessment. hybrid systems offer the possibility to supply energy equally to everybody within the village. 2003. . et al. Low total costs make electricity affordable to people of almost any income class.22 This restricts the application of hybrid systems for the electrification of rural villages to areas with some economic and financial potential.3 Analysis of Impacts 28 Scenario Comparison The comparison as being presented in Annex C. This section is. and both need to be taken into account here: Access to electricity services can be hampered by existing structures of political power. supply equity is not a matter of course in decentralised systems and should not be overestimated. 3. in Eschborn/Germany on August. Moreover.8 Comparative Assessment of Cultural taboos associated with dealing with Compatibility and Acceptance excrements. but just very limited information could be obtained. K. The way of implementation and existing structures of political power in the village itself can be obstacles for supply equity as well. hybrid systems are relatively expensive regarding both investment and operation costs. The Indonesian project proofs that population of a hybrid-powered village does not feel discriminated with energy distribution compared to other customers (Preiser.1. 2000).4.

and therefore by their nature less able to guarantee longterm equal access to electricity. Since hybrid systems are discussed here for the application on community level. . Assessment of Hybrid Systems The experiences made in the projects in Indonesia and in Inner Mongolia do not create a consistent picture of the ability of hybrid systems to improve knowledge on energy saving measures.9 Comparative Assessment of Supply Equity 3. Both projects did apply certain consumption restrictions to the consumers. For a future sustainable energy system it is essential not only to provide energy in a clean and inexpensive way. but provide electricity the whole day. SHS come off better concerning supply equity.3 Potential for Participation and Empowerment This section aims to discuss whether hybrid systems are likely to contribute to capacity building on matters of energy. Biogas plants come off better than hybrid systems due to the lower total costs associated with their application. Figure 3. however. which is not very surprising since the decentralised nature and the avoiding of fossil resources are major advantages of renewable energies. preference is given to household units. which improves understanding and empowerment. Electricity is also produced within the village itself. 2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Among the renewable energies.1.3 Analysis of Impacts 29 Scenario Comparison The analysis of supply equity shows a preference to decentralised systems in general and especially to those applying renewable energies. However.4. come to the conclusion that people are willing and able to learn about the system. Another aspect to be considered is empowerment: increased understanding and participation of the interested public in a development context provides the opportunity of increasing empowerment. Not only that the installed capacity is limited and does not allow unlimited consumption of electricity. since especially in Indonesia the capacity installed was too low to meet the demand. but also to make customers aware of the fact that energy is limited and saving of energy therefore important.2. The provision of fossil resources as well as the conventional grid are often subject to political changes and interference. and that people were also willing to adapt to the restrictions that were set. Scenario Comparison The comparison shows a great potential for hybrid systems on capacity building for energy issues. is a good mixture for capacity building and empowerment. as do decentralised electricity generation in general. hybrid systems are likely to improve people’s understanding in matters of energy provision. Both project reports. and by which people can learn about issues of electricity production. The fact that hybrid systems are applied at a certain limited capacity.

2002).10 Comparative Assessment of Participament.4. This is due to the fact that energy services are commonly seen as essential for economic development: lighting. they are normally meeting the needs. have greater -2 potential compared to the hybrid systems investigated here. in Indonesia some customers even evaluated the quality higher than that of the conventional public grid (Preiser.3 Analysis of Impacts 30 People need to understand the limited nature of energy in order to properly exploit the installed capacity of hybrid systems and in order to give every user in the community the same possibility to use electricity. et al. because once electricity is available. for example. Under quality aspects of electricity provision. and experiences made particularly in connection with SHS. For hybrid systems applying tion and Empowerment biogas plants as backup. the demand is likely to increase. electrification should be seen as essential for economic development. which can be installed at and technically easily extended to comparatively high capacities.. moreover. 2 1 0 -1 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Biogas plants.1. 3. because they require a high degree of user involve. A. K. but not as only necessary measure. the conclusion can be drawn that they offer a good potential for economic development. A. the projects in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia did apply certain restrictions on the use of electricity. et al. but are matter of the implementation process and cannot be considered for a comparative assessment.2. 2002).5..4 Potential for Economic Development The indicator “Potential for Economic Development” certainly is of major importance for the assessment of the sustainability of energy technologies.. the stability and flexibility of the system. electrification allows handicraft enterprises to apply more power tools and to increase their productivity. however. even among household without access to electricity (Barkat. For hybrid systems. the good quality of the produced electricity as well as the possibility to install high capacities make hybrid systems very favourable.1. they can supply electricity on a 24 hours basis. Experiences made in Bangladesh.. for example. Both projects experienced that the installed capacity of the systems soon was unable to meet the demand since people employed more and more electric appliances. As a result..4.2. and people in general have more time for enhanced commercial activities during the day if they have lighting for doing their household chores in the evenings. 2000). et al.Figure 3. If an adequate capacity is installed. proof the necessity of careful demand forecasts as will be discussed in chapter 5. allows shop owners or handicraft enterprises to extend their commercial activities to the evenings. . show that electrification results in a higher number of people being employed. Complementary measures need to be taken in order to ensure economic development.3. the assessment would be different. These examples. However. Assessment of Hybrid Systems As already mentioned in section 3. which was not expected especially in Indonesia. a significant share of annual income could be attributed to electricity in Bangladesh (Barkat..

J.D. but are also likely to occur due to manufacturing and maintenance processes related to the application of the energy technology in the village. no studies at all were found investigating employment effects of hybrid systems explicitly... service and maintenance of renewable energy systems will occur as was already experienced with SHS (Nieuwenhout.. . It can generally be expected that employment opportunities in production.1 Employment Effects In order to create a sustainable energy system in developing countries. renewable energy technologies as wind energy are relatively more labour intensive (Scheelhasse.23 Employment effects can result from enhanced economic activities as a result of lighting on the one hand. J.2 Individual Social Interests The criterion individual social interests will be discussed with the two indicators Employment Effects. sales. 3. J. Assessment of Hybrid Systems Compared to conventional power plant technologies. 2002). Demand-side-management to optimise appliances and con- 23 (Barkat.for Economic Development cial activities on rural village level has higher potential for economic development. 2000). K... Only fragmentary information could be obtained on employment effects attributable to the application of different energy technologies in developing countries in general. A.J. The expansion of renewable energy technologies in Germany has shown that the provision of energy services gains importance. 2002) reveals that access to electricity results in a higher number of people employed even among non-electrified households in the village.4. For this issue it was therefore tried to draw conclusions from surveys investigating the effects on employment of renewable energies in Germany. 2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Just the conventional grid by offering Figure 3. continuity of electricity supply or commonly installed capacities. Case studies in Africa expect that the decentralised nature of manufacturing of technologies as solar energy is likely to result in wide-spread employment opportunities (Painuly. F. et al.11 Comparative Assessment of Potential practically no limitations to commer. Haker.. 1999).2. because these other systems are problematic with regard to issues as reliability.2. the effects of different technology options on employment are important. Fenhann.3 Analysis of Impacts 31 Scenario Comparison Hybrid systems show a good advantage on economic development in comparison to other decentralised rural electrification options. Socio-economic surveys on rural electrification in general reveal that employment effects are likely to occur and can directly be attributed to electrification. 3. and Impacts on Health. et al..2.4.

burn biomass for cooking. which reveal that rural health clinics could improve their medical services due to electrification. 2003). X-ray and sonography equipment can be used for better diagnosis of illnesses. their higher potential on economic development and therefore employment opportunities than for hybrid systems is attenuated by lower potential for employment attributable to production or maintenance of the energy system. refrigerators can be used to store vaccines. Due to this usually incomplete combustion process. Scenario Comparison The comparison of hybrid systems 2 with other electrification scenarios shows a good potential for hybrid sys1 tems. thus directly affecting human health (GTZ.. 3. cannot be quantified here. are seen as preferential compared to hybrid systems with regard to the fact that many system components of biogas plants can be produced inside the respective countries.12 Comparative Assessment of Employment. . too.4. The example of Inner Mongolia shows that hybrid systems indeed provide the possibility to improve the situation for rural health clinics reliably on a 24 hours basis. Haker..2 Impacts on Health The relevance of this indicator derives from the experience that people in areas. This. K. is taken into consideration here. fume and particles. 1999). The electrification of rural health clinics is a main application for hybrid systems of smaller capacities.Figure 3. There are no emissions during operation resulting from the use of the renewable energy technologies. Critical corrosive gases emitted by diesel gensets are NOx. corrosive gases are generated with negative impacts on human health. which are not electrified. by this creating employment ment Effects opportunities. J. by this creating more employment opportunities than in the case of hybrid systems. To which extent this observation might apply to developing countries as well. however. Systems Genset Extension which makes them favourable com-2 pared to conventional options as diesel gensets.2. Moreover. For the extension of the conventional grid. On the other hand they have good potential for economic develop. Biogas systems. Other sources of soot and fumes are candles and kerosene lamps. which makes them favourable compared to options as SHS. This is mainly due to the fact 0 that renewable energies are relatively Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid -1 labour intensive on the one hand. Assessment of Hybrid Systems Hybrid systems emit corrosive gases during operation of the diesel genset.3 Analysis of Impacts 32 sumption is likely to have significant employment effects (Scheelhasse.2. Another aspect concerning human health refers to experiences with rural electrification.

the extension of the conventional grid brings out similar health effects as do hybrid systems.4.3 Analysis of Impacts 33 Scenario Comparison Due to the fact that hybrid systems can 2 well provide electricity to rural health clinics. not accounting for the fact that electricity generating costs in the end might be lower.13 Comparative Assessment of Impacts on Health 3. they are seen as advan0 tageous compared to diesel gensets Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid and SHS. potential customers are likely to decide for a cheaper option. Electricity generating costs per kWh. a cost analysis for hybrid systems was performed based on cost data obtained by project developers and system providers and for the location of Trapani/Italy. but also for commercial activities. hardly result in 1 exhaust fumes. Investment costs must be seen as a major hurdle for the implementation of electrification projects. While biogas is seen as -1 Systems Genset Extension preferable due to further effects on -2 overall cleanliness.3 Economic Dimension 3. The following basic assumptions were made: . Figure 3. If first investment is too high and requires substantial financial expenditure. Low costs and tariffs in general are key factors for the successful realisation and sustainable operation of electrification projects. For the assessment of costs and tariffs. Low electricity generating costs per kWh allow customers to apply more technical devices. but also affordability of electricity services on the other hand are essential matters of investigation in the planning process of these projects.3. and. not only for lighting purposes. moreover.4.1 Low Costs and Tariffs The question of low costs and tariffs mainly depends on three different aspects: Investment costs per W. Willingness-to-pay on the one hand.

. Internal Wiring: 6000 € Cabinets. 2003.5kW: 5000 € Planning. Cables. Koerner during a telephone interview on August. 2003). D. 29 Personal Recommendation Jörg Baur. different system capacities. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. H. 4. 2003. The details of the calculation can be found in Annex D. 24 Personal Comment Mr. 25 P = Installed capacity. 27 Personal Recommendation Mr. 2003.. former KfW staff member. Koerner during a telephone interview on August. G. 18th. Geis. Diesel genset 10 years.3 additionally gives an overview on cost estimations made by other organisations in order to make the picture as comprehensive as possible. GTZ.7 × exp − 0.3 Analysis of Impacts 34 Table 3. Support: 2000 € Operating Costs Manpower. The electricity generating costs were calculated with the annuity method for diesel fuel prices of 0.63 × exp − 0. Inverter and Charge Controller 10 years Cost data SMA KfW27 Schueco28 Own estimations GTZ 29 Own assumption For PV and Wind: (Sauer. Tower): For Plants ≤ 10kW: Costs = 4309 × exp − 0. 28 Personal Comment Mr.. Annex D.4 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis Type of Costs Costs/Details Specific Investment PV Modules: 400 €/kWp Specific Investment Wind Power Plants (incl. 18th. during a telephone interview on August. 22nd. Puls. others: own estimation The cost analysis was performed for different village sizes of 30 to 300 households and. 500Ah battery.1 to 1 € per litre. 18th. 2003. Wind generator 12 years. Maintenance and Repair: Annually 4% of total investment Interest Rate: 6% Miscellaneous Lifetime system components: PV modules 20 years.1068 × Source Schueco24   P  25  [€/kW] kW  P   [€/kW] kW  For Plants ≥ 10 kW: Costs = 2016. accordingly. Koerner during a telephone interview on August. the batteries are designed for a storage capacity of 2 days Inverter and Charge Controller “Sunny Island”. 26 Personal Comment Mr. Bopp.007 × Diesel Genset: Costs = 345. 2003. Assembly and Commissioning: 15% of total investment Transport: 1000 € Local grid. Battery 5 years.0394 ×   Own calculation based on available cost data (see Annex D) Investment   P   [€/kW] kW  Schueco 26 Battery bank: 333 €/kWh for a 12V..

Scenario Comparison Table 3.4.1. which are presented in more detail in Annex D.18 For PV/Wind systems. the here obtained investment costs for hybrid systems cannot be generalised for all cases.86 – 9. the quality of the components and the specific characteristics of the location. 3.3. This implies that PV/Wind systems are likely to be cost-competitive with the other hybrid systems only where weather conditions are favourable enough to guarantee electricity supply with smaller battery banks. inverters or other devices may significantly reduce investment costs.23 – 9.5 indicate that the size of the battery highly influences the specific investment costs. cost data was collected from various other institutions. but should rather be seen as indicative.5 €/W for Wind/Diesel village systems and 2. Table 3.6 gives an overview on typical investment costs for the other scenarios of rural electrification. moreover.8 €/W for PV/Diesel village systems. they need to be taken with caution.30 to 4.3 Analysis of Impacts 35 For the comparison with the other electrification scenarios. Since these costs are based on data from German manufacturers. Therefore.5 Specific Investment Costs of Hybrid Systems System PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems PV/Wind Systems at 2 days battery capacity PV/Wind Systems at 1 day battery capacity Share in Electricity Generation 4:1 4:1 1:2 1:2 Range of Investment Costs [€/W] 8.00 6. Locally produced batteries.21 €/W for PV/Wind household systems. 3.1 Investment Costs per W Assessment of Hybrid Systems Assessing the initial investment necessary for hybrid systems is a difficult task since it depends strongly on the chosen system configuration. This is proven by a number of examples collected from other organisations. the following results were obtained for the specific investment costs per W for villages with 30 to 300 households.05 – 10. . The results in Table 3. charge controllers.67 – 12. the influence of the battery capacity on investment costs was investigated by varying the storage capacity. more suitable locations with regard to weather conditions strongly influence the system design and can therefore decrease investment costs.3.44 9.03 to 4. By this it is tried to find out at which level of the different cost ranges hybrid systems are positioned.20 8. In the investment costs analysis. These investment costs vary between 3.03 to 3.

A.. the number of households to be connected. Compared to the use of PV alone as SHS. investment costs for grid extension can therefore be evaluated as higher than for hybrid systems.. by this reducing investment costs strongly since specific investment for PV modules does not decrease with higher installed capacities. 2002) (Cabraal. CosgroveDavies. 2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension - - This leads to a comparative assessment as shown in Figure 3. hybrid systems require less specific investment due to the fact that the renewable part of the systems is not designed to meet the full electricity demand.3 – 2.. Schaeffer. According to the World Bank.14. M. and are therefore evaluated as comparatively very good here. L. Schaeffer. Cosgrove-Davies. M. The comparison shows that among the decentralised solutions for rural village supply – hybrid systems. J..000 US$ per kilometre (ESMAP. the construction of power distribution lines account for 80 to 90% of the overall investment. For the case of a remote village. Figure 3. F. Source (Kininger. and the density of households in the village (Cabraal. 1996.6 Investment Costs of Different Scenarios for Rural Electrification System Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Range of Investment Costs 0. The quantity depends on the distance of the village to the grid. The investment cost calculations for hybrid systems from other sources. The comparison of hybrid systems with biogas systems shows that biogas is likely to be less costly as well.. 2000b). 1996) (ATB.14 Comparative Assessment of Investment Costs .. and: Baur. and can be up to 20. diesel gensets and biogas systems .. show that for other locations and circumstances. the investment for hybrid systems might become similar. meanwhile.hybrid power plants require the highest specific investment and are therefore disadvantageous. however.5 – 4 €/W Depending on the location. Grid extension.5 €/W 7 – 26 US$/Wp 2. L. 2000). requires high financial input for remote rural areas. A..3 Analysis of Impacts 36 Table 3. 2003) The comparison of this data with those for hybrid systems calculated here reveals the following aspects: Diesel gensets are likely to be least costly among the decentralised solutions.

3 Analysis of Impacts 37 3. Therefore.10 1. which can be found in Annex D.70 1.4.80 PV/Wind. both for PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems. The results can be found in Figure 3. - - Again. which is mainly due to the fact that factors as the construc- . Battery 2 Days PV/Wind..15. In fact.20 1. The electricity generating costs of PV/Wind systems as well strongly depend on the battery size and the weather conditions. which is mainly due to the decline in investment costs for wind and diesel generators.3. the costs can be significantly lower.30 1.1 €/l compared to 1 €/l. The effect of decreasing diesel fuel prices is only moderate.15 Electricity Generating Costs in Comparison The analysis of electricity generating costs lead to the following main observations: The electricity generating costs of all systems decrease with higher capacities.60 1.1. The decrease in electricity generating costs for PV/Diesel systems is lower than for the other systems due to the fact that investment for PV modules does not decrease with higher capacities. the absolute numbers for electricity generating costs must be taken with caution.90 Number of Households Figure 3. This is proven by comparing the data calculated here with those of other institutions.00 0.1 €/l Diesel Wind/Diesel: 1 €/l Diesel PV/Diesel: 0. but also in the possibility to design the battery bank smaller.06 €/kWh lower for all village sizes at a fuel price of 0.40 1.1 €/l Diesel PV/Diesel: 1 €/l Diesel 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 175 225 275 Electricity Generating Costs [€/kWh] 1.3. and the chosen system configuration strongly influences the electricity generating costs. i. They might vary strongly according to actual site conditions.50 1. Battery 1 Day Wind/Diesel: 0. Higher annual global radiation.e. the electricity generating costs are only 0. so that the data here shall just be seen as indicative.2 Electricity Generating Costs per kWh Assessment of Hybrid Systems The cost analysis of hybrid systems was performed for different village sizes as well as different fuel prices in order to determine their influence on electricity generating costs. higher loads/larger villages give preference to Wind/Diesel systems if wind potential is sufficient. does not only result in higher electricity output of the PV modules. 1. Especially in the case of household systems.

