Integrated Analysis of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries
Supervisor and Examiner Assoc. Professor Jan-Erik Gustafsson Division of Land and Water and Water Resources Engineering Royal Institute of Technology
Supervisor in Germany Dr. Dirk Aßmann Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy
Reviewer Michael Bartlett Department of Energy Processes Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm 2004
TRITA-LWR Master Thesis ISSN 1651-064X LWR-EX-04-26
Around 2 billion people world-wide do not have access to electricity services, of which the main share in rural areas in developing countries. Due to the fact that rural electricity supply has been regarded as essential for economic development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, it is nowadays a main focus in international development cooperation. Renewable energy resources are a favourable alternative for rural energy supply. In order to handle their fluctuating nature, however, hybrid systems can be applied. These systems use different energy generators in combination, by this maintaining a stable energy supply in times of shortages of one the energy resources. Main hope attributed to these systems is their good potential for economic development. This paper discusses the application of hybrid systems for rural electrification in developing countries by integrating ecological, socio-economic and economic aspects. It is concluded that hybrid systems are suitable to achieve both ecological and socio-economic objectives, since hybrid systems are an environmental sound technology with high quality electricity supply, by this offering a good potential for economic development. However, it is recommended to apply hybrid systems only in areas with economic development already taking place in order to fully exploit the possibilities of the system. Moreover, key success factors for the application of hybrid systems are discussed. It is found that from a technical point of view, appropriate maintenance structures are the main aspect to be considered, requiring the establishment of maintenance centres. It is therefore recommendable to apply hybrid systems in areas with a significant number of villages, which are to be electrified with these systems, in order to improve financial sustainability of these maintenance centres. The appropriate distribution model is seen as being important as well; it is thought that the sale of hybrid systems via credit, leasing or cash is the most likely approach. In order to do so, however, financial support and capacity building of local dealers is inalienable.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Abstract ........................................................................................................................I Table of Contents....................................................................................................... II List of Figures ........................................................................................................... IV List of Tables.............................................................................................................. V Acronyms .................................................................................................................. VI 1 1.1 1.2 2 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1 Objective ........................................................................................................... 2 Methodology...................................................................................................... 2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply ........................................................... 4
2.1 Decentralised Electrification .............................................................................. 4 2.1.1 Diesel Generating Sets ....................................................................................... 4 2.1.2 Renewable Energy Technologies ....................................................................... 5 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 3 Hybrid System Technology................................................................................ 6 Relevance .......................................................................................................... 6 Hybrid Systems in Developing Countries........................................................... 7 Other Hybrid Systems........................................................................................ 9 Technical Aspects ............................................................................................ 11 Grid-based Electrification ................................................................................ 14 Analysis of Impacts ........................................................................................ 16
3.1 Scope of the Analysis....................................................................................... 16 3.1.1 Scenario Definitions......................................................................................... 16 3.1.2 Modelling Assumptions ................................................................................... 18 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 The Concept of Indicators of Sustainability...................................................... 18 Developing an Indicator Set for Energy Technologies...................................... 19 Analysis of Sustainability ................................................................................ 21 Ecological Dimension ...................................................................................... 21 Socio-Economic Dimension............................................................................. 27 Economic Dimension....................................................................................... 33
3.5 Results and Discussion..................................................................................... 42 3.5.1 Results ............................................................................................................. 42 3.5.2 Discussion ....................................................................................................... 45
............. 49 Aspects of System Dissemination ..........................................................2 System Design ..2 4.................................................. 105 D....................................................... 63 Political Factors .........................................................................4 5......................................1 Investment Costs.................................................................... 47 4............................................. 62 Assessment of Electricity Demand and Potential for Renewable Energies......................................................................1 Baseline ................................. 53 Financing ............................................... 75 B........2....1 4...........................1 Ecology...........................6 6 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia.........Table of Contents
Project Examples .................................................................. 68 A................. 60 Technical Aspects ............................................................................................2.............................. 49 Baseline ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Calculation of Electricity Demand..................................... 87 C..................................................... 47 4.................. 49 Project Description ........................................................... 86 C............................................................... 47 4..........1...............................2 Project Description ..................5 5..................1 5................................................2 4.....................................1 Hybrid Systems in Indonesia..........................3 Economic Issues............................................................................................................................ 86 C..3 5......................................................................................................................... 113
...................................1 Scenario Definitions ....................................................................................2 5.........................2 Socio-Economic Issues.............................................................3 5 5............... 53 Organisation ...........2 Electricity Generating Costs....... 70 Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations ..... 79 Annex C: Analysis of Impacts .............................................................................................. 104 D........... 52 Key success factors................................................... 64 Summary and Conclusions ....................................... 110 Terms of Reference .....................................................1............................. 68 A...........2..................................................................................................... 47
4................. 93 Annex D: Cost Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 57 Capacity Building ..........2 Modelling Results ............................3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources . 101 D.............. 66
Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design....... 75 B...............
................... 44 Figure 5...........11 Comparative Assessment of Potential for Economic Development ..................13 Comparative Assessment of Impacts on Health ... 81 Figure B....................20 Comparative Assessment of Future Potential.............. 31 Figure 3..............................1 Specific Investment for Wind Power Plants and Diesel Gensets ................................................12 Comparative Assessment of Employment Effects........................... 24 Figure 3................................. 103 Figure D................. 44 Figure 3..................4 Selected Air Pollutants ............ 108 Figure D....... 36 Figure 3.............. 8 Figure 3.........................17 Comparative Assessment of Maintenance Requirements ............................................... 33 Figure 3.......... 29 Figure 3...................................................................................................................................................... 85 Figure B..............List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 2...... 60 Figure B................ 41 Figure 3...............7 Comparative Assessment of Noise Pollution ................................ 25 Figure 3....22 Results Socio-Economic Assessment ............... 26 Figure 3............................................. 28 Figure 3..............1 Hybrid Village Systems: Distribution Steps ............4 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for Wind/Diesel .......4 Comparative Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions .....1 GEMIS Results: GHG Emissions ............15 Electricity Generating Costs in Comparison ......................6 Cumulative Energy Demand According to Resources....10 Comparative Assessment of Participation and Empowerment.......... 43 Figure 3.........................16 Comparative Assessment of Electricity Generating Costs.................................1 Principle Circuit of Hybrid Systems .....14 Comparative Assessment of Investment Costs....................... 85 Figure D........ 83 Figure B................. 22 Figure 3..........5 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy)............... 39 Figure 3......3 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for PV/Diesel.............................21 Results Ecology Assessment ..... 84 Figure B.6 Comparative Assessment of Resource Consumption ....................... 32 Figure 3..... 37 Figure 3. 25 Figure 3................3 GEMIS Results: Emissions of Air Pollutants.........................................18 Comparative Assessment Regional Self-Supply and Import Independence 40 Figure 3.... 104 Figure D...1 GEMIS Results: Greenhouse Gas Emissions ..................................................................... 38 Figure 3... 42 Figure 3.........8 Comparative Assessment of Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance .2 Comparative Assessment of GHG Emissions .................................... 80 Figure B.......................3 GEMIS Results: Air Pollutants ..... 23 Figure 3...............................19 Comparative Assessment of Supply Security................... 108
..23 Results Economic Assessment ................................5 GEMIS Results: Cumulative Energy Demand of Primary Energy ........................2 Specific Investment for Hybrid Systems of Different Capacities............ 30 Figure 3.............................................................. 23 Figure 3..2 GEMIS Results: Methane Emissions .................................9 Comparative Assessment of Supply Equity ....
.3 Performance Assessment Scheme...... 70 Table A.....................................2 Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Energy Technologies ..............7 Electricity Generating Costs for Different Scenarios................7 Electricity Generating Costs PV/Wind.............. 109 Table D............................1 Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions ......6 Investment Costs of Different Scenarios for Rural Electrification ......2 Rich Household Characteristics ..................................................4 Main Modelling Assumptions........1 Scenarios and Technologies for Rural Electrification..2: Electricity Generating Costs for Diesel Gensets ......1: Initial Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets......... 69 Table A..........3 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy) ...9 Electricity Generating Costs of Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia ...... 106 Table D...10 5 kW Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices .......... 93 Table C........................................... 102 Table D................................................. 68 Table A..........................8 Investment and Operating Costs of Different Household Systems.........................................................2 Investment Costs for Small-Scale Wind Power Plants..................................................................................................................................................................................2 Air Pollutants........................5 Electricity Generating Costs of PV/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]. 111 Table D..................................... 38 Table 4....................6 Electricity Generating Costs of Wind/Diesel Systems [€/kWh] ........................... 102 Table D.................. 35 Table 3..4 Range of Investment Costs for Hybrid Systems ..............................1 Standard Household Characteristics.........3 Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets.................... 82 Table B.. 36 Table 3.................................................... 34 Table 3............................... 105 Table D....4 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis .......................................... 111 Table D............3 Peak and Base Loads for Different Village Sizes ....... 71 Table B.................................. 80 Table B.... 101 Table D.. 16 Table 3.......5 Specific Investment Costs of Hybrid Systems.......................... Inner Mongolia.....................1 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis ........... 19 Table 3............................................................................. 96 Table D............. 106 Table D..1 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia .............................................................3: Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices .................. 49 Table A........... 112
... 84 Table C.............. 20 Table 3..........................List of Tables
List of Tables
Table 3..........5 Share of Technologies for Electricity Generation.................. 68 Table A... 95 Table C..............................................................................................
produces i. different solar energy systems SMA Regelsysteme GmbH. produces i.Acronyms
AC CED CSD DC EMS GEF GHG GTZ KfW OECD PV Schueco SMA SHS WHO Alternating Current Cumulative Energy Demand Commission on Sustainable Development Direct Current Energy Management System Global Environmental Facility Greenhouse Gas Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Photovoltaic Schueco International KG.e.e. inverters Solar Home System World Health Organisation
their improved access to modern energy services has been regarded as essential for sustainable development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.e. The effect of increasing global CO2-emissions will be the consequence. Around 2 billion people world-wide do not have access to modern energy services. solar and hydro power. 2. and progress being made over the last 25 years has applied mainly to urban areas (The World Bank. however. the situation in 2030 will remain more or less unchanged with 1. could not live up to experiences. Global consumption of primary energy resources. i. 2002. 1996a). Social benefits related to improved energy services include poverty alleviation by changing energy use patterns in favour of non-traditional fuels. This lack of access to electricity mainly applies to rural areas in developing countries.1 Introduction
Recent research on the development of the world’s energy state and the future development scenarios show alarming developments: 1. and their application strengthens the security of energy supply by using local resources. is likely to increase. which are especially suited for decentralised electricity generation. especially in Asia. Without states taking heavy financial initiatives. In response to the lack of electricity supply in developing countries. time that could be used for education or employment instead. major ones being economic and social goals. 2002). 2002). The outstanding key role in economic development. will account for more than 60 % of this increase (IEA. thus. A pos-
. Developing countries. is to improve access to modern energy services. are the effect that can be expected from better energy services. This is mainly due to the goals that are associated with the development of energy infrastructure. The challenge. the compatibility to climate is better than for currently used options. A major problem related to the application of renewable energies in decentralised systems. and the creation of new opportunities for women by reducing the time for the collection of wood for cooking and heating (WEHAB Working Group. the combating population growth by shifting relative benefits and costs of fertility towards lower rates of birth. energy services are indeed seen as a major driving force to economic development. but additional measures are required as well. 2002). is the instable energy provision due to the fluctuating nature of the resources. 3. however. without on the other hand increasing reliance on fossil fuels. which had been attributed to energy services in the past. Today. with the increase being mainly based on fossil fuels. productivity increases or improved economic opportunities. which is a major occupation of women in developing countries. Higher availability of jobs. Main hope is here attributed to the application of renewable energies as wind. by catalysing the creation of small enterprises or livelihood activities in evening hours (WEHAB Working Group. 2002). however.4 billion people or 18 % of the world’s population without electricity supply (IEA. Recent approaches meet this challenge with a focus on decentralised systems for the electrification of rural areas. Renewable energies use environmentally sound technologies: their consumption does not result in the depletion of resources.
which have already been applied in developing countries. These key success factors are related to aspects of financing. chapter 6 gives a summary and an outlook to the perspective of hybrid systems in developing countries. Solar Home Systems and biogas plants for electricity generation. while chapter 5 then outlines the key success factors for the application of hybrid systems. organisation. However. where hybrid systems were applied. capacity building and others. Finally. the question whether and to which extent these systems satisfy the expectations on rural electrification projects with regard to sustainable development. In this paper. Due to the absence of respective surveys. this analysis is performed in comparative terms on the basis of an indicator set developed here. which are of importance for any decentralised rural electrification project and especially for hybrid systems. 2003. the different systems for energy provision being important for the comparative assessment of sustainability are presented first. Special attention is paid to hybrid systems. The sustainability of hybrid systems is assessed relative to the other potential decentralised electrification scenarios: diesel generator-based mini-grids. the extension of the conventional grid is considered as well.
. accepting that sustainability is an ongoing dynamic process. an indicator system on the three dimensions of sustainability – ecology. Several factors have been limiting to this work.2
To pursue the above objectives.
1. For the assessment of sustainability in Chapter 3.1
The objective of this paper is to analyse and assess the sustainability of the application of hybrid systems for rural electrification in developing countries. Chapter 4 then describes experiences with projects in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia. The findings of this research were then discussed with project developers at the fair Intersolar in Freiburg/Germany on June. 28th. therefore. site visits could not be held and. while the potential of other such possibilities is briefly discussed as well. which needs to be ensured by setting the right framework. socio-economic and economic issues . the information here is limited to the findings of the literature review and the interviews. has not been investigated yet and shall be matter of this paper. is just now stepwise gaining importance. 2003. The different options for rural electrification are then investigated and compared with regard to these indicators. and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) on August. Firstly. This approach. as well as with experts from Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) on July. a literature research was performed first. A number of projects applying hybrid systems for electricity generation have already been carried out. although being known for quite some years already. 2003.is developed. several are currently under implementation. Another objective here is to find key success factors for the application of hybrid systems. The objective in investigating key success factors is to maintain the sustainability of a project for rural electrification with hybrid systems. 7th. 14th.1 Introduction
sibility to solve this problem is to backup the renewable energy generator with another power generator in a so-called hybrid system.
. What proves to be right in one country can be completely wrong for another country.1 Introduction
Moreover. the findings of this analysis are always to be seen as strongly generalised and their applicability must be proven anew in each case. the analysis of hybrid systems in developing countries in general can come only to rather vague results. Therefore.
Those of importance for this paper are described more detailed firstly in the following. The approaches of local and decentralised electrification are obviously closely connected and can be met by similar technologies. the decentralised approaches of regional mini-grid systems or local supply of single consumers can become competitive due to lower investments and maintenance costs compared to large scale electrification by expanding interconnected grids. Typically. Finally. single diesel gensets can be applied for electrification. with the other gensets providing backup (ESMAP. 2000). most commonly diesel generating sets and renewable energies. Generally. power supply in developing countries for rural areas takes place in three different ways (Kleinkauf. Raptis. Different technological options are in practice. 3. This problem can be met by using a group of diesel gensets.. which is due to the fact that they work very inefficiently when running just at fractions of their rated capacity.
2. F. i. due to repair or maintenance. With diesel gensets. by expansion of interconnected grids. being adapted to the needs of the consumers. 1996/1997): 1.1 Diesel Generating Sets Small diesel-power generating sets (diesel gensets) have been the traditional way to address the problem of the lack of electricity. the effi-
.. the options of importance for this work are discussed more in detail. including technical aspects to be considered and main applications. J. potential other hybrid solutions will be discussed against the background of applying them in developing countries. by erecting or extending stand-alone regional mini-grids. locally.1
In highly fragmented areas or at certain distances from the grid. In a next step. Diesel gensets have problems with short durability. decentrally..e. They provide a simple solution for rural electrification and can be designed for different capacities. centrally. 2000). will be presented. this chapter will also briefly discuss the centralised approach of the extension of the conventional grid to rural areas. the electric current is produced within the village itself. In cases security of supply is not of major importance. The objective is to provide a technical background for the evaluation of these options in the following chapters.1. 2. the different hybrid systems. Moreover. 2. accepting that no electricity can be supplied in times the genset is out of commission. by supplying single consumers and load groups. W.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
This chapter gives an overview on potential solutions for rural energy supply. which are in operation in developing countries nowadays. The voltage of the generator is often adjusted to be higher than the required 220 Volt for the household because of high losses within the local distribution lines (Baur.
areas are far away or isolated (i. M. 2001). but increases overall system costs. especially rural. the tanker Jessica ran aground close to San Cristobal. two technologies are of high importance: Solar Home Systems (SHS) for supply of single consumers. frequent start-up and shut-down procedures decrease their lifetime as well. the battery offers the possibility to meet peak load demand for short periods of time. The application of inverters to provide alternating current (AC) at a voltage of 220 Volt is possible.. wind farms. however.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
ciency of operation is between 25-35% (Turcotte. Pneumaticos. K. and biogas for local mini-grids or single consumers. F..1. J. islands) from higher developed regions so that the regular supply with diesel fuel becomes a logistical problem and an important financial burden even in countries. which is used for loading the battery. S. the transportation of diesel fuel can result in severe environmental damage. In 2001.
. thus. which requires high cross-sectional wiring in order to avoid high losses (Baur. is more a problem related to infrastructure. A. 2. the capacity can technically be expanded easily and.2 Renewable Energy Technologies The use of renewable energy technologies is a very promising approach towards meeting environmental. Moreover. Biogas Biogas systems utilise micro-organisms for the conversion of biomass (i. Moreover. which can be used in gas burners or motors
More potential renewable technologies include stand-alone wind turbines. One of the basic problems for the application of diesel generating systems in developing countries..000 gallons of industrial fuel and diesel and putting the sensitive ecosystems of the islands to high risks.. The systems work at voltages of 12 or 24 Volt. L. Moreover. and very often old motors from cars are used for the purpose of electrification. where fuel is heavily subsidised. they convert the insolation into electric current. Diesel gensets are typically just operated for around 4 hours in the evenings. Cosgrove-Davies. Schaeffer.e. On a local level. Many.e. 2001). The originating gas consists of 55 to 70% from Methane (CH4).. The photovoltaic modules are usually installed on rooftops.. Solar Home Systems Solar Home Systems (SHS) typically include a 20. 1996). social as well as economic goals associated with rural electrification.1 Both are presented in the following. A common 50 Wp can supply lighting and a TV/radio for several hours per day (Preiser.. hydropower and larger-scale photovoltaics. 2000). be adapted to individual needs. D. 2 Anaerobic conditions: in absence of oxygen.to 100-Wp photovoltaic array and a leadacid battery with charge controller supplying energy for individual household appliances (Cabraal. The battery supplies electricity to the consumer during evening hours and in case of insolation shortages due to unfavourable weather conditions. The electricity current is provided in direct current (DC). spilling out 145. excrements from animal husbandry) for the production of biogas under anaerobic conditions2. as experienced for example at the Galapagos Islands. Sheriff.
biogas lamps.1 Relevance One of the main problems of solar as well as wind energy is the fluctuation of energy supply.2. three different types of hybrid systems have been applied in developing countries. Main applications for rural electrification in developing countries include independent electric power supply for
To generate 1 kWh of electricity. R. the system components.
. The presentation of these other potential options is left for section 2. In developing countries these other technology options have not yet gained importance. 1999a).2
Hybrid System Technology
Hybrid systems are another approach towards decentralised electrification. solar cells and wind power plants” (Weber. but complementary energy supply systems at the same place. basically by combining the technologies presented above. This section wants to discuss available technology options.. Wind Generator and Diesel Genset. resulting in intermittent delivery of power and causing problems if supply continuity is required. 2.
2. including Photovoltaic Generator and Diesel Generating Set (Diesel Genset).2.
Although other renewable energy resources than solar and wind can in principle be used in hybrid systems as well. i.. general technical aspects and potential applications. Main component of a biogas plant is the digestion tank (fermenter). Photovoltaic and Wind Generators. Biogas systems are widely used in India and China for the supply of single consumers or local mini-grids. where the organic substrate is decomposed in the three steps hydrolysis. radiant heaters. this has so far been limited to pilot projects in industrialised countries. They can be designed as stand-alone mini-grids or in smaller scale as household systems.e. 1995).2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
for the production of electric current3 (Kaltschmitt. acidification and methane formation. incubators and refrigerators working on biogas (GTZ. This can be avoided by the use of hybrid systems. 1 m3 biogas is necessary (GTZ. A hybrid system can be defined as “a combination of different. 1999a). A system using complementary energy supply technologies has the advantage of being able to supply energy even at times when one part of the hybrid system is unavailable.3. 2000) or for gas cookers/stoves. So far. M. Hybrid systems can technically be designed for almost any purpose at any capacity.
e. at Intersolar-Fair.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Villages. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH.4
Personal Comment given by Mr. which might not be satisfied by the renewable system alone. 2003. the battery serves to meet peak demands. Figure 2. J.Radio Relay Transmitters. i. TV/radio. plugs. etc. i.Hotels.Missions. cables. which can be avoided with hybrid systems.). .Farmhouses. Usually. The batteries act as “buffers”. maintaining a stable energy supply during short periods of time (Blanco. The appliances (lighting.e.1.2.2 Hybrid Systems in Developing Countries A common hybrid system for the application in developing countries generally consists of the following main components: 1. A future option might be the hydrogen fuel cell. at the same time loading the battery. using the energy surplus to load the battery.Desalination Systems. Rotating masses can be used for shorter time frames (seconds). 5 Storage systems in hybrid systems in developing countries are usually battery aggregates maintaining a stable output over a time frame of one or more days. combustion aggregates need to be used for medium. i. 2003). Installation material (safety boxes. Schools. controlling the battery not to be overloaded.). 6. the renewable part of the system satisfies the energy demand. etc. 5. A storage system to guarantee a stable output during short times of shortages.
.1 shows a principle overview of how to combine PV. Hospitals. Georg Weingarten.. a DC/AC inverter needs to be installed additionally.Irrigation systems. . All these components and the problems related to their application are further described in section 2. At favourable weather conditions. A charge controller. The complementary resource produces the required energy at times of imminent deep discharge of the battery. W. 2003). Maintaining high availability with renewable energies alone usually requires big renewable energy generators. 3.5 4. A secondary source of energy for supply in case of shortages. Germany. A primary source of energy. a renewable energy resource. Hybrid systems are applied in areas where permanent and reliable availability of electricity supply is an important issue.2. 2. Residential Buildings. on June 28th.
. in cases of low sunlight or low wind.or long-term storage.4.
. Moreover.e. Freiburg. a diesel genset. . . wind and diesel generators in a hybrid system (Roth. A charge controller regulates the state of load of the battery..
2.. the hybrid solution using photovoltaic offers great potential in saving fuel. H. Bopp. at Intersolar-Fair. 2003). on June 28th. The solar generator can provide about 100% of the electricity during summertime. et al. Freiburg. 2003.1 PV/Diesel Combining Photovoltaic arrays and a diesel genset provides a rather simple solution and is feasible for regions with good solar resources. Georg Weingarten. Germany.1 Principle Circuit of Hybrid Systems
2. Puls.5 m/s already (Sauer. Naturally. 7 Personal Comment given by Mr. A project at Montague Island even reached an 87% decrease in fuel consumption (Corkish. the rest being supplied with the diesel genset. R. on June 28th.6 depending on the regional conditions and the design of the system. The CO2 emissions decrease correspondingly. As can be seen in Figure 2. Lowe. built up in the same way as are PV/Diesel systems... Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. Typically. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. From a perspective of financial competitiveness. R. while in winter this figure is less.
. Georg Weingarten.2. the observed fuel saving varies over the year. in principal. PV/Diesel hybrid systems require a DC/AC-inverter if appliances need alternating current. G.. Compared to the common solution for rural off-grid electrification using diesel gensets alone.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Wind Generator Charge Control Battery Inverter Mini-Grid / Appliances
Diesel Generator Charge Control
Figure 2.2 Wind/Diesel Wind/Diesel combinations are. Experiences show annual fuel savings of more than 80% compared to stand-alone mini-grids on diesel genset basis. in climatic regions like Germany a PV/Diesel hybrid system is designed to provide around 50% of the electricity from photovoltaic during winter.1. 2003. D. they can be applied in regions where average wind speed is around 3.2. If wind
Personal Comment given by Mr. 2000). at Intersolar-Fair. Freiburg. Germany. since PV modules provide direct current..2.7 2.