If compared to Generating Costs hybrid household system. the scattered nature of these systems is generally problematic with regard to maintenance.03 Euro/kWh for village systems with annual consumption of less than 15. 1999) (Wuppertal Institute. Still..2 Maintenance Requirements The indicator “Maintenance Requirements” discusses requirements on maintenance structures.4. D. the comparison with hybrid village systems Figure 3.7 Electricity Generating Costs for Different Scenarios System Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Systems Grid Extension Specific Electricity Generating Costs 0. this observation must not be taken for granted and can differ strongly from case to case. .20 €/kWh Country dependent Source (ESMAP.000 kWh at an interest rate of 6% (Sauer.3. they are evaluated as 0 comparatively good here.3.. the situation can be completely different. The main results are presented in Table 3. Scenario Comparison The comparison with other potential systems for rural electrification. and since diesel fuel is often heavily subsidised in develop1 ing countries.16 Comparative Assessment of Electricity here is anyway critical. which can be found in Annex C. However. Table 3.7. because grid extension offers the least costly option for electricity generation if a medium voltage line passes the respective village nearby. 2000a) (BMZ. For decentralised electrification.3 Analysis of Impacts 38 tion of a local mini-grid or maintenance and repair must not be accounted. Once the conventional grid is extended to a rural village. since this is left to the buyer of the systems. the resulting electricity generating costs are likely to be lower. 3.20 – 0. the Fraunhofer-Institute states that electricity generating costs are likely not to become lower than 1. 1999). SHS proHybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid duce electricity at lower costs than -1 Systems Genset Extension hybrid village systems due to lower -2 operational costs. 2002) The comparison shows that biogas systems are the least costly option among the decentralised systems from a point of view of electricity generating costs. 2 The comparison with the conventional grid shows a disadvantage of hybrid systems as well.60 US$/kWh 1 US$/kWh 0. et al.15 – 0. shows a clear disadvantage of hybrid village systems among the decentralised solutions. Diesel gensets strongly depend on the diesel fuel price. For PV/Diesel hybrid systems.

than system breakdowns of several days can be the result. Project developers state this issue to be of major importance and very crucial from a technical point of view30: whole maintenance centres need to be erected close to the villages. Technicians need to be educated. This shows that maintenance structures are very complex in the case of hybrid systems. 2003. which is an important economic factor since commercial activities require reliable 30 Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. Sheriff. etc. adequate supply of spare parts is essential. Generally.4.1. and problems with charge controller and batteries make these systems comparatively problematic with regard to maintenance. GTZ. in hybrid systems. None of the systems is therefore assessed as comparatively very good with regard to maintenance here. Just biogas systems are here seen to be even more problematic. Pneumaticos. If this is not ensured. batteries and charge controllers.3 Analysis of Impacts 39 Assessment of Hybrid Systems Maintenance requirements for hybrid systems must be evaluated as being comparatively high. Experiences show that regular annual inspection and maintenance can reduce average fault rates of three failures per year to one failure every two years (Turcotte. and Supply Security.. F.17 reflects that maintenance is problematic for rural electrification in general. 2001). Scenario Comparison The comparison of maintenance requirements with other scenarios shows that hybrid systems due to their complexity require higher attention on maintenance issues than do other systems for rural electrification.17 Comparative Assessment of Maintenance Requirements The criterion of economic independence is measured with the two indicators Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply. in Eschborn/Germany. two important aspects of electrification are investigated in detail: on the one hand supply security refers to likeliness of system breakdowns.3 Economic Independence 2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Figure 3. because biogas systems require regular attendance and maintenance. D. and whether the creation of economic surplus remains within the country on the other hand. Economic dependence on industrialised countries is one of the major problems of developing countries. By investigating the degree of supply security. More details can be found in section 5. With focus on matters of energy. the assessment as presented in Figure 3. maintenance centres need to be erected. 3. Special attention needs to be paid to the maintenance of the key components. 14th.. on August. S. To make customers aware of the need for maintenance of these small components is one of the key issues to be addressed in the implementation process of hybrid electrification projects..3. the question to be discussed here is whether a technology is able to decrease dependency of developing countries on the one hand. .

3. etc. however. -2 however. where renewable energies have been strongly promoted.18 Comparative Assessment Regional Selfnologies nor reliant on fossil re. 31 Experiences lately. batteries. except diesel is produced in the country itself. 2 two major groups can be distinguished: electrification scenarios de1 pendent on fossil resources are less 0 preferential from the point of view of Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid -1 Systems regional self-supply and import indeGenset Extension pendence. can be preferred to hybrid systems. charge controllers..Supply and Import Independence sources. R. the need for diesel fuel makes regions applying this technology dependent on fuel imports. et al. two different aspects need to be discussed.Figure 3. The fear is that dependency on oil imports from industrialised countries might be replaced by a dependency on imports of modern technologies for the use of non-depleting resources as solar energy. Pure renewable energies. On the other hand experiences also show that quality of important system parts as batteries is likely to be low (Preiser.4. It was argued that necessary production facilities and experts are likely not to be available in developing countries for many years.3. and therefore are significantly preferential to hybrid systems. K. Systems like biogas plants are neither dependent on new tech. 1999b).1 Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply Assessment of Hybrid Systems With regard to import dependence and regional self-supply. On the other hand. Improvements in this respect and the development of markets for renewable technologies can be expected only over longer periods of time and often need external support. 2000). Scenario Comparison In comparison to the other scenarios. wiring. i. (IEA. On the other hand the importance of supply security refers to the question whether a technology has the ability to supply electricity the whole day. the question whether the other components of a hybrid system can be produced in the respective countries is of major importance for sustainability in terms of maintenance as well as further dissemination of this technology.3. The latter question has been discussed for many years already.3 Analysis of Impacts 40 electricity output. shows that a market for renewable energies can emerge as well (GTZ. The example of Inner Mongolia. On the one hand. 31 See for example: (Hemmers. 2003).. . show that developing countries very well had the ability to produce at least parts of hybrid systems.e. 1990)..

. With the help of demonstration projects and well-functioning rural electrification projects. This observation is mainly 1 due to the fact that hybrid systems do 0 not rely on one generator alone.3. By this. Moreover. a hybrid system is still able to supply a limited amount of energy with the other components. the likelicurity hood of complete system breakdowns is comparatively low.4. Firstly. hybrid systems apply renewable -2 energy technologies as photovoltaic and wind. 2 3. capacity building and sustainable energy development. The assessment here therefore reflects supply security as a main strength of hybrid systems. 2000).3. Assessment of Hybrid Systems .. tribute is given to the fact that fossil resources are limited and that for future development a decrease of dependence on such resources is desirable..3 Analysis of Impacts 41 3. For this reason. but Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid are backed up by another one. system breakdowns can occur by incidents.ture technologies.4 Future Potential The criterion of future potential is discussed with the indicator “Degree of know-how Improvement”. careful projection of demand development is essential in order to enable supply security. leading to breakdowns and therefore decreasing supply security severely (Preiser.19 Comparative Assessment of Supply Se. et al. which cannot be influenced by project developers. More-1 Systems Genset Extension over. hybrid systems offer a high degree of supply security.3. this section tries to identify the potential of the respective technologies by evaluating their degree of modernity and their ability to improve the people’s knowledge on energy issues. a PV/Diesel hybrid system in Indonesia was not working due to lightning strike (Preiser. Scenario Comparison Compared with other methods.4. 2000). The experience of Indonesia shows as well that if projections are not carried out closely. both nowadays being maFigure 3. The relevance of future potential and know-how improvement is to be seen within the context of technology transfer.2 Supply Security Assessment of Hybrid Systems Renewable energy generators as PV arrays and wind generators have a lifetime of up to 20 years and are nowadays very reliable. The experiences with hybrid systems in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia therefore did not show major breakdowns due to system component failures. This and the fact that hybrid systems can be applied for 24-hours electrification shows that hybrid systems generally have a relatively high degree of supply security. Naturally. the system is likely not to cover demand increase at a certain stage anymore. et al. K.. modern and sustainable approaches for rural electrification can be promoted. Anyhow. As an example. K. if systems breakdowns due to failures of one of the electricity generation components occur.

2 1 0 Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid -1 Systems Genset Extension Diesel gensets and extension of the -2 conventional grids on the other hand are options.3 Analysis of Impacts 42 Hybrid systems apply modern and new technologies for rural electrification.1 Results 3. A high degree of potential for know-how improvement and capacity building can therefore be attributed to such technologies.5. which certainly offer less potential for know-how improve.5 Results and Discussion The result of the assessment of the indicators is now aggregated according to the weight. The three dimensions ecological.1 Ecological Dimension The analysis of the ecological dimension shows good potential for hybrid systems. which are based on approaches being followed in the industrialised countries as well and involve lower dependence on fossil resources. it is tried to come to a conclusion on the degree. socio-economic and economic sustainability are still discussed individually. which was attributed to the individual indicators in Table 3.1. tential Thus. Moreover. With this. the future potential can be seen as equally high. the comparison of the future potential clearly results in a preference for the solutions based on renewable energy resources. to which hybrid systems are likely to be a sustainable option for rural electrification. hybrid systems indeed have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. 3. the relatively low energy consumption for the production of hybrid systems as well contributes to a good overall result on environmental sustainability compared to diesel gensets and grid extension. Scenario Comparison For SHS and Biogas.Figure 3.20 Comparative Assessment of Future Poments. as was the objective in the beginning. .5. Especially compared to conventional electrification solutions.2 on page 19. 3. since these are modern and new technologies not demanding fossil resources either.

Therefore. if the choice is to be made between hybrid systems and other renewable energies as SHS and biogas. The comparison here is therefore fictitious. the choice between SHS and hybrid systems will not need to be made. For the real application of hybrid systems. . PV/Wind systems are the only systems being able to compete under ecological aspects and to provide an equal environmentally sound solution. however. The question whether hybrid systems are more environmentally Figure 3. Moreover. 32 Note: In practical terms. Due to the fact that purely renewable systems do not consume fossil resources during operation. other environmentally important aspects would be of importance as well and would need to be examined as well. Nevertheless. especially of those applying diesel gensets for backup.21 Results Ecology Assessment benign than the conventional grid strongly depends on the energy mix of the respective countries.32 The assessment of environmental sustainability was here restricted to matters of air and noise pollution. the commonly high dependence of developing countries on fossil fuels allows assessing the environmental performance of hybrid systems as better. which needs to be assured in order to make the systems environmentally benign. the aggregated impacts on environment investigated here are worse for diesel-based hybrid systems. since hybrid systems are especially meant to replace them in rural electrification. The comparison of hybrid systems with the extension of the conventional grid does not provide a -2 PV/ Diesel Wind/ PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid consistent picture at first Diesel Extension glance. -1 The comparison of hybrid systems with purely renewable energy technologies as SHS and biogas. reveals a worse performance of hybrid systems. because they serve different purposes (basic household electrification in the case of SHS. and can become problematic for diesel-based hybrid systems as well. since leakages in diesel tanks and the associated ground pollution are a major problem especially in dieselbased mini-grids. These aspects include mainly battery recycling. aspects of diesel storage need to be taken into account.3 Analysis of Impacts 43 2 1 0 This observation is not very surprising with regard to diesel gensets. village electrification also for productive purposes in the case of hybrid systems).

1 Hybrid systems have advantages with regard to supply security 0 compared to other decentralised options. Regarding other matters of social sustainability as supply equity and capacity building/empowerment. These problems are.1. The analysis here reveals that hybrid systems can be ranked similarly to SHS. indeed. severe and Figure 3.23 Results Economic Assessment are in the relative assessment here not reflected accurately in absolute terms. result in the demand for high involvement of donor organisations. . If one. therefore. they do. 0 which is mainly due to the high potential of hybrid systems for -1 economic development and for the creation of employment op-2 portunities.5. however.3 Economic Dimension From an economic perspective.1. the decentralised option hybrid system is certainly favourable.3 Analysis of Impacts 44 3. These indicators have Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Systems Gensets Extension been weighted comparatively high in the assessment scheme since the furtherance of economic development is one of the main Figure 3.22 Results Socio-Economic Assessment hopes connected to rural electrification.5. then this applies to hybrid systems as well. The slight comparative disadvantage of hybrid systems to grid-based electrification mainly results from the high preference rural population is likely to give to grid extension and from the high potential for economic development attributed to grid-based electrification here. assesses SHS as problematic from this point of view. 3. which have been facing many problems with regard to financial issues as investment and maintenance. hybrid systems have problems in 2 competing with other decentralised systems for rural electrification. But high investment costs.2 Socio-Economic Dimension The assessment of the socio2 economic effects of hybrid systems reveals a good preference 1 for hybrid systems compared to other decentralised solutions. however. Hybrid systems by providing high quality and reliable electrification and with the quality of electric current being comparable to the conventional grid are likely to be the best among the here investigated methods for decentralised electrification. -1 high electricity generating costs and the problem of high require-2 ments on maintenance are main Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid problems associated with the apSystems Genset Extension plication of hybrid systems.

From a personal point of view. then. decentralised systems for electrification are advantageous compared to grid extension with regard to the regional creation of value and to independence and supply security. But if this is the case. Firstly. two different possibilities are distinguished. both on a household scale as well as in the here investigated village mini-grids. In a way. meaning the demand for electrification for productive purposes. and the extension of the conventional grid to these areas will in practical cases not be an option for their electrification due to the high investment involved. 2003). for the electrification of individuals. It is rather inappropriate to apply hybrid systems in rural areas. being relatively expensive and sophisticated at the same time. is at all given. It was shown that hybrid systems indeed can be a method for sustainable rural electrification with regard to ecological and socio-economic issues. the question of ecological and socio-economic impacts will always need to be investigated individually. From an economic perspective. applies to hybrid systems. does make sense at all. which do not have the demand for reliable and continuous electricity supply and. is crucial. Nevertheless. What. the question is whether the application of hybrid systems. as well.5. Hybrid systems certainly have the potential of furtherance of economic development. For the real application of hybrid systems.2 Discussion The analysis of impacts of hybrid systems reveals that the initially raised question. and the resulting intermittent supply of energy was accepted (GTZ. 1. thus. but at least a basis of economic de- . in other terms. The discussion of advantages and disadvantages here has revealed that probably the most important advantage compared to other systems is that hybrid systems offer a good potential for economic development. This. and under which circumstances should they be implemented? For the answer to these questions. This assessment is. 3. however. Hybrid systems are applicable for remote rural areas. to be taken with caution. and the question whether positive impacts of hybrid systems on ecological and socio-economic issues trade-off this problem. it is thought here that hybrid systems on village level should just be applied in areas where this potential. is the niche for hybrid systems. is the answer on the initially raised question whether hybrid systems are a sustainable solution for rural electrification? What. the assessment of these impacts was done in relatively general terms and is therefore strongly related to the underlying assumptions and their subjective evaluation. However. cannot simply be answered with yes or no. cannot fully exploit the system. the question whether or not to apply hybrid systems depends on the respective local circumstances. In Inner Mongolia it was experienced that the diesel genset was in some cases not operated in order to decrease expenditure on diesel fuel. to which degree hybrid systems are likely to provide a sustainable option for rural electrification. this main advantage also provides the ground on which to decide whether or not to apply hybrid systems. the analysis shows that especially the question of financial competitiveness with other decentralised options for rural electrification is a major problem.3 Analysis of Impacts 45 The comparison also revealed that hybrid systems are disadvantageous from an economic perspective to grid extension.

are seen as less suitable for poverty alleviation for the poorest as are other systems. the sustainability of hybrid systems and other options will need to be investigated prior to the implementation process every time again individually. For a respective project with the objective of sustainable rural electrification. The extension of such small-scale renewable solutions to hybrid systems by applying additional diesel or other generators might then be a possibility to support the next step of development by providing 24-hours electrification. which are already developing by other means and where other conditions are favourable to allow a positive prognosis of further development. smaller and less sophisticated solutions as biogas. It is based on a subjective and generalised assessment of the impacts of hybrid systems and therefore not universally applicable. . 2. Hybrid systems. telecommunication devices. For this purpose. Secondly. For supporting the first step. desalination systems. small-scale hybrid systems are well applicable to the electrification of single consumers as rural health clinics. Hybrid systems are here assessed to be more suitable for supporting development of areas. etc.3 Analysis of Impacts 46 velopment already taking place should be given in order to apply and fully exploit hybrid systems. hotels. this assessment is not to be taken for granted for any situation. then the application of hybrid systems might be ideally seen as the second step of development. However. If one considers economic development as a stepwise process. therefore. The indicator set developed here and presented in section 3. SHS or stand-alone wind turbines seem to offer a better suited method. the advantage of high quality electrification exactly adapted to the consumer demand applies and makes hybrid systems very favourable and certainly trades off the relatively high investment costs. taking account of the specific conditions and circumstances.3 might provide a framework for such an assessment.

but no reaction resulted from that. both consisting of a PV generator. or work in nearby urban areas.1. The village has an elementary school and some shopping facilities for food. so that this could easily be repaired by a technician. K.1 PV/Wind/Diesel Hybrid System at Nusa Penida Island Two plants. but also a number of PV-based hybrid systems. 4.1. are connected in parallel to supply electricity to a village of approximately 50 inhabitants. the results on hybrid systems are summarised here. The following information were obtained at the on-site visit: Lightning stroke has damaged the plant. hygiene and fuel.. et al. which according to their opinion provided ideal electricity supply for their remote village.1 Baseline Indonesia consists of around 17. drivers. a wind power plant and a diesel genset. two existing plants were visited by the project planners. Since breakdown of the system.1. which is switched on during evening hours and works smoothly. Despite the problems. Inhabitants are usually farmers.1.2 This system was erected in 1997 and is designed to provide electricity to three settlements with altogether 350 families. Therefore. first pilot projects installed 85 SHS and 15 PV street lighting already in 1989 in Sukatani.2. and since then there is no 24-hours electricity supply. the village used just the diesel genset for electrification. Systems of choice are not only SHS.1 Hybrid Systems in Indonesia 4. 2000). Indonesia has long standing experiences with PV. The project team felt that just protection elements were damaged. For this purpose. people were satisfied with the hybrid systems. . the Indonesian government has created the so-called 50 MW PV-programme in 1997.500 islands with approximately 23 million households not being connected to the conventional grid. but also with regard to PV hybrid systems. a test and certification laboratory for PV is to be erected in Jakarta.2 Project Description Within the project described in (Preiser. the operational experiences with PV systems were reviewed. By this. The inhabitants of the village reported the breakdown of the system two months before the on-site visit. 4. a market for SHS has developed over recent years. which aims to electrify one million households with PV within 10 years.4 Project Examples 47 4 Project Examples This section presents the experiences made in two projects on rural electrification with hybrid systems in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia.2. They are based on literature review. with special focus on SHS. In order to overcome this situation. 4. PV/Diesel Hybrid System close to Subang - 4..

being secured by fuses. Soon after connection. where light is simply not switched off. exceeding the assumed level by 88 kWh/d. because the provided amount of energy was not sufficient and the temporary disconnection was not acceptable.e. However. the behaviour in using lights was similar to that in urban areas. however. the consumption rose to 238 kWh/d. which is due to the system’s constant operation with high loads. On the other hand. When asked. The operation of the system. while during daytime. which where experienced by system failures. could not be used anymore. The battery bank was after the three years of operation down to a capacity of 60% and therefore close to replacement. The whole situation led to strikes and civil commotion. proved that this assumption was wrong. . which need to be connected to the grid permanently. The first led to increased electricity generating costs.200 Ah and a 20 kW bi-directional Inverter. they proved good understanding about the characteristics of the system and felt that the allocation of electricity was fair. Already in the year 2000. and only the local technician remained in position. 33 Quoted Exchange Rate: 1 US $ = 2. People had experienced the limitations of the system and did adapt to the system’s needs by i. People were obviously dissatisfied with the system’s performance. shows that maybe not all characteristics of electricity supply and energy saving had been understood. a Battery Bank of 1. In a new arrangement.000 Indonesian Rupees. The saved money of six million Rupees disappeared during these changes. the system could soon not meet the demand anymore. The system was designed for a electricity consumption of 150 kWh/d. Since the fuses did not function. During night-time. The system applies two different load limitations. in turn. just those. only one of the three settlements can use electricity. which was created in the village before and which was in charge of the hybrid system. ironing during daytime. 33 It was assumed that due to the low income of inhabitants. The organisation committee changed several times. this was not a problem. This. The organisation committee. But when other consumers began to follow this behaviour. project organisation was felt to be not transparent and people would have wished to be more involved in the project during implementation. village inhabitants are not supplied with electricity for 24 hours anymore. the installed capacity was likely to be sufficient to satisfy consumers’ needs. Test of system components proved that the system was still in good shape.500 Indonesian Rupees. respectively. because those devices. Consumers could be connected to either 100W or 200W. people began to apply more electrical devices than they were supposed to. for which they had to pay a connection fee of 20. Some adapters and cables of the PV-modules were also abraded and needed to be replaced. all settlements obtain electricity service.000 or 30. while the latter led to massive frustration among consumers. a 40 kW Diesel Genset. tried to cope with increased level of demand by extending the operational hours of the diesel genset and by temporarily disconnecting parts of the village from the system.4 Project Examples 48 The hybrid system consists of a 7 kWp PV Generator. all system components except the battery bank were showing good overall test result.