. the wind turbine is in charge of the provision of energy. Thus. 2. i. In the first stage. While for the other hybrid systems applying diesel gensets.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
speed is sufficient. being able to feed up to 30% of surplus energy under good performing conditions into the public grid.3. 2003). however preparing the energy management for further expansion using biogas in a decentralised cogeneration plant. being highly reliable and resulting in a further reduction of diesel compared to other hybrid systems. M. wind and biogas for energy provision. at coastal or mountain areas with high degree of solar radiation. Generally.3 PV/Wind and PV/Wind/Diesel In some regions the exploitation of both wind and solar resources can become favourable. combinations in hybrid systems are worth discussing. using the renewable energy resources photovoltaic. G. the objective in designing the system is to maximise the exploitation of the renewable energy resource. the system was implemented using just wind energy and photovoltaic arrays. which is not suitable for some non-household applications. In regions. i. This is obviously due to the fact that PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid systems involve a higher share of renewable energy resources. combining any renewable resource with others is conceivable. breakdowns in energy supply are possible. depending on the availability of resources. Of utmost importance is here that wind and solar energy supply complement each other so that energy provision is possible over the whole year. the situation is different for PV/Wind systems. During short periods of time with low winds.. Wiese.g. The PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system has proven successful in Germany.2.2. the battery maintains a stable system. situated close to the Baltic Sea in Northeastern Germany. The objective was to provide 80% of the necessary energy. For the application in developing countries. being replaced by the diesel generating set when low winds occur over longer periods of time. 2. for a hikers’ inn in the Black Forest of Germany (Kaltschmitt. 2. accurate assessment of the resources is essential for the decision on the appropriate system design.2. it must be doubted whether this effect of further reduction of diesel use can trade off the higher investment and operation costs. where two different resources complement each other. Here. if weather conditions are favourable. 1996). This kind of hybrid system has been implemented e.. A.e. however. a PV/Wind hybrid system might ideally be supported by an additional diesel generating set for times of extremely unfavourable weather conditions. A PV/Wind hybrid system is able to provide energy all time of the day.2..1 Biogas Hybrid Systems PV/Wind/Biogas ASE GmbH as the performing organisation has created an autonomous hybrid power supply systems for the purification plant of Körkwitz. The main components of the system include a 250 kWp solar generator and a 300 kW wind turbine with 3 inverted rectifiers connected in parallel (Neuhäusser. hospital electrification.3 Other Hybrid Systems The hybrid systems implemented in developing countries so far do not reflect the whole range of potential solutions.e.
2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Information on the performance of the installed system and about the further expansion with biogas could not be obtained within the framework of this work. so that the potential should be more closely investigated. not be obtained. since this opportunity does not seem economically attractive. microhydropower is more feasible. which is produced in an anaerobic digester. or some kinds of fuel cells can be used to generate electricity in addition to the wind turbine. additional secondary energy needed from conventional fuels (propane or diesel) accounts for 7-11% of the total amount of electricity. Combining three different types of renewable energy systems certainly involves investment costs too high for this purpose. The engine is fuelled by biogas.2 Hydropower Hybrid Systems Wind/Large Hydropower On a seasonal basis. This is due to the fact that the participating companies have been declared insolvent since implementation and the new operator of the systems could not be identified. Depending on the management strategy and the scenario used for the type of consumers. more detailed information could. Wind/Biogas The concept of a Wind/Biogas system is to some degree similar to Wind/Diesel hybrid systems. During the research for this work it was found out that these kind of systems are currently tested in developing countries in South Asia (ITDG. However. Instead of the diesel genset.3. Especially in winter. the two resources wind and hydropower tend to complement each other to some extent (Iowa. conventional gases as propane can be used instead. 1999).. and the combination of both is then disadvantageous. Wind/Micro-Hydro and PV/Micro-Hydro While hybrid systems with large-scale hydropower generators seem unattractive. small gas turbines. here engine generator sets. Micro-hydroelectric generators are turbines that are able to op-
. A key role can be assigned to the size of the systems’ gas storage tank and its operating management. Modelling simulations proved that the availability of wind energy is upgraded by applying biogas systems additionally (Surkow. 2002a). Generally it is thought that biogas plants instead of diesel gensets as backup for wind or PV systems offer an environmental benign approach towards rural electrification.2. so that the feasibility of Wind/Large Hydropower systems needs to be assessed for each case individually. however. A reasonable statement on the applicability therefore cannot be given here. 2. when river flows are low. For constant electricity generation. the adaptation of this hybrid system for rural electrification in developing countries seems unlikely especially from a financial perspective. 2003). both resources might become low. another energy resource would therefore be necessary. Since the combination of wind and hydropower offers just limited advantages. Moreover. wind resources are better at high elevations. wind has the potential to take over electricity supply. for some locations the situation might be different. However. during late summer. However. R. it is unlikely that these resources are combined in a project in developing countries. while hydro generators on rivers are usually at lower levels. If the production of biogas is at times not sufficient.
. including general technical aspects and problems of the system’s components as well as technical management aspects. These plants are often locally available and CO2 neutral. Lack of infrastructure for renewable energies One of the key disadvantages of renewable energies is the fact that they apply new and not yet widespread technologies.000 hours for generators with capacities less than 30 kW (Kininger. especially those specific to the adaptation in developing countries. Vegetable oil can be made available by peanut plants. a hybrid system applying wind or PV support can be attractive. generators using vegetable oil for operation offer a potential solution. This. Problems and other general technical aspects. frozen in winter). producer gas is made from biomass in a fluidised bed gasifier and used to fuel internal combustion engines. Here. In comparison to other technical devices. this can be traded off with later cost reduction due to fuel savings. gas turbines or fuel cells. being mostly produced in the industrialised countries. being suitable for small rivers (Iowa. and the accordingly missing infrastructure for maintenance of renewable energy technologies. Where rivers have inconsistent flow characteristics (dry in summer. This approach.4. to mention but a few. In comparison to the application of diesel gensets alone. Moreover. a gasification system might be applied as well. The decrease in efficiency is 1% for every 100 m above sea level. motor generating sets have a wide range of operating hours. 2002). strongly depending on the way of operation. and another 1% for every 5. 2002c). 2. Although the production of vegetable oil requires an additional initial investment.
. with figures from 1. diesel generating sets are rather sensitive to climatic and geographic conditions. since here start-up and shut-down procedures are less frequent. To improve the situation of diesel dependence.1. the application in hybrid systems is advantageous in this respect. however.4 Technical Aspects This section gives an overview on different technical aspects related to the application of hybrid systems in developing countries. 2002).2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
erate under low elevation head or low volumetric flow rate conditions. A holistic approach to create this kind of infrastructure and to make the use of renewable energy technologies in developing countries sustainable is imperative for energy planners and development aid organisations. F.2. rapeseed or sunflowers. A careful assessment of water resources is therefore essential. is still matter of research and currently more applicable for industrial purposes (Iowa. 2. 2002b). are briefly summarised below.1. but also common for the use of the single elements.000 – 80. makes their adaptation in developing countries a rather difficult task. Instead of conventional diesel gensets. as was further outlined in section 2.1 General Aspects General problems occurring with the elements of hybrid systems are not only specific for hybrid systems.2.5 °C above a temperature of 20 °C (Wuppertal Institute. The diesel generating set The non-continuous use of diesel generating sets always results in a reduction of lifetime due to the frequent start-up and shut-down procedures.
the storage of power is meant to bypass short times of power shortages. Low temperatures slow down the chemical reactions inside the battery. The charge controller. High temperatures result in an increase of corrosion velocity of the battery’s electrodes. at Intersolar-Fair. The performance of a battery bank is controlled with the help of a charge controller. 1999a). In order to guarantee this. thus significantly reducing the utilisable capacity. overcharge and a low electrolyte level should be avoided. 2.
Personal Comment given by Mr. The optimal performance of this component highly influences not only the system’s performance. in most cases lead-acid batteries. it also influences the overall performance costs of the system.8
The Charge Controller The charge controller in renewable energy systems has two fundamental functions (IEA. the battery offers support in times of peak demands. The following major aspects need to be considered when designing a battery bank for hybrid systems: Capacity Design: When designing a battery bank installation. 1998): 1. thus reducing the battery’s lifetime significantly. both high and low temperatures should be avoided as far as possible (IEA. This is due to the fact that an accurately working charge controller increases performance and lifetime of the battery bank. too. though being one of the least costly components in renewable energy systems. Furthermore. The use of storage systems in hybrid power plants has a twofold effect: on the one hand. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH. it is important to note that a battery’s capacity decreases over lifetime. the longer the battery’s lifetime. 1998). On the other hand. 1999a). resulting in lower overall costs. a battery installation should be designed based on the 80% of the nominal battery capacity (IEA.
. The more optimal the performance of the battery bank. Freiburg. Regulation of the current from the renewable energy generator in order to protect the battery from being overcharged. Germany. where the nominal value is given by the manufacturer. resulting in the need for suitable operation and management system.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
The Storage System The storage device of hybrid systems. daily control both of battery acid level and voltage are fundamental. Thus. Therefore. is of high importance for the system’s reliability and highly influences the system’s maintenance costs (IEA. Effect of temperature: The nominal capacity is usually given at a battery temperature of 20°C. is a very sensitive and crucial part of the system. the application of a charge controller is essential. which guarantees that the battery is neither over-charged nor discharged too deeply. Most controllers additionally regulate the current to the load in order to protect the battery from discharge. on June 28th. The end of life of a battery is reached when capacity has declined to 80% of the nominal value. 2003. Deep discharge to less than 50% of the capacity. which cannot be met by the renewable energy source alone. Georg Weingarten.
the control of charge and discharge basically works as it does in systems with just one renewable energy resource. the objective of system control.000 cycles.. Other dispatch strategies are to turn on the genset only when the load is reasonably large and to run it at a loading to supply just enough power in order to keep the batteries from being discharged.e. Sheriff. 2003. 3. which is often difficult. making the charge control simpler. The situation. one needs to distinguish two different scenarios: firstly. 1998). 9 2. and not only that battery specifications are not always available. in addition to the former. This dispatch strategy is commonly quite simple: it can be determined by a low voltage point of the battery and a voltage point at which the battery is fully charged. the diesel genset runs at full loading. Battery banks in hybrid systems are generally relatively smaller and cycled more than.000 – 3. the main objective of applying charge control is to maximise the battery’s lifetime. 1998). however. on June 28th. During this time.
Personal Comment given by Mr. i. S. This increases the importance of regular equalisation and makes the cycle life the main factor determining the battery lifetime. and when to switch the genset off. There. Germany.
. Since the genset is switched on in times the renewable energy resource cannot meet the demand. many charge controllers cannot be properly adjusted. in hybrid systems relying on renewable energy technologies for power supply alone (i. 1998). without increasing the overall costs significantly. charge currents can be rather high. the loading at which to operate. For the aspect of charge control. A typical cycle life of hybrid systems’ battery banks consists of 2. Freiburg. is different for hybrid systems using diesel gensets as a backup. Main problems related to batteries and the charge controller in hybrid systems include temperature control.. Energiebau Solarstromsysteme GmbH.. PV/Wind hybrid systems). The fact that power is available on demand in diesel genset supported hybrid systems eliminates many of the vagaries associated with the fluctuating nature of renewable energy resources.2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
For hybrid systems. deciding when to turn it on. Pneumaticos. the charge controller is giving the dispatch strategy. exceeds a certain threshold. sometimes it is even left to the user to switch on the genset (IEA. This gives potential for more costly controllers with higher functionality. Concerning the diesel genset itself. batteries are also usually the first component suffering from abuse (Turcotte. in pure photovoltaic systems. 4. Since hybrid systems are typically designed for higher loads than pure renewable systems. Georg Weingarten. F. charge controllers are relatively less costly for the overall system. or to start the genset when the net load. using the power which is not required by the load to charge the battery bank (IEA. at Intersolar-Fair.e. is also to minimise costs for diesel fuel and maintenance (IEA. 1998): 1. meaning the load current minus the current available from the renewable energy generators. 2001). D.. there are four major differences for diesel genset supported hybrid systems compared to “simple” systems with renewable energy technologies alone (IEA. Especially if the diesel genset is oversized.
2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Inverters In cases where the power supplied by the renewable energy generator is given in DC, a DC/AC-inverter needs to be installed additionally. This is due to the fact that most appliances needing AC current are less costly than those requiring DC current. There are different inverter models available, which are not to be discussed within this work. All of these models, however, need to meet the following requirements (Kaltschmitt, M., 2001/2002): optimal adjustment to the renewable energy generator proper energetic inversion to DC current compliance with the principles of netparallel operation
Inverters for hybrid systems are nowadays still considered as problematic and are in need for further development (Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F.; Pneumaticos, S., 2001). Common problems related to their application in hybrid systems include faults during transition and difficulties in starting the generators. Moreover, available models often loose their parameters when being reset, and some faults additionally require manual reset (Turcotte, D.; Sheriff, F.; Pneumaticos, S., 2001). Modern inverter technologies available on the market not only provide the normal functions of an inverter, but additionally integrate the charge control. These appliances allow with their integrated system management an automatic control of the energy sources, the charging state of the battery and the power demand of the loads. 18.104.22.168 Energy Management Systems Energy Management Systems (EMS) are a modern possibility to improve supply security of hybrid or other systems applying renewable energy resources. It serves the function of the charge controller in a more flexible way, while at the same time serving additional functions. An EMS anticipates expected loads and prioritises them, co-ordinates the application of the different generators and optimises the exploitation of the renewable energy resource, and decreases the maintenance requirements by optimising the operation of the batteries (Benz, J., 2003).
Finally, the centralised approach of extending the conventional grid to rural areas is the last option to be described here. Grid-based electricity is delivered to consumers at three different levels (Baur, J., 2000): 1. The electric current produced in conventional central power plants is transported via high-voltage transmission lines at a voltage of 60 – 200 kilovolt over long distances; 2. On a regional level, the electric current is distributed to the villages via mean-voltage grid, normally at a voltage of 10 - 22 kilovolt. 3. Inside the village, the electric current is transformed to the voltage level of 110 – 220/230 volt of the households.
2 Technologies for Rural Energy Supply
Compared to European standards, the conventional grid in developing countries lacks redundancy. This leads to lower costs on the one hand, but to less reliability on the other hand as well. Grid-based electrification is often highly favoured by rural population despite the problems with reliable electricity supply. However, the extension of the conventional grid is often not feasible from an economic point of view. Factors to be considered include10 distance of the village from the grid, number of households to be connected to the grid within the village, and household density in the villages, meaning the distances between the different houses.
Moreover, the fact that many developing countries are heavily dependent on fossil fuels makes grid-based rural electrification unattractive not only from an economic, but also from an environmental perspective.
For further reading see: (Cabraal, A.; Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Schaeffer, L., 1996) and (Baur, J., 2000).
3 Analysis of Impacts
Analysis of Impacts
Although several projects with hybrid systems for rural electrification have been carried out already, surveys investigating these systems are so far very limited. In fact, no socioeconomic survey discussing the adaptation of hybrid systems in developing countries has been conducted to date. This problem led to the idea of discussing the application of hybrid systems in developing countries not in absolute terms, but rather to compare their sustainability relative to other likely scenarios of rural electrification, which will be defined in the following section. This chapter, thus, aims to analyse the impacts of rural electrification in developing countries with hybrid systems relative to the different technology options presented above. In doing so, it is tried to find out to which degree hybrid system likely provide a sustainable option for rural electrification. The assessment of hybrid systems compared to the different other scenarios is accomplished with a set of indicators, which is developed in 3.2 and 3.3, making possible a comparison on the three dimensions of sustainability: ecological, socio-economic and economic issues.
Scope of the Analysis
For the assessment, the fictitious case of electrification of a remote village in a rural area in a developing country is discussed. It is assumed that this village is electrified with different scenarios of rural electrification, and their impacts on the three dimensions of sustainability are analysed relative to each other. Table 3.1 gives and overview on the chosen scenarios. Table 3.1 Scenarios and Technologies for Rural Electrification
No. Scenario Technologies PV-Diesel 1 Decentralised Rural Electrification with Hybrid Systems Wind-Diesel PV-Wind 2 3 4 Decentralised Rural Electrification with Diesel Gensets Decentralised Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Centralised Rural Electrification by Grid Extension Diesel Gensets SHS Biogas Country dependent
3.1.1 Scenario Definitions This section outlines the underlying assumptions for the different scenarios for rural electrification, as they will be used for the assessment in the following. Scenario 1: Hybrid Systems The analysis of the different hybrid systems is here restricted to those which have been applied already in developing countries, namely the combinations PV/Diesel, Wind/Diesel and PV/Wind. The reason to leave out potential other technologies, as they were presented in
Where appropriate. It is obvious that in practical cases. it is supposed that natural and other conditions for the realisation of the considered technical alternatives are given. This is due to two reasons: on the one hand. Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets The comparison of hybrid systems with diesel gensets is based on the assumption that the considered rural village is for this scenario supplied by a diesel-based mini-grid.3. and will be presented as examples in detail in chapter 4. since it is seen as inappropriate for being discussed here. meaning that a generator is applied for producing electricity. However. However. However. which more detailed information could be obtained for.3 Analysis of Impacts
chapter 2. two typical options are investigated here in comparison to hybrid systems: SHS and biogas systems. It is assumed that the households of the considered village are electrified each with a SHS. These projects took place in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia. It is rather a debate on principles but a question of analytical discussion. not under the guidance of development cooperation organisations. the electrification of non-electrified areas has been regarded as essential to economic and social development during the Earth Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. The scenario “Rural area without electrification” is not included in the analysis. Scenario 3: Renewable Energies For electrification of rural villages with renewable energies. this is accounted for here. the relevant combinations of hybrid systems are discussed as a whole. Since SHS are not used for productive purposes. which means that ideal conditions are not assumed. SHS are accounted here because they are applied widely nowadays. 2002. For the assessment of hybrid systems. only a more limited number of the technical options will be available. if necessary. Biogas systems are investigated as village systems for electrification of the considered remote village.2. accepting that the comparison with a hybrid village system is to some extent not accurate. the comparison of non-electrified areas with the electrification by different technologies seems to be inadequate in technical terms anyway. The different scenarios are all discussed as real application scenarios. The hybrid systems discussed here are designed for 24-hours electrification of a remote rural village.
. operated by a private operator and being implemented privately. Scenario 4: Grid Extension The extension of the conventional grid to remote rural areas is in most cases unlikely due to usually large distances of rural villages to the grid and the corresponding considerable investment necessary for the extension. they are discussed each for themselves. it is here often referred to experiences of two projects on rural electrification with hybrid systems. on the other hand. but usually for household electrification only. it is thought that the comparison with SHS will be supportive to identify the circumstances under which the application of hybrid systems is reasonable with regard to sustainability. is that this kind of assessment would be based on too many assumptions and therefore be too speculative. for the assessment of hybrid systems it is seen as important to include grid extension as well in order to accurately determine the quality of hybrid system electrification.
and 1:2 in the case of PV/Wind systems. The assessment of ecological issues is performed for a village with 170 households with a calculated annual peak electricity consumption of 48.2 Modelling Assumptions For the assessment of parts of the ecological and economic dimension. A system trying to describe and to quantify the degree of sustainability is the concept of indicators for sustainable development. The need for such an indicator system.126 kWh/a. The main assumptions are presented in the following. Indicators are used to give a comprehensive view on sustainability. creating a transparent and simplified system to provide information on the degree of sustainability both to decision-makers and the interested public. the comparison with weather data from several other locations revealed that this location makes a generalised statement possible by offering average conditions. For the design of the hybrid systems to electrify a village in Trapani. A number of indicator sets have been developed.2
The Concept of Indicators of Sustainability
Measuring the degree of sustainability obviously is a difficult task. summarising complex information and. leaving much space for discussion and interpretation. no approved indicator system has been developed yet. Source: Meteosat. Most commonly.3 Analysis of Impacts
Parts of the ecological and economic analysis in the following could not be performed in general terms and required an accurate modelling of the considered remote village and the installed hybrid systems. how-
Global radiation: 1. The hybrid systems are then designed accordingly to meet this demand with the ratio 4:1 in the cases of PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems.11 Although this location is not situated in a developing country.1. the latter concept of indicators for societies as a whole has gained importance by understanding the global dimension of sustainability. the details of the calculations can be found in Annex A. the annual peak demand of the village was determined according to different possible village sizes. The annual consumption results from a calculated specific consumption per household and an additional 40% excess consumption for productive purposes. For the task of evaluating the sustainability of different energy technology concepts. indicator sets have been developed and used to provide information on the state of sustainability of production processes or societies as a whole. of which some of the most known on an international level have been set up by the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The calculation of investment and electricity generating costs for the assessment of economic sustainability is then performed for different village sizes for the same location. This electricity demand is then met with the different scenarios for rural electrification in order to comparatively assess hybrid systems.
3. Trapani/Italy was chosen as an example with moderately suited weather conditions. 3. thus.664 kWh/m2/a.
R.3 0.1 0.1 0. however..
Developing an Indicator Set for Energy Technologies
Available indicator sets for measuring the sustainability of energy technologies have been found to be inappropriate within the framework of this work since they are commonly adapted to the conditions of industrialised rather than to those in developing countries and they include too many indicators. W. They do. a set of indicators measuring these criteria was developed. Krewitt.1 0.. evaluating their current state of sustainability relative to each other.3 0. 2003) or (Nill.3 0. Friedrich.1 0. provide the basis for the indicator set being developed within this work.. is apparent and has been highlighted in a number of studies already. with the indicators weighted relative to their importance for the respective dimension according to the author’s opinion. D.3 Analysis of Impacts
ever. This led to the following set of indicators: Table 3.
3.1 0..3 0.1 0. On the other hand.2 0. the results being obtained by such an indicator set can provide a data base for the evaluation of the sustainability of a society as a whole. M. 12 On the one hand.05
Compare for example: (Aßmann. the three dimensions of sustainability – ecological.4 0. A.25 0.2 Criteria and Indicators for the Assessment of Energy Technologies
Dimension Criteria Climate Protection Ecology Resource Protection Noise Reduction Indicator Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh Consumption of Unlasting Resources Noise Pollution Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance SocioEconomic Issues Overall SocioEconomic Matters Degree of Supply Equity Potential for Participation and Empowerment Potential for Economic Development Individual SocioEconomic Interests Low Costs and Tariffs Economic Issues Maintenance Economic Independence Future Potential Employment Effects Impacts on Health Investment Costs per W Electricity Generating Costs per kWh Maintenance Requirements Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply Supply Security Degree of know-how Improvement Weighting 0.1 0. socio-economic and economic issues – needed to be broken down to a set of criteria describing these issues. Voß. 2000). In a next step... In a first step. and also offering a comprehensive view on the their weak points from a perspective of sustainability.2 0. it allows a “relative” comparison of different technologies. Marheineke. T.
aiming to analyse the three dimensions of sustainability as comprehensive as possible. This set of indicators tries to give a holistic picture. For the socio-economic dimension. The comparative assessment of hybrid systems with the other scenarios of rural electrification with regard to the different indicators is done with the following assessment scheme: Table 3. DomDom. for example donor organisations. Maintenance. D. and the assessment of these kinds of general benefits of rural electrification has been matter of a lot of research work during the last years. investment costs. thus.3 Analysis of Impacts
The discussion of the relevance of the different indicators to the three dimensions of sustainability is left to the sections below..
In order to come to a conclusion on the performance of hybrid systems on the three dimensions of sustainability. The extent to which technologies meet this objective should be weighted accordingly. the criteria of low costs and tariffs as well as maintenance are seen as most important criteria because of their high influence on the success of electrification projects. meanwhile. The weighting of the indicators is explained as follows: For the ecological dimension.
. while this work needs to stay on a more generalised level. weighted high as well. where each indicator is presented and analysed for different energy technology options.. et al. is of key importance for the reliable performance of the electricity supply system and. emphasis is given to climate and resource protection due to their high importance for environmental sustainability.13 However. A. the indicators are then summarised for each dimension individually according to their respective weight for the dimension. Among these criteria. For the economic dimension.3 Performance Assessment Scheme
2 Comparatively very good performance 1 0 -1 Comparatively poor performance -2 Comparatively very poor performance Average performComparatively good ance or no statement performance possible
As examples: (Barkat.. 2002). the indicators for economic development and employment effects are emphasised in the weighting due to the fact that economic development is one of the major objectives of rural electrification. a detailed determination of differences can only be discussed on concrete case studies. The discussion of sustainability in this chapter does not account for benefits or problems related to electrification in general. the indicator of electricity generating costs is seen as being of highest importance because these costs are to be covered by the customers directly. The constricted number of indicators allows to give significant statements on the chosen criteria by being investigated intensively. 2002) and (Barnes. can be covered by other means. A. As an example. moreover. gender issues are not taken into account although this issue might be important in individual cases.
are closely linked to the occurrence of acid rain and have severe impacts on human health. but during their whole life cycle including i.3 Analysis of Impacts
It must be emphasised at this point that this assessment scheme only gives information on the relative sustainability of the different scenarios compared to each other. The emission of air pollutants is here measured in SO2-Equivalents per kWh. 3. CO2Equivalents aggregate the different greenhouse gas emissions as CO2. SO2-Equivalents aggregate different air pollutants like SO2.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are here measured in CO2-Equivalents per kWh. CO = carbon monoxide. Air pollutants are emitted in combustion processes as well.1 Climate Protection The degree of climate sustainability is here determined with two different indicators.4. this electricity demand was met with the different technology scenarios. then.oeko. SO2 = sulphur oxide. the main results are presented here.