1 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia Applied Systems PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems Different Hybrid Systems Place Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia China Sea Remote Repeater Stations Battery Bank 300 W Wind-Generator PV/Wind Systems Household Systems 100 W PV-Generator Battery Bank Hybrid Village Systems Application System Configuration Wind. repeater stations and as household systems. as many project examples on SHS. Table 4. for the demonstration projects. Hybrid Village Systems 4. 4.1 gives an overview. The project presented here was taking place from 1990 till the end of 1999. and therefore it was in many villages avoided to run the diesel genset to save the additional costs for fuel. in some villages the availability . the actual and projected demand for electricity.2. Huhhot. 2003). Main focus was the transfer of technical knowledge.2 Project Description This project was implemented to locally produce and use wind and solar energy systems to solve problems with the availability of energy in rural areas. a distance of more than 50 km from the conventional grid. 8-24 kW Criteria for the selection of projects sites were the quality of wind and solar resources. Through the executing company Hua De New Technology Company (HDNTC).2 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia 4. different hybrid systems were installed for village electrification. It was observed that guiding principle for the operators was to minimise costs.1 System Design The hybrid systems for village electrification were designed and meant for 24-hours supply.or PV-Generator up to 10 kW Diesel Genset.2. experiences showed that this assumption was wrong. It was assumed that the village governments/the operator were willing and able to pay for the additional diesel.1 Baseline China and Inner Mongolia have been supporting the adaptation of renewable energies for rural electrification very strongly over recent years. proximity to the parent company of HDNTC.2. Table 4.2. and was reviewed in 2000 (GTZ. wind farms or other prove.4 Project Examples 49 4. and the purchasing power of the respective county. Prolonged power cuts due to low availability of renewable resources were accepted. However.

The operator or the village government are responsible for maintenance of the systems and all expenditures on it. Later. In cases of major breakdowns and need for spare parts from Germany.8 – 2. but only the costs of operation. downtimes of one or two months may occur. radios and TV. according to the affordability by the users and the objective of operational cost recovery. The main problem was that a transparent and comparable bookkeeping was not introduced.000 Renminbi per household. the tariffs were found not to cover the full costs of the systems. which was strongly accounted to the high acceptance of the system. However. but problematic due to the fixed tariff. Development of Electricity Demand The development of electricity consumption showed the expected effects. Here. Operation and Maintenance of the Systems There was no agreed management system on the plants with the villages. the village governments and the households contributed with connection fees in the range of 350-1.4 Renminbi/kWh34 and was set by the village government after a test phase of one or two months. with all consequential costs.51 €. in most cases the villages decided to choose the actual operator of their previously used diesel genset to operate the hybrid system. and 34 Quoted Exchange Rate (5/2000): 4 Renminbi = 1 DM = 0. This shows clearly that the willingness to pay for the convenience of 24-hours electrification was not given. however. Costs and Tariffs The village centres applied one fixed tariff. Electricity is mainly used for lighting. it seems that it was not understood that this intermittent mode of operation increased the risk of reduced technical lifetime of the battery bank. too. . The tariff system was. financial and operational management were separated in many villages for better control of revenues. Households use typical appliances as irons. The electricity fee was experienced to be paid regularly by the consumers. progressive tariffs depending on the consumption or seasonal adjustment of tariffs to the operation costs would be helpful instead in order to reduce peak load demands. However. The chosen operators were then trained by HDNTC with a Mobile Training Bus and an additional on-the-job-training during and after installation. This approach is pragmatic and very user-oriented. HDNTC can be contacted via telephone and gives advises in cases of technical problems. More appropriate after-sales service is difficult. since many villages are situated at far distances from the company. Subsidies between 60 to 80% of the initial investment were necessary. no differentiation is made according to the amount of power consumed or to the point of time of consumption. the households were connected to an electricity meter to pay the consumption-based tariff.4 Project Examples 50 of electricity supply was reduced to 4 hours/day. With the installation of the hybrid systems. leaving the total management performance much to individual perceptions and attitudes of the operator. Due to high investment costs for the systems. found to be sufficiently transparent and known by everybody concerned. In the beginning. which is in the range of 1. it was mostly the operator being responsible for the collection of the electricity fees. To account this. however.

constant problem occurring was the balance of energy demand in the households: in some cases people wanted to use more appliances than the systems were designed for. which obviously stroke poor families more. PV/Wind hybrid household systems in Inner Mongolia require high initial investment and can therefore only be afforded by higher income households. Households were. However. 4. however. An overview on cost details can be found in Annex D. they were rarely replaced due to the high purchase costs. Families caused almost a quarter of system breakdowns due to lack of knowledge of the system and neglecting attitudes towards maintenance. on the other hand. Sometimes. some families stayed without electricity after system breakdowns between two and five months. local banks installed electrical warning systems. the demand was tried to be controlled by an increase of tariffs. because families in Inner Mongolia are usually herdsmen and come rarely to urban areas. because a contract on maintenance was not concluded between HDNTC and the system owners.4 Project Examples 51 working equipment as drilling machines. Moreover. Because of this. found to be very conscious on matters of energy saving by using energy saving bulbs in the beginning. experiences in Inner Mongolia were good in this regard. dealers were engaged as mediators for HDNTC. Hospitals use X-ray equipment or sonographs. cost data and service time experienced indicate that PV/Wind systems are the most cost-effective option for decentralised household electricity supply from a point of view of electricity generating costs. disappointing. and boarding schools apply washing machines. This problem was met in Wuliji by extension of the system. which was technically easily feasible.3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources. But once these bulbs were broken. the users were trained with the Mobile Training Bus of HDNTC. which makes the sale a risk for HDNTC being the creditor. The experiences showed that most people were willing to adapt to these regulation. this capacity problem was partly also met by extension of the system. many electrical appliances can be used by the customers. In other regions. This training needed to be very comprehensive. Development of Electricity Demand Due to the relatively high installed capacity of the hybrid systems. Problems with the installed capacity were experienced in villages with a rather high number of inhabitants as Wuliji (600 inhabitants). However. Most household systems were paid by instalments. electric water pumps are used for irrigation purposes. In smaller villages as Yingen (200 inhabitants).2. . The installed 10 kW Wind/Diesel system reached its capacity limit within two years. Nevertheless.2 Hybrid Household Systems System Purchase and Costs Compared to other household systems. the same capacity as above still met the electricity demand at the time of project review. Operation and Maintenance As in the case of village systems. Experiences here where.2. by optimisation of supply or through control of demand by adapting regulations on consumption behaviour. For the sale of the systems.

The experiences show that the village supply systems are a persuasive demonstration for a decentralised RE supply system not only for village inhabitants. The owners of household systems manage them by themselves and expand them according to their need and purchasing power. China and Inner Mongolia provide relatively good conditions in this respect. however. but also for scattered households who feel motivated to buy a household system. Compared to SHS. because a market for renewable energy devices already exists. found to be high. and service provision to other families is not possible due to far distances between scattered households in Inner Mongolia. further dissemination without subsidisation and just by market mechanisms alone are stated to be feasible in the project review. The users apparently tolerated downtimes for repairs without being negatively influenced on their opinion on the systems. mainly due to the fact that the wind generator in the PV/Wind system has shown to be a bit temperamental. the users were less satisfied. . however. however. especially compared to diesel gensets and their high costs for operation. for the village systems. The acceptance of the system was. For PV/Wind household systems.3 Aspects of System Dissemination The dissemination of hybrid systems by market mechanisms alone is the ultimate goal for the sustainability of the project presented here.2. Of course. However. The installed capacity is simply to low for income generating activities. financing schemes need to be supportive. SHS have a higher degree of acceptance. 4.4 Project Examples 52 Miscellaneous Aspects As is usually the case with SHS. direct economic benefits could also not be attributed to the application of PV/Wind household systems. the project review states scepticism due to high initial investment costs and considered subsidies to remain essential for their dissemination.e. the circumstances with regard to i.

and therefore it is not enough to ensure whether hybrid systems are likely to be a sustainable option for rural electrification. and capacity building will be discussed on the basis of a literature review. important aspects of organisation. Ideally. although it involves less investment than hybrid systems for an individual consumer. nor can poor communities commonly afford hybrid systems for electrification of villages. Investment costs are simply too high for hybrid systems. Leasing is an option of lower risk for the dealers since it is considerably less complicated to retrieve the equipment in case the consumers neglect their duty to pay the monthly leasing rates. Predominating option is cash sales. The approach of direct equipment sales therefore demands to make funds available to dealers in order to give them the possibility to provide credit to rural population or to create a leasing model. Sustainability needs also to be ensured by implementing the system in a way that guarantees a sustainable self-contained operation after project implementation. thus. For this. the provision of working capital is to be ensured. For hybrid systems the approach of direct equipment sales is adequate if an appropriate credit or leasing system is set up.5 Key success factors 53 5 Key success factors Sustainability describes a dynamic process. 2001). demand assessment and management. for the adaptation of leasing. Neither will individual poor households be able to purchase hybrid home system on cash basis.e. the key success factors in approaching a sustainable electrification project with hybrid systems shall be discussed in this section. funding of the dealers shall be provided by local banks. 2001): on the one hand there is the equipment-sale approach. The systems can be purchased either on cash or credit basis. ownership. and this is likely to remain so in the future due to the fact that credit is rarely available in rural areas and is just provided to consumers with secure occupations. Another option for equipment sales is leasing. equipment dealers usually lack financial background to offer credit to local consumers. the responsibility for maintenance and repair is transferred to the purchaser. but which has not yet gained major importance due to the same reason of insufficient working capital on the side of the dealers as in case of credit based purchase (ESMAP. These models are presented in the following. which has been successfully implemented in some countries (i. Dominican Republic). and direct equipment sale has proven to be difficult already in the case of SHS. 5. as is in the case of SHS. on the other hand there is the sale of electricity service approach. Direct Equipment Sales: The approach of direct equipment sales commonly refers to sale of complete systems rather than components. financing. which can be sup- . To achieve this. operation and maintenance.1 Organisation Decision on the distribution model The World Bank distinguishes two major distribution or sales models to be applied in developing countries (ESMAP. Moreover. With the approach of selling equipment directly to individuals.

is not only comparatively time-consuming. therefore requiring new political regulations (ESMAP. R. Basic problem of all projects applying renewable energies is the fact that knowledge and therefore necessary infrastructure is rarely existent in rural areas. both local and foreign companies are bidding for the right to provide the electricity service exclusively. credits can also be made available to consumers by such banks. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) recommends to task managers of single electrification projects to experiment with both approaches individually in order to then decide for the most appropriate one (GEF. 2000). is the fact that in many countries electricity service provision is restricted to only national utility. In fact. 2003). or the maximum number of concessions possible with a given grant (Tomkins.e. the electricity service company may receive a subsidy per user. The question for hybrid systems is which of these models to favour. As an option or in addition. however. although being probably even more financially sustainable. In an ideal model.5 Key success factors 54 ported by international organisations as the World Bank. Recent approaches. however. the isolation of these rural areas makes them highly unattractive for substantial private participation at any level of subsidy (Tomkins. are very important for the mini-grid in several respects: Firstly.. This approach. The winning company then constructs the energy provision system including distribution lines. In order to make electricity affordable to even the poorest among the rural population. responsibility for the power plant is important with regard to theft and vandalism. but also demands high involvement by donor organisations. Identification of Responsibility For the electrification of a rural village.). General problem in the approach to provide electricity services through private companies or businessman. Sale of Electricity Service: This approach is called “Dispersed Area Concession Model” by the World Bank and gives an electricity service company exclusive right to provide electricity service to a certain area by concession. Criterion for decision is either - the least grant necessary for a predetermined number of connections. The alternative is then to build capacity among small local companies through business advisory services and business development. The decision will therefore always be an individual one. the operational structure for the mini-grids to be established. Common experiences in developing countries especially with SHS show that if . 2001). however. questions of ownership and responsibility. focus rather on supporting private providers of electricity supply and to support them with subsidies in order to ease access to electricity for poor population. depending on the actual local situation. Users are provided electricity after paying a certain connection fee and through paying a monthly cost-based tariff. 2001). R. i. It is assumed that this approach is likely to open up and strengthen markets for decentralised electrification and therefore result in an increase of equipment sales (ESMAP. Problematic for the adaptation of this approach is the fact that in remote areas electricity service companies are rarely existent.

2001). This approach is very common in developing countries and has a strong advantage by committing the village’s population to the project. because it is strongly matter of their trust among each other and of their ability to work together whether such an approach will be successful. then theft and vandalism can become severe problems and compromise the whole success of the electrification project. Therefore. Pneumaticos. depending on the specific local conditions. meaning a co-operative or a user group. clear responsibility for the financial management of a plant is necessary in order to ensure the payment of bills from the customers. Then all responsibility is left to him. Failure rates of these components can be reduced from three every year to one every two years if just inspection and maintenance are carried out carefully (Turcotte. which one to prefer in the case of hybrid systems. The decision on the appropriate organisational model is difficult. prove the importance of sustainable maintenance structures. Not even costly and well-designed systems with high quality components can reliably provide electricity without regular and proper maintenance.. Thirdly. require regular maintenance. since training requirements are high and complex and need high involvement especially with regard to maintenance. Moreover. Implementing sustainable maintenance structures Experiences not only with hybrid systems. even slight problems with the system can become major issues and lead to complete breakdown of electricity supply. the organisational structure must be set up very carefully. F. and he will by his own interest prevent the plant from theft and vandalism. Sheriff. Secondly. but also with other renewable energy technologies as SHS. and a general recommendation. 2000a): Either the hybrid power plant and the corresponding mini-grid are installed by a private entrepreneur. Without appropriate maintenance structures.. If private entrepreneurs are chosen for the . take care of operation and maintenance. Important issues to be addressed with regard to sustainable maintenance structures include the following: Identification and Training of Technicians for System Operation and Maintenance: The identification of technicians within the rural community is a crucial and important task in setting up a maintenance structure. battery bank and charge controller. It should. The other possibility is some form of village ownership. In general. the second approach of creating co-operatives or user groups. especially the crucial parts of a hybrid system. be avoided to press from outside village inhabitants to form such organisations. and knowledge about maintenance is usually very limited. S. Applying renewable energies for rural electrification is a new and innovative approach. The appropriate solutions will vary strongly between countries and even among different villages in the same region. however. one has to take into account that this organisational solution brings with it higher risks for the local community.. especially with regard to leadership in order to avoid failures and severe problems. D. Moreover. a clear knowledge on responsibility is essential for operation and maintenance of the system.5 Key success factors 55 the question of responsibility is not solved. Clear assignment of responsibility helps a lot to avoid problems in this regard. - The World Bank distinguishes two different scenarios (ESMAP. and ensure the payment of bills. cannot be given here. is rather difficult in the case of hybrid systems.

then the choice of the technicians is of course to be left to them. which have the necessary potential for economic development and are in need of such a system. then others can take over seamlessly. M. When deciding for a system operator. For this. has shown to be problematic. Maintenance centres can serve this function of guidance and technical knowledge backup. the main objective is not to have high staff turnover on this position. Not only has the potentially higher degree of respect and acceptance of elder people within rural communities played a role here. For the application of hybrid systems it therefore seems to be essential to choose areas with a considerable number of potential communities. Ideally. 2000a). Training of system operators is a long-term process and cannot be performed with in a couple of days. Young people tend to be more open to changes and are more likely to move away to urban areas after a while (ESMAP.5 Key success factors 56 provision of electricity. This remoteness can become a problem for hybrid systems. having been educated at school recently. 1996). in case the chosen operator is at times not available in the future due to i. but to involve as many interested people as possible (ESMAP. these centres should be financially self-sufficient and not need financial assistance. Also the engagement of young people as system operators. since maintenance centres in nearby urban areas are not available and therefore need to be erected. By this. Moreover.. 2000b). illness. 2000a). These people then can be asked in case technical problems occur. the question of maintenance centres is difficult. can only be achieved if these centres serve a substantial number of villages. the approach of assigning the responsibility for the system to elder persons has proved to be recommendable. and the implementing organisation needs to monitor success after project implementation. Schaeffer. a pool of potential later technical experts can be created. as for example in a project at Galapagos Islands. Otherwise. if outside organisations take over responsibility for guiding the implementation process. which cannot be solved by the operator individually. too (ESMAP. Cosgrove-Davies. and people with highest capability as well as respect among other village inhabitants can be chosen in the end. the World Bank recommends not to decide for one or two system operators in the very beginning of the project implementation process. . This. Establishment of Regional Maintenance Centres: System operators should optimally have contact persons with higher technical expertise (ESMAP. A rule of thumb from the application of SHS in the Dominican Republic is that systems should not be further away than 50 km from a service centre (Cabraal. L. A. however. just having graduated and looking for work. People need to be involved in the whole implementation process for a deeper understanding of the power plant. which are ideally situated in the vicinity of the centre.e... 2000a). For hybrid systems. Hybrid systems are commonly implemented for electrification of remote areas.

It is to be found out how much the potential consumers are willing to invest to get access to and to pay for the provision of electricity services in order to determine the investment and operation costs. as is described in section 5. Costs for hybrid systems can be broken down to the following aspects (ESMAP. 2000a): capital costs for the implementation of the mini-grid project fuel costs for the diesel genset. willing to pay for it. Otherwise it was experienced that consumers op- 35 Examples can be found at the World Bank (ESMAP.4). candles. This approach. the effects of this fact on affordability are to be taken into account. It is obvious that rural population is likely to be interested in electrification and. pure investigation of consumer’s willingness-to-pay has been found to be shortsighted. which these systems certainly offer. Investigating both willingness. which involve rather high investment and electricity generating costs. . which are likely to be covered by consumers themselves.and ability-to-pay is of major importance especially in the case of hybrid systems. it needs to be found out whether the demand for 24-hours electrification as can be provided by hybrid systems is given and whether the economic potential. the World Bank estimates that about 15 percent of the disposable income is usually spent on all such energy services (ESMAP. if applied costs for operation. Common approaches usually investigate the current expenditure of rural households on kerosene. disposable batteries for radios and rechargeable car-batteries and the costs for their recharging. As a rule of thumb. warrants the higher financial burden for the consumer. But whether people can actually afford electrification is a different question of equal importance and cannot be answered by simple investigation of willingness-topay. Correct pricing of electricity – setting up a sustainable tariff structure Correct pricing of electricity is probably the most important success factor to be described here. Prior to the decision.2 Financing Willingness. failed. 2000a: Annex 5. In areas where steady income is not guaranteed.and Ability-to-pay for the electricity service of rural population Investigating the consumer’s willingness-to-pay is one of the key issues to be determined prior to any electrification project. thus. but also the operational costs often used to be covered to a large extent by subsidies. Affordability of electrical appliances and electricity services is difficult to determine and closely linked to energy demand assessment. Investigating the consumer’s willingness-to-pay is commonly done on the basis of questionnaires. Operational costs should be covered by consumers themselves from the beginning. 2001). not only the implementation or connection costs.5. maintenance and overhauling costs for equipment replacement Finding the most appropriate way for covering these costs is a difficult matter.35 However.5 Key success factors 57 5. however. which option for rural electrification is to be chosen. Based on the objective to provide electricity to even the poorest among the poor.

the use of power during offpeak times is encouraged additionally. thus awarding energy-saving consumer behaviour through lower energy bills. et al. in order not to undermine the other users’ paying morality. however. which makes it an additional test of user’s demand and preferences concerning electrification.5 Key success factors 58 posed to later tariff increases to fully cover operational costs themselves. 1998). However. energy meters require considerable additional investment and are therefore not suitable in small-sized mini-grids with small numbers of consumers.. It is therefore widely agreed nowadays that grants and subsidies should only be given on implementation costs. this method is of special interest because it attenuates a disadvantage of these technologies compared to diesel gensets-based electrification: if consumers temporarily do not have money to afford electricity.. 36 Personal Comment given by Mr.L. This tariff allows appropriate charging according to the real individual consumption by applying an energy meter. Moreover. with diesel gensets the purchase of diesel fuel can be reduced or stopped. R. 2003. and therefore it might come out that wealthier households consume that much that minigrids with limited capacity are overloaded. 2003). discourage investment. a new approach applies prepayment meters and is usually called “Fee-for-service”. fee-for-service is as well very costly with regard to equipment and support service. which needs to be applied to any decentralised rural electrification project. The latter subsidy on connection costs is proposed just to be partial by the World Bank (Tomkins. W. Energy-based tariffs: The approach of applying energy-based tariffs is probably the most equitable one. the emphasis on poverty alleviation by subsidising can restrict sustainable market expansion. is one rule. Common for all tariff structures. which often led to financial difficulties and even to failures of electrification projects. KfW staff member. whether money is available at that time or not. billing and money collecting. as World Bank (ESMAP. If time-of-day meters are applied. conventional energy meters do not limit consumption. In order to avoid problems associated with meter reading. less welleducated consumers might have difficulties in understanding the meter and how to read it. Finally.. and a contribution to connection costs for households can be justified as well. need to be paid off. Dubois. on July. 2000a) is presented in the following. Setting up a sustainable tariff structure cannot be done by following a single and proven formula for success. 7th. a more constant flow of operational income can be expected. An overview about potential solutions as described by the World Bank in (ESMAP. In summary. and hamper business development as was experienced in China (Wallace. however. . For electrification projects applying renewable energies. This approach uses magnetic cards or tokens. With fee-for-service. Renewable energy devices. Different approaches exist. which can be bought by the consumers and with which the consumer purchases the possibility to consume a certain amount of electricity. 2000a) and KfW36 both strongly recommend: those who do not pay their monthly bills should be consequently disconnected from electricity supply. resulting in unexpected high bills. Moreover. the option of energy-based tariffs is applied in cases where there is a reasonable number of potential consumers and where ability and willingness to pay allow the application of this rather sophisticated tariff system. and each of them can be applied successfully depending on the specific circumstances. However.

. power consumption can be limited electrically by regulating the current into the home. leaves more potential to fraud by bypassing the limiter. organisation and financing. . In practice.37 Figure 5. To avoid this problem. it can be stated that the first approach of energy-based tariffs is well applicable in mini-grids of a substantial size with a considerable number of consumers. This approach obviously depends much on the honesty of the consumers and is disadvantageous in this respect since it does not apply control mechanisms.. as was experienced for example in Indonesia (Preiser. which he is not allowed to exceed and for which he monthly pays a constant amount of money. electrification projects will most likely apply a mixture of both tariffs. reliability and accuracy of electrical load limiters is often poor. overloading of the system can be avoided and every user gets the same possibility of access to electricity services.38 37 38 Personal Comment Jörg Baur. 2000). However. Source: Own illustration. However. Moreover. et al. but on the maximum amount of power likely to be consumed. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. In comparison to energy-based tariffs the power-based tariff is easier to understand for consumers and requires less effort for payment collection. K. Moreover.1 gives an overview about the key issues addressed so far being important with regard to distribution. Generally. GTZ. this approach generally restricts availability of electricity to consumers and. furthermore. Roman Ritter. 2003. In the most simple variation. reliable load limiters are mostly less expensive than reliable energy meters. an oral or written agreement with the consumer limits his consumption to a predetermined level according to his appliances. while the second approach of power-based tariffs is likely to be better applicable in mini-grids with a concise number of consumers and well-established social structures. Energy-based tariffs using energy meters are applied for well-income consumers and businesses as restaurants.5 Key success factors 59 Power-based tariffs: This tariff-scheme is not based on metering of actual electricity consumption. while power-based tariffs can be applied to other users.

. thus needing subsidies. but have already been outlined above. thus subsidies necessary. Aspects as the education of technicians are part of capacity building.3 Capacity Building Capacity Building is a major aspect for the success of any project implemented in developing countries. Most likely approach.5 Key success factors 60 Rural Electrification with Hybrid Village Systems Sales Model Distribution Model Cash Credit Leasing Existing Utility Service Model Communitybased Provider Open-Market Provider System Owner Buyer Buyer Dealer Energy Service Company (ESCo) Operator Private Entrepreneur Village Co-operative ESCo Maintenance Operator Local Technician ESCo Energy-based Tariff Power-based Tariff Tariff Energy Meters Agreement Fee-for-Service Load Limiters Applicable for Large Mini-grids Small Mini-grids Evaluation Unlikely due to low profits. the potential profit is too low for involvement. In order to exploit the full potential a hybrid system offers. For other private providers.1 Hybrid Village Systems: Distribution Steps 5. demands high donor involvement Public power utility is usually not interested much in decentralised rural electrification due to high costs. Other important aspects on capacity building are to be discussed in the following. education on demand-side management is advisable. Figure 5. Education on Demand-side management Hybrid systems are installed at certain capacities and are therefore limited.

This policy is best to be established in a written manner.e. Other issues to be addressed in consumer education include theft of power and safety. This agreement describes explicitly all obligations for the potential consumers. If consumers are not aware of it. this question is of major importance. and prefer to be convinced by being informed about the possibilities and the functioning of hybrid systems visually. This reduces electricity consumption considerably. If other appliances are used at the same time. the installed capacity of a hybrid system may soon be insufficient to meet the demand. which do not necessarily have to take place in the evening. and therefore helps to better exploit the potential of a hybrid system. Education on Business Planning If the potential of hybrid systems is to be fully exploited. Population in rural areas in developing countries are commonly sceptic towards unknown approaches in the first place. i. Especially in the case of household systems. will not be tolerated. This is especially important in order not to raise unreasonable expectations. and electrical lines and appliances should be handled with caution (ESMAP. These include especially financial obligations: the understanding of the need to pay for receiving electricity is not to be taken for granted. Demand-side management also refers to the use of energy-saving appliances such as energy saving bulbs. Additionally. a policy encouraging the payment of bills by disconnecting non-paying consumers from electricity supply needs to be established.5 Key success factors 61 Demand-side management in the first place refers to consumption habits. Common for the use of electricity in developing countries is the occurrence of a relatively high peak demand during evening hours. then awareness rising is essential. Consumers must be aware that theft of power. which cannot be obtained by electrification alone. It is therefore important to make consumers aware of the limitations of the system. when for example lights are switched on everywhere in the village. which is to be signed by the consumers. then rural population should not be left alone with the system. etc. through bypassing energy meters or current limiters. the limitation of their electricity supply system can lead to consumer’s dissatisfaction and frustration. Two major possibilities are worth mentioning. Firstly. The example of Inner Mongo- . as setting up business plans. 2000a). Awareness Rising as a Means of Market Development The issue of awareness rising refers to making public hybrid systems as an option for rural electrification. The issue of safety should be addressed because for many areas electricity is a new commodity. Education of Consumers on Obligations and Behaviour Another aspect in educating consumers deals with the obligations related to the connection to an electricity supply system. and to guide them in using it correctly by performing activities. during daytime. i.e. an example can be found at the World Bank (ESMAP. 2000a). and can be included in an agreement. but also for larger systems in case of village electrification. Hybrid systems strongly need accompanying with regard to economic development by teaching about important aspects of business founding. ironing. If markets for hybrid systems are to be developed. A successful project for rural electrification with hybrid systems should prepare the ground for economic development. This has to be explained to consumers in order to make the project a financial success. project examples are an important aspect for the dissemination of knowledge on hybrid systems.

Sheriff. 2001). proves this (GTZ. Secondly. . D.. However. Sheriff. they are rather a tool. But real market development can just take place through replication (Richards. he will tell this to his friends and neighbours and make them aware of the possibility to use hybrid systems for electrification.. Pneumaticos.4. multiplier organisations can play an important role. By informing and training the staff of multiplier organisations as local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). 2003). However. The same phenomenon applies to hybrid systems for village electrification: if the neighbour village owns one and feels satisfied. S. the regional administration or others. but are due to rather frequent failures of components’ integration. 2001): o assessment of electricity demand prior to the project o provision of credit guarantees or cash sales for group lending o independent operation of the hybrid system o financing Generally. S. the other villages are likely to get interested as well.4 Technical Aspects Main technical aspects of hybrid systems have already been discussed in chapter 2. especially with regard to maintenance requirements. Pneumaticos. Most technical problems observed with hybrid system are not result of failures of single components itself. oversizing of the renewable energy generator is not an option. E. 2003. include (ESMAP. pilot projects indeed can contribute to the sale of the technology. et al. 5. F. F.. Other aspects. GTZ. since these systems are rather sophisticated. 1999).. For hybrid systems. since it increases system costs especially in the case of photovoltaic-based systems remarkably (Turcotte. project examples should not be seen as the end of dissemination activities. For the purpose of developing markets. Local institutions or NGOs can play an even greater role than just capacity building.. Key success factors from a technical point of view are the following: The design of hybrid systems should always seek to maximise utilisation of local resources in order to keep the use diesel fuel low. this issue is a major challenge.5 Key success factors 62 lia. Experts see the point of reliability as a major hurdle for the adaptation of hybrid systems in developing countries. the dissemination of hybrid systems can be promoted.. it can be stated that for awareness rising in developing countries the word-ofmouth propaganda is the most effective way. 2001).2. in Eschborn/Germany. too. on August 14th. where project examples in rural administrative villages contributed to the dissemination of especially household systems. If someone owns a hybrid household system and feels satisfied with it.. which can be addressed by these organisations. This fact increases the importance of pilot projects for awareness rising. Key requirement from a technical point of view is simplicity and reliability (Turcotte.. D.39 - 39 Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. The trained staff can then multiply the obtained information by teaching the interested public about the possibilities of hybrid systems.

4. As the project examples in chapter 4 prove. making adequate load projections is frequently a very difficult task. For this reason. The knowledge of so far non-electrified households on their real demand for electricity is very limited. which describes major technical aspects in detail (ESMAP. If the system is to be installed in a region. which expects grid-based electrification in medium-term perspective. the electricity demand is likely to increase substantially. However. two different aspects are of major importance: Demand Assessment and Projections The assessments of current demand for electricity as well as projections of future growth in demand are essential. Similar tariffs are applied in the surveyed regions as are planned for the new project. then this period has to be accounted for growth projections. and the corresponding financial burden in terms of the monthly bills for electricity supply cannot be overviewed by them. However. for appropriate comparison certain restrictions apply for the surveyed area: The surveyed area should have a similar type of electricity service. Therefore.2. not only the actual demand for electricity. - . The relevance results from the fact that over sizing of the hybrid system inherently increases the overall system costs. and may soon lead to dissatisfaction of consumers if future growth is not accurately forecasted in advance. but also the history of load growth can be determined and taken into consideration. the World Bank proposes to assess electricity demand by surveying adjoining. as the World Bank describes (ESMAP. The assessment of not only actual demand for electricity. it is here referred to the Mini-Grid Design Manual published by the World Bank. the optimal system performance is closely linked to an accurate demand assessment. Demand in the surveyed region is not kept down by applying consumption restrictions due to limited installed capacity. As described in chapter 3. The approach of simply asking households for their potential electricity demand is not sufficient.1. which is lower than the system’s lifetime. two different situations need to be distinguished (ESMAP. 2000a).4. the potential of hybrid systems to economic development is comparatively high. but also of potential future growth is of major importance for hybrid systems.5 Key success factors 63 For information on key technical issues to be considered when erecting mini-grids in developing countries in general. 2000a). By doing so. then the growth in demand during the whole lifetime has to be accounted. 5. meaning 24-hour power supply in the case of hybrid systems. 2000a): If the system is to be installed in a region. For a hybrid system.5 Assessment of Electricity Demand and Potential for Renewable Energies In order to guarantee optimal sizing of hybrid systems and the application of the most suitable hybrid combinations. while underestimation of load demand is likely to entail frustration on poor system performance due to excessive consumption. already-electrified regions with similar characteristics (ESMAP. 2000a). which is likely not to be connected to conventional grid during the lifetime of the system.

Especially in the case of PV/Wind hybrid systems. Sector reforms may be necessary. value-added taxes or other taxes. D. 5.6 Political Factors The political framework is a major issue for decentralised electrification as well.e. Investigation of the Potential for Hybrid Systems for Electrification In order to assess the potential for hybrid systems for electrification of a certain area. Three key issues can be identified (ESMAP. can do much to obtain information on demand and future growth (Barnes. subsidies on diesel fuel or kerosene need to be lowered or fully eliminated in order to decrease competitive disadvantages of renewable energy technologies. 2001). ideally through policy statements and direct support of respective initiatives. the potential of wind power and/or the extent of insolation need to be investigated prior to project implementation. accurate assessment of these resources is important. i. and supporting institutions might need to be established. which require converse occurrence of insolation and wind power in order to produce electricity on a 24-hours basis.. a rural electrification committee. legalisation of rural energy markets In many countries legislation does not allow for private operators to provide electricity services. A general problem in developing countries concerning the role of government results from unrealistic promises during election campaigns. and with it hybrid systems. Foley. Moreover. 2001): Defining the Role of the Government The central and local governments need to be involved from the very beginning and to demonstrate commitment to decentralised electrification. Establishing electricity laws. competitive. 1998). which need to be eliminated in order to make the option of renewable energy. This is essential for choosing the appropriate system design and to quantify the share of the renewable energy resource for electricity generation. G.5 Key success factors 64 An important role in assessing energy demand plays the population itself: involvement of rural population. The World Bank states that no project on electrification has ever succeeded without the backing of political will (ESMAP. Elimination of Tax and Duty Barriers The introduction of renewable energy technologies in many countries faces obstacles from unfair import duties.. Project developers report from the example of Morocco that the promise to extend the conventional grid to non-electrified areas had the ef- . This then needs to be changed in a way that allows private operators to supply electricity to regions without electricity. since this is traditionally the exclusive right of national or regional utility. and therefore it is tried here to state the main political framework conditions for decentralised hybrid system projects.

D.5 Key success factors 65 fect that decentralised solutions were not accepted among rural population. 28th. F. and general characteristics of electrification. because they fear then to be ignored when the grid connection becomes possible.. with hybrid systems. S. Decentralised electrification is often seen as a second class electrification. Main issues to be addressed include environmental concerns for fossil fuel powered sources. Sheriff. Pneumaticos.. i. 2003. For the project developers it is therefore important when addressing the governments to intensively inform them about the benefits of rural electrification with decentralised systems. and ongoing advances in technology (Turcotte. 40 Personal Comment given by Dirk-Uwe Sauer. . at Intersolar Fair in Freiburg/Germany. growing demand for electricity in developing countries. and grid connection is preferred strongly.. on June.e.40 People rather remain without electrification for some more years than to be electrified with other systems. Fraunhofer ISE – Club für ländliche Elektrifizierung. 2001).

the application of renewable energies for rural electrification has not yet been the success story it was expected to be. Common practice to meet the problem of rural electrification in developing countries is the use of diesel gensets. Problematic. these issues are major hurdles and require attention during the planning of hybrid system projects and high donor involvement through subsidies and the development of maintenance structures. however. The assessment of sustainability of hybrid systems. This problem is recently met with the application of hybrid systems. are questions of financing and maintenance. therefore. therefore. In many cases renewable energies have failed to meet the expectations of rural population. but also from a socio-economic and economic perspective. and have several additional benefits related to their use. and is integral part especially for furtherance of economic progress. Main strengths of hybrid systems from an environmental perspective include low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants compared to conventional methods for rural electrification. which has lead to customer dissatisfaction in many cases. is as well unfavourable not only from an environmental. However. and can as well be undesirable from a point of view of environmental sustainability.6 Summary and Conclusions 66 6 Summary and Conclusions Rural electrification is commonly seen as essential part for the development of rural areas in developing countries. The main problem for the application of renewable energies in rural electricity supply. on the one hand by unrealistically high expectations on side of the population. This approach. The assessment was performed in comparative terms relative to other solutions for rural electricity supply by using an indicator set developed within this work. The assessment revealed that from a point of view of environmental and socio-economic sustainability. rural electrification is a problematic issue. a good potential for economic development. since they are less dependent on external interference. however. however. use locally available resources and offer a high potential with regard to local independence compared to grid extension and diesel gensets. on the other hand due to problems with reliability of the systems. since diesel gensets usually cannot evolve the full potential of electrification for rural development. however. Renewable energies are an environmental benign solution for rural electrification. main advantages include reliable and continuous energy supply and. address the challenge of rural electrification with decentralised energy supply systems applying renewable energies. and to identify key success factors to improve the sustainability of a hybrid rural electrification project. renewable energies. thus. thus. socio-economic and economic issues. As is the case always for the application of renewable energies as PV and wind in developing countries. which hybrid . Objective of this work. from a socio-economic perspective. was and is the intermittent supply of power due to the fluctuating nature of the resources. was to generally assess the sustainability of hybrid systems for rural electrification with regard to environmental. Modern approaches. i.. did not result in a clear yes concerning their application. Despite these numerous advantages. and that expectations associated to decentralised rural electrification are likely to be met. hybrid systems are likely to be more beneficial than are other technologies. The extension of the conventional grid is often economically not feasible for remote rural areas.e. It was argued that in order to fully exploit the potential.