CO2 = carbon dioxide.1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh. only the results are presented here. For the modelling in GEMIS. All of these emissions occur not only during operation of energy supply systems.
. For the relative comparison with the other scenarios. however. All of these gases are emitted as products of combustion processes. and Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh. shall be shown as a relative comparison rather than as in absolute figures.
3. and compares them relative to the other options for rural electrification. NOx. CH4 or N2O14 due to their contribution to the greenhouse effect over a time frame of 100 years. production. China. gives chapter for a justification of the results. transport.de/service/gemis/. recycling. and South Africa) are chosen as representatives. a free download software provided by the German Öko-Institut. 16 Available at: http://www. Conclusions on an absolute degree of sustainability cannot be drawn from this. They can be assessed with the help of GEMIS (Global Emission Model for Integrated Systems). since it is not a detailed life cycle assessment. NOx = nitrogen oxide.1 Ecological Dimension 3.4. For the extension of the conventional grid. The details of the modelling assumptions and a detailed discussion of the results can be found in Annex B.4
Analysis of Sustainability
This section analyses hybrid systems on the three dimensions of sustainability with the help of the indicators set up above. CH4 = methane. three country examples (Brazil. operation. Annex C. dust or CO15 due to their acidification potential. N2O = nitrous oxide (laughing gas).e. this section presents only the assessment for hybrid systems in detail.16 The results of this analysis. For a better reading.
1.1 GEMIS Results: Greenhouse Gas Emissions The comparison of GHG emissions per kWh shows that especially PV/Wind hybrid systems are highly preferential.4. their performance is therefore worse. however.000 Greenhouse Gases [kg CO2-Equivalents] 50. Compared to conventional energy systems.000 20. which similar greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to. The GHG emissions resulting from diesel-based hybrid systems are higher due to the application of the diesel genset. In comparison to purely renewable energy systems.
.3 Analysis of Impacts
3. It shows that hybrid systems can be assessed as being supportive for the objective of decreasing GHG emissions compared to conventional energy systems.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica
Figure 3.000 10.1 shows the modelling results of GHG emissions attributable to the different scenarios for meeting the electricity demand of the chosen village.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions per kWh Scenario Comparison Figure 3. Figure 3. Purely renewable hybrid systems as PV/Wind are here performing even better than dieselbased systems. The scenario of grid extension is described with the chosen countries Brazil. South Africa and China.000 30. diesel-based hybrid systems are advantageous. PV/Wind systems result in lower greenhouse gas emissions than all other scenarios except SHS.1.
60.000 40.2 summarises the results of the analysis of GHG emissions on the basis of the comparative assessment scheme.
PV/Wind systems are advantageous in any case. The other hybrid systems suffer in their performance mainly from the emission of NOx in the combustion process of the diesel generator.4. China and South Africa rely mainly on coal with the associated high SO2-emissions from sulphur bound in the coal. The comparison with the conventional grid clearly shows a high dependence on the respective energy sources used in such grids. These emissions result mainly from sulphur bound in the substrate.2 Emissions of Air Pollutants per kWh Scenario Comparison The comparison of emissions of air pollutants again shows a preference for the PV/Wind system. the application of diesel-based hybrid systems is associated with more emissions of air pollutants compared to the grid of Brazil. Diesel-based mini-grids result in the highest amount of air pollutants due to NOx emissions in the combustion process.3 GEMIS Results: Emissions of Air Pollutants While SHS almost do not result in any emission of air pollutants due to the absence of a combustion process.
800 Air Pollutants [kg SO2-Equivalents] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa
Figure 3.3 Analysis of Impacts
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Figure 3. While Brazil applies mainly hydroelectric power and therefore hardly has significant emissions of air pollutants. while they emit less air pollutants compared to the grids of China and South Africa.
.1. Thus. the amount of air pollutants is considerable in the case of biogas.2 Comparative Assessment of GHG Emissions
3.1. They are therefore strongly disadvantageous in this respect.
17 It is therefore a measure to describe the extent to which renewable and non-renewable energy resources are consumed in order to provide electricity. Scenario Comparison The comparison of CED with GEMIS shows expected results: fossil fuelled scenarios involve a higher amount of non-renewable energy for the production of energy.3 Analysis of Impacts
For the comparative assessment. A comparatively good performance can be attributed to PV/Diesel.4 Comparative Assessment of Air Pollutants Emissions
3. the availability of unlasting renewable energy resources as for example firewood is to be ensured as well. GEMIS investigates the cumulative energy demand (CED) in kWh. This shows the assessment with GEMIS in Figure 3.
Source: GEMIS. GEMIS is used as well.5.1.4. Wind/Diesel and biogas systems.2 Resource Protection The degree of resource protection is here measured with the help of the indicator “Consumption of unlasting Resources”. The conventional grid is concluded to perform worst with regard to the emission of air pollutants. both during operation and for the construction of the power plant. For the assessment.
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Figure 3. PV/Wind systems and SHS are evaluated to perform comparatively best. which is a measure for the whole effort on energy resources (primary energy) caused by the provision of products or services.
. The reason to investigate the CED rather than just the consumption of non-renewable resources is that the depletion of all resources is crucial for the environmental performance of energy systems. because most developing countries apply a significant share of fossil resources for electricity generation.
3 Analysis of Impacts
250.000 200.000 CED [kWh] 150.000 100.000 50.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Non-renew able Renew able Others
Figure 3.5 GEMIS Results: Cumulative Energy Demand of Primary Energy Thus, here again PV/Wind systems are to be distinguished from diesel-based hybrid systems. PV/Wind systems involve a similar CED as do biogas systems and slightly more than SHS, while diesel-based systems here come out worse. While in comparison to diesel gensets, all hybrid systems perform better with regard to CED, the situation is different concerning the conventional grid. Since the CED as well strongly depends from the energy mix of the respective countries, it is here decided to give preference just to PV/Wind systems and rank diesel-based hybrid systems similar to the conventional grid. Figure 3.6 summarises the results of the assessment of this indicator on the basis of the assessment scheme.
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Figure 3.6 Comparative Assessment of Resource Consumption
22.214.171.124 Noise Reduction Noise reduction is here measured with the help of the indicator „Noise Pollution”. Noise is a ubiquitous environmental problem, being more than just disturbing. A stringent interpretation of the term “health” as given by the World Health Organisation (WHO) allows to call noise a health problem (WHO, 1948). The effects of noise on health reach from aural detriment or deterioration to extra-aural health problems or the perturbation of well-being (Helfer, M., 1998/1999).
3 Analysis of Impacts
Although the absolute figure of noise pollution measured in decibel is of importance to measure the effect on human health, it is here abandoned to do so. This is due to the fact that on the one hand reliable data could not be obtained; on the other hand mitigation measures on severe noise pollution are available and applied in developing countries as well.18 Thus, this section is based on own assessment of the author, leaving out noise being generated during construction phase, as this applies to all scenarios. Assessment of Hybrid Systems PV modules do not create noise during operation. For the case of a PV/Diesel system, thus, the diesel genset is the only part generating noise during operation and through start-up and shut-down procedures. The noise originated by the diesel genset, however, can well be cushioned by building a capsule, i.e. a powerhouse, which is taken into consideration for the assessment here. Wind turbines create an additional buzzing noise by their rotating wings. This effect can be recognised as being disturbing. Moreover, the power distribution lines of the mini-grid further contribute with a buzzing noise as well. Scenario Comparison The comparison of the impacts of the different technologies shows a disadvantage of windbased hybrid systems, being due to the noise generated by the wind turbines.
2 1 0 PV/ Diesel -1 -2 Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Figure 3.7 Comparative Assessment of Noise Pollution For PV/Diesel hybrid systems, the assessment here is less negative. Still, the application of the diesel genset is disadvantageous in comparison to SHS. For the comparison with diesel gensets, hybrid systems are all seen as advantageous, because cushioning measures are usually not applied for diesel gensets in developing countries. The comparatively good performance of the extension of the conventional grid on this indicator results from the fact that electricity generation does not take place in the village itself, by this not being disturbing to its inhabitants.
Personal Comment given by Georg Kraft, German Bank for Reconstruction (KfW), on July 7th, 2003 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
3 Analysis of Impacts
3.4.2 Socio-Economic Dimension 126.96.36.199 Overall Socio-Economic Matters The discussion of overall social matters, reflecting overall interests and needs for sustainable social development, is based on a number of different indicators: Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance, Degree of Supply Equity, Degree of Participation and Empowerment, and Potential for Economic Development.
188.8.131.52.1 Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance can be seen as key factors for project developers in developing countries. The history of development aid projects has many examples of projects, which failed due to a lack of cultural compatibility and the corresponding lack of acceptance. This indicator, thus, tries to investigate whether major cultural obstacles exist and whether this or other factors can lead to problems with regard to acceptance. It is obvious that an assessment of cultural compatibility and acceptance in global terms can just be rather vague. Especially cultural compatibility varies strongly not only between countries, but even within different regions. However, it is tried here to assess the cultural compatibility of hybrid systems by extracting experiences obtained within projects and by referring to studies addressing this issue. For this purpose, detailed information only on two projects in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia could be reviewed, because other detailed project reports could not be obtained. Assessment of Hybrid Systems The final reports of projects applying hybrid systems for rural electrification in Inner Mongolia (GTZ, 2003) and Indonesia (Preiser, K. et al., 2000) do not indicate that cultural reservations must be anticipated. Neither is there any evidence that rural electrification through solar or wind energy would reveal any potential cultural obstacles.19 However, although cultural compatibility is likely not to be problematic, problems with the acceptance of the application of hybrid system can always arise from poor system performance.20 Commonly, rural population is familiar with good-quality energy services through information given by relatives or friends who live in grid-electrified urban areas. A system promising electrification on a 24-hours basis, but not working reliably, can soon lead to dissatisfaction. Moreover, it can be expected that in areas where renewable energies have not been applied yet, hybrid systems will be met with scepticism and caution by rural population.
Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur, GTZ, in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th, 2003. 20 In Subang/Indonesia, for example, it was observed that consumers were dissatisfied due to technical failures or temporary breakdowns of a PV/Diesel hybrid systems. Thus, a connection to the grid was stated to be preferential by the consumers (Preiser, K., et al., 2000).
2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Biogas. and both need to be taken into account here: Access to electricity services can be hampered by existing structures of political power. hybrid systems offer the possibility to supply energy equally to everybody within the village. This section is.8 Comparative Assessment of Cultural taboos associated with dealing with Compatibility and Acceptance excrements. it is assumed that the use of renewable energy technologies is a rather unknown approach for most people in rural areas. Low total costs make electricity affordable to people of almost any income class. Moreover. The Indonesian project proofs that population of a hybrid-powered village does not feel discriminated with energy distribution compared to other customers (Preiser. 2000). However. 14th.3 Analysis of Impacts
Scenario Comparison The comparison as being presented in Annex C. but also on own estimations by the author as well as on conversations with project co-ordinators of the GTZ. Without taking external costs into account. et al. K.21 In the assessment. supply equity is not a matter of course in decentralised systems and should not be overestimated. Low total costs are used as an additional criterion for the comparative assessment. based not only on literature. widely independent from national political matters.2 Degree of Supply Equity Supply equity basically refers to two different aspects. 3.
With Jörg Baur and Roman Ritter.2.2 is based on the assumption that all systems are working well. 2003. The way of implementation and existing structures of political power in the village itself can be obstacles for supply equity as well.
Surveys and project descriptions dealing with electrification in developing countries have been analysed. but just very limited information could be obtained. in Eschborn/Germany on August. thus. faces severe cultural obstacles due to religious or social Figure 3.. Assessment of Hybrid Systems By being a decentralised system.1. however. hybrid systems are relatively expensive regarding both investment and operation costs.
.22 This restricts the application of hybrid systems for the electrification of rural villages to areas with some economic and financial potential. priority is given to the matter of equal access to electricity. The assessment of cultural compatibility shows that conventional technologies as grid extension and diesel gensets are likely to result in less cultural obstacles or problems of acceptance since these technologies are wellknown to rural population..4. From a financial perspective.
1. Since hybrid systems are discussed here for the application on community level. come to the conclusion that people are willing and able to learn about the system.4.3 Potential for Participation and Empowerment This section aims to discuss whether hybrid systems are likely to contribute to capacity building on matters of energy. which is not very surprising since the decentralised nature and the avoiding of fossil resources are major advantages of renewable energies.
Figure 3. Biogas plants come off better than hybrid systems due to the lower total costs associated with their application. Assessment of Hybrid Systems The experiences made in the projects in Indonesia and in Inner Mongolia do not create a consistent picture of the ability of hybrid systems to improve knowledge on energy saving measures. is a good mixture for capacity building and empowerment.9 Comparative Assessment of Supply Equity
3.2. as do decentralised electricity generation in general. which improves understanding and empowerment. The provision of fossil resources as well as the conventional grid are often subject to political changes and interference. hybrid systems are likely to improve people’s understanding in matters of energy provision. Scenario Comparison The comparison shows a great potential for hybrid systems on capacity building for energy issues.3 Analysis of Impacts
Scenario Comparison The analysis of supply equity shows a preference to decentralised systems in general and especially to those applying renewable energies. preference is given to household units. For a future sustainable energy system it is essential not only to provide energy in a clean and inexpensive way.
2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Among the renewable energies. Both project reports. but also to make customers aware of the fact that energy is limited and saving of energy therefore important. However. however. and therefore by their nature less able to guarantee longterm equal access to electricity. Not only that the installed capacity is limited and does not allow unlimited consumption of electricity. Both projects did apply certain consumption restrictions to the consumers. since especially in Indonesia the capacity installed was too low to meet the demand. The fact that hybrid systems are applied at a certain limited capacity. SHS come off better concerning supply equity. but provide electricity the whole day.
. and that people were also willing to adapt to the restrictions that were set. Another aspect to be considered is empowerment: increased understanding and participation of the interested public in a development context provides the opportunity of increasing empowerment. Electricity is also produced within the village itself. and by which people can learn about issues of electricity production.
. These examples.. they can supply electricity on a 24 hours basis. 2000). but are matter of the implementation process and cannot be considered for a comparative assessment.5.1. the projects in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia did apply certain restrictions on the use of electricity. the assessment would be different. even among household without access to electricity (Barkat. This is due to the fact that energy services are commonly seen as essential for economic development: lighting.3. If an adequate capacity is installed.4.10 Comparative Assessment of Participament. 2002). the stability and flexibility of the system.2. the demand is likely to increase. A. for example. Assessment of Hybrid Systems As already mentioned in section 3. a significant share of annual income could be attributed to electricity in Bangladesh (Barkat. and people in general have more time for enhanced commercial activities during the day if they have lighting for doing their household chores in the evenings. have greater -2 potential compared to the hybrid systems investigated here. A.. for example. electrification should be seen as essential for economic development. 2002). et al. because they require a high degree of user involve. because once electricity is available. moreover. For hybrid systems.
. the conclusion can be drawn that they offer a good potential for economic development. however.
2 1 0 -1 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Biogas plants. Complementary measures need to be taken in order to ensure economic development. Under quality aspects of electricity provision. show that electrification results in a higher number of people being employed.4 Potential for Economic Development The indicator “Potential for Economic Development” certainly is of major importance for the assessment of the sustainability of energy technologies. and experiences made particularly in connection with SHS. et al. electrification allows handicraft enterprises to apply more power tools and to increase their productivity. K. For hybrid systems applying tion and Empowerment biogas plants as backup. allows shop owners or handicraft enterprises to extend their commercial activities to the evenings.. the good quality of the produced electricity as well as the possibility to install high capacities make hybrid systems very favourable. 3. which can be installed at and technically easily extended to comparatively high capacities.2. but not as only necessary measure. they are normally meeting the needs.4. Experiences made in Bangladesh. Both projects experienced that the installed capacity of the systems soon was unable to meet the demand since people employed more and more electric appliances.. As a result.1.Figure 3. in Indonesia some customers even evaluated the quality higher than that of the conventional public grid (Preiser.3 Analysis of Impacts
People need to understand the limited nature of energy in order to properly exploit the installed capacity of hybrid systems and in order to give every user in the community the same possibility to use electricity.. et al. However. which was not expected especially in Indonesia. proof the necessity of careful demand forecasts as will be discussed in chapter 5.
11 Comparative Assessment of Potential practically no limitations to commer. Socio-economic surveys on rural electrification in general reveal that employment effects are likely to occur and can directly be attributed to electrification. 2002).
.. no studies at all were found investigating employment effects of hybrid systems explicitly..
3. F. The expansion of renewable energy technologies in Germany has shown that the provision of energy services gains importance.2... Haker. A. K. service and maintenance of renewable energy systems will occur as was already experienced with SHS (Nieuwenhout. Fenhann. because these other systems are problematic with regard to issues as reliability.2 Individual Social Interests The criterion individual social interests will be discussed with the two indicators Employment Effects. 2000). and Impacts on Health. 3. et al. J. et al. J.. 2002) reveals that access to electricity results in a higher number of people employed even among non-electrified households in the village. renewable energy technologies as wind energy are relatively more labour intensive (Scheelhasse. Only fragmentary information could be obtained on employment effects attributable to the application of different energy technologies in developing countries in general. Case studies in Africa expect that the decentralised nature of manufacturing of technologies as solar energy is likely to result in wide-spread employment opportunities (Painuly.for Economic Development cial activities on rural village level has higher potential for economic development.1 Employment Effects In order to create a sustainable energy system in developing countries.2.23 Employment effects can result from enhanced economic activities as a result of lighting on the one hand. but are also likely to occur due to manufacturing and maintenance processes related to the application of the energy technology in the village.2..
2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Just the conventional grid by offering Figure 3. J.J.4. Assessment of Hybrid Systems Compared to conventional power plant technologies. 1999). the effects of different technology options on employment are important. sales. Demand-side-management to optimise appliances and con-
(Barkat.. continuity of electricity supply or commonly installed capacities.3 Analysis of Impacts
Scenario Comparison Hybrid systems show a good advantage on economic development in comparison to other decentralised rural electrification options.4. For this issue it was therefore tried to draw conclusions from surveys investigating the effects on employment of renewable energies in Germany. It can generally be expected that employment opportunities in production.D.
2003). Assessment of Hybrid Systems Hybrid systems emit corrosive gases during operation of the diesel genset.4. This is mainly due to the fact 0 that renewable energies are relatively Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid -1 labour intensive on the one hand. fume and particles. For the extension of the conventional grid. Due to this usually incomplete combustion process. corrosive gases are generated with negative impacts on human health. which reveal that rural health clinics could improve their medical services due to electrification. their higher potential on economic development and therefore employment opportunities than for hybrid systems is attenuated by lower potential for employment attributable to production or maintenance of the energy system.2. The electrification of rural health clinics is a main application for hybrid systems of smaller capacities. There are no emissions during operation resulting from the use of the renewable energy technologies. by this creating employment ment Effects opportunities. Critical corrosive gases emitted by diesel gensets are NOx. This. 1999). by this creating more employment opportunities than in the case of hybrid systems. Another aspect concerning human health refers to experiences with rural electrification.
. Other sources of soot and fumes are candles and kerosene lamps.Figure 3.3 Analysis of Impacts
sumption is likely to have significant employment effects (Scheelhasse. On the other hand they have good potential for economic develop. thus directly affecting human health (GTZ. which are not electrified. Systems Genset Extension which makes them favourable com-2 pared to conventional options as diesel gensets. K.. burn biomass for cooking.2. are seen as preferential compared to hybrid systems with regard to the fact that many system components of biogas plants can be produced inside the respective countries. Biogas systems. Haker. Scenario Comparison The comparison of hybrid systems 2 with other electrification scenarios shows a good potential for hybrid sys1 tems..12 Comparative Assessment of Employment. which makes them favourable compared to options as SHS. too. refrigerators can be used to store vaccines.2 Impacts on Health The relevance of this indicator derives from the experience that people in areas. however. The example of Inner Mongolia shows that hybrid systems indeed provide the possibility to improve the situation for rural health clinics reliably on a 24 hours basis. cannot be quantified here. To which extent this observation might apply to developing countries as well. J. is taken into consideration here. X-ray and sonography equipment can be used for better diagnosis of illnesses. 3. Moreover.
not accounting for the fact that electricity generating costs in the end might be lower. but also for commercial activities. the extension of the conventional grid brings out similar health effects as do hybrid systems. hardly result in 1 exhaust fumes. not only for lighting purposes.3 Economic Dimension 3. they are seen as advan0 tageous compared to diesel gensets Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid and SHS. Low costs and tariffs in general are key factors for the successful realisation and sustainable operation of electrification projects. a cost analysis for hybrid systems was performed based on cost data obtained by project developers and system providers and for the location of Trapani/Italy. Figure 3.3. While biogas is seen as -1 Systems Genset Extension preferable due to further effects on -2 overall cleanliness.1 Low Costs and Tariffs The question of low costs and tariffs mainly depends on three different aspects: Investment costs per W. Electricity generating costs per kWh.3 Analysis of Impacts
Scenario Comparison Due to the fact that hybrid systems can 2 well provide electricity to rural health clinics. If first investment is too high and requires substantial financial expenditure.13 Comparative Assessment of Impacts on Health 3.4. Willingness-to-pay on the one hand.4. moreover. potential customers are likely to decide for a cheaper option. The following basic assumptions were made:
Investment costs must be seen as a major hurdle for the implementation of electrification projects. and. Low electricity generating costs per kWh allow customers to apply more technical devices. For the assessment of costs and tariffs. but also affordability of electricity services on the other hand are essential matters of investigation in the planning process of these projects.
during a telephone interview on August. 2003. Tower): For Plants ≤ 10kW: Costs = 4309 × exp − 0. 27 Personal Recommendation Mr. Koerner during a telephone interview on August. Battery 5 years. H. G. GTZ.007 × Diesel Genset: Costs = 345. Cables. Diesel genset 10 years.
Personal Comment Mr. the batteries are designed for a storage capacity of 2 days Inverter and Charge Controller “Sunny Island”. Geis. Puls. 22nd. others: own estimation
The cost analysis was performed for different village sizes of 30 to 300 households and. 2003).7 × exp − 0. The details of the calculation can be found in Annex D.1 to 1 € per litre. 28 Personal Comment Mr. Wind generator 12 years. Koerner during a telephone interview on August.3 additionally gives an overview on cost estimations made by other organisations in order to make the picture as comprehensive as possible. Support: 2000 € Operating Costs Manpower. 2003. 25 P = Installed capacity.3 Analysis of Impacts
Table 3. 2003.5kW: 5000 € Planning. former KfW staff member. 18th. 500Ah battery. Maintenance and Repair: Annually 4% of total investment Interest Rate: 6% Miscellaneous Lifetime system components: PV modules 20 years. different system capacities. The electricity generating costs were calculated with the annuity method for diesel fuel prices of 0. Koerner during a telephone interview on August.1068 × Source Schueco24
P 25 [€/kW] kW P [€/kW] kW
For Plants ≥ 10 kW: Costs = 2016..0394 ×
Own calculation based on available cost data (see Annex D)
P [€/kW] kW
Battery bank: 333 €/kWh for a 12V. 2003.
. 4. Bopp.. 18th. 2003. 18th. accordingly. Annex D. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. Inverter and Charge Controller 10 years
Cost data SMA KfW27 Schueco28 Own estimations GTZ
Own assumption For PV and Wind: (Sauer.4 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis
Type of Costs Costs/Details Specific Investment PV Modules: 400 €/kWp Specific Investment Wind Power Plants (incl.. 26 Personal Comment Mr. Internal Wiring: 6000 € Cabinets.63 × exp − 0. 29 Personal Recommendation Jörg Baur. Assembly and Commissioning: 15% of total investment Transport: 1000 € Local grid. D.