Despite their advantages. . the indicator set developed here might provide a framework for the assessment whether environmental and socio-economic surpluses attributable to hybrid systems justify the high investment and the necessary effort in setting up maintenance structures. but also on other conditions favouring economic development. since economic benefits not just depend on the availability of energy. Moreover.6 Summary and Conclusions 67 systems certainly can offer especially with regard to economic development. meanwhile being more environmentally benign. and political framework conditions and several technical aspects. and they might then ideally be chosen for those villages in the region. hybrid systems require a holistic approach towards electrification. and the potential to meet the demand with renewable energies for an appropriate system design. Hybrid systems are here assessed to be a promising approach for decentralised rural electrification. Hybrid systems. This paper has also identified key factors to successfully apply hybrid systems in developing countries. Main issues to be addressed include organisational issues with decision on appropriate distribution models and the implementation of sustainable maintenance schemes. the results allow the statement that hybrid systems can be a sustainable option. which make them comparable to the conventional grid especially with regard to the quality of electricity supply. however. certain framework conditions need to be established. For an analysis of respective projects. They might therefore be applied within the context of whole electrification programmes for remote rural areas as an integral part of a set of different methods. a certain economic development should already be taking place in the area to be electrified. Although the assessment here was performed in rather global terms and although therefore in individual cases the assessment might be a different one. or the implementation of an appropriate tariff system.and ability-to-pay for electricity service. should and cannot be seen as the ultimate solution for rural electrification in developing countries. for which the preconditions and circumstances allow to expect the full evolvement of the system’s potential. issues of financing as the investigation of willingness. capacity building as an essential condition to create the appropriate framework for economic development and for correct use of the hybrid systems. the assessment of electricity demand now and projected to the future.

40 3.00 1168. schools. .9 Table A.02 2.8 7. Erich Geis.3 94. Moreover.12 0.60 0. during a telephone interview on August.00 Energy Saving Lamp TV (Colour) Radio Refrigerator Total 6 1 1 1 10 100 10 300 470 In a next step. while 90% are standard households..). health care. etc. former KfW staff member.70 219. 2000).2 Rich Household Characteristics Equipment Number Capacity [W] Daily Hours of Operation [h/d] 3 6 2 8 Daily Electricity Consumption [kWh/d] 0. with village sizes from 30 to 300 households. It is assumed that energy saving lighting is applied within the electrification project. J. Table A.26 Annual Electricity Consumption [kWh/a] 43. since the diesel 41 Personal Recommendation Mr.00 7. the peak load for different village sizes are calculated. The base load is of major importance for the design of the diesel genset in a hybrid system. Additional electricity consumption results from commercial (shops. handicraft businesses.18 0. two different types of households with different consumption behaviour are distinguished: standard households and rich households.1 Calculation of Electricity Demand For the calculation. It is assumed here that (fictitious) 10% of all households in the village are rich.02 0.30 876.12 0.) and public consumption (public lighting. 2003.41 The figures adopted here are mainly based on data from (Baur.8 43.1 Standard Household Characteristics Equipment Energy Saving Lamp TV (b/w) Radio Total Number Capacity [W] 4 1 1 10 20 10 70 Daily Hours of Operation [h/d] 3 6 2 Daily Electricity Consumption [kWh/d] 0. 22nd. the base load of the villages is calculated. etc.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 68 Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design A. This is accounted by adding 40% excess consumption on the consumption of the individual households.20 Annual Electricity Consumption [kWh/a] 65.

0 11.0 55.9 Peak Load Annual [kWh/a] 8492.0 50.3 27.8 24. Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET).5 9.0 100.0 48126.0 13.0 34.0 45.0 17.3 11323.7 15570.3 shows the results for different village sizes. Table A.8 108. Table A.6 18401.3 Peak and Base Loads for Different Village Sizes Number of Households Daily [kWh/d] 23.7 46.3 36802.5 6.5 25.2 62.2 42464.4 31140.9 135.0 117.2 70773.4 9.1 45295.0 108.0 85.5 72.1 22647.6 16.0 7.0 80.3 33971.0 250.6 116. Strauß. during a telephone interview on August 20th. the load caused by the adaptation of refrigerators is defined as the base load.0 140.8 63696.0 130.0 38.9 38.0 75.5 225.2 20.9 69.8 12739.6 22.5 180.0 35.0 95.5 26893.5 20. .4 54.5 56618.5 81.2 14154.8 12.0 13.2 39633.5 24063.0 157.0 6.5 5.6 21232.0 5.0 26.0 99.7 77.0 60.0 4.8 31.0 135.0 40.5 45.0 170.5 36.0 120. 2003.0 3.0 110.0 65.1 31.8 9908.8 42.42 To simplify matters.0 40.0 54.0 175.0 225.5 7.5 193.0 60.5 63.6 10.0 76.3 124.2 16985.5 Base Load (Refrigerators) Daily [kWh/d] 7.0 58.0 25478.4 28.1 19816.0 31.0 153.2 33.0 202.0 49541.0 85.5 10.0 30.2 14.0 3.5 50.4 15.1 174.0 16.6 36.9 28309.0 48.0 49.0 150.0 126.4 40.8 73.7 155.0 42 Personal Comment Mr.5 4.0 15.5 90.0 22.0 19.2 8.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 69 genset should normally be designed to satisfy the base demand.3 58.6 85.0 200.0 14.0 67.8 42.0 9.5 54.8 18.0 160.0 90.0 12.4 21.1 100.0 17.0 Annual [kWh/a] 2628 3066 3504 3942 4380 4818 5256 5694 6132 6570 7008 7446 7884 8322 8760 9636 10512 11388 12264 13140 14016 14892 15330 17520 19710 21900 Standard Rich Total 27.3 93.1 131.0 70.0 144.5 8.0 8.0 65.

3 Designed to meet the base load Wind Generator Annual Full Load Hours: 2.0 27. For the system design. Berger. F. for a comparative assessment.4 Main Modelling Assumptions PV Modules Annual Global Radiation: 1.. good site Equals 6 h/d Own assumption. Berger. 2003)).5 270..35 (Turcotte.190 h/a Efficiency: 0. 2003)) or HOMER (Evaluation of design options. the following basic assumptions are made: Table A. 43 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie Average Site in Trapani.85 In Winter: 0. Italy.0 A. 2002) Own assumption.. Sheriff. C. 2002).9 Norm Radiation = 1. R.3 232.. 2003. 2003.2 Base Load (Refrigerators) Daily [kWh/d] 66. Hemmerle. typically between 0.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 70 Number of Households Daily Peak Load Annual [kWh/a] 77850.000 h/a Miscellaneous Energy losses due to inverter and battery: 24% (Haselhuhn. ISET44 Personal Recommendation given by Claudia Hemmerle. Pneumaticos.. (FHG ISE.. Source Meteosat 2 Remarks/Source 43 During a telephone interview on August 21st. Hemmerle. R.2 System Design The design of hybrid systems here is based on personal comments by project developers and literature review (Haselhuhn.2 kWh/m2/d In December: 2. F.0 275.0 Standard Rich Total [kWh/d] 213.0 300.25 – 0.9 84928.0 26280. However.7 247.. (Homer. F..664 kWh/m /a Radiation on a surface with 10° incline In June: 7.5 30. 44 During a telephone interview on August 20th.2 kWh/m2/d Temperature Correction In Summer: 0. it seems sufficient. S. 2001) Personal Recommendation Mr. Strauss. D. C.000 W/m2 Diesel Genset Annual operating time in Mini-Grid: 2. It is obvious that the design of the systems here is therefore rather rough and that real application of hybrid systems would require accurate system design with the help of optimisation models as for example TALCO (Technical and Least Cost Optimisation..0 Annual [kWh/a] 24090. .0 72.

Georg Weingarten. 45 demand in winter Energiebau GmbH Wind/Diesel Hybrid Systems Share: 80 % Wind. 1/3 PV Own assumption Common design for cost optimisation Based on these assumptions. . 20% Diesel Genset Remarks/Source Common design for cost optimisation PV generator is designed to meet 50% of the electricity Personal Recommendation Mr.5 Share of Technologies for Electricity Generation PV/Diesel Hybrid Systems Share: 80 % PV. the calculations lead to the following system designs for the different village sizes. 2003. 20% Diesel Genset PV/Wind Hybrid Systems Share: 2/3 Wind. 45 Given at Intersolar Fair in Freiburg/Germany on June 28th.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 71 For the different hybrid systems. the following share on electricity generation was attributed to the different generators: Table A.

0 10191.8 12456.9 6605.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 72 Total Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Diesel Capacity [kW] 1.3 4.0 10191.5 3.4 13211.4 PV Capacity [kW] 7.6 21.4 8.9 9.2 5.6 6.2 6.7 4.0 System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 2.5 16.7 9.7 15098.7 9.3 7926.6% Wind [kWh/a] 5661.8 18.9 10.1 6.6 4246.3 7926.1 14154.9 14.6 9059.9 System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 6794.1 2.4 4718.8 7.0 3.3 16985.9 3302.8 5.8 2.6 6.0 19.7 10.4 7549.0 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 3.3 20.6 3.5 7.3 11.3%PV [kWh/a] 2830.9 4.4 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 4.8 12267.2 5190.5 14720.6 9059.3 16042.8 9436.0 5.1 5661.2 15.8 3774.9 4.6 3.5 14720.4 11323.7 7.5 10380.4 11323.3 3.6 18118.1 13588.2 8492.7 3.1 8.3 9.0 7.2 6.9 12.5 4.7 33.1 13588.6 .0 6.9 6133.0 10.3 16985.3 5.4 66.2 8021.0 19250.2 4.4 2.1 System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 6794.8 5.2 11.0 19250.4 8.5 7077.6 18118.9 15853.1 11323.2 8.9 15853.4 11.0 3.5 7549.6 12.8 12456.5 5.7 6605.

7 14.8 39633.0 13.4 30196.7 15098.3 26.1 22647.1 29.2 10.0 6.8 31706.7 32084.1 22647.6 10.4 11.7 6.8 45.3 12.9 14.2 7.3 8.8 26422.7 41.2 45295.8 28.2 45295.6 37745.9 22.4 9.9 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 11.9 21.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 73 Total Number of Households 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 Diesel Capacity [kW] 5.3 16042.8 .2 17.3%PV [kWh/a] 8492.3 27177.4 18.9 19.6 7.8 8964.8 31706.5 10380.5 33971.0 29441.3 30.1 17.1 14154.5 System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 20382.6% Wind [kWh/a] 16985.5 24912.0 38500.2 24.8 21515.9 33.2 13.8 25.0 PV Capacity [kW] 23.9 16.9 System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 7.8 8.6 17929.8 33.0 29441.4 66.2 43.7 24.2 22647.5 12.1 21.0 System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 20382.5 36.8 39633.3 27177.0 38500.0 16513.4 20.8 12.1 28309.6 19.4 13211.4 14.1 51.0 9.1 38.7 9.3 23.0 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 13.8 18872.3 18872.6 10.8 8.5 24912.8 21515.6 9436.9 16.8 12267.5 24534.5 25.4 17.4 13.3 36236.2 14.4 5.9 20760.1 11323.0 33027.5 33971.3 36236.2 11.8 15.

Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design 74 Total Number of Households 225 250 275 300 Diesel Capacity [kW] 13.0 64.0 44.9 56618.1 47182.8 62280.6 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 33.4 70.4 System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 19.0 34.9 26.7 33.0 System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 50956.8 62280.1 66.9 31.6 21.7 67942.6 56618.8 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 27.5 18.1 37.2 41.5 37.7 67942.3 System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 50956.9 77.3 51900.5 15.2 .2 25950.9 56618.1 23591.0 16.6 PV Capacity [kW] 58.6% Wind [kWh/a] 42464.7 23.3 28309.3%PV [kWh/a] 21232.

Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations


Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
B.1 Scenario Definitions
For the comparison of the different electrification scenarios, the main requirement for adequate comparison is that in all scenarios the same amount of electricity is provided. Here, a village with 170 households is chosen, with peak electricity consumption of 48,126 kWh/a, which is to be produced by the different scenarios. SHS, however, are seen as an exception here. SHS are just used for household electrification, and since real application is to be investigated, this is accounted for here. It is assumed that every household is supplied with a 50 Wp SHS-module each, generating 80 kWh/a at the given global irradiation, efficiency and energy density. For the assessment of the impacts of conventional grid-based electrification on ecology, three commonly used developing/transition countries are chosen: Brazil for its high share of hydro power plants on electricity supply; China for its high share coal power plants on electricity supply; and South Africa as an African representative and with comparatively high share of nuclear power.

The different electricity supply systems are chosen from the database of GEMIS. An overview on system designs and main assumptions is given in the following.
Scenario 1: Hybrid systems
PV Module PV/Diesel monocrystalline PVmodule, system with aluminium-frame incl. Elevation after DIN small-scale dieselmotor for decentral electricity production, no emission control (base case) 20 9,625.2 10.2 30 1,460 10 Own assumption Source: GEMIS; for the diesel generator, no emission control is applied as worst case scenario Wind Generator Diesel Remarks/Source


Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]

80 38,500.8 43.8 10 1,664 20

Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
PV Module PV/Wind monocrystalline PVsmall-scale single module, system mit wind turbine, for good aluminium-frame incl. sites Elevation after DIN 33.3 16,042 14.8 10 1,664 20 66.7 32,084 21.1 100 2,000 12 Own estimation Wind Generator Diesel



Source: GEMIS

Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] Wind/Diesel


small-scale dieselmoSmall-scale single tor for decentral elecwind turbine, for good tricity production, no emission control sites (base case) 80 38,500.8 25.3 100 2,000 12 20 9,625.2 10.2 30 1,460 10

Source: GEMIS; for the diesel generator, no emission control is applied as worst case scenario

Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]

Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations


Scenario 2: Diesel Mini-Grid
Diesel Mini-Grid


small-scale dieselmotor for decentral electricity Source: GEMIS; no emission control as is production, no emission control (base case) common in developing countries

Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kWp] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] 48,126

22 30 2,190 6 Own assumption

Scenario 3: Renewable Energy
Solar Home system Remarks/Source Biogas Plant Remarks/Source Small generator for biogas from decentral Source: GEMIS; fermentation for elecCatalytic Converter tricity generation in added; Converter developing countries, meets World Bank with three-way cataEmission and Imlytic-converter for remission Standards duction of NOx/CO/NMVOC 35,058.3 170 Buildings, each one SHS


Complete 50 Wp Solar Home System, incl. battery & CFL bulbs, with 100% firm power due to battery storage

Source: GEMIS

Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kWp] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]


8.5 10 1,600 20

10 27.74 4,813 10

Own estimation Source: GEMIS

Own estimation

213. 80.250 33 6.000 50 2.6 Nuclear Power Plant Others Description Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] China 3.dam + reservoir water reactor LWR) in China.2 1.506 15 Description Nuclear power plant Coal-fired steamhydro-electric power (pressurised lightturbine power plant in plant . injected gas turbine = STIG 8.000 50 .2 50 100 6.4 82.1 577.000 30 950 33 6.1 here neglected 600 38 6. but gasification of wood. includes asNOx. no cool.000 30 2. in China China.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 78 Hydroelectric Power Plant Scenario 4: Grid-Extension Coal Power Plant Brazil In Brazil: bagasse.1 Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] 38. Large hard coal power Generic nuclear power Here dealt with as biomass: mediumplant with steam tur. no SO2.removal.8 10 38.903. PWR) sized power plant with Large scale river countries.597.plant (pressurisedbine for developing water reactor.5 0.sumed nuclear waste simple-cycle steaming tower.98 3.994.5 1.5 300 38 5. electric filter.3 4.800.000 20 39.2 18. of 5 g/MWh-el.5 8.000 20 250 100 4.117.or in developing counintegrated biomass power plant Brazil tries.7 4.

cooling tower assumed nuclear waste with wet recooling.200 25 360 100 3.reMW-netto. bine in South Africa. South Africa.000 25 920 33 7. the amount of greenhouse gas emissions.4 here neglected 500 38 5.9 529.1 44. includes moval. Greenhouse Gas Emissions The following table shows the amount of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the different electrification scenarios.2 Modelling Results The following section gives an overview and interpretation on the results of the GEMIS calculation for a village of 170 household.5 5.646. PWR with 2x 920 no SO2. .997. With GEMIS.561 50 B. Nuclear Power Plant Hydroelectric Power Plant Others 79 Description Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] 93. of 5 g/MWh-el.or NOx.8 2.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations Coal Power Plant South Africa Nuclear power plant Large hard coal power Koeberg close to Cape plant with steam turTown.5 1.1 0. air pollutants and the cumulative energy demand (CED) were calculated. CO2-Equivalents aggregate the different greenhouse gas emissions due to their contribution to the greenhouse effect. supplied with energy due to the different scenarios.

11E-03 5.31 2.69 N2O [kg] 0.43 17.1 GEMIS Results: GHG Emissions The comparison of the different scenarios clearly shows that hybrid systems result in relatively few GHG emissions.09 1.02 8.46E-06 3.80 4.95 CH4 [kg] 27.50 0.40E-07 1. so that their GHG emissions are equal to those attributable to SHS and biogas. PV/Wind hybrid systems do not apply fossil resources during operation.422.10 1.533.73 11.74E-07 These figures are illustrated by the following graphs. For Brazil.503.568.38 56.73E-07 7.37 34.945.52 553.071.93 3.35 Perfluormethane Perfluorethane [kg] [kg] 2.637. The comparison with renewable energy technologies shows a likewise expected result: diesel based hybrid systems result in more GHG emissions than do SHS and biogas plants due to the application of the diesel generator.44E-07 1.27 42.27 3.879.83E-07 4.53E-06 1. which applies 82.000 40.16E-06 2.7% of hydropower for electricity generation. the result .98E-06 8.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica Figure B.75 54.05E-08 1.32 0.38 0.11E-02 5.165. 60.887.52E-07 1.80E-03 4.00 3.56 29.340.000 10.36 46.51 10.53 54.04 6. The comparison with diesel genset shows the expected result: the application of hybrid systems result in less GHG emissions due to the fact that the diesel generator accounts for just 80% of the electricity production.50 0.000 30.000 20.23 234. The comparison of hybrid systems with grid-based electrification shows expected results for South Africa and China.815.969.710.16 12.24 2.593.707.677.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 80 Table B.57 166.000 Greenhouse Gases [kg CO2-Equivalents] 50.63 CO2 [kg] 17. which can be explained with the high share of coal in electricity production.31 1.43 40.65E-03 7.201.63 2.38E-06 6.1 Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Option [kg] PV/ Diesel Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China CO2Equivalents [kg] 18.43 13.47E-07 8.35E-06 6.

SO2-Equivalents aggregate the different air pollutants due to their acidification potential. Air Pollutants The following tables show the amount of air pollutants attributable to the different electrification scenarios.2 GEMIS Results: Methane Emissions CH4 emissions. have a comparatively high greenhouse potential and therefore significantly contribute to the aggregated CO2Equivalents. Secondly. the Brazilian grid results in similar GHG emissions as do PV/Diesel systems. . the application of hydroelectric power plants results in a high degree of CH4 emissions as shows figure B. This has two main reasons: Firstly. the diesel generator applied in the model here does not apply emission reduction measures as catalytic converters. although from their total amount fewer than CO2 emissions. 600 Methance Emissions [kg] 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Figure B.2.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 81 seems surprising in the first instance.