3. This implies that PV/Wind systems are likely to be cost-competitive with the other hybrid systems only where weather conditions are favourable enough to guarantee electricity supply with smaller battery banks. In the investment costs analysis.00 6.
.03 to 3.67 – 12. but should rather be seen as indicative. they need to be taken with caution.5 Specific Investment Costs of Hybrid Systems
System PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems PV/Wind Systems at 2 days battery capacity PV/Wind Systems at 1 day battery capacity Share in Electricity Generation 4:1 4:1 1:2 1:2 Range of Investment Costs [€/W] 8. Table 3.5 indicate that the size of the battery highly influences the specific investment costs.3. cost data was collected from various other institutions. the influence of the battery capacity on investment costs was investigated by varying the storage capacity.05 – 10. This is proven by a number of examples collected from other organisations. inverters or other devices may significantly reduce investment costs. These investment costs vary between 3.
Table 3.5 €/W for Wind/Diesel village systems and 2.3 Analysis of Impacts
For the comparison with the other electrification scenarios.
3. 3.23 – 9.1 Investment Costs per W Assessment of Hybrid Systems
Assessing the initial investment necessary for hybrid systems is a difficult task since it depends strongly on the chosen system configuration.30 to 4. which are presented in more detail in Annex D.03 to 4. the here obtained investment costs for hybrid systems cannot be generalised for all cases. more suitable locations with regard to weather conditions strongly influence the system design and can therefore decrease investment costs.86 – 9. Since these costs are based on data from German manufacturers. Therefore.1.44 9.6 gives an overview on typical investment costs for the other scenarios of rural electrification. the following results were obtained for the specific investment costs per W for villages with 30 to 300 households. charge controllers.18
For PV/Wind systems.8 €/W for PV/Diesel village systems. By this it is tried to find out at which level of the different cost ranges hybrid systems are positioned. The results in Table 3.20 8.21 €/W for PV/Wind household systems. the quality of the components and the specific characteristics of the location.4. Locally produced batteries. moreover.
2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
This leads to a comparative assessment as shown in Figure 3. the construction of power distribution lines account for 80 to 90% of the overall investment. The comparison of hybrid systems with biogas systems shows that biogas is likely to be less costly as well.
Figure 3. requires high financial input for remote rural areas. A. Compared to the use of PV alone as SHS. M. L. the investment for hybrid systems might become similar. 2003)
The comparison of this data with those for hybrid systems calculated here reveals the following aspects: Diesel gensets are likely to be least costly among the decentralised solutions. According to the World Bank. L. 2000b). The quantity depends on the distance of the village to the grid. 2002) (Cabraal. diesel gensets and biogas systems . J. F. and: Baur.3 – 2. Grid extension.3 Analysis of Impacts
Table 3.. The comparison shows that among the decentralised solutions for rural village supply – hybrid systems.6 Investment Costs of Different Scenarios for Rural Electrification
System Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension Range of Investment Costs 0. CosgroveDavies.. by this reducing investment costs strongly since specific investment for PV modules does not decrease with higher installed capacities.5 – 4 €/W Depending on the location.. Schaeffer. meanwhile. show that for other locations and circumstances.14. 1996. and can be up to 20. Source (Kininger. 1996) (ATB. Schaeffer. The investment cost calculations for hybrid systems from other sources. For the case of a remote village. and are therefore evaluated as comparatively very good here.. M.14 Comparative Assessment of Investment Costs
. Cosgrove-Davies. and the density of households in the village (Cabraal.000 US$ per kilometre (ESMAP. investment costs for grid extension can therefore be evaluated as higher than for hybrid systems... A.. however. the number of households to be connected..hybrid power plants require the highest specific investment and are therefore disadvantageous.5 €/W 7 – 26 US$/Wp 2. 2000). hybrid systems require less specific investment due to the fact that the renewable part of the systems is not designed to meet the full electricity demand.
06 €/kWh lower for all village sizes at a fuel price of 0. so that the data here shall just be seen as indicative.15.1 €/l compared to 1 €/l.
Again.50 1.60 1.00 0. i.1 €/l Diesel Wind/Diesel: 1 €/l Diesel PV/Diesel: 0. The decrease in electricity generating costs for PV/Diesel systems is lower than for the other systems due to the fact that investment for PV modules does not decrease with higher capacities.3 Analysis of Impacts
Number of Households
Figure 3. The results can be found in Figure 3.
1.15 Electricity Generating Costs in Comparison The analysis of electricity generating costs lead to the following main observations: The electricity generating costs of all systems decrease with higher capacities.10 1.80 PV/Wind. the electricity generating costs are only 0.30 1. They might vary strongly according to actual site conditions. The effect of decreasing diesel fuel prices is only moderate.1.20 1.3. the costs can be significantly lower. which is mainly due to the fact that factors as the construc-
. but also in the possibility to design the battery bank smaller. Therefore. Battery 1 Day Wind/Diesel: 0. The electricity generating costs of PV/Wind systems as well strongly depend on the battery size and the weather conditions. both for PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems.e.40 1. This is proven by comparing the data calculated here with those of other institutions.4..3.70 1. which is mainly due to the decline in investment costs for wind and diesel generators. the absolute numbers for electricity generating costs must be taken with caution. Battery 2 Days PV/Wind. which can be found in Annex D. and the chosen system configuration strongly influences the electricity generating costs. Especially in the case of household systems.1 €/l Diesel PV/Diesel: 1 €/l Diesel 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 175 225 275
Electricity Generating Costs [€/kWh]
1. In fact.2 Electricity Generating Costs per kWh Assessment of Hybrid Systems
The cost analysis of hybrid systems was performed for different village sizes as well as different fuel prices in order to determine their influence on electricity generating costs. higher loads/larger villages give preference to Wind/Diesel systems if wind potential is sufficient. does not only result in higher electricity output of the PV modules. Higher annual global radiation.
For PV/Diesel hybrid systems. the situation can be completely different. Once the conventional grid is extended to a rural village.
. SHS proHybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid duce electricity at lower costs than -1 Systems Genset Extension hybrid village systems due to lower -2 operational costs. the scattered nature of these systems is generally problematic with regard to maintenance.60 US$/kWh 1 US$/kWh 0. which can be found in Annex C.000 kWh at an interest rate of 6% (Sauer.15 – 0.7. they are evaluated as 0 comparatively good here.3 Analysis of Impacts
tion of a local mini-grid or maintenance and repair must not be accounted.20 €/kWh Country dependent Source (ESMAP. If compared to Generating Costs hybrid household system. Diesel gensets strongly depend on the diesel fuel price. 2002)
The comparison shows that biogas systems are the least costly option among the decentralised systems from a point of view of electricity generating costs. D. et al. because grid extension offers the least costly option for electricity generation if a medium voltage line passes the respective village nearby.
The comparison with other potential systems for rural electrification..16 Comparative Assessment of Electricity here is anyway critical.
3. For decentralised electrification. However. this observation must not be taken for granted and can differ strongly from case to case.3.3. the resulting electricity generating costs are likely to be lower. 1999). since this is left to the buyer of the systems.7 Electricity Generating Costs for Different Scenarios
System Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Systems Grid Extension Specific Electricity Generating Costs 0.2 Maintenance Requirements
The indicator “Maintenance Requirements” discusses requirements on maintenance structures.4.
The comparison with the conventional grid shows a disadvantage of hybrid systems as well. the comparison with hybrid village systems Figure 3. 2000a) (BMZ. and since diesel fuel is often heavily subsidised in develop1 ing countries.. shows a clear disadvantage of hybrid village systems among the decentralised solutions. Still.20 – 0. the Fraunhofer-Institute states that electricity generating costs are likely not to become lower than 1. Table 3. 1999) (Wuppertal Institute.03 Euro/kWh for village systems with annual consumption of less than 15. The main results are presented in Table 3.
than system breakdowns of several days can be the result.. Technicians need to be educated.
3.. the assessment as presented in Figure 3.. adequate supply of spare parts is essential. which is an important economic factor since commercial activities require reliable
Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. maintenance centres need to be erected. F.
Economic dependence on industrialised countries is one of the major problems of developing countries. Project developers state this issue to be of major importance and very crucial from a technical point of view30: whole maintenance centres need to be erected close to the villages. Just biogas systems are here seen to be even more problematic. None of the systems is therefore assessed as comparatively very good with regard to maintenance here. Special attention needs to be paid to the maintenance of the key components.3 Economic Independence
2 1 0 -1 -2 Hybrid Systems Diesel Genset SHS Biogas Grid Extension
Figure 3. 2003.3. 14th. etc. Sheriff. More details can be found in section 5.17 reflects that maintenance is problematic for rural electrification in general.4. in hybrid systems. two important aspects of electrification are investigated in detail: on the one hand supply security refers to likeliness of system breakdowns. This shows that maintenance structures are very complex in the case of hybrid systems. because biogas systems require regular attendance and maintenance.1.3 Analysis of Impacts
Assessment of Hybrid Systems
Maintenance requirements for hybrid systems must be evaluated as being comparatively high. Pneumaticos.
The comparison of maintenance requirements with other scenarios shows that hybrid systems due to their complexity require higher attention on maintenance issues than do other systems for rural electrification. 2001).17 Comparative Assessment of Maintenance Requirements
The criterion of economic independence is measured with the two indicators Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply. and problems with charge controller and batteries make these systems comparatively problematic with regard to maintenance. GTZ. Experiences show that regular annual inspection and maintenance can reduce average fault rates of three failures per year to one failure every two years (Turcotte. S. Generally. With focus on matters of energy. batteries and charge controllers. To make customers aware of the need for maintenance of these small components is one of the key issues to be addressed in the implementation process of hybrid electrification projects.
. By investigating the degree of supply security. D. in Eschborn/Germany. on August. and Supply Security. and whether the creation of economic surplus remains within the country on the other hand. the question to be discussed here is whether a technology is able to decrease dependency of developing countries on the one hand. If this is not ensured.
See for example: (Hemmers. except diesel is produced in the country itself. charge controllers. On the other hand the importance of supply security refers to the question whether a technology has the ability to supply electricity the whole day. can be preferred to hybrid systems. however.4. It was argued that necessary production facilities and experts are likely not to be available in developing countries for many years. -2 however.
In comparison to the other scenarios.. i. batteries. Systems like biogas plants are neither dependent on new tech. the question whether the other components of a hybrid system can be produced in the respective countries is of major importance for sustainability in terms of maintenance as well as further dissemination of this technology.3. the need for diesel fuel makes regions applying this technology dependent on fuel imports. 2003). 1990). Pure renewable energies. show that developing countries very well had the ability to produce at least parts of hybrid systems.
. On the other hand..3.1 Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply Assessment of Hybrid Systems
With regard to import dependence and regional self-supply. 31 Experiences lately. 2000). The example of Inner Mongolia. The fear is that dependency on oil imports from industrialised countries might be replaced by a dependency on imports of modern technologies for the use of non-depleting resources as solar energy. etc. two different aspects need to be discussed.Supply and Import Independence sources.
3. On the other hand experiences also show that quality of important system parts as batteries is likely to be low (Preiser. The latter question has been discussed for many years already. K. Improvements in this respect and the development of markets for renewable technologies can be expected only over longer periods of time and often need external support. wiring. and therefore are significantly preferential to hybrid systems.18 Comparative Assessment Regional Selfnologies nor reliant on fossil re. 1999b).3 Analysis of Impacts
electricity output. R.. et al. On the one hand.Figure 3. shows that a market for renewable energies can emerge as well (GTZ. 2 two major groups can be distinguished: electrification scenarios de1 pendent on fossil resources are less 0 preferential from the point of view of Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid -1 Systems regional self-supply and import indeGenset Extension pendence.e. where renewable energies have been strongly promoted. (IEA.
Firstly.19 Comparative Assessment of Supply Se. if systems breakdowns due to failures of one of the electricity generation components occur.4.. Moreover. By this.3. K.4. et al.3 Analysis of Impacts
3.ture technologies. As an example. This and the fact that hybrid systems can be applied for 24-hours electrification shows that hybrid systems generally have a relatively high degree of supply security. leading to breakdowns and therefore decreasing supply security severely (Preiser. hybrid systems offer a high degree of supply security. The relevance of future potential and know-how improvement is to be seen within the context of technology transfer. the likelicurity hood of complete system breakdowns is comparatively low. but Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid are backed up by another one. a PV/Diesel hybrid system in Indonesia was not working due to lightning strike (Preiser. Naturally. a hybrid system is still able to supply a limited amount of energy with the other components.
Compared with other methods. The experiences with hybrid systems in Inner Mongolia and Indonesia therefore did not show major breakdowns due to system component failures. hybrid systems apply renewable -2 energy technologies as photovoltaic and wind. tribute is given to the fact that fossil resources are limited and that for future development a decrease of dependence on such resources is desirable.
3. et al..
Assessment of Hybrid Systems
. which cannot be influenced by project developers. With the help of demonstration projects and well-functioning rural electrification projects.. capacity building and sustainable energy development. 2000). More-1 Systems Genset Extension over. For this reason. Anyhow. modern and sustainable approaches for rural electrification can be promoted. careful projection of demand development is essential in order to enable supply security. K.4 Future Potential
The criterion of future potential is discussed with the indicator “Degree of know-how Improvement”..3. this section tries to identify the potential of the respective technologies by evaluating their degree of modernity and their ability to improve the people’s knowledge on energy issues. both nowadays being maFigure 3. The experience of Indonesia shows as well that if projections are not carried out closely. system breakdowns can occur by incidents. The assessment here therefore reflects supply security as a main strength of hybrid systems. 2000). This observation is mainly 1 due to the fact that hybrid systems do 0 not rely on one generator alone.3.2 Supply Security Assessment of Hybrid Systems
Renewable energy generators as PV arrays and wind generators have a lifetime of up to 20 years and are nowadays very reliable. the system is likely not to cover demand increase at a certain stage anymore.
Especially compared to conventional electrification solutions. the future potential can be seen as equally high.20 Comparative Assessment of Future Poments.5
Results and Discussion
The result of the assessment of the indicators is now aggregated according to the weight.
3. hybrid systems indeed have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. A high degree of potential for know-how improvement and capacity building can therefore be attributed to such technologies.5. which was attributed to the individual indicators in Table 3. socio-economic and economic sustainability are still discussed individually. With this. since these are modern and new technologies not demanding fossil resources either.
2 1 0 Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid
-1 Systems Genset Extension Diesel gensets and extension of the -2 conventional grids on the other hand are options. the comparison of the future potential clearly results in a preference for the solutions based on renewable energy resources. which are based on approaches being followed in the industrialised countries as well and involve lower dependence on fossil resources.
For SHS and Biogas.1 Results 3.5. Moreover.3 Analysis of Impacts
Hybrid systems apply modern and new technologies for rural electrification.Figure 3. it is tried to come to a conclusion on the degree. to which hybrid systems are likely to be a sustainable option for rural electrification. tential Thus.1.
3. which certainly offer less potential for know-how improve.
. the relatively low energy consumption for the production of hybrid systems as well contributes to a good overall result on environmental sustainability compared to diesel gensets and grid extension. as was the objective in the beginning.1 Ecological Dimension
The analysis of the ecological dimension shows good potential for hybrid systems.2 on page 19. The three dimensions ecological.
Note: In practical terms.3 Analysis of Impacts
This observation is not very surprising with regard to diesel gensets.32 The assessment of environmental sustainability was here restricted to matters of air and noise pollution. since hybrid systems are especially meant to replace them in rural electrification. reveals a worse performance of hybrid systems. the aggregated impacts on environment investigated here are worse for diesel-based hybrid systems. The question whether hybrid systems are more environmentally Figure 3. especially of those applying diesel gensets for backup. PV/Wind systems are the only systems being able to compete under ecological aspects and to provide an equal environmentally sound solution. village electrification also for productive purposes in the case of hybrid systems). since leakages in diesel tanks and the associated ground pollution are a major problem especially in dieselbased mini-grids. Moreover. if the choice is to be made between hybrid systems and other renewable energies as SHS and biogas.
The comparison of hybrid systems with purely renewable energy technologies as SHS and biogas.
. Nevertheless. aspects of diesel storage need to be taken into account. however.
The comparison of hybrid systems with the extension of the conventional grid does not provide a -2 PV/ Diesel Wind/ PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Grid consistent picture at first Diesel Extension glance. because they serve different purposes (basic household electrification in the case of SHS. Due to the fact that purely renewable systems do not consume fossil resources during operation. the commonly high dependence of developing countries on fossil fuels allows assessing the environmental performance of hybrid systems as better. Therefore. which needs to be assured in order to make the systems environmentally benign. and can become problematic for diesel-based hybrid systems as well.21 Results Ecology Assessment benign than the conventional grid strongly depends on the energy mix of the respective countries. For the real application of hybrid systems. the choice between SHS and hybrid systems will not need to be made. These aspects include mainly battery recycling. other environmentally important aspects would be of importance as well and would need to be examined as well. The comparison here is therefore fictitious.
3. they do. These indicators have Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid Systems Gensets Extension been weighted comparatively high in the assessment scheme since the furtherance of economic development is one of the main Figure 3. indeed.2
The assessment of the socio2 economic effects of hybrid systems reveals a good preference 1 for hybrid systems compared to other decentralised solutions. then this applies to hybrid systems as well. Hybrid systems by providing high quality and reliable electrification and with the quality of electric current being comparable to the conventional grid are likely to be the best among the here investigated methods for decentralised electrification.3 Analysis of Impacts
3. But high investment costs. These problems are.1. however. 0 which is mainly due to the high potential of hybrid systems for -1 economic development and for the creation of employment op-2 portunities. which have been facing many problems with regard to financial issues as investment and maintenance.5.3 Economic Dimension
From an economic perspective. severe and Figure 3. The slight comparative disadvantage of hybrid systems to grid-based electrification mainly results from the high preference rural population is likely to give to grid extension and from the high potential for economic development attributed to grid-based electrification here. therefore. hybrid systems have problems in 2 competing with other decentralised systems for rural electrification.22 Results Socio-Economic Assessment hopes connected to rural electrification. 1 Hybrid systems have advantages with regard to supply security 0 compared to other decentralised options. however. Regarding other matters of social sustainability as supply equity and capacity building/empowerment. If one. The analysis here reveals that hybrid systems can be ranked similarly to SHS. result in the demand for high involvement of donor organisations. the decentralised option hybrid system is certainly favourable.23 Results Economic Assessment are in the relative assessment here not reflected accurately in absolute terms.5.1. assesses SHS as problematic from this point of view.
. -1 high electricity generating costs and the problem of high require-2 ments on maintenance are main Hybrid Diesel SHS Biogas Grid problems associated with the apSystems Genset Extension plication of hybrid systems.
and under which circumstances should they be implemented? For the answer to these questions. applies to hybrid systems. But if this is the case.3 Analysis of Impacts
The comparison also revealed that hybrid systems are disadvantageous from an economic perspective to grid extension. as well. the question whether or not to apply hybrid systems depends on the respective local circumstances. then. the assessment of these impacts was done in relatively general terms and is therefore strongly related to the underlying assumptions and their subjective evaluation. this main advantage also provides the ground on which to decide whether or not to apply hybrid systems. does make sense at all. thus.5. It is rather inappropriate to apply hybrid systems in rural areas. cannot fully exploit the system. but at least a basis of economic de-
. both on a household scale as well as in the here investigated village mini-grids. Hybrid systems are applicable for remote rural areas. What. Hybrid systems certainly have the potential of furtherance of economic development. cannot simply be answered with yes or no. Firstly. to which degree hybrid systems are likely to provide a sustainable option for rural electrification. in other terms. and the resulting intermittent supply of energy was accepted (GTZ. is the niche for hybrid systems. and the extension of the conventional grid to these areas will in practical cases not be an option for their electrification due to the high investment involved. which do not have the demand for reliable and continuous electricity supply and. 2003). the analysis shows that especially the question of financial competitiveness with other decentralised options for rural electrification is a major problem. is the answer on the initially raised question whether hybrid systems are a sustainable solution for rural electrification? What. two different possibilities are distinguished. In Inner Mongolia it was experienced that the diesel genset was in some cases not operated in order to decrease expenditure on diesel fuel. the question of ecological and socio-economic impacts will always need to be investigated individually. meaning the demand for electrification for productive purposes. It was shown that hybrid systems indeed can be a method for sustainable rural electrification with regard to ecological and socio-economic issues. decentralised systems for electrification are advantageous compared to grid extension with regard to the regional creation of value and to independence and supply security. 1. This assessment is. From a personal point of view. the question is whether the application of hybrid systems.
3. being relatively expensive and sophisticated at the same time. In a way. From an economic perspective. is at all given. to be taken with caution. This.2 Discussion
The analysis of impacts of hybrid systems reveals that the initially raised question. However. it is thought here that hybrid systems on village level should just be applied in areas where this potential. The discussion of advantages and disadvantages here has revealed that probably the most important advantage compared to other systems is that hybrid systems offer a good potential for economic development. and the question whether positive impacts of hybrid systems on ecological and socio-economic issues trade-off this problem. For the real application of hybrid systems. Nevertheless. for the electrification of individuals. is crucial. however.
desalination systems. SHS or stand-alone wind turbines seem to offer a better suited method. the advantage of high quality electrification exactly adapted to the consumer demand applies and makes hybrid systems very favourable and certainly trades off the relatively high investment costs. etc. It is based on a subjective and generalised assessment of the impacts of hybrid systems and therefore not universally applicable. then the application of hybrid systems might be ideally seen as the second step of development. therefore. taking account of the specific conditions and circumstances. However. The indicator set developed here and presented in section 3. If one considers economic development as a stepwise process. For a respective project with the objective of sustainable rural electrification. telecommunication devices. For supporting the first step.3 might provide a framework for such an assessment. 2. smaller and less sophisticated solutions as biogas. small-scale hybrid systems are well applicable to the electrification of single consumers as rural health clinics. Hybrid systems are here assessed to be more suitable for supporting development of areas. hotels. For this purpose. The extension of such small-scale renewable solutions to hybrid systems by applying additional diesel or other generators might then be a possibility to support the next step of development by providing 24-hours electrification. Hybrid systems. this assessment is not to be taken for granted for any situation.
. which are already developing by other means and where other conditions are favourable to allow a positive prognosis of further development.3 Analysis of Impacts
velopment already taking place should be given in order to apply and fully exploit hybrid systems. the sustainability of hybrid systems and other options will need to be investigated prior to the implementation process every time again individually. Secondly. are seen as less suitable for poverty alleviation for the poorest as are other systems.
The village has an elementary school and some shopping facilities for food. Systems of choice are not only SHS. two existing plants were visited by the project planners. 2000). a wind power plant and a diesel genset.4 Project Examples
This section presents the experiences made in two projects on rural electrification with hybrid systems in Indonesia and Inner Mongolia.1. the operational experiences with PV systems were reviewed. hygiene and fuel. which according to their opinion provided ideal electricity supply for their remote village. or work in nearby urban areas.2. the village used just the diesel genset for electrification. Despite the problems. By this.1 PV/Wind/Diesel Hybrid System at Nusa Penida Island
4. which aims to electrify one million households with PV within 10 years.1. a test and certification laboratory for PV is to be erected in Jakarta. The project team felt that just protection elements were damaged. both consisting of a PV generator. In order to overcome this situation. Therefore. For this purpose. the results on hybrid systems are summarised here. They are based on literature review. Indonesia has long standing experiences with PV. which is switched on during evening hours and works smoothly..
4. drivers.. Inhabitants are usually farmers. K.1 Baseline
Indonesia consists of around 17.500 islands with approximately 23 million households not being connected to the conventional grid.
.2. are connected in parallel to supply electricity to a village of approximately 50 inhabitants. with special focus on SHS. et al. Since breakdown of the system. first pilot projects installed 85 SHS and 15 PV street lighting already in 1989 in Sukatani.
PV/Diesel Hybrid System close to Subang
4. people were satisfied with the hybrid systems. and since then there is no 24-hours electricity supply. but also with regard to PV hybrid systems. The inhabitants of the village reported the breakdown of the system two months before the on-site visit. but also a number of PV-based hybrid systems. but no reaction resulted from that. The following information were obtained at the on-site visit: Lightning stroke has damaged the plant. a market for SHS has developed over recent years.2
This system was erected in 1997 and is designed to provide electricity to three settlements with altogether 350 families.2 Project Description
Within the project described in (Preiser. so that this could easily be repaired by a technician. the Indonesian government has created the so-called 50 MW PV-programme in 1997.1
Hybrid Systems in Indonesia
The saved money of six million Rupees disappeared during these changes. The organisation committee.500 Indonesian Rupees. Already in the year 2000. which need to be connected to the grid permanently. because those devices.