18E-07 3.00 0.26E-07 -1.49E-10 2.08 0.56E-05 5.21E-06 3. .17E-12 8.15 0.52E-04 PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil 5.62E-08 1.35E-06 2.97E-05 1.51E-08 1.07E-06 1.97 4.86E-06 1.08 0.74E-05 6.89E-05 South Africa 8.76 6.40 0.22 -6.30E-06 1.38E-08 -1.78 27.02E-05 1.91 0.04 40.04E-05 1.06 168.87E-06 1.41 NMVOC [kg] 3.35E-05 2.31E-04 2.30 222.36 197.02 0.89E-05 4.61 4.73 SO2 [kg] 53.03E-04 4.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 82 Table B.20 77.97E-05 2.19E-09 4.12E-05 1.03 3.25 HF [kg] 0.56E-05 4.04 772.2 Air Pollutants Option PV/ Diesel Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China 9.18E-05 1.46E-10 1.04E-07 7.54 161.85 0.66E-07 These figures are illustrated with the following graphs.49E-06 3.28E-03 Wind/ Diesel 3.43E-05 1.01 2.91E-06 2.17 1.01 0.69 25.08 0.15E-09 -4.53E-05 8.75E-09 6.13E-08 1.79 395.56 14.53 116.42E-05 6.46E-05 1.71 1.04E-05 5.18E-05 3.66 18.24E-08 1.76E-06 6.33E-06 2.13 35.89E-06 4.44E-09 4.07 1.61 134.88 3.83 799.04E-04 3.39E-04 6.47E-05 4.16E-05 4.64E-10 2.48E-06 -1.37 2.86 4.69E-05 9.67E-05 1.42E-10 1.67 47.74 0.48 43.87E-11 SO2Equivalent [kg] 172.88 12.40 H2 S [kg] -1.94E-10 1.03 CO [kg] 51.65E-08 2.50 0.45 52.92E-08 6.97E-04 8.51 13.00 155.47 0.62 390.89E-05 6.77E-10 1.12 5.00E-06 2.55E-05 1.06 186.71 NOx [kg] 169.73E-06 5.23E-05 1.17E-04 3.14 3.66 0.85 297.10 1.33 1.10E-06 3.01 21.03 Dust [kg] 44.33E-05 9.76E-04 1.24E-08 Option PV/ Diesel NH3 [kg] As [kg] Cd [kg] Cr [kg] Hg [kg] Ni [kg] Pb [kg] PCDD/F [kg] 1.06 156.01 0.57E-04 China 5.95 HCl [kg] 0.22 32.27E-05 4.32E-06 5.86 215.22 246.29 16.79E-04 8.05E-06 1.22 0.11E-06 2.24E-04 1.12 0.

again the expected result is obtained. however. the amount of air pollutants is significantly Figure B. the amount of air pollutants in a country like Brazil. The high amount of air pollutants in the biogas system here results mainly from SO2 from sulphur in the fuel. the higher the share of coal in electricity production and the worse the flue gas cleaning in these countries. NOx. the better the comparative performance of hybrid system.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 83 800 Air Pollutants [kg SO2-Equivalents] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica The comparison of the different scenarios shows that hybrid systems are likely to result in few emissions of air pollutants. The comparison with biogas systems. For a better overview on the amount of the main air pollutants SO2. especially PV/Wind systems. In comparison with grid-based electrification. The comparison with SHS shows that diesel-based hybrid systems result in higher emissions of air pollutants. For PV/Wind systems. However. Compared to diesel gensets. the following figure is meant to provide an overview. is lower. reveals similar or less air pollutants from hybrid systems. the total amount is similar. dust and CO. applying a high share of hydroelectric power. while the conventional grid emits mainly SO2 from coal combustion. Due to fewer operational time of the diesel generator in hybrid systems. It illustrates that main pollutants in diesel systems are NOx.3 GEMIS Results: Air Pollutants lower than for diesel mini-grids. .

0 58.369.0 210.3 56.46 It is therefore a measure to describe the extent to which renewable and non-renewable energy resources are consumed in order to provide electricity.4 54.602.3 209.4 Selected Air Pollutants Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) The Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) in kWh is a measure for the whole effort on energy resources (primary energy) for the provision of products or services.4 350.2 1.4 123.053.3 PV/Diesel Wind/Diesel PV/Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China These figures are illustrated with the following graphs.1 109.742.012. both during operation and for the construction of the power plant.3 82. 46 Source: GEMIS .0 118.6 68.717.3 0.975.032.747.6 8.1 Renewable Resources [kWh] 39.7 64.0 60.3 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy) Option Total CED [kWh] 103.015.537.370.0 Others [kWh] 2. The following table shows the results of the GEMIS calculations.2 129.6 48.9 19.645.1 10.4 Non-Renewable Resources [kWh] 62.600. Table B.3 59.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 800 Selected Air Pollutants [kg] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ Diesel Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China SO2 NOx Dust CO 84 Figure B.8 13.3 39.1 180.6 958.085.0 12.2 43.6 129.6 537.945.0 38.681.705.2 14.454.273.799.353.861. 45.

being most important for this assessment here.6 Cumulative Energy Demand According to Resources . In comparison to SHS. hybrid systems applying diesel generators are disadvantageous.5 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy) tion.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations 85 The investigation of 250. This is to the higher energy demand for higher installed capacity in PV/Wind hybrid systems.000 150. this disadvantage might well be due to the fact that larger systems of higher installed capacity are applied to provide more energy than with SHS.000 plication of hybrid systems is advanta100. In comparison to Biogas and the conventional grid of Brazil with a high share of hydropower. Just PV/Wind systems are able to compete with biogas and the grid of Brazil.000 total cumulative energy demand 200.000 CED [kWh] 200.000 geous compared to 50.000 shows that the ap150. hybrid systems are all disadvantageous. which shows not only a higher degree of renewable energy consumption by PV/Wind systems than with SHS. 250. For the case of PV/Wind hybrid systems. This idea is supported by figure B. As is proved by figure B.6 as well. but also a significantly higher degree of non-renewable energy consumption. the consumption of non-renewable resources.000 100.000 50.6 as well. is higher in these hybrid systems due to the use of the diesel generator.000 the diesel mini-grid and to the conven0 tional grid in counPV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China tries with a high Diesel Diesel Wind Africa share of coal in electricity generaFigure B.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Non-renew able Renew able Others CED [kWh] Figure B.

Due to the fact that power transport to remote villages takes place over large distances with high and medium voltage lines. which frequently occur. but in reality this is not often the case and. usually for the duration of several hours. Therefore. Since the load is not constant during these hours. This clearly shows that this effect is not negligible. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies The PV modules of SHS do not generate noise during operation and do not apply power distribution lines. However. Cushioning the noise of a diesel genset alone can as well be done by building a powerhouse.1 Ecology Indicator: Noise Pollution Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel genset-based mini-grids are commonly operating the generator during evening hours. power distribution lines cause significant noise pollution by generating a constantly buzzing noise. the noise is distributed over these large distances as well. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid The generation of electricity in centralised power plants does not result in noise in the remote villages. Moreover. resulting in a comparatively good assessment. . but also due to start-up and shut-down procedures. with longer operation time than in diesel-based hybrid systems. larger gensets producing more noise. by this resulting in a comparatively good assessment.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 86 Annex C: Analysis of Impacts C. affecting more villages than the discussed single remote one. power distribution lines of the mini-grid further contribute to noise generation. thus. The impact on noise pollution is therefore estimated to be negligible. Just as for hybrid systems. Due to this reason the impact of diesel gensets on noise pollution is evaluated to be comparatively very poor. which as well can be cushioned. For power distribution lines the same considerations apply as above. the generator produces noise not only through operation. However. are necessary in order to provide the same amount of electricity as with hybrid systems. resulting in a comparatively very good evaluation. which could create noise. Biogas plants for electrification create noise through the operation of the biogas-generator. cannot be taken in consideration for the assessment here. the impact on noise pollution created by biogas-systems is estimated to be low. for the single remote village discussed here the impact on noise pollution is estimated to be low due to the fact that electricity generation does not take place in the village itself.

2000). Furthermore.. it is also reported that people are often dissatisfied with the unreliable and intermittent energy provision with diesel gensets (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. Furthermore.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 87 C. is not seen as guaranteed in dealing with human and animal excrements. The GTZ reports obstacles arising from religious and/or social taboos (GTZ. Especially the work connected to running a biogas system can be prohibited as well. 2003). 1999a). a preference towards these technologies can sometimes even be observed. can give to rural population. Since word-of-mouth . no major obstacles resulting from cultural incompatibilities have been reported yet. can supply electricity for 24 hours. Most people in rural areas are familiar of the possibilities and benefits of gridbased electrification. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid The extension of the conventional grid is usually the option being preferred the most by rural population. open to solutions for this. This effect is likely to be stronger than in hybrid systems. biogas systems are estimated to be in many cases significantly less compatible to cultural issues than hybrid systems. which. In an overall result. Experiences show that only the advertisement of SHS as pre-electrification before being connected to the grid brings the necessary acceptance among rural population (Sauer. Thus. thus. if functioning well. diesel gensets are still likely to face hardly any cultural obstacles or problems with acceptance than hybrid systems due to their high degree of publicity. therefore performing comparatively very poor. However. SHS suffer from the same problem of acceptance due to intermittent supply as do diesel gensets. All in all. especially in winter (GTZ. This is not only due to the high operational costs for diesel gensets. The fact that energy provision is very limited and does not satisfy all needs and expectations. the feeling of being electrified in second class manner. which is valued very high in some religions. and are.. so that hybrid systems are likely to face less cultural obstacles than do SHS. the use of the produced gas for the preparation of food and the use of the slurry as fertiliser is sometimes hindered on cultural grounds. because they have relatives or friends in cities. Biogas systems have been found to be the system probably facing most cultural obstacles. However. SHS are assessed to perform comparatively poor with regard to cultural compatibility and acceptance. but also to the hard and tiring work connected to filling the tank of a generator. but probably to a higher degree since SHS is a new technology being unknown to population. Religious taboos are experienced to arise for example from the fact that cleanliness. H. people are likely to have a high degree of confidence towards this technology. As a result.2 Socio-Economic Issues Indicator: Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel gensets are one of the most common and well-known ways to address the problem of electrification of remote areas. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies For SHS. in regions where renewable energies like photovoltaic and wind have already been applied. 2000). who is well aware of possibilities of grid-based electrification. resulting in a comparatively very good performance.

this effect does not apply. Comparatively high investments make this technology more affordable to well-situated families. 2003 . that investment costs for SHS are comparatively high. the extension of the conventional grid to remote villages is considered as “real electrification” and will most likely be welcomed by rural population. SHS are independent from fuel and are not likely to become matter of political power demonstrations since they belong to the consumers themselves. L. Project developers even describe experiences where rural population refused to be electrified with renewable energy technologies because of their fear that the conventional grid is then likely not to be extended to their region. since costs for hybrid systems are high as well. SHS can be assessed to be more beneficial towards supply equity. Biogas systems generally seem to offer a good possibility for independent and fair power supply. the GTZ notes the possibility of a further accentuation of existing differences in income and property holdings (GTZ.and middle-income rural families (Cabraal.. 1999b). M. thus. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies SHS offer a solution for electrification being largely independent from existing power structures. Fraunhofer ISE – Club for Rural Electrification. and electrification with diesel gensets has then usually not been implemented in an elaborated way. so that it is decided here to assess hybrid systems and diesel gensets as equally with regard to supply equity. and poor farmers are likely to be coerced to deliver their manure to the landlord or more prosperous farmers. the same problem might apply as for hybrid systems that matters of political power or 47 Personal Comment given by Dirk-Uwe Sauer. at Intersolar fair. It is. SHS are significantly advantageous compared to hybrid systems and other decentralised electrification measures: because SHS provide electricity to individual households. Schaeffer. the degree of cultural compatibility and acceptance of grid extension is assessed to be comparatively very good. A. they can be considered as completely independent from power structures even within rural communities. In this respect. However. the application of hybrid systems (and any other technology) has the potential to do so and to take account of matters of supply equity. Meanwhile. nevertheless. The World Bank states that investment costs are in the order of magnitude of a year’s income for low. 1996). however. attenuates this effect. However. however. Nevertheless. Indicator: Degree of Supply Equity Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel-based mini-grids often do already exist in developing countries. hybrid systems are even more expensive.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 88 propaganda is a common cultural habit in developing countries.. For a biogas plant on community level. From a financial perspective. The fact. Once constructed. preferred to remain for a couple of years without electrification in order to preserve the chances for grid extension.. either free of charge or at least cheaply.47 For this reason. Cosgrove-Davies. diesel gensets are relatively expensive with regard to total costs. June 28th. being independent from fossil resources.

to some degree have the same problem as diesel gensets: if insolation (or diesel in the case of diesel gensets) is there. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid It is a well-known fact that the conventional grid can become a matter of political power on a national level. 1999). This does not result in the same effect on capacity building or social empowerment than with hybrid systems.J. which is obviously due to natural limitations and fluctuations of renewable energy resources. however. The question whether or not to extend the conventional grid to certain rural areas is often a matter of political influence and preference as well. but to a lesser degree since back-up with a diesel genset weakens the effect. 2000). Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies Experiences with PV systems in general and SHS in particular show that the link between energy consumption and insolation is usually understood (Nieuwenhout. This is not the case with diesel gensets. resulting in a comparatively poor performance of grid extension in this respect. the effect on capacity building of SHS is here evaluated to be lower. Indicator: Potential for Participation and Empowerment Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel gensets... Still.. then no electricity can be used. From a financial perspective.D. and that people adapt energy consumption to seasonal patterns with regard to insolation (Hammamami. Many developing countries have experienced demonstrations of political power on the issue of energy. However. The consumer should not only be directly involved in the planning processes. if not.. by this offer potential for understanding of the limited nature of energy. N. where electricity is simply not available during the day.. Since grid extension to remote rural areas requires enormous investment. F. the potential for capacity building and increasing empowerment is higher for hybrid systems due to the fact that consumers in hybrid systems need to adapt to certain regulations. A. M. it is decided here to assess hybrid systems as preferential to grid extension with regard to supply equity. This shows the great potential this technology offers towards capacity building and empowerment. electricity is available. This effect. a general statement cannot be given. but also needs to directly participate in the production of energy and the fertiliser. Ounalli. et al. . SHS. which make decentralised rural electrification highly advantageous with regard to supply equity. due to lower costs for biogas systems. where people are to understand the limited nature of energy in order to make electricity available to everybody to the same extent. and the responsibility for this is left to the individual consumer. resulting in a comparatively very good assessment. which cannot be run all day.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 89 mismanagement of the electrification committee can result in unequal supply. applies to hybrid systems as well. biogas plants are seen as preferential with regard to supply equity compared to hybrid systems.. Therefore. and therefore the effect on capacity building is here evaluated to be higher than for hybrid systems. but only during some hours in the evening. Njaimi. et al. Biogas systems involve a lot of work to be done by the consumer himself.

et al. Schaeffer. The potential of SHS for economic development is therefore rated to be considerably lower than for hybrid systems. in some cases up to 20%. Experiences show that rural population reverts to existing diesel gensets in the village for productive purposes or to the use of petroleum for further lighting (Preiser.J. and the costs for expanding capacity are considerably high (Cabraal. B. one should not ignore the fact of improved yields attributable to biogas systems.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 90 Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid The extension of the conventional grid is not likely to improve understanding about the limited availability of electricity. Due to the latter fact. 2000). D. 2000b). Cosgrove-Davies. 2000). Guidi. average increases of yields between 6 to 10%. diesel gensets are comparable to grid connection. have been reported (GTZ. An important constraint on the potential for economic development is the fact that diesel gensets are less suitable to be operated the whole day. As a result of the use of the by-product. which was mentioned as potential for income generation. However. a biofertiliser. 1996). since operation costs are high. G. the potential for economic development with diesel gensets is estimated to be lower than with hybrid systems. K. F. SHS services are limited.. SHS were found to be a tourist attraction in Nepal. offering a high degree of flexibility for the villages with effectively no technical constraints to be made on the use of appliances (ESMAP. The effect is therefore evaluated to be significantly lower than for hybrid systems.D..... et al. but there was just little evidence found for the potential of SHS to generate income (Nieuwenhout. M. The potential for economic development of biogas systems depends on the size of the system and is therefore a matter of the pre-investment planning process. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies The potential for economic development of SHS has been matter of intensive research. 2000): lighting provides the possibility of extended commercial activities in the evening.. Best. 1999b). When discussing the economic development potential. The following aspects are mentioned (Campen.. A. resulting in a comparatively very poor potential of SHS for economic development. The commonly installed capacities are not sufficient to be used for productive purposes by installing electrical machines. resulting in the assessment of a comparatively very poor potential for participation and empowerment.. and energy supply is open to any kind of use with limitation just through pricing. Energy is not generated on site to improve people’s understanding. An extension of an existing system can be done by erecting new tanks and biogas generators if enough substrate is available and financial feasibility is given. . Indicator: Potential for Economic Development Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets From a technical point of view. L..

2003). and related maintenance work is carried out – if at all . et al. which are likely to experience a substantial load-growth after electrification. the operator or family members. However. sales. In China it was experienced that every district applying biogas erected its own enterprises for the production of the individual parts of the biogas plant (GTZ. are likely to result in further employment effects as well.. 2000). the potential for economic development given by the conventional grid can be considered to be higher than for hybrid systems.J. Production. it should not be overseen that for grid connection a minimum threshold level of electricity demand as well as certain load densities are essential in order to achieve economies of scale (Cabraal. the potential for economic development through biogas systems seems lower than with hybrid systems. to sell their goods (Nieuwenhout. already the construction phase is likely to encourage local manufacturing of building materials and accessories. As for all energy technologies.. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies As with diesel gensets. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid For villages. however. the effect of enhanced economic activities is likely to occur. especially of those activities taking place in evenings since this is the time when diesel-based mini-grids likely operate. Schaeffer. These activities are mostly carried out by family members of the operator and are often neglected (GTZ. is reduced by the fact that the application of SHS is likely to have negative influence on the possibility of kerosene dealers. F.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 91 However.. Indicator: Employment Effects Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets The use of diesel gensets for electrification is likely to result in lower employment effects as in the case of hybrid systems. since it is limited by the availability of the substrate. Since SHS systems just provide potential for lighting. Direct effects on employment related to operation and maintenance of diesel gensets can be evaluated to be low. 1996). M. . but not for electrification of machines for handicraft businesses. employment effects by enhanced commercial activities during the evenings are likely to occur through SHS. This effect. Since building material for biogas plants is less sophisticated than for example for photovoltaic modules. Biogas systems provide potential for employment both in a long-term and short-term perspective. the impact of diesel gensets on overall employment is valued to be lower than with hybrid systems. while hybrid systems depend on the unlimited resources wind and/or sun. 1999b). Generally. the application of diesel gensets is not very labour intensive. Cosgrove-Davies. it is expected here that SHS are likely to result in lower employment effects than hybrid systems. A.. service and maintenance of PV systems. For this reason.. the extension of the conventional grid normally offers a maximum degree of flexibility to accommodate increasing demand without supply constraints. as outlined above. L. who are the major competitor of SHS for lighting.D. The main restriction given is quite often the ability of the customers to pay for the energy service.

diesel gensets generally can be applied as well. The extension of the conventional grid hardly gives rise to job opportunities related to production. This positive effect can be reduced if kerosene lamps and candles are applied additionally in case lighting is not sufficient. the likelihood to create job opportunities is here estimated to be higher than for hybrid systems. which can be attributed to electrification. For the electrification of health clinics. The fermentation process inside the tank significantly reduces the initial pathogenic capacity of the animal and human excrements.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 92 When applying biogas systems on a community level. since skilled craftsmen are needed as permanent staff for the plant (GTZ. biogas systems have a special positive side effect by improving sanitary conditions for the plant owners or even the villages. sales or maintenance of energy generating technologies. the fact that grid-based electrification offers higher potential for commercial activities than hybrid systems is lowered by the lack of job opportunities related to the energy provision itself. handicraft enterprises get the opportunity to use as many appliances as they need and can finance. Electrification of rural health clinics with SHS is unlikely. and biogas slurry does not attract important causes for contagious diseases as flies and other insects (GTZ. the impact on improved human health is lower than with hybrid systems. direct employment effects are likely not to occur. no corrosive gases are emitted. SHS are usually not designed to support appliances like refrigerators or even X-ray equipment. However. 1999b). In comparison to hybrid systems. For this reason the positive impact on human health is here considered to be lower than with hybrid systems. Commercial activities using electricity can take place at any time of the day. . The positive effect on human health is thus higher than with hybrid systems. Due to the fact that biogas systems are less sophisticated and that experiences proof immediate effects on employment due to their application. 1999b). Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies During operation of SHS. and since household chores can be dealt with in the evenings due to lighting. families have more time during the day to follow commercial activities as farming or animal husbandry. Thus. and both are evaluated to have a comparatively good effect on employment opportunities. This leads to the estimation that no preference is made towards one of these scenarios. but do not produce electricity in the same reliable and constant manner as do hybrid systems. Indicator: Impacts on Health Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets For the use of diesel gensets the same argument concerning corrosive gases applies as outlined for the hybrid systems. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid The extension of the conventional grid is certainly the possibility offering the highest potential to create all such employment opportunities. further employment effects for operation and maintenance of the plants can be expected. Besides the potential general impacts of electrification on human health.