. Since the fuses did not function. On the other hand.000 Indonesian Rupees. which is due to the system’s constant operation with high loads. The system applies two different load limitations. all system components except the battery bank were showing good overall test result. The operation of the system. just those. could not be used anymore. because the provided amount of energy was not sufficient and the temporary disconnection was not acceptable. proved that this assumption was wrong. for which they had to pay a connection fee of 20. The system was designed for a electricity consumption of 150 kWh/d. When asked. The battery bank was after the three years of operation down to a capacity of 60% and therefore close to replacement. where light is simply not switched off. exceeding the assumed level by 88 kWh/d. all settlements obtain electricity service. a Battery Bank of 1. the system could soon not meet the demand anymore. a 40 kW Diesel Genset. Consumers could be connected to either 100W or 200W. The organisation committee changed several times. this was not a problem. being secured by fuses. Test of system components proved that the system was still in good shape.000 or 30. Some adapters and cables of the PV-modules were also abraded and needed to be replaced. 33 It was assumed that due to the low income of inhabitants.200 Ah and a 20 kW bi-directional Inverter. the consumption rose to 238 kWh/d.4 Project Examples
The hybrid system consists of a 7 kWp PV Generator. village inhabitants are not supplied with electricity for 24 hours anymore. they proved good understanding about the characteristics of the system and felt that the allocation of electricity was fair. During night-time. However. however. tried to cope with increased level of demand by extending the operational hours of the diesel genset and by temporarily disconnecting parts of the village from the system. Soon after connection. while the latter led to massive frustration among consumers. This. the behaviour in using lights was similar to that in urban areas. in turn. and only the local technician remained in position. People were obviously dissatisfied with the system’s performance. people began to apply more electrical devices than they were supposed to. The whole situation led to strikes and civil commotion. shows that maybe not all characteristics of electricity supply and energy saving had been understood. which was created in the village before and which was in charge of the hybrid system. In a new arrangement.
Quoted Exchange Rate: 1 US $ = 2. The first led to increased electricity generating costs. People had experienced the limitations of the system and did adapt to the system’s needs by i. respectively.e. But when other consumers began to follow this behaviour. ironing during daytime. only one of the three settlements can use electricity. while during daytime. the installed capacity was likely to be sufficient to satisfy consumers’ needs. project organisation was felt to be not transparent and people would have wished to be more involved in the project during implementation. which where experienced by system failures.
Main focus was the transfer of technical knowledge.2. Through the executing company Hua De New Technology Company (HDNTC).1 Baseline
China and Inner Mongolia have been supporting the adaptation of renewable energies for rural electrification very strongly over recent years. 8-24 kW
Criteria for the selection of projects sites were the quality of wind and solar resources. and therefore it was in many villages avoided to run the diesel genset to save the additional costs for fuel. It was assumed that the village governments/the operator were willing and able to pay for the additional diesel. Prolonged power cuts due to low availability of renewable resources were accepted.or PV-Generator up to 10 kW Diesel Genset. Table 4.2. in some villages the availability
Table 4. wind farms or other prove. experiences showed that this assumption was wrong.1
The hybrid systems for village electrification were designed and meant for 24-hours supply.2 Project Description
This project was implemented to locally produce and use wind and solar energy systems to solve problems with the availability of energy in rural areas. for the demonstration projects. as many project examples on SHS. the actual and projected demand for electricity.1 Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
Applied Systems PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems Different Hybrid Systems Place Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia China Sea Remote Repeater Stations Battery Bank 300 W Wind-Generator PV/Wind Systems Household Systems 100 W PV-Generator Battery Bank Hybrid Village Systems Application System Configuration Wind. proximity to the parent company of HDNTC. and the purchasing power of the respective county. However. 2003).
4. The project presented here was taking place from 1990 till the end of 1999. It was observed that guiding principle for the operators was to minimise costs.
Hybrid Village Systems
4.2. and was reviewed in 2000 (GTZ.2. Huhhot. a distance of more than 50 km from the conventional grid. different hybrid systems were installed for village electrification.1 gives an overview.2
Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
4.4 Project Examples
4. repeater stations and as household systems.
Subsidies between 60 to 80% of the initial investment were necessary. downtimes of one or two months may occur.
Operation and Maintenance of the Systems
There was no agreed management system on the plants with the villages. To account this. however.
Costs and Tariffs
The village centres applied one fixed tariff. With the installation of the hybrid systems. it was mostly the operator being responsible for the collection of the electricity fees.4 Renminbi/kWh34 and was set by the village government after a test phase of one or two months. progressive tariffs depending on the consumption or seasonal adjustment of tariffs to the operation costs would be helpful instead in order to reduce peak load demands. Electricity is mainly used for lighting. Due to high investment costs for the systems. which was strongly accounted to the high acceptance of the system.
Development of Electricity Demand
The development of electricity consumption showed the expected effects. it seems that it was not understood that this intermittent mode of operation increased the risk of reduced technical lifetime of the battery bank. However. In cases of major breakdowns and need for spare parts from Germany. The main problem was that a transparent and comparable bookkeeping was not introduced.51 €. according to the affordability by the users and the objective of operational cost recovery. The chosen operators were then trained by HDNTC with a Mobile Training Bus and an additional on-the-job-training during and after installation.000 Renminbi per household. no differentiation is made according to the amount of power consumed or to the point of time of consumption. financial and operational management were separated in many villages for better control of revenues. Households use typical appliances as irons. HDNTC can be contacted via telephone and gives advises in cases of technical problems. Here. The tariff system was. the village governments and the households contributed with connection fees in the range of 350-1. which is in the range of 1. since many villages are situated at far distances from the company. too. In the beginning. in most cases the villages decided to choose the actual operator of their previously used diesel genset to operate the hybrid system. Later. This approach is pragmatic and very user-oriented.8 – 2.4 Project Examples
of electricity supply was reduced to 4 hours/day. and
Quoted Exchange Rate (5/2000): 4 Renminbi = 1 DM = 0. leaving the total management performance much to individual perceptions and attitudes of the operator. but problematic due to the fixed tariff.
. the households were connected to an electricity meter to pay the consumption-based tariff. however. This shows clearly that the willingness to pay for the convenience of 24-hours electrification was not given. but only the costs of operation. the tariffs were found not to cover the full costs of the systems. The operator or the village government are responsible for maintenance of the systems and all expenditures on it. However. More appropriate after-sales service is difficult. found to be sufficiently transparent and known by everybody concerned. The electricity fee was experienced to be paid regularly by the consumers. with all consequential costs. radios and TV.
local banks installed electrical warning systems. many electrical appliances can be used by the customers. For the sale of the systems. by optimisation of supply or through control of demand by adapting regulations on consumption behaviour.
4. However. the demand was tried to be controlled by an increase of tariffs. electric water pumps are used for irrigation purposes. constant problem occurring was the balance of energy demand in the households: in some cases people wanted to use more appliances than the systems were designed for. because families in Inner Mongolia are usually herdsmen and come rarely to urban areas. Households were. cost data and service time experienced indicate that PV/Wind systems are the most cost-effective option for decentralised household electricity supply from a point of view of electricity generating costs. This training needed to be very comprehensive. because a contract on maintenance was not concluded between HDNTC and the system owners.2. found to be very conscious on matters of energy saving by using energy saving bulbs in the beginning.3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources. Experiences here where. This problem was met in Wuliji by extension of the system. they were rarely replaced due to the high purchase costs.
Operation and Maintenance
As in the case of village systems. Nevertheless. Sometimes. The experiences showed that most people were willing to adapt to these regulation. An overview on cost details can be found in Annex D. and boarding schools apply washing machines.
Development of Electricity Demand
Due to the relatively high installed capacity of the hybrid systems. the users were trained with the Mobile Training Bus of HDNTC. which makes the sale a risk for HDNTC being the creditor. experiences in Inner Mongolia were good in this regard. In other regions.
.4 Project Examples
working equipment as drilling machines. dealers were engaged as mediators for HDNTC. which was technically easily feasible. Problems with the installed capacity were experienced in villages with a rather high number of inhabitants as Wuliji (600 inhabitants). which obviously stroke poor families more. Because of this. In smaller villages as Yingen (200 inhabitants).2 Hybrid Household Systems
System Purchase and Costs
Compared to other household systems. But once these bulbs were broken. on the other hand. disappointing. PV/Wind hybrid household systems in Inner Mongolia require high initial investment and can therefore only be afforded by higher income households. However.2. however. this capacity problem was partly also met by extension of the system. Hospitals use X-ray equipment or sonographs. Moreover. Families caused almost a quarter of system breakdowns due to lack of knowledge of the system and neglecting attitudes towards maintenance. the same capacity as above still met the electricity demand at the time of project review. some families stayed without electricity after system breakdowns between two and five months. The installed 10 kW Wind/Diesel system reached its capacity limit within two years. Most household systems were paid by instalments.
for the village systems. the project review states scepticism due to high initial investment costs and considered subsidies to remain essential for their dissemination. but also for scattered households who feel motivated to buy a household system. The users apparently tolerated downtimes for repairs without being negatively influenced on their opinion on the systems. the users were less satisfied.4 Project Examples
As is usually the case with SHS. However.e. further dissemination without subsidisation and just by market mechanisms alone are stated to be feasible in the project review. because a market for renewable energy devices already exists. mainly due to the fact that the wind generator in the PV/Wind system has shown to be a bit temperamental. China and Inner Mongolia provide relatively good conditions in this respect. Compared to SHS. financing schemes need to be supportive. For PV/Wind household systems. and service provision to other families is not possible due to far distances between scattered households in Inner Mongolia.3 Aspects of System Dissemination
The dissemination of hybrid systems by market mechanisms alone is the ultimate goal for the sustainability of the project presented here. direct economic benefits could also not be attributed to the application of PV/Wind household systems. the circumstances with regard to i. found to be high.
. however. The acceptance of the system was. Of course. especially compared to diesel gensets and their high costs for operation. The owners of household systems manage them by themselves and expand them according to their need and purchasing power. The installed capacity is simply to low for income generating activities.2. The experiences show that the village supply systems are a persuasive demonstration for a decentralised RE supply system not only for village inhabitants. however. however.
4. SHS have a higher degree of acceptance.
demand assessment and management. These models are presented in the following. and direct equipment sale has proven to be difficult already in the case of SHS. 2001): on the one hand there is the equipment-sale approach.e. nor can poor communities commonly afford hybrid systems for electrification of villages. which has been successfully implemented in some countries (i. To achieve this.
5. 2001). funding of the dealers shall be provided by local banks. Investment costs are simply too high for hybrid systems. thus. important aspects of organisation. ownership. operation and maintenance. although it involves less investment than hybrid systems for an individual consumer. For hybrid systems the approach of direct equipment sales is adequate if an appropriate credit or leasing system is set up. and therefore it is not enough to ensure whether hybrid systems are likely to be a sustainable option for rural electrification. Neither will individual poor households be able to purchase hybrid home system on cash basis. the provision of working capital is to be ensured.5 Key success factors
Key success factors
Sustainability describes a dynamic process. for the adaptation of leasing. the responsibility for maintenance and repair is transferred to the purchaser. as is in the case of SHS. on the other hand there is the sale of electricity service approach. equipment dealers usually lack financial background to offer credit to local consumers. Sustainability needs also to be ensured by implementing the system in a way that guarantees a sustainable self-contained operation after project implementation. but which has not yet gained major importance due to the same reason of insufficient working capital on the side of the dealers as in case of credit based purchase (ESMAP. The approach of direct equipment sales therefore demands to make funds available to dealers in order to give them the possibility to provide credit to rural population or to create a leasing model. financing. Ideally.1
Decision on the distribution model
The World Bank distinguishes two major distribution or sales models to be applied in developing countries (ESMAP. the key success factors in approaching a sustainable electrification project with hybrid systems shall be discussed in this section.
With the approach of selling equipment directly to individuals. Predominating option is cash sales. and this is likely to remain so in the future due to the fact that credit is rarely available in rural areas and is just provided to consumers with secure occupations.
Direct Equipment Sales: The approach of direct equipment sales commonly refers to sale of complete systems rather than components. Dominican Republic). The systems can be purchased either on cash or credit basis. For this. which can be sup-
. Another option for equipment sales is leasing. and capacity building will be discussed on the basis of a literature review. Leasing is an option of lower risk for the dealers since it is considerably less complicated to retrieve the equipment in case the consumers neglect their duty to pay the monthly leasing rates. Moreover.
or the maximum number of concessions possible with a given grant (Tomkins. Basic problem of all projects applying renewable energies is the fact that knowledge and therefore necessary infrastructure is rarely existent in rural areas. The alternative is then to build capacity among small local companies through business advisory services and business development. In an ideal model. is the fact that in many countries electricity service provision is restricted to only national utility.
Identification of Responsibility
For the electrification of a rural village. the isolation of these rural areas makes them highly unattractive for substantial private participation at any level of subsidy (Tomkins. Recent approaches. are very important for the mini-grid in several respects: Firstly.e. This approach. In fact. Criterion for decision is either
the least grant necessary for a predetermined number of connections. 2001). questions of ownership and responsibility. Common experiences in developing countries especially with SHS show that if
. As an option or in addition. is not only comparatively time-consuming. The question for hybrid systems is which of these models to favour. 2003). therefore requiring new political regulations (ESMAP. 2000). the operational structure for the mini-grids to be established.. the electricity service company may receive a subsidy per user. responsibility for the power plant is important with regard to theft and vandalism. credits can also be made available to consumers by such banks.5 Key success factors
ported by international organisations as the World Bank. although being probably even more financially sustainable. The decision will therefore always be an individual one.). i. R. however.
Sale of Electricity Service: This approach is called “Dispersed Area Concession Model” by the World Bank and gives an electricity service company exclusive right to provide electricity service to a certain area by concession. focus rather on supporting private providers of electricity supply and to support them with subsidies in order to ease access to electricity for poor population. however. 2001).
The winning company then constructs the energy provision system including distribution lines. Users are provided electricity after paying a certain connection fee and through paying a monthly cost-based tariff. however. R. The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) recommends to task managers of single electrification projects to experiment with both approaches individually in order to then decide for the most appropriate one (GEF. General problem in the approach to provide electricity services through private companies or businessman. but also demands high involvement by donor organisations. both local and foreign companies are bidding for the right to provide the electricity service exclusively. In order to make electricity affordable to even the poorest among the rural population. Problematic for the adaptation of this approach is the fact that in remote areas electricity service companies are rarely existent. depending on the actual local situation. It is assumed that this approach is likely to open up and strengthen markets for decentralised electrification and therefore result in an increase of equipment sales (ESMAP.
It should. Then all responsibility is left to him. Moreover..5 Key success factors
the question of responsibility is not solved. This approach is very common in developing countries and has a strong advantage by committing the village’s population to the project. be avoided to press from outside village inhabitants to form such organisations. and knowledge about maintenance is usually very limited. the organisational structure must be set up very carefully. especially the crucial parts of a hybrid system. Sheriff. and ensure the payment of bills. the second approach of creating co-operatives or user groups. 2001). Applying renewable energies for rural electrification is a new and innovative approach. S. Thirdly. The appropriate solutions will vary strongly between countries and even among different villages in the same region. battery bank and charge controller. is rather difficult in the case of hybrid systems. F. Failure rates of these components can be reduced from three every year to one every two years if just inspection and maintenance are carried out carefully (Turcotte. clear responsibility for the financial management of a plant is necessary in order to ensure the payment of bills from the customers. The other possibility is some form of village ownership.. cannot be given here. In general. which one to prefer in the case of hybrid systems. depending on the specific local conditions. The decision on the appropriate organisational model is difficult. require regular maintenance. a clear knowledge on responsibility is essential for operation and maintenance of the system. because it is strongly matter of their trust among each other and of their ability to work together whether such an approach will be successful. and a general recommendation. Important issues to be addressed with regard to sustainable maintenance structures include the following: Identification and Training of Technicians for System Operation and Maintenance:
The identification of technicians within the rural community is a crucial and important task in setting up a maintenance structure. one has to take into account that this organisational solution brings with it higher risks for the local community. D. Not even costly and well-designed systems with high quality components can reliably provide electricity without regular and proper maintenance. If private entrepreneurs are chosen for the
. Pneumaticos. take care of operation and maintenance. however.. Clear assignment of responsibility helps a lot to avoid problems in this regard. Secondly. since training requirements are high and complex and need high involvement especially with regard to maintenance.
The World Bank distinguishes two different scenarios (ESMAP. 2000a): Either the hybrid power plant and the corresponding mini-grid are installed by a private entrepreneur. especially with regard to leadership in order to avoid failures and severe problems. even slight problems with the system can become major issues and lead to complete breakdown of electricity supply. and he will by his own interest prevent the plant from theft and vandalism. Moreover.
Implementing sustainable maintenance structures
Experiences not only with hybrid systems. Without appropriate maintenance structures. meaning a co-operative or a user group. prove the importance of sustainable maintenance structures. but also with other renewable energy technologies as SHS. Therefore. then theft and vandalism can become severe problems and compromise the whole success of the electrification project.
too (ESMAP. and the implementing organisation needs to monitor success after project implementation. Schaeffer. Training of system operators is a long-term process and cannot be performed with in a couple of days. Otherwise. as for example in a project at Galapagos Islands. Young people tend to be more open to changes and are more likely to move away to urban areas after a while (ESMAP. By this. can only be achieved if these centres serve a substantial number of villages. has shown to be problematic. When deciding for a system operator. a pool of potential later technical experts can be created.e. Hybrid systems are commonly implemented for electrification of remote areas. This. Ideally. just having graduated and looking for work. then others can take over seamlessly. the question of maintenance centres is difficult. Maintenance centres can serve this function of guidance and technical knowledge backup. the main objective is not to have high staff turnover on this position. Cosgrove-Davies. the approach of assigning the responsibility for the system to elder persons has proved to be recommendable. For this. the World Bank recommends not to decide for one or two system operators in the very beginning of the project implementation process. 2000b). illness. This remoteness can become a problem for hybrid systems. 1996). For the application of hybrid systems it therefore seems to be essential to choose areas with a considerable number of potential communities. these centres should be financially self-sufficient and not need financial assistance. which are ideally situated in the vicinity of the centre. A rule of thumb from the application of SHS in the Dominican Republic is that systems should not be further away than 50 km from a service centre (Cabraal. L. but to involve as many interested people as possible (ESMAP. A. in case the chosen operator is at times not available in the future due to i. then the choice of the technicians is of course to be left to them. Also the engagement of young people as system operators. if outside organisations take over responsibility for guiding the implementation process. however. and people with highest capability as well as respect among other village inhabitants can be chosen in the end. which cannot be solved by the operator individually.5 Key success factors
provision of electricity. 2000a).
For hybrid systems.
. since maintenance centres in nearby urban areas are not available and therefore need to be erected. 2000a). These people then can be asked in case technical problems occur. Not only has the potentially higher degree of respect and acceptance of elder people within rural communities played a role here. Establishment of Regional Maintenance Centres: System operators should optimally have contact persons with higher technical expertise (ESMAP. 2000a). Moreover. having been educated at school recently.. which have the necessary potential for economic development and are in need of such a system.. M.. People need to be involved in the whole implementation process for a deeper understanding of the power plant.
Prior to the decision.and ability-to-pay is of major importance especially in the case of hybrid systems. As a rule of thumb. which are likely to be covered by consumers themselves. if applied costs for operation.5 Key success factors
5. which these systems certainly offer. Affordability of electrical appliances and electricity services is difficult to determine and closely linked to energy demand assessment. thus.
Correct pricing of electricity – setting up a sustainable tariff structure
Correct pricing of electricity is probably the most important success factor to be described here. as is described in section 5.35 However. pure investigation of consumer’s willingness-to-pay has been found to be shortsighted. however.4). It is to be found out how much the potential consumers are willing to invest to get access to and to pay for the provision of electricity services in order to determine the investment and operation costs.and Ability-to-pay for the electricity service of rural population
Investigating the consumer’s willingness-to-pay is one of the key issues to be determined prior to any electrification project. maintenance and overhauling costs for equipment replacement
Finding the most appropriate way for covering these costs is a difficult matter. willing to pay for it. In areas where steady income is not guaranteed. the World Bank estimates that about 15 percent of the disposable income is usually spent on all such energy services (ESMAP. not only the implementation or connection costs. warrants the higher financial burden for the consumer. the effects of this fact on affordability are to be taken into account. 2001). Costs for hybrid systems can be broken down to the following aspects (ESMAP. it needs to be found out whether the demand for 24-hours electrification as can be provided by hybrid systems is given and whether the economic potential. which option for rural electrification is to be chosen. Otherwise it was experienced that consumers op-
Examples can be found at the World Bank (ESMAP. Investigating the consumer’s willingness-to-pay is commonly done on the basis of questionnaires. Investigating both willingness.5. disposable batteries for radios and rechargeable car-batteries and the costs for their recharging. but also the operational costs often used to be covered to a large extent by subsidies. 2000a: Annex 5. Operational costs should be covered by consumers themselves from the beginning. failed. Based on the objective to provide electricity to even the poorest among the poor. It is obvious that rural population is likely to be interested in electrification and.
Willingness. This approach. 2000a): capital costs for the implementation of the mini-grid project fuel costs for the diesel genset. which involve rather high investment and electricity generating costs. candles. But whether people can actually afford electrification is a different question of equal importance and cannot be answered by simple investigation of willingness-topay. Common approaches usually investigate the current expenditure of rural households on kerosene.
KfW staff member. 2000a) and KfW36 both strongly recommend: those who do not pay their monthly bills should be consequently disconnected from electricity supply. a more constant flow of operational income can be expected. thus awarding energy-saving consumer behaviour through lower energy bills. the use of power during offpeak times is encouraged additionally. however. 2000a) is presented in the following. the option of energy-based tariffs is applied in cases where there is a reasonable number of potential consumers and where ability and willingness to pay allow the application of this rather sophisticated tariff system. fee-for-service is as well very costly with regard to equipment and support service. whether money is available at that time or not. Renewable energy devices. however. and therefore it might come out that wealthier households consume that much that minigrids with limited capacity are overloaded. which makes it an additional test of user’s demand and preferences concerning electrification. on July. This tariff allows appropriate charging according to the real individual consumption by applying an energy meter. in order not to undermine the other users’ paying morality. a new approach applies prepayment meters and is usually called “Fee-for-service”.
. However. 1998).. If time-of-day meters are applied. Finally. Common for all tariff structures. and hamper business development as was experienced in China (Wallace. This approach uses magnetic cards or tokens. Dubois. and each of them can be applied successfully depending on the specific circumstances. this method is of special interest because it attenuates a disadvantage of these technologies compared to diesel gensets-based electrification: if consumers temporarily do not have money to afford electricity.
However. With fee-for-service. et al. billing and money collecting. Moreover. R. For electrification projects applying renewable energies. which often led to financial difficulties and even to failures of electrification projects.L. The latter subsidy on connection costs is proposed just to be partial by the World Bank (Tomkins. resulting in unexpected high bills. is one rule. Different approaches exist. Setting up a sustainable tariff structure cannot be done by following a single and proven formula for success. with diesel gensets the purchase of diesel fuel can be reduced or stopped..
Energy-based tariffs: The approach of applying energy-based tariffs is probably the most equitable one. 2003). Moreover. as World Bank (ESMAP. need to be paid off. conventional energy meters do not limit consumption. less welleducated consumers might have difficulties in understanding the meter and how to read it. and a contribution to connection costs for households can be justified as well.5 Key success factors
posed to later tariff increases to fully cover operational costs themselves. the emphasis on poverty alleviation by subsidising can restrict sustainable market expansion.. In summary. 7th. energy meters require considerable additional investment and are therefore not suitable in small-sized mini-grids with small numbers of consumers. 2003. An overview about potential solutions as described by the World Bank in (ESMAP. which can be bought by the consumers and with which the consumer purchases the possibility to consume a certain amount of electricity. discourage investment. W. It is therefore widely agreed nowadays that grants and subsidies should only be given on implementation costs.
Personal Comment given by Mr. which needs to be applied to any decentralised rural electrification project. In order to avoid problems associated with meter reading.
.5 Key success factors
Power-based tariffs: This tariff-scheme is not based on metering of actual electricity consumption. furthermore. as was experienced for example in Indonesia (Preiser. power consumption can be limited electrically by regulating the current into the home. However. overloading of the system can be avoided and every user gets the same possibility of access to electricity services.