3 Economic Issues Indicator: Investment Costs per kW Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel gensets commonly require low initial investment. the main problems of diesel gensets are rather the high operation costs and the overall low lifetime.57 US$/W 0. 1998) any (Kininger.. This does not take place close to the remote villages and therefore does not result in immediate health problems.33 US$/W 50 Bulitai (Inner Mongolia) (GTZ.1. However. it is decided here not to give a preference to grid extension or hybrid systems with regard to the impacts on human health and both are considered to have a comparatively good potential to improve human health situation.3 – 2.. W.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 93 Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid The extension of the conventional grid to remote areas does not result in emissions from the electricity generating process in the village itself. F. Thus. CO or SO2 are emitted. Shen. This positive assessment. J.. the conventional grid is undoubtedly able to support electricity demand from rural health clinics. is worsened in countries where for example the share of coal for electricity generation is high.10 – 1. high amounts of i. some data could be collected and is presented in Table C...20 US$/W 5 – 20 Diesel 2.1: Initial Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets System Investment costs Capacity [kW] Location/Source Remarks 0.29 €/W 5 (Wuppertal Institute. Wallace. 2002) . Since flue gas cleaning in these power plants is usually not elaborated well. B.5 Inner Mongolia (Byrne.45 – 0.5 €/W 0. 2002) 1. But after-effects as acid rain have severe impacts on human health. Table C. Moreover. 2000) Second hand generators of private service providers 0. 2003) Bangladesh (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. however. C.e. CO2.

resulting in a comparatively good assessment of investment costs.J. the extension of the conventional grid is just economically feasible. but are generally comparatively high: depending on the size of the module and the frame conditions of the respective countries. F. 1999b). Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid As in all of the above cases. Cosgrove-Davies. 1996). Schaeffer.. A. and can be up to 20. 2000).Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 94 The cost analysis here revealed specific investment costs for diesel gensets of P   345. could not be supported. the World Bank estimated in 1996 that prices for SHS are typically in the range of 7 – 26 US$/Wp (Cabraal. 1996). 1999b). The same study furthermore concluded that the prevailing view that costs for PV hardware are likely to decrease. with 250 – 400 €/ m3 for the digester. which is not surprising with regard to the fact that PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems apply diesel gensets as well. costs for extension of the conventional grid vary widely not only among. however. Problems associated with grid extension in rural areas are lower load densities in rural areas. biogas plants. Due to their simplicity. A. the initial investment is as well significantly higher than for diesel gensets. the construction of power distribution lines account for 80 to 90% of the overall investment.... but also within countries. For the evaluation. For PV/Wind systems. M...28 €/W in the case of a 5 kW kW   genset or 0. A recent Dutch study concluded that prices are typically in the range of 10 – 22 US$/Wp (Nieuwenhout.. Total costs of biogas plants. Cosgrove-Davies. Observed price reductions are stated to be related to decreases in taxes and duties rather than to a decrease of hardware costs. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies The initial investment costs for SHS vary significantly from country to country. et al. it can be stated that SHS can require significantly higher investments per Watt than hybrid systems.48 Compared to the figures for hybrid systems. According to the World Bank..000 US$ per kilometre (ESMAP. 2003) gives 2. 2000b). resulting in the assessment of comparatively very poor performance with regard to investment costs. including all installations but not including land. Therefore. M. Biogas plants usually require high investment as well.0394 ×  [€/kW]. if 48 P = Installed Capacity in kW .16 €/W for a 20 kW diesel genset. L.5 – 4 €/W as a reference point for specific investment costs. are estimated to be 50 – 75 US$ per m3 capacity in (GTZ. Schaeffer. An appraisal in (ATB. lower capacity utilisation rates. and often higher energy losses (Cabraal. with the main share of the costs needed for the digester. L. A reduction of up to 15% for labour wages can be achieved (GTZ. the initial investment for diesel gensets is therefore significantly lower. Therefore.63 × exp − 0. can be constructed with a high share of user’s involvement.D. and costs vary strongly between different plant types and sizes. investment cost for biogas plants can be evaluated to be lower than for hybrid systems. meaning for example 0. Additional costs result from the application of the biogas generator.

and is shown in Table C.. Shen. 1998) Source A direct comparison of hybrid systems with diesel gensets.76-0.20 to US$ 0. Schaeffer. 2000). with a median cost of about US$ 520 per connection.3. the experiences with diesel genset are presented in Table C.. 1996.. and the efficiency of operation. M.60 per kWh (ESMAP. 2000b). however. . 2001). For the case of a remote village. From a perspective of the local consumer.. 2000b): size of the generator. A. For the case of Inner Mongolia. Main determinant for the resulting connection cost is the average number of consumers per kilometre of line (ESMAP. a considerable number of households is to be connected to the grid.80 US$/kWh 1. which is still lower than for hybrid systems. should be performed on the basis of the same capacity installed and with the same electricity output. 49 Levelized costs based on field analysis of battery’s lifetime.. 2002).56 US$/kWh 0. Table C. Indicator: Electricity Generating Costs Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets The costs for electricity generation with mini-grids based on diesel gensets vary depending mainly on the following factors (ESMAP. This was done by Wuppertal Institute in (Wuppertal Institute.2. The World Bank estimates that costs for electricity generation with such systems typically range from US $0.16-1. the connection cost to the grid is of major importance. number of consumers. J..2: Electricity Generating Costs for Diesel Gensets Diesel Genset (non-continuous service) 0.800 per connection.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 95 - the village is situated close to the next medium-voltage line of the conventional grid. and the distance between single households in the village is low (household density) (Cabraal. L. J. W. and: Baur. 2003) (Byrne.. and a review of the World Bank in 1990 showed that these costs typically range from US$ 230-US$ 1.27 US$/kWh49 Diesel Genset (continuous service) (GTZ. B. The operational costs for diesel gensets are usually considerably high. Wallace. consumption per individual consumer. hybrid systems can be evaluated to be less costly than grid extension. Cosgrove-Davies.

.3 shows the high dependency on the fuel price.825 22.5 € 1. Here. costs do not decrease with more households applying SHS. However. F.740 Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 0. data based on experiences could not be obtained. a general statement cannot be given for PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel hybrid systems. 1999b). B. et al..J. in the evaluation preference is given to diesel gensets due the data of the World Bank. For the application of biogas systems. these hybrid systems can compete. 1999a).J. especially if 24-hours electrification is required. photovoltaic systems are likely to become the least cost option (Nieuwenhout. 2000). 1998)... PV/Wind household systems were experienced to be as low as 0. the aspect of costs for electricity generation cannot be seen independent from the fact that the production of bio-fertiliser and a correspondent observed increase of yields generates income (GTZ.37 US$/kWh (Byrne.70 €/kWh Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 1.51 €/kWh 1..D. F. Wallace.450 23. if no subsidies are provided by the respective countries. Shen. W.. 2000). In countries where fuel is subsidised. Whether additional costs occur is matter of further use of appliances: since SHS have limited capacity and extension is comparatively expensive.45 €/kWh 1. ratio 4:1 Investment costs in € 11. In any case.D. Generally. the cost analysis of electricity generating costs reveals that SHS is likely to result in lower costs than hybrid village systems. making the construction of mini-grids more attractive for villages with several households demanding electrification. J.25 kWh of electricity on a sunny day.67 –0.. However. diesel-based hybrid systems are likely not to be competitive. thus lowering overall system costs. Experiences in Inner Mongolia reveal costs of 0. For a common 50 Wp SHS. Nevertheless. the electricity generating costs are approximately 1 US$/kWh (BMZ. 1998).. 1999).3: Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices Capacity: 5 kW Electricity Output: 2190 kWh/a Diesel Genset PV/Diesel.20 .. et al.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 96 Table C. ratio 4:1 Wind/Diesel. J. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies In case smaller loads are required.75 € 1. B. However. W. Shen. The comparison in Table C.59 €/kWh Comparing these figures for hybrid systems and diesel gensets. Wallace.. these costs are high and make the application of SHS difficult for electrification of the poorest. in the case of hybrid household systems. auxiliary energy sources as diesel gensets might be applied and generate additional costs (Nieuwenhout.15 – 0.84 €/kWh 1. delivering around 0.73 US$/kWh (Byrne. Experiences of GTZ show that biogas programmes are usually less costly than similar strategies accounting both for energy and the production or use of fertilisers and being based on fossil resources (GTZ. this situation might be considerably different as the above example of Inner Mongolia proves. An appraisal of the Wuppertal Institute results in electricity generating costs of 0.

.. F. 2000). et al.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 97 Euro/kWh for biogas plants (Wuppertal Institute. again. grid extension offers the least costly option for electricity generation in cases where a medium voltage line serving a number of centres with larger loads passes the respective community nearby (ESMAP. In case of system breakdowns. 1996).. Cosgrove-Davies. from a perspective of maintenance the application of hybrid systems seems to be less favourable than diesel gensets..D. A. M.. but a single technician can serve maintenance needs for a large number of customers (Cabraal. As a conclusion it is decided here to value the performance of biogas systems with regard to electricity prices significantly better than for hybrid systems. Experiences also show severe problems with poor quality contaminated fuel. Cosgrove-Davies.. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid A general statement on electricity generating costs from the conventional grid cannot be given since costs vary strongly between different countries and grid characteristics. and they can even further decline with increasing consumption.. L. resulting in considerable effort for cleaning (Nieuwenhout. Although the back-up diesel generator in hybrid systems is likely to be strained less than in the case of a diesel genset-based mini-grid. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies SHS can partly be maintained by users themselves. Schaeffer. 1996).. M. a rule of thumb from the Dominican Republic states that systems should not be installed more than 50 km away from the next service centre (Cabraal. M. Schaeffer. the additional requirement for the maintenance of the renewable energy generator and the other components as batteries and charge controllers give preference to the diesel genset. 2000b). 2000). According to the World Bank.. Service centres are needed as well. A common occurrence is that a doubling of consumption per household over a time frame of ten years leads in many places to a decline of costs per kWh of about 40% (ESMAP.. A problematic experience with the education of technicians was observed in Indonesia in applying SHS: technicians who were educated within the context of the project left the villages . L. especially simple maintenance functions as cleaning of the PV arrays can be carried out individually. Schaeffer. Indicator: Maintenance Requirements Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets The application of diesel gensets in remotely located mini-grids has been facing long-standing maintenance problems. Even though the technology itself has been known for years. then costs and tariffs can be relatively low. This. Still. as the World Bank describes. as the example of Bangladesh proofs (Barkat. 2000a).. just few households can carry out this maintenance by themselves over a long period of time (Cabraal. 2002). 2001). et al.. not every PV user owns the required auxiliary means as for example a ladder for cleaning the PV array. Cosgrove-Davies. A. A. Nevertheless. A. If this is the case. spare parts are difficult to purchase due to the remoteness of the villages (ESMAP.. 1996). However. operators often lack knowledge about these systems. Moreover. has not to be taken for granted since costs for biogas plants vary strongly. 2002)..J. L. which is available on rural markets (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. Technicians are needed. electricity generating costs are here valued to be significantly lower for grid extension than for hybrid systems.

which are taken for electrification. but requires help from experts even in developed countries. Assuming that markets for renewable energy technologies are likely to develop. . This lead to a lack of maintenance and undermined the whole effort for setting up a maintenance structure. where fuel consumption is reduced to roughly 20% of the figures for diesel-based mini-grids. Regular charging with substrate is essential. the result is then a slight preference for hybrid systems. especially in African countries. etc. resulting in comparatively very poor performance of biogas plants with regard to maintenance. Biogas systems require regular attendance and maintenance. but taking into account the current non-existence. Diesel gensets are also heavily dependent on the import of fuel. 2003. Because in the case of decentralised electrification with hybrid systems. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. GTZ..Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 98 and searched for better paid jobs in cities (Preiser.. very often it is just old motors from cars. 2003. a return to normal levels takes up to 10 days (GTZ. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th.50 For this reason. 1999a). 2000). et al. Thus. K. the conventional grid is assessed to perform comparatively good with regard to maintenance. GTZ. This dependency is of course much higher than for hybrid systems. resulting in longer periods of shortages. Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. the relatively higher complexity of hybrid systems compared to SHS makes the application of SHS advantageous from the point of view of maintenance. but in case it is forgotten. Therefore. experts from GTZ have experienced maintenance as a major issue with biogas plants. making the performance of diesel gensets comparatively poor with regard to this indicator. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid System breakdowns and shortages in power supply are likely to occur due to often unreliable conventional grids in developing countries. local technicians need to be trained and maintenance centres need to be erected. Indicator: Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Diesel gensets can usually be only produced in larger countries as China. If once the production of biogas is reduced. Moreover. maintenance will be carried out slowly. which can be a problem especially in tropic countries where climate dictates agricultural activities. the result of decreasing gas production is observed with significant time lag. India. Maintenance usually cannot be carried out by the customers themselves or local technicians. Although the problem of batteries and charge controllers applies to SHS as well. which usually have a pool of experts or technicians for this purpose. the comparative assessment results in a preference for grid extension. Maintenance of the conventional grid is to be carried out by a central public or private utility.51 and therefore hybrid systems are evaluated to be less problematic from a point of view of maintenance. It is therefore likely that due to the remoteness of the here considered villages. 50 51 Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. the cause of problems related to the micro-organisms inside the tank cannot be identified by users themselves.

.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 99 Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies SHS offer to a large extent the possibility of independence from the import of fossil resources as oil or coal. A. Firstly. the lifetime of a conventional diesel genset is about 4 years and can become as low as 1.. Countries as Brazil. obviously are less dependent on energy import than the major part of the developing countries. Thus.5 years (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. L. Biogas systems provide a comparatively high potential for independence in electricity generation. the World Bank in 1996 stated high transaction costs in purchase and servicing for SHS due to limited market structures (Cabraal. since it was experienced and is assumed here that markets for PV are likely to develop. L. 2000). M. Schaeffer. the degree of import dependency is difficult to assess for developing countries in general. 1999a). Therefore preference is given to SHS with regard to import dependency since hybrid systems applying diesel gensets normally still rely on diesel imports. Cosgrove-Davies. For the application of SHS in developing countries. resulting in a comparatively good performance of SHS with regard to this indicator. the degree of supply security is here estimated to be lower than with hybrid due to the following aspects: as already described. The degree of import independence and regional self-supply is therefore rated to be significantly higher with biogas systems compared to hybrid systems. 1996)... The additional effect of the production of bio-fertiliser can even lower the need for import of mineral fertilisers. Cosgrove-Davies.. diesel gensets provide limited energy supply . Although diesel gensets offer a proven and reliable technology for rural electrification. the result of this assessment is the same due to the fact that markets both for PV and for wind generators need to be developed before local production becomes reasonable. M. this is not taken in consideration. 1996). ingredients for the operation of the plants are locally available. This effect was evaluated to be in the range of 30-35% by Indian experts (GTZ. local production of needed materials and components and respective markets can rather easily be developed. Indicator: Supply Security Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets Electricity provision with diesel-based mini-grids is limited. the gensets usually operate 4-12 hours in the evenings (Cabraal. resulting in a comparatively very good assessment of biogas plants with regard to this indicator. Schaeffer. This is due to the fact that the degree of regional self-supply is higher for decentralised electrification solutions than with the conventional grid. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid On a country level. A. generating a high share of its electricity with hydropower. the experience shows that due to the uncomplex nature of the systems. Furthermore. However. the comparative assessment reveals a poor performance of grid extension with regard to this indicator. which are dependent on fuel imports to a large extent.. For the case of PV/Wind systems.. The degree of import independence is here evaluated to be lower than for hybrid systems.

reductions and fluctuations in voltage can become so severe that the use of appliances is connected with the risk of damages for the customer (ESMAP. The reason for this is on the one hand non-continuous energy provision.J. others report 100% failures. being average in the comparative assessment here. 1999a). diesel gensets are valued as average with regard to supply security. F.D. 2000).J. However. For the comparative assessment here.. the problem of biogas plants. The same study also reveals that larger SHS systems are working more reliable since deep discharge of batteries occurs less frequently in larger systems (Nieuwenhout. in many regions in developing countries the quality of grid supply is rather low. On the other hand. However. . Information concerning reliability of SHS is very limited and does not give a consistent picture. and with system breakdowns without electricity supply during longer periods of unfavourable weather conditions. SHS are seen as average with regard to supply security. Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies Security supply with SHS is certainly to be estimated as lower than with hybrid systems. it has to be considered that markets and maintenance structures for renewable energy have not yet emerged in most developing countries. However.. Moreover. as was mentioned in the context of maintenance requirements already.. no electricity can be generated at all For the comparative assessment here. It can generally be stated that biogas plants nowadays are a mature technology (Biogas. For biogas plants no information on the reliability of the systems could be obtained. 2000). implying that in case of breakdowns. On the other hand. lies in the fact that once the system is down.D. limiting electricity provision to just several hours during the day. F. maintenance or repair is likely to take a long time. in cases of system breakdowns no back-up with other energy sources can stabilise electricity generation if no diesel genset is available. 2000b).. Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid From the extension of the conventional grid one can usually expect a reliable full-time coverage of electricity demand. being average in the comparative assessment here. the reactivation can take several days and needs the involvement of experts in case problems with the tank occur. It is therefore assessed that biogas systems offer a lower degree of security on energy supply. et al. et al. 2000b). This certainly reduces the otherwise significant advantage of hybrid systems compared to grid extension concerning supply security and results in an evaluation of just better performance. While some projects report all SHS systems as being operative. a recent survey estimates that roughly three-quarters of the SHS systems operate relatively well (Nieuwenhout.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts 100 - in case of breakdowns. with breakdowns in generating equipment or distribution systems and leading to intermittent availability of electricity (ESMAP. no alternative energy source is available in case of shortages of fuel.

Cables. Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th. Bopp. Table D. Support: 2. Diesel Genset 10 years. on August 14th. 4.007 × Diesel Genset: Costs = 345. Battery 5 years. 2003.0394 ×   Own calculation based on available cost data Investment   P   in [€/kW] kW  Schüco 54 Battery bank: 333 €/kWh for a 12V. 2003.Annex D: Cost Analysis 101 Annex D: Cost Analysis For the cost analysis. others: own assumption Interest Rate: 6% Miscellaneous Lifetime system components: PV modules 20 years. during a telephonme interview on August. 500Ah battery. Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th. 2003).000 € Operating Costs Manpower. Tower) For Plants ≤ 10kW: Costs = 4309 × exp − 0.5kW: 5. 56 Personal Comment given by Mr.1 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis Type of Costs PV Modules 400 €/kWp Wind Power Plants (incl.1068 × Costs/Details Source Schüco52   P  53  in [€/kW] kW  P   in [€/kW] kW  For Plants ≥ 10 kW: Costs = 2016. in Eschborn/Germany. 53 P = Installed capacity in kW. 54 Personal Comment given by Mr. the following basic assumptions were made.63 × exp − 0. 2003. the batteries are designed for a storage capacity of 2 days Inverter and Charge Controller “Sunny Island”. Puls.. former KfW staff member. GTZ. G. Assembly and Commissioning: 15% of total investment Transport: 1. Inverter and Charge Controller 10 years 52 Personal Comment given by Mr. Geis. 2003. 57 Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur.000 € Cabinet. D. 2003. Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th.000 € Local grid. Internal Wiring: 6. H. 22nd.7 × exp − 0. Maintenance and Repair: Annually 4% of total investment Cost data SMA KfW55 Schueco56 Own estimation GTZ57 Own assumption For PV and Wind: (Sauer. ... Wind generator 12 years.000 € Planning. 55 Personal Recommendation given by Mr.

80 6.00 2.51 1.39 Specific Investment Costs [€/kW] 349.2 Investment Costs for Small-Scale Wind Power Plants Name Capacity Total Investment Specific Investment Costs [€] Costs [€/kW] [kW] 0.499.00 60.90 862.68 4.5 2.68 2. 2003) Remarks Source INCLIN 600 AC 752 turbo MAJA 1000 INCLIN 1500 neo GRT 2000 INCLIN 3000 neo INCLIN 6000 neo Inventus 6 GRT 8000 AIRMAXX-10 Novatec ML10Eco Vergnet GEV10/20 Fuhrländer FL30 Vergnet GEV15/60 Lagerwej LW18 6.725.0 3.0 60.3 Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets Diesel Generator Mitsubishi MGE-1800 ROU Mitsubishi MGE-2900 ROU Capacity [kW] 1.20 3. 2003)60 58 Personal Comment given by Mr.999.324.680.60 Including 19 m tower Inventus Windpower GmbH Including 11 m tower (Heyde.802.420. The details are shown in the following tables.471. 1st.40 2.0 6.0 3.022.0 17.8 2.0 8.762.08 19.998.Annex D: Cost Analysis 102 The investment costs for wind power plants and diesel gensets are based on the costs for different plants from various manufacturers.6 0.00 1. Table D.742. 1st. 2003) Including 11 m tower Bundesverband 58 Windenergie Including 18m tower Including 27m tower Including 30m tower Including 40m tower Bundesverband 59 Windenergie Table D.199.981.84 1.40 17.980.954.38 Source (Diesel. 2003.97 3. 59 Personal Comment given by Mr.75 1.08 1.373.60 5.40 3.117.310.509.40 2.80 6.00 9.68 1. 2003. Twele during a telephone interview on September.970.00 89.80 29.67 5.8 1.48 3.490.600.970.069.751.0 20.0 30.17 1.381.165.0 10.599.94 297.0 80.0 1.17 (Heyde. .44 78.294.0 10.24 10.9 Total Investment Costs [€] 629. Twele during a telephone interview on September.

2003).00 200.51 Specific Investment Costs [€/kW] 310.000 3.116.00 300.00 0 5 10 15 P   Costs = 2016.000 2.000 500 0 0 50 100 Installed Capacity [kW] P   Costs = 4309 × exp − 0.67 1.00 0.000 0 0 5 10 15 Installed Capacity [kW] Specific Investm ent for Plants =>10kW Specific Investment [€/kW] 2.63 × exp − 0.67 279.2 6. .000 1.90114 € (September 8th.1068 ×  in [€/kW] kW   Specific Investm ent for Diesel Gensets Specific Investment [€/kW] 400.13 275.657.91 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 103 Diesel Generator Yamaha EF4000DE Yamaha YG4000D Yamaha EF5200DE Yamaha EF6600DE Yamaha EF12000DE Capacity [kW] 4 4 5.1 Specific Investment for Wind Power Plants and Diesel Gensets 60 61 Calculated Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 0.46 Source (Diesel.007 ×  in [€/kW] kW   Installed Capacity [kW] P  Costs = 345.500 2.7 × exp − 0. 2003)61 The decline in specific investment cost per kW is reflected in the following graphs.00 100.0394 × kW    in [€/kW]  Figure D. 2003).000 1.693. Specific Investm ent for Plants <=10kW Specific Investment [€kW] 6.000 4.6 12 Total Investment Costs [€] 1.431.37 251.09 224.242.51 1.90114 € (September 8th.000 5.500 1.20 2. Calculated Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 0.

000 10.Annex D: Cost Analysis 104 While the regression is rather fair in the case of diesel gensets with a regression coefficient of R2 = 0.000 6. Investment Costs [€/kW] .000 8.1 × exp − 0.200 8.0009 ×  in [€/kW]  in [€/kW] Costs = 9564. D.400 9.800 8.400 8. this is not the case for wind power plants.000 7.000 7.000 10.0027 ×  in [€/kW] kW  kW    Figure D. Regression coefficients of R2 = 0.0037 ×  in [€/kW] Costs = 11061 × exp − 0. still being relatively poor.000 0 20 40 60 80 Installed Capacity [kW] PV/Wind at 2 Days Battery 14. it was distinguished between plants of smaller capacity ≤ 10 kW and plants of higher capacity ≥ 10 kW in order to improve the accuracy of regression. With this data.000 9.7163 for bigger plants were obtained.000 8.000 0 50 100 150 11.000 0 20 40 60 80 Wind/Diesel Investment Costs [€/kW] Investment Costs [€/kW] Installed Capacity [kW] Installed Capacity [kW] P  P    Costs = 8880. PV/Diesel 9. the analysis of investment and electricity generating costs was performed.200 9.000 6.7 × exp − 0.000 0 20 40 60 80 Installed Capacity [kW] Investment Costs [€/kW] P  P    Costs = 8241.1 Investment Costs The analysis investment costs revealed the following results. this leads to the following range of investment costs.2 Specific Investment for Hybrid Systems of Different Capacities For the different village sizes as presented in Annex A.0034 × kW  kW    PV/Wind at 1 Day Battery 10.000 6.5 × exp − 0.000 9.000 8.600 8.000 8.000 12.8422. Here.6659 in the case of smaller plants and R2 = 0.

18 Investment Costs at 300 Households [€/W] 8. For the different systems and varying diesel fuel prices. Division of the annual costs by the annual electricity production leads to the specific electricity generating costs per kWh.23 8.Annex D: Cost Analysis 105 Table D.44 12. With the help of the underlying assumptions as presented on page 101.86 D. By adding the annuities of operation costs for manpower.2 Electricity Generating Costs The electricity generating costs per kWh were calculated with the help of the annuity method.05 9. the total annual costs can be calculated. repair and diesel fuel.20 10.00 9.4 Range of Investment Costs for Hybrid Systems System PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems PV/Wind Systems at 2 days battery capacity PV/Wind Systems at 1 day battery capacity Investment Costs at 30 Households [€/W] 9. the following formula was used to calculate the annuity of the investment costs of single components: a = C0 × (1 + i )n − 1 i × (1 + i ) n With a i = Annuity = Interest Rate = 6% C0 = Capital Value n = Component Lifetime The total annuity of investment is then the sum of the single annuities. the following results were obtained: .67 6. maintenance.

53 1.51 1.43 1.51 1.45 1.48 1.68 1.48 1.43 0.45 1.50 1.58 1.50 1.63 0.46 1.68 1.47 1.51 1.42 1.49 1.45 1.50 1.47 1.46 1.46 1.3 1.54 1.54 1.48 1.69 1.51 1.50 1.47 1.48 1.44 1.50 1.7 1.44 1.53 1.42 1.47 1.68 1.48 1.43 1.52 1.52 1.54 1.53 1.43 0.45 1.50 1.52 1.50 1.44 1.49 1.9 1.51 1.46 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.63 0.48 1.44 1.50 1.43 1.44 1.54 1.52 1.67 1.46 1.45 1.46 1.48 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 106 Table D.43 1.44 0.47 1.49 1.47 1.50 1.45 1.69 1.44 1.49 1.51 1.42 1.53 1.62 0.50 1.51 1.43 1.47 1.44 1.45 0.49 1.48 1.44 1.70 1.50 1.56 1.53 1.44 1.44 1.69 1.46 1.51 1.48 1.50 1.52 1.48 1.45 1.53 1.51 1.48 1.47 1.52 1.44 1.46 1.48 1.45 1.61 0.50 1.42 0.47 1.46 1.47 1.51 1.45 1.5 1.48 1.53 1.45 1.49 1.47 1.47 1.9 1.46 1.57 1.46 1.72 1.4 1.50 1.47 1.52 1.43 1.50 1.47 1.49 1.44 1.53 1.52 1.46 1.49 1.43 1.49 1.48 1.43 1.49 1.46 1.45 1.48 1.2 1.45 1.50 1.49 1.45 1.49 1.47 1.48 1.48 1.46 1.49 1.48 Table D.6 1.56 1.67 1.50 1.46 1.47 1.47 0.44 1.49 1.45 1.48 1.48 1.45 1.48 1.44 1.51 1.52 1.47 1.45 1.46 1.54 1.46 1.60 0.47 1.51 1.65 1.49 1.46 1.46 1.50 1.45 0.61 0.44 1.70 1.48 1.2 1.47 1.45 1.5 1.48 1.48 1.47 1.56 1.49 1.49 1.50 1.53 1.49 1.48 1.7 1.49 1.55 1.47 1.51 1.55 1.52 1.71 1.47 1.49 1.55 1.47 1.46 1.52 1.52 1.47 1.47 1.45 1.3 1.44 1.47 1.50 1.53 1.43 1.48 1.46 1.47 1.45 1.48 1.48 1.5 Electricity Generating Costs of PV/Diesel Systems [€/kWh] Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300 Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.51 1.45 1.49 1.53 1.55 1.49 1.48 1.46 0.46 1.49 1.48 1.53 1.42 1.49 1.1 1.51 1.45 1.50 1.47 1.4 1.70 1.48 1.49 1.48 1.6 Electricity Generating Costs of Wind/Diesel Systems [€/kWh] Number of Households 30 35 40 Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.51 1.59 0.49 1.47 1.45 1.66 1.55 1.52 1.8 1.43 1.52 1.50 1.49 1.47 1.48 1.47 1.49 1.64 1.47 1.46 1.51 1.64 0.65 .43 1.65 1 1.48 1.47 1.66 1.71 1.49 1.49 1.46 1.45 1.45 1.51 1.6 1.73 1.8 1.51 1.54 1.1 1.44 1.73 1.47 1 1.44 1.50 1.46 1.46 1.43 1.47 1.46 1.49 1.

51 1.63 1.47 1.53 1.46 1.53 1.49 1.47 1.48 1.47 1.49 1.51 1.53 1.55 1.52 1.48 1.56 1.62 1.48 1.54 1.43 1.47 1.45 1.45 1.49 1.51 1.55 1.57 1.52 1.48 1.47 1.56 1.56 1.44 1.48 1.45 1.54 1.49 1.51 1.60 1.48 1.53 1.51 1.46 1.48 1.51 1.48 1.50 1.48 1.52 1.46 1.42 0.40 0.43 1.46 1.49 1.43 1.49 1.46 1.55 1.44 1.47 1.47 1.53 1.55 1.46 1.52 1.48 1.44 1.44 1.50 1.6 1.53 1.49 1.56 1.53 1.51 1.51 1.55 1.50 1.47 1.60 1.1 1.49 1.50 1.59 1.46 1.48 1.46 1.48 1.44 1.42 1.58 1.41 1.45 1.49 1.56 1.51 1.54 1.45 1.50 1.49 1.51 1.41 0.5 1.53 1.47 1.44 1.42 1.44 1.53 1.41 1.43 0.8 1.58 1.45 1.51 1.50 1.46 These figures can be illustrated with the graphs on the following page.47 1.40 1.3 1.43 1.52 1.47 1.44 1.45 1.45 1.46 1.48 1.48 1.48 1.52 1.61 1.45 1.41 1.51 1.50 1.57 1.49 1.49 1.49 1.44 0.57 1.49 1.55 1.46 1.53 1.48 1.52 1.53 1.51 1.53 1.50 1.49 1.45 1 1.48 1.55 1.52 1.46 1.50 1.56 1.42 1.43 1.50 1.44 1.49 1.47 1.61 1.49 1.45 1.42 1.51 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.54 1.7 1.48 1.49 1.43 1.50 1.46 1.54 1.59 1.50 1.50 1.54 1.44 1.43 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 107 Number of Households 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300 Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.52 1.42 1.46 1.51 1.51 1.53 1.52 1. .46 1.50 1.2 1.46 1.44 1.51 1.52 1.58 1.48 1.45 1.50 1.50 1.52 1.54 1.59 1.40 0.45 1.47 1.47 1.45 1.43 1.4 1.51 1.53 1.51 1.46 1.50 1.53 1.61 1.53 1.52 1.48 1.9 1.50 1.48 1.56 1.41 1.54 1.59 1.46 1.44 0.55 1.54 1.49 1.47 1.57 1.48 1.52 1.44 1.55 1.52 1.47 1.51 1.50 1.42 0.47 1.50 1.45 1.46 1.48 1.

80 1.1 300 1 Diesel Costs [€/l] 1.55 1.20 30 45 60 110 140 170 225 Num ber of Households 75 90 0. This is due to the fact that the decline in investment costs of diesel gensets at certain installed capacities does not trade off the high investment for the PV modules anymore.60 Electricity Costs [€/kWh] 1.50 1. where costs decline over the whole area of investigation due to the decrease in specific investment costs for wind power plants with higher capacities. 1999).70 1. seem to reach a threshold value at all diesel fuel prices.60 1.30 30 45 60 110 140 170 225 Num ber of Households 75 90 0.50-1.40-1.35 1.70 1.80 Electricity Costs [€/kWh] 1.. The buckling in the curve progression is a result of the different equations used for small and big wind generators.55 1.60 1.70-1.50 Figure D.45 108 Figure D..45 1.3 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for PV/Diesel 1.4 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for Wind/Diesel The cost analysis of hybrid systems here reveals that electricity generating costs are decreasing with higher loads and lower diesel fuel prices. This effect is stronger in the case of Wind/Diesel systems. et al.50-1. This observation is supported by the investigations of the Fraunhofer Institute in (Sauer.50 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 1. meanwhile.40-1. which they are likely not to fall below.50 1.55-1. where it is calculated that electricity generating costs are .30 1.60 1.40 1.40 1.1 300 1 Diesel Price [€/l] 1.60-1.45-1. D. PV/Diesel systems.

58 1.58 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 109 likely not to become lower than 1. the following results were obtained with regard to electricity generating costs per kWh: Table D.57 1.01 1.55 1.53 1.57 1.66 1.52 1 Day 1.10 1.02 1.52 1.56 1.05 1.03 1.56 1.04 1.99 0.54 1.03 1.98 .76 1.7 Electricity Generating Costs PV/Wind Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300 PV/Wind Systems with Battery Capacity for 2 Days 1.55 1.01 1.69 1.01 1.56 1.00 0.58 1.07 1.01 1.64 1.98 0.03 1.12 1.00 1.62 1.04 1.99 0.56 1.18 1.98 0.09 1.73 1.15 1.58 1.63 1.53 1.02 1.000 kWh and at an interest rate of 6%.59 1.03 1.22 1.54 1.54 1.03 Euro/kWh for systems with lower annual consumption of 15. For PV/Wind systems.54 1.00 1.

11.. D.9 kWp 6.00 Euro/l 5. These costs increase for remote regions. 1..664 kWh/m2/a and under the assumption of 2. 1. F.76 Euro kWh.6 kW 96. Assumptions o Electricity Consumption: o Capacity PV Modules: o Capacity Diesel Genset: o Battery Bank: o Inverter: o Energy Management System applied o Global radiation in Sevilla/Spain: o Diesel Costs: o Interest rate: o Labour Costs: 2. D. 2002) PV/Diesel hybrid system for Sevilla/Spain with costs on planning.5 Euro/h Electricity generating costs of 0. et al. transport and construction for Kassel/Germany.0 kWh 6. Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE in (Sauer. 1999) PV/Diesel hybrid system for Mexico City. the circumstances are just moderately suited for fully renewable coverage of electricity demand.000 kWh/a 77% 0. Result o Electricity generating costs of 1.6 kWh 1.752 kWh/m2/a 1.30 Euro/l 6% 350 Euro/d .0 % 37. For the chosen location of Trapani/Italy with annual global radiation of 1.. Assumptions o Electricity Consumption: o Solar Coverage Rate: o Diesel Fuel Price: o Interest Rate: o Labour Costs: 2.Annex D: Cost Analysis 110 The analysis of PV/Wind systems shows the high dependency of electricity generating costs from the size of the battery bank. Result 50 kWh/d 9.3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) in (Kininger.34 Euro/kWh.000 full load hours for wind generators.

Result 1. Shen.087 11. with large hybrid systems being less expensive. 1.837 6.43 US$/kWh – 0.75 US$/kWh PV/Wind Household System 0. Results Table D.9 Electricity Generating Costs of Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia PV/Diesel Village System 1. Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ.82 US$/l 12% Levelised costs based on field analysis of battery’s lifetime. 2003) Application of PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel hybrid systems for village electrification.150 kWh/m2/a 150 W/m2 300 W 100 W 0.85 US$/kWh Wind/Diesel Village System 0. Assumptions o Global radiation: o Wind Energy Density: o Capacity Wind: o Capacity PV: o Diesel Fuel Price: o Interest Rate: 2.37 US$/kWh ... Electricity Generating Costs: 0. B..720 Operating costs/year [RMB/a] 100 119 119 Table D. PV/Wind hybrid systems (300 W Wind. W.Annex D: Cost Analysis 111 National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL)/University of Delaware in (Byrne.72 US$/kWh. 1998) PV/Wind Household hybrid systems for Inner Mongolia. China. 100 W PV) for household electrification. Costs are related to the size of the system. in (GTZ. Inner Mongolia System specification PV-Battery-Inverter System (100 W) Wind-Battery-Inverter System (300 W) Wind-PV-Battery-Inverter System (300 + 100 W) Investment costs [RMB] 6.8 Investment and Operating Costs of Different Household Systems. J. Wallace.

5 € 1.51 €/kWh 1.45 €/kWh 1.10 5 kW Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices Capacity: 5 kW Electricity Output: 2.450 23.75 € 1.825 22. 2002) Table D.740 Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 0. ratio 80:20 Investment costs in € 11.84 €/kWh 1.59 €/kWh . ratio 80:20 Wind/Diesel.70 €/kWh Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis 112 Wuppertal Institute in (Wuppertal Institute.190 kWh/a Diesel Genset PV/Diesel.

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