. organisation and financing. reliability and accuracy of electrical load limiters is often poor. et al. In practice. but on the maximum amount of power likely to be consumed.
To avoid this problem. Generally. Moreover. This approach obviously depends much on the honesty of the consumers and is disadvantageous in this respect since it does not apply control mechanisms. Roman Ritter.37 Figure 5. However. In the most simple variation. leaves more potential to fraud by bypassing the limiter. reliable load limiters are mostly less expensive than reliable energy meters. Moreover. which he is not allowed to exceed and for which he monthly pays a constant amount of money.. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th.38
Personal Comment Jörg Baur. it can be stated that the first approach of energy-based tariffs is well applicable in mini-grids of a substantial size with a considerable number of consumers. an oral or written agreement with the consumer limits his consumption to a predetermined level according to his appliances. while power-based tariffs can be applied to other users. this approach generally restricts availability of electricity to consumers and. In comparison to energy-based tariffs the power-based tariff is easier to understand for consumers and requires less effort for payment collection. K. 2003. Energy-based tariffs using energy meters are applied for well-income consumers and businesses as restaurants. GTZ.1 gives an overview about the key issues addressed so far being important with regard to distribution. while the second approach of power-based tariffs is likely to be better applicable in mini-grids with a concise number of consumers and well-established social structures. electrification projects will most likely apply a mixture of both tariffs. Source: Own illustration. 2000).
1 Hybrid Village Systems: Distribution Steps
5. For other private providers. thus subsidies necessary.5 Key success factors
Rural Electrification with Hybrid Village Systems
Sales Model Distribution Model Cash Credit Leasing Existing Utility
Energy Service Company (ESCo)
Unlikely due to low profits.
Most likely approach. but have already been outlined above. Other important aspects on capacity building are to be discussed in the following. demands high donor involvement
Public power utility is usually not interested much in decentralised rural electrification due to high costs. education on demand-side management is advisable.
Education on Demand-side management
Hybrid systems are installed at certain capacities and are therefore limited.3
Capacity Building is a major aspect for the success of any project implemented in developing countries.
Figure 5. the potential profit is too low for involvement. In order to exploit the full potential a hybrid system offers.
. thus needing subsidies. Aspects as the education of technicians are part of capacity building.
Hybrid systems strongly need accompanying with regard to economic development by teaching about important aspects of business founding. then rural population should not be left alone with the system. Especially in the case of household systems. then awareness rising is essential. will not be tolerated. which cannot be obtained by electrification alone. through bypassing energy meters or current limiters. If consumers are not aware of it. Firstly. If other appliances are used at the same time. this question is of major importance. This reduces electricity consumption considerably. 2000a). It is therefore important to make consumers aware of the limitations of the system. and can be included in an agreement. an example can be found at the World Bank (ESMAP.
Education of Consumers on Obligations and Behaviour
Another aspect in educating consumers deals with the obligations related to the connection to an electricity supply system. Common for the use of electricity in developing countries is the occurrence of a relatively high peak demand during evening hours. and prefer to be convinced by being informed about the possibilities and the functioning of hybrid systems visually.
Education on Business Planning
If the potential of hybrid systems is to be fully exploited. Two major possibilities are worth mentioning.5 Key success factors
Demand-side management in the first place refers to consumption habits. the installed capacity of a hybrid system may soon be insufficient to meet the demand. when for example lights are switched on everywhere in the village. These include especially financial obligations: the understanding of the need to pay for receiving electricity is not to be taken for granted. Consumers must be aware that theft of power. etc.
Awareness Rising as a Means of Market Development
The issue of awareness rising refers to making public hybrid systems as an option for rural electrification. The issue of safety should be addressed because for many areas electricity is a new commodity. and therefore helps to better exploit the potential of a hybrid system. and electrical lines and appliances should be handled with caution (ESMAP. This has to be explained to consumers in order to make the project a financial success. Additionally. i. This is especially important in order not to raise unreasonable expectations. project examples are an important aspect for the dissemination of knowledge on hybrid systems. during daytime. If markets for hybrid systems are to be developed. the limitation of their electricity supply system can lead to consumer’s dissatisfaction and frustration. The example of Inner Mongo-
. a policy encouraging the payment of bills by disconnecting non-paying consumers from electricity supply needs to be established. A successful project for rural electrification with hybrid systems should prepare the ground for economic development. Demand-side management also refers to the use of energy-saving appliances such as energy saving bulbs. but also for larger systems in case of village electrification. i. and to guide them in using it correctly by performing activities. as setting up business plans. Population in rural areas in developing countries are commonly sceptic towards unknown approaches in the first place.e. 2000a). This policy is best to be established in a written manner. which is to be signed by the consumers.e. ironing. Other issues to be addressed in consumer education include theft of power and safety. which do not necessarily have to take place in the evening. This agreement describes explicitly all obligations for the potential consumers.
By informing and training the staff of multiplier organisations as local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). 2001). D. he will tell this to his friends and neighbours and make them aware of the possibility to use hybrid systems for electrification. but are due to rather frequent failures of components’ integration. where project examples in rural administrative villages contributed to the dissemination of especially household systems.2. this issue is a major challenge. S.. However. The same phenomenon applies to hybrid systems for village electrification: if the neighbour village owns one and feels satisfied. If someone owns a hybrid household system and feels satisfied with it.4. 2003). Sheriff... F. F. project examples should not be seen as the end of dissemination activities.. Local institutions or NGOs can play an even greater role than just capacity building. Other aspects.4
Main technical aspects of hybrid systems have already been discussed in chapter 2.5 Key success factors
lia. GTZ. since it increases system costs especially in the case of photovoltaic-based systems remarkably (Turcotte. Experts see the point of reliability as a major hurdle for the adaptation of hybrid systems in developing countries.. The trained staff can then multiply the obtained information by teaching the interested public about the possibilities of hybrid systems. Key requirement from a technical point of view is simplicity and reliability (Turcotte. This fact increases the importance of pilot projects for awareness rising. especially with regard to maintenance requirements. since these systems are rather sophisticated. 2001):
o assessment of electricity demand prior to the project o provision of credit guarantees or cash sales for group lending o independent operation of the hybrid system o financing
. et al.. in Eschborn/Germany. 2003. Secondly. they are rather a tool. However. oversizing of the renewable energy generator is not an option. the regional administration or others. pilot projects indeed can contribute to the sale of the technology. which can be addressed by these organisations. on August 14th. 1999). But real market development can just take place through replication (Richards. Pneumaticos. 2001). it can be stated that for awareness rising in developing countries the word-ofmouth propaganda is the most effective way. include (ESMAP.. D. For hybrid systems. proves this (GTZ. the other villages are likely to get interested as well. For the purpose of developing markets. Most technical problems observed with hybrid system are not result of failures of single components itself. too. the dissemination of hybrid systems can be promoted. S..39
Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. Key success factors from a technical point of view are the following: The design of hybrid systems should always seek to maximise utilisation of local resources in order to keep the use diesel fuel low. E. multiplier organisations can play an important role. Sheriff.
For a hybrid system. the potential of hybrid systems to economic development is comparatively high. which describes major technical aspects in detail (ESMAP.
5. the optimal system performance is closely linked to an accurate demand assessment. and may soon lead to dissatisfaction of consumers if future growth is not accurately forecasted in advance. it is here referred to the Mini-Grid Design Manual published by the World Bank. for appropriate comparison certain restrictions apply for the surveyed area: The surveyed area should have a similar type of electricity service.2. the World Bank proposes to assess electricity demand by surveying adjoining. By doing so.5 Assessment of Electricity Demand and Potential for Renewable Energies
In order to guarantee optimal sizing of hybrid systems and the application of the most suitable hybrid combinations. meaning 24-hour power supply in the case of hybrid systems. The approach of simply asking households for their potential electricity demand is not sufficient. the electricity demand is likely to increase substantially.4. As described in chapter 3.5 Key success factors
For information on key technical issues to be considered when erecting mini-grids in developing countries in general. 2000a): If the system is to be installed in a region.
The assessment of not only actual demand for electricity. 2000a). making adequate load projections is frequently a very difficult task. If the system is to be installed in a region. then this period has to be accounted for growth projections. The knowledge of so far non-electrified households on their real demand for electricity is very limited. As the project examples in chapter 4 prove. while underestimation of load demand is likely to entail frustration on poor system performance due to excessive consumption. already-electrified regions with similar characteristics (ESMAP. 2000a). which is lower than the system’s lifetime. and the corresponding financial burden in terms of the monthly bills for electricity supply cannot be overviewed by them. two different aspects are of major importance:
Demand Assessment and Projections
The assessments of current demand for electricity as well as projections of future growth in demand are essential.4. but also of potential future growth is of major importance for hybrid systems. The relevance results from the fact that over sizing of the hybrid system inherently increases the overall system costs. 2000a). then the growth in demand during the whole lifetime has to be accounted. which expects grid-based electrification in medium-term perspective. Demand in the surveyed region is not kept down by applying consumption restrictions due to limited installed capacity. Therefore. However. two different situations need to be distinguished (ESMAP. For this reason. as the World Bank describes (ESMAP.1. However. but also the history of load growth can be determined and taken into consideration. not only the actual demand for electricity.
. which is likely not to be connected to conventional grid during the lifetime of the system. Similar tariffs are applied in the surveyed regions as are planned for the new project.
Moreover. and therefore it is tried here to state the main political framework conditions for decentralised hybrid system projects. Foley. accurate assessment of these resources is important. G. which require converse occurrence of insolation and wind power in order to produce electricity on a 24-hours basis. a rural electrification committee.. D. 1998).
Investigation of the Potential for Hybrid Systems for Electrification
In order to assess the potential for hybrid systems for electrification of a certain area. Project developers report from the example of Morocco that the promise to extend the conventional grid to non-electrified areas had the ef-
.e. The World Bank states that no project on electrification has ever succeeded without the backing of political will (ESMAP. competitive. value-added taxes or other taxes.5 Key success factors
An important role in assessing energy demand plays the population itself: involvement of rural population. which need to be eliminated in order to make the option of renewable energy. legalisation of rural energy markets
In many countries legislation does not allow for private operators to provide electricity services. Three key issues can be identified (ESMAP. ideally through policy statements and direct support of respective initiatives.
Establishing electricity laws. i. This then needs to be changed in a way that allows private operators to supply electricity to regions without electricity. and with it hybrid systems. This is essential for choosing the appropriate system design and to quantify the share of the renewable energy resource for electricity generation. can do much to obtain information on demand and future growth (Barnes. Sector reforms may be necessary. 2001):
Defining the Role of the Government
The central and local governments need to be involved from the very beginning and to demonstrate commitment to decentralised electrification. since this is traditionally the exclusive right of national or regional utility. A general problem in developing countries concerning the role of government results from unrealistic promises during election campaigns.
5.. Especially in the case of PV/Wind hybrid systems.
Elimination of Tax and Duty Barriers
The introduction of renewable energy technologies in many countries faces obstacles from unfair import duties. and supporting institutions might need to be established.6
The political framework is a major issue for decentralised electrification as well. 2001). subsidies on diesel fuel or kerosene need to be lowered or fully eliminated in order to decrease competitive disadvantages of renewable energy technologies. the potential of wind power and/or the extent of insolation need to be investigated prior to project implementation.
2001).. growing demand for electricity in developing countries. Main issues to be addressed include environmental concerns for fossil fuel powered sources. at Intersolar Fair in Freiburg/Germany.. F. For the project developers it is therefore important when addressing the governments to intensively inform them about the benefits of rural electrification with decentralised systems. D.5 Key success factors
fect that decentralised solutions were not accepted among rural population. on June.
Personal Comment given by Dirk-Uwe Sauer. 2003. i.e..
. and ongoing advances in technology (Turcotte.40 People rather remain without electrification for some more years than to be electrified with other systems. because they fear then to be ignored when the grid connection becomes possible. with hybrid systems. Decentralised electrification is often seen as a second class electrification. S. Pneumaticos. Sheriff. and grid connection is preferred strongly. 28th. Fraunhofer ISE – Club für ländliche Elektrifizierung. and general characteristics of electrification.
however.e. use locally available resources and offer a high potential with regard to local independence compared to grid extension and diesel gensets. The extension of the conventional grid is often economically not feasible for remote rural areas. which has lead to customer dissatisfaction in many cases. which hybrid
. therefore. on the other hand due to problems with reliability of the systems. The assessment revealed that from a point of view of environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Renewable energies are an environmental benign solution for rural electrification. from a socio-economic perspective. The assessment of sustainability of hybrid systems. and is integral part especially for furtherance of economic progress. was and is the intermittent supply of power due to the fluctuating nature of the resources. hybrid systems are likely to be more beneficial than are other technologies. In many cases renewable energies have failed to meet the expectations of rural population. It was argued that in order to fully exploit the potential.. therefore. This problem is recently met with the application of hybrid systems. The assessment was performed in comparative terms relative to other solutions for rural electricity supply by using an indicator set developed within this work. rural electrification is a problematic issue. is as well unfavourable not only from an environmental. did not result in a clear yes concerning their application. however. thus. Modern approaches. are questions of financing and maintenance. thus. but also from a socio-economic and economic perspective. This approach. Problematic.6 Summary and Conclusions
Summary and Conclusions
Rural electrification is commonly seen as essential part for the development of rural areas in developing countries. was to generally assess the sustainability of hybrid systems for rural electrification with regard to environmental. and can as well be undesirable from a point of view of environmental sustainability. however. a good potential for economic development. since they are less dependent on external interference. since diesel gensets usually cannot evolve the full potential of electrification for rural development. i. address the challenge of rural electrification with decentralised energy supply systems applying renewable energies. and to identify key success factors to improve the sustainability of a hybrid rural electrification project. Common practice to meet the problem of rural electrification in developing countries is the use of diesel gensets. However. socio-economic and economic issues. The main problem for the application of renewable energies in rural electricity supply. Objective of this work. and have several additional benefits related to their use. the application of renewable energies for rural electrification has not yet been the success story it was expected to be. on the one hand by unrealistically high expectations on side of the population. Despite these numerous advantages. and that expectations associated to decentralised rural electrification are likely to be met. main advantages include reliable and continuous energy supply and. As is the case always for the application of renewable energies as PV and wind in developing countries. however. Main strengths of hybrid systems from an environmental perspective include low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants compared to conventional methods for rural electrification. renewable energies. these issues are major hurdles and require attention during the planning of hybrid system projects and high donor involvement through subsidies and the development of maintenance structures.
and they might then ideally be chosen for those villages in the region. should and cannot be seen as the ultimate solution for rural electrification in developing countries. They might therefore be applied within the context of whole electrification programmes for remote rural areas as an integral part of a set of different methods. This paper has also identified key factors to successfully apply hybrid systems in developing countries. Main issues to be addressed include organisational issues with decision on appropriate distribution models and the implementation of sustainable maintenance schemes. hybrid systems require a holistic approach towards electrification. however. Although the assessment here was performed in rather global terms and although therefore in individual cases the assessment might be a different one. which make them comparable to the conventional grid especially with regard to the quality of electricity supply.
. capacity building as an essential condition to create the appropriate framework for economic development and for correct use of the hybrid systems. the results allow the statement that hybrid systems can be a sustainable option. and political framework conditions and several technical aspects. since economic benefits not just depend on the availability of energy. Hybrid systems are here assessed to be a promising approach for decentralised rural electrification. the indicator set developed here might provide a framework for the assessment whether environmental and socio-economic surpluses attributable to hybrid systems justify the high investment and the necessary effort in setting up maintenance structures.6 Summary and Conclusions
systems certainly can offer especially with regard to economic development. issues of financing as the investigation of willingness. the assessment of electricity demand now and projected to the future. a certain economic development should already be taking place in the area to be electrified. for which the preconditions and circumstances allow to expect the full evolvement of the system’s potential. Moreover.and ability-to-pay for electricity service. Hybrid systems. Despite their advantages. For an analysis of respective projects. meanwhile being more environmentally benign. but also on other conditions favouring economic development. and the potential to meet the demand with renewable energies for an appropriate system design. or the implementation of an appropriate tariff system. certain framework conditions need to be established.
The base load is of major importance for the design of the diesel genset in a hybrid system. Table A. 2000). the base load of the villages is calculated.00 1168.) and public consumption (public lighting.60 0.9
Table A. 2003. handicraft businesses.2 Rich Household Characteristics
Equipment Number Capacity [W] Daily Hours of Operation [h/d] 3 6 2 8 Daily Electricity Consumption [kWh/d] 0. 22nd.00 7.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
A. since the diesel
Personal Recommendation Mr.18 0. with village sizes from 30 to 300 households.3 94. This is accounted by adding 40% excess consumption on the consumption of the individual households. health care. Moreover. the peak load for different village sizes are calculated. former KfW staff member.
.8 7. Additional electricity consumption results from commercial (shops. during a telephone interview on August.70 219.8 43. etc.30 876. etc.26 Annual Electricity Consumption [kWh/a] 43.00
Energy Saving Lamp TV (Colour) Radio Refrigerator Total
6 1 1 1
10 100 10 300 470
In a next step.). schools.12 0. Erich Geis.12 0. It is assumed that energy saving lighting is applied within the electrification project.. two different types of households with different consumption behaviour are distinguished: standard households and rich households.41 The figures adopted here are mainly based on data from (Baur.1 Calculation of Electricity Demand
For the calculation. J.02 0.40 3. while 90% are standard households.1 Standard Household Characteristics
Equipment Energy Saving Lamp TV (b/w) Radio Total Number Capacity [W] 4 1 1 10 20 10 70 Daily Hours of Operation [h/d] 3 6 2 Daily Electricity Consumption [kWh/d] 0.02 2.20 Annual Electricity Consumption [kWh/a] 65. It is assumed here that (fictitious) 10% of all households in the village are rich.
2 14154.1 174.2 20.5 56618.0 202.0 35. Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET).3 shows the results for different village sizes.7 15570.0 15.0 65.5 9.6 10. Strauß.5 180.8 18.0 12.0 13.3 124.3 11323.5 193.5 225.
.0 6.8 42.0 90.0 38.0 48.1 31.0 49541.0 48126.0
30.3 93.0 17.3 33971.3 Peak and Base Loads for Different Village Sizes
Number of Households Daily [kWh/d] 23.7 155.0 160.0 225. 2003.1 19816.0 175.0
3.4 21.0 40.0 85.0 85.1 131.0 60.2 8.1 22647.9 135.0 40.4 9.0 117.6 116.5 6.9 69.0 110.5 36.0 5.0 34.4 40.6 85.5 Base Load (Refrigerators) Daily [kWh/d] 7.5 54.8 24.0 25478.0 14.0 11.7 77.0 13. the load caused by the adaptation of refrigerators is defined as the base load.5 45.0 250.0 150.5 7.9 38.8 9908.0 26.0 135.9 28309.5 50.1 100.5 8.7 46.0 130.2 70773.0 19.8 31.4 31140.0 100.5 81.6 18401.0 170.0 31.5 20.8 12739.0 99.9 Peak Load Annual [kWh/a] 8492.5 5.4 15.0 108.5 72.0 9.5 10.0 60.0 3.0
Personal Comment Mr.6 16.0 7.8 108.2 14. during a telephone interview on August 20th.5 25.0 45.0 Annual [kWh/a] 2628 3066 3504 3942 4380 4818 5256 5694 6132 6570 7008 7446 7884 8322 8760 9636 10512 11388 12264 13140 14016 14892 15330 17520 19710 21900
27.42 To simplify matters.6 21232.0 75.2 62.8 42.2 16985.0 54.5 26893.0 49.0 80.0 55.8 63696.3 27.2 33.0 17.0 157.6 22.3 58. Table A.0 153.8 12.0 140.8 73. Table A.0 65.1 45295.0 144.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
genset should normally be designed to satisfy the base demand.0 58.0 67.5 90.0 8.5 63.0 120.0 22.0 126.4 28.0 76.4 54.0 200.5 4.6 36.0 50.0 4.2 39633.5 24063.0 95.2 42464.3 36802.0 16.0 70.
(Homer.5 30. It is obvious that the design of the systems here is therefore rather rough and that real application of hybrid systems would require accurate system design with the help of optimisation models as for example TALCO (Technical and Least Cost Optimisation.2 kWh/m2/d Temperature Correction In Summer: 0.0
A..4 Main Modelling Assumptions
PV Modules Annual Global Radiation: 1. 44 During a telephone interview on August 20th. Sheriff.. Pneumaticos. Source Meteosat
During a telephone interview on August 21st. Berger. F.0 300.. it seems sufficient.. C. S. ISET44 Personal Recommendation given by Claudia Hemmerle. good site Equals 6 h/d Own assumption. C. R.0
[kWh/d] 213. the following basic assumptions are made: Table A..35 (Turcotte.25 – 0.664 kWh/m /a Radiation on a surface with 10° incline In June: 7. R. typically between 0.0
27. F. Hemmerle. 2003)).9 84928.9 Norm Radiation = 1. For the system design.2 kWh/m2/d In December: 2.5 270. Strauss. 43 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie Average Site in Trapani.
.190 h/a Efficiency: 0. 2002) Own assumption.85 In Winter: 0.3 232. 2003.7
247.0 26280.000 h/a Miscellaneous Energy losses due to inverter and battery: 24% (Haselhuhn..0 72.3 Designed to meet the base load Wind Generator Annual Full Load Hours: 2. F.. (FHG ISE. for a comparative assessment.0 Annual [kWh/a] 24090. However..Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
Number of Households Daily
Peak Load Annual [kWh/a] 77850. 2003)) or HOMER (Evaluation of design options. Hemmerle. 2002). 2003. 2001) Personal Recommendation Mr. Italy.000 W/m2 Diesel Genset Annual operating time in Mini-Grid: 2.. Berger.2
Base Load (Refrigerators) Daily [kWh/d] 66. D.2 System Design
The design of hybrid systems here is based on personal comments by project developers and literature review (Haselhuhn.0
the calculations lead to the following system designs for the different village sizes. Georg Weingarten.5 Share of Technologies for Electricity Generation
PV/Diesel Hybrid Systems Share: 80 % PV. 20% Diesel Genset PV/Wind Hybrid Systems Share: 2/3 Wind. 20% Diesel Genset Remarks/Source Common design for cost optimisation
PV generator is designed to meet 50% of the electricity Personal Recommendation Mr. 1/3 PV Own assumption Common design for cost optimisation
Based on these assumptions.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
For the different hybrid systems. 45 demand in winter Energiebau GmbH Wind/Diesel Hybrid Systems Share: 80 % Wind. the following share on electricity generation was attributed to the different generators: Table A. 2003.
Given at Intersolar Fair in Freiburg/Germany on June 28th.
5 5.4 11323.2 4.4 7549.5 10380.9
System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 6794.0 19.9 12.7 33.3 7926.2 8.3 16985.3 20.7 9.0 3.1 11323.0 5.6 4246.8 12267.6 3.5 7077.5 16.1 14154.7 9.9 6605.7 7.4 4718.9 14.0
System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 2.8 12456.5 3.4 11.7 10.8 12456.5 7.5 7549.0 10191.4 13211.0 19250.6 3.8 7.2 8021.2 5.3%PV [kWh/a] 2830.9 3302.4 2.7 3.4 66.2 8492.3 3.9 9.6
.8 3774.4 11323.3 16042.9 6133.3 11.6 18118.1
System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 6794.4 8.1 13588.3 16985.9 4.8 9436.9 10.3 4.1 13588.6 6.4 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 4.1 5661.0 6.9 15853.2 6.6 12.6 21.6% Wind [kWh/a] 5661.0 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 3.5 14720.1 2.0 7.5 4.2 6.8 18.1 6.1 8.7 15098.5 14720.7 4.9 4.3 7926.6 18118.2 15.8 2.8 5.0 10.9 15853.6 9059.3 5.3 9.7 6605.8 5.6 6.0 10191.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
Total Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85
Diesel Capacity [kW] 1.4 8.0 19250.2 5190.4 PV Capacity [kW] 7.2 11.6 9059.0 3.
3%PV [kWh/a] 8492.3 23.7 9.2 14.8 18872.0 16513.0 PV Capacity [kW] 23.3 36236.2 10.9 14.4 17.6 19.8 8.5 33971.4 13211.0 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 13.2 17.2 13.8 8964.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
Total Number of Households 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200
Diesel Capacity [kW] 5.8 28.8 21515.4 14.4 13.0 29441.3 16042.9 22.5
System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 20382.4 18.0
System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 20382.6 10.9 19.8 45.7 32084.4 9.8 39633.8 39633.5 10380.1 11323.0 9.5 24534.5 24912.8 21515.0 29441.2 43.1 22647.0 38500.1 29.4 20.8 33.2 24.5 25.9 16.2 11.5 12.1 17.7 15098.0 13.9 16.9 21.6 10.5 24912.5 33971.9 33.8 12.8 31706.3 18872.4 30196.6% Wind [kWh/a] 16985.0 33027.1 38.1 21.7 24.6 17929.6 9436.8 26422.7 6.0 6.3 27177.1 22647.2 7.8 15.7 14.5 36.0 38500.1 14154.1 28309.3 30.1 51.4 11.6 7.3 12.4 5.3 27177.7 41.2 45295.6 37745.9
System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 7.9 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 11.8
.3 36236.9 20760.3 26.8 8.2 22647.3 8.8 12267.8 25.4 66.2 45295.8 31706.
8 62280.7 67942.6 56618.0 16.5 15.2 25950.9 56618.9 77.0 64.1 47182.Annex A: Electricity Demand and System Design
Total Number of Households 225 250 275 300
Diesel Capacity [kW] 13.9 56618.5 37.6% Wind [kWh/a] 42464.4 70.1 66.8 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 27.5 18.3%PV [kWh/a] 21232.1 23591.3 28309.8 62280.2 41.0 34.9 26.6 Wind Capacity at 2000 h/a [kW] 33.7 67942.9 31.3 51900.3
System Design Wind/Diesel 80% Wind [kWh/a] 50956.7 33.0 44.4
System Design PV/Wind PV Capacity [kW] 19.6 PV Capacity [kW] 58.2
System Design PV/Diesel 80% PV [kWh/a] 50956.7 23.1 37.
Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
B.1 Scenario Definitions
For the comparison of the different electrification scenarios, the main requirement for adequate comparison is that in all scenarios the same amount of electricity is provided. Here, a village with 170 households is chosen, with peak electricity consumption of 48,126 kWh/a, which is to be produced by the different scenarios. SHS, however, are seen as an exception here. SHS are just used for household electrification, and since real application is to be investigated, this is accounted for here. It is assumed that every household is supplied with a 50 Wp SHS-module each, generating 80 kWh/a at the given global irradiation, efficiency and energy density. For the assessment of the impacts of conventional grid-based electrification on ecology, three commonly used developing/transition countries are chosen: Brazil for its high share of hydro power plants on electricity supply; China for its high share coal power plants on electricity supply; and South Africa as an African representative and with comparatively high share of nuclear power.
The different electricity supply systems are chosen from the database of GEMIS. An overview on system designs and main assumptions is given in the following.
Scenario 1: Hybrid systems
PV Module PV/Diesel monocrystalline PVmodule, system with aluminium-frame incl. Elevation after DIN small-scale dieselmotor for decentral electricity production, no emission control (base case) 20 9,625.2 10.2 30 1,460 10 Own assumption Source: GEMIS; for the diesel generator, no emission control is applied as worst case scenario Wind Generator Diesel Remarks/Source
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]
80 38,500.8 43.8 10 1,664 20
Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
PV Module PV/Wind monocrystalline PVsmall-scale single module, system mit wind turbine, for good aluminium-frame incl. sites Elevation after DIN 33.3 16,042 14.8 10 1,664 20 66.7 32,084 21.1 100 2,000 12 Own estimation Wind Generator Diesel
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] Wind/Diesel
small-scale dieselmoSmall-scale single tor for decentral elecwind turbine, for good tricity production, no emission control sites (base case) 80 38,500.8 25.3 100 2,000 12 20 9,625.2 10.2 30 1,460 10
Source: GEMIS; for the diesel generator, no emission control is applied as worst case scenario
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]
Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Scenario 2: Diesel Mini-Grid
small-scale dieselmotor for decentral electricity Source: GEMIS; no emission control as is production, no emission control (base case) common in developing countries
Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kWp] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] 48,126
22 30 2,190 6 Own assumption
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy
Solar Home system Remarks/Source Biogas Plant Remarks/Source Small generator for biogas from decentral Source: GEMIS; fermentation for elecCatalytic Converter tricity generation in added; Converter developing countries, meets World Bank with three-way cataEmission and Imlytic-converter for remission Standards duction of NOx/CO/NMVOC 35,058.3 170 Buildings, each one SHS
Complete 50 Wp Solar Home System, incl. battery & CFL bulbs, with 100% firm power due to battery storage
Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [kWp] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]
8.5 10 1,600 20
10 27.74 4,813 10
Own estimation Source: GEMIS
Large hard coal power Generic nuclear power Here dealt with as biomass: mediumplant with steam tur.1
577. in China China.000 20
250 100 4.903. no SO2.2 1. but gasification of wood.000 30
950 33 6.or in developing counintegrated biomass power plant Brazil tries.3 4.2 18.000 50
600 38 6.7 4. injected gas turbine = STIG 8.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Hydroelectric Power Plant
Scenario 4: Grid-Extension
Coal Power Plant Brazil In Brazil: bagasse. PWR) sized power plant with Large scale river countries. includes asNOx. electric filter.000 20
39.sumed nuclear waste simple-cycle steaming tower.6 Nuclear Power Plant Others
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a] China
3. of 5 g/MWh-el.117.994. no cool.5 1.5 300 38 5.000 50
2.5 0.4 82.plant (pressurisedbine for developing water reactor.8 10 38.dam + reservoir water reactor LWR) in China.597.1
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]
38.213.250 33 6.000 30
8. 80.506 15
Nuclear power plant Coal-fired steamhydro-electric power (pressurised lightturbine power plant in plant .2 50 100 6.
Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Coal Power Plant South Africa Nuclear power plant Large hard coal power Koeberg close to Cape plant with steam turTown. cooling tower assumed nuclear waste with wet recooling.561 50
B. PWR with 2x 920 no SO2. CO2-Equivalents aggregate the different greenhouse gas emissions due to their contribution to the greenhouse effect.200 25
360 100 3. supplied with energy due to the different scenarios.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
The following table shows the amount of greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the different electrification scenarios.1
44. of 5 g/MWh-el. With GEMIS.4
500 38 5.or NOx.1
0. the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. air pollutants and the cumulative energy demand (CED) were calculated.2 Modelling Results
The following section gives an overview and interpretation on the results of the GEMIS calculation for a village of 170 household.997.8
2.646. Nuclear Power Plant Hydroelectric Power Plant Others
Electricity Production [%] Electricity Production [kWh/a] Installed Capacity [MW] Efficiency [%] Annual Operating Hours [h/a] Lifetime [a]
93. includes moval. bine in South Africa. South Africa.5
920 33 7.5
1 Amount of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Option [kg] PV/ Diesel Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China CO2Equivalents [kg] 18.75 54.11E-03 5.73E-07 7.38 0.16E-06 2. which applies 82.52 553.35 Perfluormethane Perfluorethane [kg] [kg] 2.071.57 166.52E-07 1. PV/Wind hybrid systems do not apply fossil resources during operation.31 2.000 30.09 1.73 11.637.16 12.27 3.63 2.533.43 40.710.969.201.69 N2O [kg] 0.887.46E-06 3.10 1.677.503.00 3.50 0.98E-06 8.83E-07 4.36 46.593.945.80 4.35E-06 6.44E-07 1. which can be explained with the high share of coal in electricity production.74E-07
These figures are illustrated by the following graphs.53 54.27 42.24 2.93 3.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Table B.05E-08 1.37 34.32 0.80E-03 4. The comparison of hybrid systems with grid-based electrification shows expected results for South Africa and China.879.1 GEMIS Results: GHG Emissions The comparison of the different scenarios clearly shows that hybrid systems result in relatively few GHG emissions.422.707.51 10.56 29.43 13.
60.40E-07 1.568.53E-06 1.815. For Brazil.95 CH4 [kg] 27.38E-06 6.04 6.000 20.000 10. The comparison with renewable energy technologies shows a likewise expected result: diesel based hybrid systems result in more GHG emissions than do SHS and biogas plants due to the application of the diesel generator.50 0.165.43 17.11E-02 5.000 40. the result
Greenhouse Gases [kg CO2-Equivalents]
50.23 234.31 1. so that their GHG emissions are equal to those attributable to SHS and biogas.7% of hydropower for electricity generation.63 CO2 [kg] 17.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica
Figure B.47E-07 8. The comparison with diesel genset shows the expected result: the application of hybrid systems result in less GHG emissions due to the fact that the diesel generator accounts for just 80% of the electricity production.02 8.340.65E-03 7.
Methance Emissions [kg]
500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa
. the diesel generator applied in the model here does not apply emission reduction measures as catalytic converters. although from their total amount fewer than CO2 emissions. the Brazilian grid results in similar GHG emissions as do PV/Diesel systems. This has two main reasons: Firstly. the application of hydroelectric power plants results in a high degree of CH4 emissions as shows figure B.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
seems surprising in the first instance. Secondly. have a comparatively high greenhouse potential and therefore significantly contribute to the aggregated CO2Equivalents.2 GEMIS Results: Methane Emissions CH4 emissions. SO2-Equivalents aggregate the different air pollutants due to their acidification potential.
The following tables show the amount of air pollutants attributable to the different electrification scenarios.
15E-09 -4.35E-06 2.88 12.56 14.88 3.03E-04 4.13 35.13E-08 1.66 18.07 1.85 297.52E-04 PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil 5.2 Air Pollutants
Option PV/ Diesel Wind/ Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China 9.16E-05 4.26E-07 -1.10 1.00E-06 2.05E-06 1.54 161.04E-05 1.74E-05 6.53E-05 8.29 16.32E-06 5.66E-07
These figures are illustrated with the following graphs.62E-08 1.33E-05 9.87E-11 SO2Equivalent [kg] 172.22 0.27E-05 4.39E-04 6.50 0.89E-05 6.45 52.47 0.61 134.97E-05 2.01 0.94E-10 1.46E-10 1.76E-06 6.15 0.08 0.91E-06 2.95 HCl [kg] 0.71 NOx [kg] 169.18E-05 1.89E-05 4.77E-10 1.12 0.91 0.24E-04 1.03 CO [kg] 51.01 0.17E-12
8.41 NMVOC [kg] 3.53 116.36 197.38E-08 -1.04E-05 5.85 0.86E-06 1.48 43.42E-05 6.57E-04 China 5.65E-08 2.24E-08
Option PV/ Diesel
PCDD/F [kg] 1.04E-07 7.48E-06 -1.14 3.76 6.66 0.21E-06 3.83 799.07E-06 1.44E-09 4.64E-10 2.40 0.28E-03
Wind/ Diesel 3.30E-06 1.02E-05 1.51 13.06 186.
.87E-06 1.35E-05 2.23E-05 1.12 5.79E-04 8.22 32.79 395.10E-06 3.97 4.75E-09 6.97E-05 1.33E-06 2.18E-07 3.08 0.33 1.89E-06 4.17 1.01 21.06 156.01 2.67 47.89E-05
South Africa 8.40 H2 S [kg] -1.56E-05 4.04E-04 3.55E-05 1.78 27.37 2.69E-05 9.67E-05 1.22 -6.61 4.22 246.00 155.73E-06 5.46E-05 1.62 390.17E-04 3.49E-06 3.51E-08 1.20 77.71 1.04 40.86 215.04 772.02 0.76E-04 1.30 222.31E-04 2.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
Table B.69 25.43E-05 1.19E-09 4.03 3.08 0.12E-05 1.00 0.18E-05 3.86 4.06 168.11E-06 2.56E-05 5.97E-04 8.73 SO2 [kg] 53.25 HF [kg] 0.47E-05 4.03 Dust [kg] 44.74 0.49E-10 2.24E-08 1.42E-10 1.92E-08 6.
reveals similar or less air pollutants from hybrid systems. the following figure is meant to provide an overview. It illustrates that main pollutants in diesel systems are NOx. The high amount of air pollutants in the biogas system here results mainly from SO2 from sulphur in the fuel. the higher the share of coal in electricity production and the worse the flue gas cleaning in these countries. In comparison with grid-based electrification.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
800 Air Pollutants [kg SO2-Equivalents] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Af rica
The comparison of the different scenarios shows that hybrid systems are likely to result in few emissions of air pollutants. Compared to diesel gensets. dust and CO. while the conventional grid emits mainly SO2 from coal combustion. the total amount is similar. The comparison with SHS shows that diesel-based hybrid systems result in higher emissions of air pollutants. NOx. the amount of air pollutants in a country like Brazil. again the expected result is obtained. however. the amount of air pollutants is significantly
Figure B. especially PV/Wind systems. The comparison with biogas systems.3 GEMIS Results: Air Pollutants
lower than for diesel mini-grids. For PV/Wind systems. is lower.
. However. applying a high share of hydroelectric power. Due to fewer operational time of the diesel generator in hybrid systems. For a better overview on the amount of the main air pollutants SO2. the better the comparative performance of hybrid system.
PV/Diesel Wind/Diesel PV/Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China
These figures are illustrated with the following graphs.369.078.3 209.370.015.273. The following table shows the results of the GEMIS calculations.2 14.4 123.0 210.742.3 59.46 It is therefore a measure to describe the extent to which renewable and non-renewable energy resources are consumed in order to provide electricity.945.861.681.6 537.975.053.1 109.3 0.537.4 45.0 118. both during operation and for the construction of the power plant.705.2 43.0 58.4 350.0 60.032.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
800 Selected Air Pollutants [kg] 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 PV/ Wind/ Diesel Diesel PV/ Wind Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South Africa China SO2 NOx Dust CO
Figure B.012.2 1.3 56.3 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy)
Option Total CED [kWh] 103.6 48.0 12.4 Non-Renewable Resources [kWh] 62.0 38.1 10.3 82.
.1 180.600.8 13.4 Selected Air Pollutants
Cumulative Energy Demand (CED)
The Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) in kWh is a measure for the whole effort on energy resources (primary energy) for the provision of products or services.6 8.7 64.454.0 Others [kWh] 2.4 54.159.040.1 Renewable Resources [kWh] 39.717.3 39.747.6 129.6 68.645.9 19.085.353.2 129.602. Table B.
000 shows that the ap150. being most important for this assessment here. This is to the higher energy demand for higher installed capacity in PV/Wind hybrid systems.6 as well. For the case of PV/Wind hybrid systems. hybrid systems applying diesel generators are disadvantageous.000 total cumulative energy demand 200.000 50.Annex B: GEMIS Scenario Calculations
The investigation of 250.
250.6 as well. this disadvantage might well be due to the fact that larger systems of higher installed capacity are applied to provide more energy than with SHS. As is proved by figure B.5 Cumulative Energy Demand (Primary Energy) tion. Just PV/Wind systems are able to compete with biogas and the grid of Brazil.6 Cumulative Energy Demand According to Resources
. is higher in these hybrid systems due to the use of the diesel generator. hybrid systems are all disadvantageous.000 the diesel mini-grid and to the conven0 tional grid in counPV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China tries with a high Diesel Diesel Wind Africa share of coal in electricity generaFigure B.000 geous compared to 50.000 plication of hybrid systems is advanta100.000 0 PV/ Wind/ PV/ Diesel SHS Biogas Brazil South China Diesel Diesel Wind Africa Non-renew able Renew able Others CED [kWh]
Figure B. which shows not only a higher degree of renewable energy consumption by PV/Wind systems than with SHS.000 100. the consumption of non-renewable resources.000 150. In comparison to Biogas and the conventional grid of Brazil with a high share of hydropower. In comparison to SHS.000 CED [kWh] 200. This idea is supported by figure B. but also a significantly higher degree of non-renewable energy consumption.
the generator produces noise not only through operation. power distribution lines cause significant noise pollution by generating a constantly buzzing noise. resulting in a comparatively very good evaluation. This clearly shows that this effect is not negligible. Biogas plants for electrification create noise through the operation of the biogas-generator. The impact on noise pollution is therefore estimated to be negligible.1 Ecology
Indicator: Noise Pollution
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel genset-based mini-grids are commonly operating the generator during evening hours. However. larger gensets producing more noise. power distribution lines of the mini-grid further contribute to noise generation. the impact on noise pollution created by biogas-systems is estimated to be low. Therefore. with longer operation time than in diesel-based hybrid systems. which as well can be cushioned. Just as for hybrid systems. but also due to start-up and shut-down procedures. for the single remote village discussed here the impact on noise pollution is estimated to be low due to the fact that electricity generation does not take place in the village itself. are necessary in order to provide the same amount of electricity as with hybrid systems. cannot be taken in consideration for the assessment here. thus. Moreover. resulting in a comparatively good assessment. Due to the fact that power transport to remote villages takes place over large distances with high and medium voltage lines.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
The generation of electricity in centralised power plants does not result in noise in the remote villages.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
The PV modules of SHS do not generate noise during operation and do not apply power distribution lines. For power distribution lines the same considerations apply as above. Due to this reason the impact of diesel gensets on noise pollution is evaluated to be comparatively very poor. which could create noise. Since the load is not constant during these hours. the noise is distributed over these large distances as well. by this resulting in a comparatively good assessment. Cushioning the noise of a diesel genset alone can as well be done by building a powerhouse.
.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
C. However. but in reality this is not often the case and. usually for the duration of several hours. affecting more villages than the discussed single remote one. which frequently occur.
resulting in a comparatively very good performance. if functioning well. therefore performing comparatively very poor. The fact that energy provision is very limited and does not satisfy all needs and expectations. because they have relatives or friends in cities. 1999a). in regions where renewable energies like photovoltaic and wind have already been applied. thus. Religious taboos are experienced to arise for example from the fact that cleanliness. Most people in rural areas are familiar of the possibilities and benefits of gridbased electrification. Especially the work connected to running a biogas system can be prohibited as well. However.. All in all. is not seen as guaranteed in dealing with human and animal excrements. who is well aware of possibilities of grid-based electrification. no major obstacles resulting from cultural incompatibilities have been reported yet. especially in winter (GTZ. can supply electricity for 24 hours. SHS suffer from the same problem of acceptance due to intermittent supply as do diesel gensets. Since word-of-mouth
. Thus. Biogas systems have been found to be the system probably facing most cultural obstacles. This effect is likely to be stronger than in hybrid systems. open to solutions for this.. but also to the hard and tiring work connected to filling the tank of a generator. Furthermore.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
For SHS. diesel gensets are still likely to face hardly any cultural obstacles or problems with acceptance than hybrid systems due to their high degree of publicity. and are. In an overall result. This is not only due to the high operational costs for diesel gensets. which.2 Socio-Economic Issues
Indicator: Cultural Compatibility and Acceptance
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel gensets are one of the most common and well-known ways to address the problem of electrification of remote areas. so that hybrid systems are likely to face less cultural obstacles than do SHS. but probably to a higher degree since SHS is a new technology being unknown to population. Furthermore.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
The extension of the conventional grid is usually the option being preferred the most by rural population. which is valued very high in some religions. As a result. 2000). SHS are assessed to perform comparatively poor with regard to cultural compatibility and acceptance. H. a preference towards these technologies can sometimes even be observed. biogas systems are estimated to be in many cases significantly less compatible to cultural issues than hybrid systems. Experiences show that only the advertisement of SHS as pre-electrification before being connected to the grid brings the necessary acceptance among rural population (Sauer. The GTZ reports obstacles arising from religious and/or social taboos (GTZ. 2000).Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
C. the use of the produced gas for the preparation of food and the use of the slurry as fertiliser is sometimes hindered on cultural grounds. the feeling of being electrified in second class manner. 2003). can give to rural population. However. people are likely to have a high degree of confidence towards this technology. it is also reported that people are often dissatisfied with the unreliable and intermittent energy provision with diesel gensets (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd.
1999b). Nevertheless. this effect does not apply. Biogas systems generally seem to offer a good possibility for independent and fair power supply. Fraunhofer ISE – Club for Rural Electrification. In this respect. at Intersolar fair. SHS can be assessed to be more beneficial towards supply equity.47 For this reason. the GTZ notes the possibility of a further accentuation of existing differences in income and property holdings (GTZ. that investment costs for SHS are comparatively high. For a biogas plant on community level. since costs for hybrid systems are high as well. M. 2003
. however. the same problem might apply as for hybrid systems that matters of political power or
Personal Comment given by Dirk-Uwe Sauer.
Indicator: Degree of Supply Equity
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel-based mini-grids often do already exist in developing countries. From a financial perspective. preferred to remain for a couple of years without electrification in order to preserve the chances for grid extension.. SHS are significantly advantageous compared to hybrid systems and other decentralised electrification measures: because SHS provide electricity to individual households. either free of charge or at least cheaply. June 28th. L. 1996). SHS are independent from fuel and are not likely to become matter of political power demonstrations since they belong to the consumers themselves.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
SHS offer a solution for electrification being largely independent from existing power structures. Project developers even describe experiences where rural population refused to be electrified with renewable energy technologies because of their fear that the conventional grid is then likely not to be extended to their region. and electrification with diesel gensets has then usually not been implemented in an elaborated way. Meanwhile. being independent from fossil resources. However. The World Bank states that investment costs are in the order of magnitude of a year’s income for low.and middle-income rural families (Cabraal. nevertheless. Once constructed. Cosgrove-Davies. attenuates this effect. Schaeffer.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
propaganda is a common cultural habit in developing countries. the degree of cultural compatibility and acceptance of grid extension is assessed to be comparatively very good. and poor farmers are likely to be coerced to deliver their manure to the landlord or more prosperous farmers. diesel gensets are relatively expensive with regard to total costs. thus.. hybrid systems are even more expensive. A. However. so that it is decided here to assess hybrid systems and diesel gensets as equally with regard to supply equity. they can be considered as completely independent from power structures even within rural communities. Comparatively high investments make this technology more affordable to well-situated families. The fact. however. the extension of the conventional grid to remote villages is considered as “real electrification” and will most likely be welcomed by rural population. It is. the application of hybrid systems (and any other technology) has the potential to do so and to take account of matters of supply equity..
Njaimi. resulting in a comparatively poor performance of grid extension in this respect. The question whether or not to extend the conventional grid to certain rural areas is often a matter of political influence and preference as well. resulting in a comparatively very good assessment.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
Experiences with PV systems in general and SHS in particular show that the link between energy consumption and insolation is usually understood (Nieuwenhout. et al.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
It is a well-known fact that the conventional grid can become a matter of political power on a national level. applies to hybrid systems as well. and therefore the effect on capacity building is here evaluated to be higher than for hybrid systems. F. the effect on capacity building of SHS is here evaluated to be lower. Ounalli. it is decided here to assess hybrid systems as preferential to grid extension with regard to supply equity.. which make decentralised rural electrification highly advantageous with regard to supply equity. which is obviously due to natural limitations and fluctuations of renewable energy resources. This shows the great potential this technology offers towards capacity building and empowerment. which cannot be run all day.J. 1999). Many developing countries have experienced demonstrations of political power on the issue of energy. SHS. where electricity is simply not available during the day. but only during some hours in the evening. This does not result in the same effect on capacity building or social empowerment than with hybrid systems. then no electricity can be used. From a financial perspective. but also needs to directly participate in the production of energy and the fertiliser. M. This effect. biogas plants are seen as preferential with regard to supply equity compared to hybrid systems. Therefore. but to a lesser degree since back-up with a diesel genset weakens the effect. electricity is available. Biogas systems involve a lot of work to be done by the consumer himself. where people are to understand the limited nature of energy in order to make electricity available to everybody to the same extent. due to lower costs for biogas systems.. A. However. to some degree have the same problem as diesel gensets: if insolation (or diesel in the case of diesel gensets) is there.. This is not the case with diesel gensets. N. the potential for capacity building and increasing empowerment is higher for hybrid systems due to the fact that consumers in hybrid systems need to adapt to certain regulations.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
mismanagement of the electrification committee can result in unequal supply. and that people adapt energy consumption to seasonal patterns with regard to insolation (Hammamami. however. Since grid extension to remote rural areas requires enormous investment. 2000).
Indicator: Potential for Participation and Empowerment
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel gensets.D. a general statement cannot be given. Still. if not. The consumer should not only be directly involved in the planning processes.. et al. and the responsibility for this is left to the individual consumer.. by this offer potential for understanding of the limited nature of energy.
L. 2000b). 2000). Best.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
The extension of the conventional grid is not likely to improve understanding about the limited availability of electricity.J. D. average increases of yields between 6 to 10%. SHS were found to be a tourist attraction in Nepal.. but there was just little evidence found for the potential of SHS to generate income (Nieuwenhout.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
The potential for economic development of SHS has been matter of intensive research. resulting in the assessment of a comparatively very poor potential for participation and empowerment. Experiences show that rural population reverts to existing diesel gensets in the village for productive purposes or to the use of petroleum for further lighting (Preiser... The effect is therefore evaluated to be significantly lower than for hybrid systems. the potential for economic development with diesel gensets is estimated to be lower than with hybrid systems. B.D.. SHS services are limited. have been reported (GTZ. A. diesel gensets are comparable to grid connection. offering a high degree of flexibility for the villages with effectively no technical constraints to be made on the use of appliances (ESMAP. An extension of an existing system can be done by erecting new tanks and biogas generators if enough substrate is available and financial feasibility is given. 2000). The potential for economic development of biogas systems depends on the size of the system and is therefore a matter of the pre-investment planning process. 2000): lighting provides the possibility of extended commercial activities in the evening. which was mentioned as potential for income generation. Energy is not generated on site to improve people’s understanding. in some cases up to 20%. et al. Cosgrove-Davies. 1999b).. resulting in a comparatively very poor potential of SHS for economic development. As a result of the use of the by-product.
However. Schaeffer. a biofertiliser. and energy supply is open to any kind of use with limitation just through pricing. When discussing the economic development potential.. Guidi. Due to the latter fact. F.
. The commonly installed capacities are not sufficient to be used for productive purposes by installing electrical machines. M. G. and the costs for expanding capacity are considerably high (Cabraal. K. An important constraint on the potential for economic development is the fact that diesel gensets are less suitable to be operated the whole day. 1996). et al.. The following aspects are mentioned (Campen. since operation costs are high..
Indicator: Potential for Economic Development
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
From a technical point of view. The potential of SHS for economic development is therefore rated to be considerably lower than for hybrid systems. one should not ignore the fact of improved yields attributable to biogas systems..
to sell their goods (Nieuwenhout.by the operator or family members.. 1999b). 2000). employment effects by enhanced commercial activities during the evenings are likely to occur through SHS. which are likely to experience a substantial load-growth after electrification. while hybrid systems depend on the unlimited resources wind and/or sun.D. This effect. but not for electrification of machines for handicraft businesses. However. et al. M. Direct effects on employment related to operation and maintenance of diesel gensets can be evaluated to be low. These activities are mostly carried out by family members of the operator and are often neglected (GTZ. it is expected here that SHS are likely to result in lower employment effects than hybrid systems. sales. it should not be overseen that for grid connection a minimum threshold level of electricity demand as well as certain load densities are essential in order to achieve economies of scale (Cabraal. 1996). the potential for economic development through biogas systems seems lower than with hybrid systems. the effect of enhanced economic activities is likely to occur.. especially of those activities taking place in evenings since this is the time when diesel-based mini-grids likely operate. Generally..
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
For villages.. the extension of the conventional grid normally offers a maximum degree of flexibility to accommodate increasing demand without supply constraints. 2003). For this reason. the application of diesel gensets is not very labour intensive.
. are likely to result in further employment effects as well. Since building material for biogas plants is less sophisticated than for example for photovoltaic modules. however. as outlined above.J. A. the potential for economic development given by the conventional grid can be considered to be higher than for hybrid systems. Production. Cosgrove-Davies.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
As with diesel gensets.
Indicator: Employment Effects
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
The use of diesel gensets for electrification is likely to result in lower employment effects as in the case of hybrid systems.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
However. Schaeffer. Since SHS systems just provide potential for lighting. already the construction phase is likely to encourage local manufacturing of building materials and accessories. In China it was experienced that every district applying biogas erected its own enterprises for the production of the individual parts of the biogas plant (GTZ. the impact of diesel gensets on overall employment is valued to be lower than with hybrid systems. The main restriction given is quite often the ability of the customers to pay for the energy service. service and maintenance of PV systems. L. As for all energy technologies.. Anyhow. who are the major competitor of SHS for lighting. Biogas systems provide potential for employment both in a long-term and short-term perspective. F. is reduced by the fact that the application of SHS is likely to have negative influence on the possibility of kerosene dealers. and related maintenance work is carried out – if at all . since it is limited by the availability of the substrate.
which can be attributed to electrification. families have more time during the day to follow commercial activities as farming or animal husbandry. biogas systems have a special positive side effect by improving sanitary conditions for the plant owners or even the villages. However. In comparison to hybrid systems. no corrosive gases are emitted. diesel gensets generally can be applied as well. the fact that grid-based electrification offers higher potential for commercial activities than hybrid systems is lowered by the lack of job opportunities related to the energy provision itself. The positive effect on human health is thus higher than with hybrid systems.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
During operation of SHS. Electrification of rural health clinics with SHS is unlikely. and biogas slurry does not attract important causes for contagious diseases as flies and other insects (GTZ. This positive effect can be reduced if kerosene lamps and candles are applied additionally in case lighting is not sufficient. further employment effects for operation and maintenance of the plants can be expected. direct employment effects are likely not to occur. The fermentation process inside the tank significantly reduces the initial pathogenic capacity of the animal and human excrements. handicraft enterprises get the opportunity to use as many appliances as they need and can finance. and since household chores can be dealt with in the evenings due to lighting. sales or maintenance of energy generating technologies.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
When applying biogas systems on a community level. 1999b).
Indicator: Impacts on Health
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
For the use of diesel gensets the same argument concerning corrosive gases applies as outlined for the hybrid systems. Due to the fact that biogas systems are less sophisticated and that experiences proof immediate effects on employment due to their application. For the electrification of health clinics.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
The extension of the conventional grid is certainly the possibility offering the highest potential to create all such employment opportunities. Thus. but do not produce electricity in the same reliable and constant manner as do hybrid systems. For this reason the positive impact on human health is here considered to be lower than with hybrid systems. 1999b). Besides the potential general impacts of electrification on human health. the impact on improved human health is lower than with hybrid systems. The extension of the conventional grid hardly gives rise to job opportunities related to production. SHS are usually not designed to support appliances like refrigerators or even X-ray equipment. Commercial activities using electricity can take place at any time of the day. since skilled craftsmen are needed as permanent staff for the plant (GTZ. the likelihood to create job opportunities is here estimated to be higher than for hybrid systems. and both are evaluated to have a comparatively good effect on employment opportunities. This leads to the estimation that no preference is made towards one of these scenarios.
1.45 – 0.10 – 1.33 US$/W
Bulitai (Inner Mongolia) (GTZ. the conventional grid is undoubtedly able to support electricity demand from rural health clinics. Since flue gas cleaning in these power plants is usually not elaborated well. CO or SO2 are emitted. Shen.20 US$/W
5 – 20
2. This positive assessment... 2003) Bangladesh (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. high amounts of i. 2000) Second hand generators of private service providers
0. However.57 US$/W 0. But after-effects as acid rain have severe impacts on human health. is worsened in countries where for example the share of coal for electricity generation is high. J. 2002)
(Wuppertal Institute. Wallace. some data could be collected and is presented in Table C.5
Inner Mongolia (Byrne. Thus.
C.3 – 2... the main problems of diesel gensets are rather the high operation costs and the overall low lifetime.1: Initial Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets
System Investment costs Capacity [kW] Location/Source Remarks
0.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
The extension of the conventional grid to remote areas does not result in emissions from the electricity generating process in the village itself. W.5 €/W
0. CO2.3 Economic Issues
Indicator: Investment Costs per kW
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel gensets commonly require low initial investment. Moreover. Table C.1. This does not take place close to the remote villages and therefore does not result in immediate health problems. however.. 1998)
(Kininger. B. it is decided here not to give a preference to grid extension or hybrid systems with regard to the impacts on human health and both are considered to have a comparatively good potential to improve human health situation. F.e.
with the main share of the costs needed for the digester. Observed price reductions are stated to be related to decreases in taxes and duties rather than to a decrease of hardware costs. 1999b). L. resulting in a comparatively good assessment of investment costs. Therefore.. are estimated to be 50 – 75 US$ per m3 capacity in (GTZ. could not be supported. The same study furthermore concluded that the prevailing view that costs for PV hardware are likely to decrease. the construction of power distribution lines account for 80 to 90% of the overall investment. Schaeffer. et al.. L.28 €/W in the case of a 5 kW kW genset or 0. including all installations but not including land. 1999b). the initial investment is as well significantly higher than for diesel gensets.48 Compared to the figures for hybrid systems. investment cost for biogas plants can be evaluated to be lower than for hybrid systems. Biogas plants usually require high investment as well. and costs vary strongly between different plant types and sizes...J. resulting in the assessment of comparatively very poor performance with regard to investment costs. lower capacity utilisation rates. For the evaluation. Total costs of biogas plants. if
P = Installed Capacity in kW
.000 US$ per kilometre (ESMAP. Due to their simplicity. Schaeffer. with 250 – 400 €/ m3 for the digester. 2000b).5 – 4 €/W as a reference point for specific investment costs. the extension of the conventional grid is just economically feasible..63 × exp − 0.. Cosgrove-Davies. however. costs for extension of the conventional grid vary widely not only among.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
The initial investment costs for SHS vary significantly from country to country. For PV/Wind systems. 1996). the initial investment for diesel gensets is therefore significantly lower. 2000).16 €/W for a 20 kW diesel genset. but are generally comparatively high: depending on the size of the module and the frame conditions of the respective countries.D. but also within countries.. Therefore. An appraisal in (ATB.. Problems associated with grid extension in rural areas are lower load densities in rural areas. and can be up to 20.0394 × [€/kW]. meaning for example 0. F. it can be stated that SHS can require significantly higher investments per Watt than hybrid systems. the World Bank estimated in 1996 that prices for SHS are typically in the range of 7 – 26 US$/Wp (Cabraal. A. A recent Dutch study concluded that prices are typically in the range of 10 – 22 US$/Wp (Nieuwenhout. and often higher energy losses (Cabraal. A reduction of up to 15% for labour wages can be achieved (GTZ. can be constructed with a high share of user’s involvement. Cosgrove-Davies. Additional costs result from the application of the biogas generator. which is not surprising with regard to the fact that PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel systems apply diesel gensets as well. 2003) gives 2. 1996). biogas plants.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
The cost analysis here revealed specific investment costs for diesel gensets of P 345. M.
According to the World Bank. M.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
As in all of the above cases. A.
hybrid systems can be evaluated to be less costly than grid extension.60 per kWh (ESMAP. Main determinant for the resulting connection cost is the average number of consumers per kilometre of line (ESMAP.. This was done by Wuppertal Institute in (Wuppertal Institute.76-0. Wallace.
Levelized costs based on field analysis of battery’s lifetime. Shen. 2003) (Byrne. which is still lower than for hybrid systems. A.
The operational costs for diesel gensets are usually considerably high. and is shown in Table C.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
the village is situated close to the next medium-voltage line of the conventional grid.2. with a median cost of about US$ 520 per connection..27 US$/kWh49 Diesel Genset (continuous service) (GTZ.. Cosgrove-Davies. consumption per individual consumer.80 US$/kWh 1. however.56 US$/kWh 0.800 per connection.
From a perspective of the local consumer. and a review of the World Bank in 1990 showed that these costs typically range from US$ 230-US$ 1. the experiences with diesel genset are presented in Table C.2: Electricity Generating Costs for Diesel Gensets
Diesel Genset (non-continuous service) 0. For the case of Inner Mongolia. W. and: Baur. Table C. number of consumers.20 to US$ 0.. 2000b). The World Bank estimates that costs for electricity generation with such systems typically range from US $0.. B. 2000b): size of the generator. should be performed on the basis of the same capacity installed and with the same electricity output. 1996. 1998) Source
A direct comparison of hybrid systems with diesel gensets. L. J. the connection cost to the grid is of major importance.. a considerable number of households is to be connected to the grid. 2000). 2001).
. J. Schaeffer.16-1.3. 2002). and the distance between single households in the village is low (household density) (Cabraal.
Indicator: Electricity Generating Costs
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
The costs for electricity generation with mini-grids based on diesel gensets vary depending mainly on the following factors (ESMAP. M.. For the case of a remote village. and the efficiency of operation.
The comparison in Table C. data based on experiences could not be obtained. Generally.740 Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 0. However. 2000). Wallace. a general statement cannot be given for PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel hybrid systems. Whether additional costs occur is matter of further use of appliances: since SHS have limited capacity and extension is comparatively expensive. ratio 4:1 Investment costs in € 11. 2000).45 €/kWh 1..75 € 1.5 € 1... the aspect of costs for electricity generation cannot be seen independent from the fact that the production of bio-fertiliser and a correspondent observed increase of yields generates income (GTZ. 1999b). For a common 50 Wp SHS. if no subsidies are provided by the respective countries. in the evaluation preference is given to diesel gensets due the data of the World Bank. these costs are high and make the application of SHS difficult for electrification of the poorest. photovoltaic systems are likely to become the least cost option (Nieuwenhout. diesel-based hybrid systems are likely not to be competitive. in the case of hybrid household systems. 1998).. auxiliary energy sources as diesel gensets might be applied and generate additional costs (Nieuwenhout. thus lowering overall system costs.70 €/kWh Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 1. 1998). Nevertheless. B..25 kWh of electricity on a sunny day. F.D. especially if 24-hours electrification is required. 1999).73 US$/kWh (Byrne.84 €/kWh 1. B..59 €/kWh
Comparing these figures for hybrid systems and diesel gensets.15 – 0. this situation might be considerably different as the above example of Inner Mongolia proves.J. Wallace. F. Experiences in Inner Mongolia reveal costs of 0.D. W. et al. making the construction of mini-grids more attractive for villages with several households demanding electrification. However.. Shen. For the application of biogas systems. In any case. et al. Experiences of GTZ show that biogas programmes are usually less costly than similar strategies accounting both for energy and the production or use of fertilisers and being based on fossil resources (GTZ. However.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
In case smaller loads are required.37 US$/kWh (Byrne.51 €/kWh 1. these hybrid systems can compete.. 1999a).J. An appraisal of the Wuppertal Institute results in electricity generating costs of 0. J. Here. delivering around 0. the cost analysis of electricity generating costs reveals that SHS is likely to result in lower costs than hybrid village systems. PV/Wind household systems were experienced to be as low as 0.20
.3: Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices
Capacity: 5 kW Electricity Output: 2190 kWh/a Diesel Genset PV/Diesel.450 23. W.825 22. J.67 –0..3 shows the high dependency on the fuel price. costs do not decrease with more households applying SHS.. the electricity generating costs are approximately 1 US$/kWh (BMZ. ratio 4:1 Wind/Diesel.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Table C. In countries where fuel is subsidised. Shen.
2001). again.J. the additional requirement for the maintenance of the renewable energy generator and the other components as batteries and charge controllers give preference to the diesel genset. However. A. Cosgrove-Davies. from a perspective of maintenance the application of hybrid systems seems to be less favourable than diesel gensets. just few households can carry out this maintenance by themselves over a long period of time (Cabraal. Schaeffer.
Indicator: Maintenance Requirements
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
The application of diesel gensets in remotely located mini-grids has been facing long-standing maintenance problems. as the World Bank describes. Experiences also show severe problems with poor quality contaminated fuel. 2002). resulting in considerable effort for cleaning (Nieuwenhout. has not to be taken for granted since costs for biogas plants vary strongly. L. M. F... Although the back-up diesel generator in hybrid systems is likely to be strained less than in the case of a diesel genset-based mini-grid.. Nevertheless. a rule of thumb from the Dominican Republic states that systems should not be installed more than 50 km away from the next service centre (Cabraal.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
SHS can partly be maintained by users themselves. electricity generating costs are here valued to be significantly lower for grid extension than for hybrid systems. A problematic experience with the education of technicians was observed in Indonesia in applying SHS: technicians who were educated within the context of the project left the villages
. et al.. 2000b). M. which is available on rural markets (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd... According to the World Bank. especially simple maintenance functions as cleaning of the PV arrays can be carried out individually. Service centres are needed as well.. et al. 2000)..Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Euro/kWh for biogas plants (Wuppertal Institute. This. Technicians are needed. operators often lack knowledge about these systems. Moreover. spare parts are difficult to purchase due to the remoteness of the villages (ESMAP. As a conclusion it is decided here to value the performance of biogas systems with regard to electricity prices significantly better than for hybrid systems. L. grid extension offers the least costly option for electricity generation in cases where a medium voltage line serving a number of centres with larger loads passes the respective community nearby (ESMAP. 1996). Still. as the example of Bangladesh proofs (Barkat. A. 2000a).
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
A general statement on electricity generating costs from the conventional grid cannot be given since costs vary strongly between different countries and grid characteristics.. 1996). 2002). A. M.. 2000). but a single technician can serve maintenance needs for a large number of customers (Cabraal. If this is the case. Schaeffer. Cosgrove-Davies.. L. Schaeffer.D.. Even though the technology itself has been known for years. Cosgrove-Davies. not every PV user owns the required auxiliary means as for example a ladder for cleaning the PV array. and they can even further decline with increasing consumption. A common occurrence is that a doubling of consumption per household over a time frame of ten years leads in many places to a decline of costs per kWh of about 40% (ESMAP. In case of system breakdowns. A. 1996)... then costs and tariffs can be relatively low.
the cause of problems related to the micro-organisms inside the tank cannot be identified by users themselves. If once the production of biogas is reduced. experts from GTZ have experienced maintenance as a major issue with biogas plants. but requires help from experts even in developed countries. which usually have a pool of experts or technicians for this purpose.
Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur. the result of decreasing gas production is observed with significant time lag. Biogas systems require regular attendance and maintenance.. which are taken for electrification. et al.51 and therefore hybrid systems are evaluated to be less problematic from a point of view of maintenance. This lead to a lack of maintenance and undermined the whole effort for setting up a maintenance structure. Because in the case of decentralised electrification with hybrid systems.
Indicator: Degree of Import Dependence and Regional Self-Supply
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Diesel gensets can usually be only produced in larger countries as China.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
System breakdowns and shortages in power supply are likely to occur due to often unreliable conventional grids in developing countries. India. the conventional grid is assessed to perform comparatively good with regard to maintenance. Thus. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. especially in African countries. local technicians need to be trained and maintenance centres need to be erected. the result is then a slight preference for hybrid systems. which can be a problem especially in tropic countries where climate dictates agricultural activities. Regular charging with substrate is essential. It is therefore likely that due to the remoteness of the here considered villages. Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur.50 For this reason. the comparative assessment results in a preference for grid extension. resulting in comparatively very poor performance of biogas plants with regard to maintenance. the relatively higher complexity of hybrid systems compared to SHS makes the application of SHS advantageous from the point of view of maintenance. 2003. making the performance of diesel gensets comparatively poor with regard to this indicator. etc. Although the problem of batteries and charge controllers applies to SHS as well. very often it is just old motors from cars. in Eschborn/Germany on August 14th. Moreover.
. This dependency is of course much higher than for hybrid systems. Maintenance of the conventional grid is to be carried out by a central public or private utility. maintenance will be carried out slowly. K. Therefore. 1999a).Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
and searched for better paid jobs in cities (Preiser. GTZ. resulting in longer periods of shortages. GTZ. a return to normal levels takes up to 10 days (GTZ. 2003. Diesel gensets are also heavily dependent on the import of fuel. but taking into account the current non-existence. where fuel consumption is reduced to roughly 20% of the figures for diesel-based mini-grids.. but in case it is forgotten. Maintenance usually cannot be carried out by the customers themselves or local technicians. Assuming that markets for renewable energy technologies are likely to develop. 2000).
Schaeffer. Firstly. This is due to the fact that the degree of regional self-supply is higher for decentralised electrification solutions than with the conventional grid. This effect was evaluated to be in the range of 30-35% by Indian experts (GTZ. the gensets usually operate 4-12 hours in the evenings (Cabraal. 1996). For the application of SHS in developing countries. Thus. the degree of supply security is here estimated to be lower than with hybrid due to the following aspects: as already described. resulting in a comparatively good performance of SHS with regard to this indicator. 2000). since it was experienced and is assumed here that markets for PV are likely to develop. the World Bank in 1996 stated high transaction costs in purchase and servicing for SHS due to limited market structures (Cabraal. ingredients for the operation of the plants are locally available.. The degree of import independence is here evaluated to be lower than for hybrid systems.. the result of this assessment is the same due to the fact that markets both for PV and for wind generators need to be developed before local production becomes reasonable. which are dependent on fuel imports to a large extent. 1999a). the comparative assessment reveals a poor performance of grid extension with regard to this indicator.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
On a country level. the lifetime of a conventional diesel genset is about 4 years and can become as low as 1. the experience shows that due to the uncomplex nature of the systems. M.. A. 1996).. Cosgrove-Davies. resulting in a comparatively very good assessment of biogas plants with regard to this indicator. Cosgrove-Davies.
Indicator: Supply Security
Scenario 2: Diesel Gensets
Electricity provision with diesel-based mini-grids is limited. Furthermore.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
SHS offer to a large extent the possibility of independence from the import of fossil resources as oil or coal. local production of needed materials and components and respective markets can rather easily be developed.. The additional effect of the production of bio-fertiliser can even lower the need for import of mineral fertilisers. M. Although diesel gensets offer a proven and reliable technology for rural electrification.5 years (Prokahausli Sangsad Ltd. However. the degree of import dependency is difficult to assess for developing countries in general. A. diesel gensets provide limited energy supply
. For the case of PV/Wind systems. generating a high share of its electricity with hydropower. The degree of import independence and regional self-supply is therefore rated to be significantly higher with biogas systems compared to hybrid systems. obviously are less dependent on energy import than the major part of the developing countries. Biogas systems provide a comparatively high potential for independence in electricity generation.. this is not taken in consideration. Schaeffer. Therefore preference is given to SHS with regard to import dependency since hybrid systems applying diesel gensets normally still rely on diesel imports. Countries as Brazil. L.. L.
J. However. a recent survey estimates that roughly three-quarters of the SHS systems operate relatively well (Nieuwenhout. et al. no alternative energy source is available in case of shortages of fuel. diesel gensets are valued as average with regard to supply security. 2000).. The same study also reveals that larger SHS systems are working more reliable since deep discharge of batteries occurs less frequently in larger systems (Nieuwenhout. 2000b). The reason for this is on the one hand non-continuous energy provision.D.D. SHS are seen as average with regard to supply security. For the comparative assessment here.. being average in the comparative assessment here. However. 2000b). For biogas plants no information on the reliability of the systems could be obtained. On the other hand. in cases of system breakdowns no back-up with other energy sources can stabilise electricity generation if no diesel genset is available. and with system breakdowns without electricity supply during longer periods of unfavourable weather conditions. 1999a). others report 100% failures. et al. It is therefore assessed that biogas systems offer a lower degree of security on energy supply. no electricity can be generated at all
For the comparative assessment here. It can generally be stated that biogas plants nowadays are a mature technology (Biogas. the reactivation can take several days and needs the involvement of experts in case problems with the tank occur. However.
Scenario 3: Renewable Energy Technologies
Security supply with SHS is certainly to be estimated as lower than with hybrid systems. it has to be considered that markets and maintenance structures for renewable energy have not yet emerged in most developing countries. lies in the fact that once the system is down. the problem of biogas plants. with breakdowns in generating equipment or distribution systems and leading to intermittent availability of electricity (ESMAP. implying that in case of breakdowns. 2000). in many regions in developing countries the quality of grid supply is rather low. F. On the other hand. Information concerning reliability of SHS is very limited and does not give a consistent picture.
. Moreover.J. as was mentioned in the context of maintenance requirements already. While some projects report all SHS systems as being operative. F.. being average in the comparative assessment here. This certainly reduces the otherwise significant advantage of hybrid systems compared to grid extension concerning supply security and results in an evaluation of just better performance.
Scenario 4: Extension of the Conventional Grid
From the extension of the conventional grid one can usually expect a reliable full-time coverage of electricity demand. maintenance or repair is likely to take a long time. limiting electricity provision to just several hours during the day. reductions and fluctuations in voltage can become so severe that the use of appliances is connected with the risk of damages for the customer (ESMAP.Annex C: Analysis of Impacts
in case of breakdowns..
Bopp. Wind generator 12 years. 57 Personal Comment given by Jörg Baur.007 × Diesel Genset: Costs = 345. G.000 € Cabinet. Maintenance and Repair: Annually 4% of total investment
Cost data SMA KfW55 Schueco56 Own estimation GTZ57 Own assumption For PV and Wind: (Sauer. 53 P = Installed capacity in kW. during a telephonme interview on August. GTZ. Cables.000 € Planning.. Battery 5 years.
.63 × exp − 0.1068 × Costs/Details Source Schüco52
P 53 in [€/kW] kW P in [€/kW] kW
For Plants ≥ 10 kW: Costs = 2016. on August 14th. 56 Personal Comment given by Mr. 54 Personal Comment given by Mr. Internal Wiring: 6. 22nd. others: own assumption
Interest Rate: 6%
Miscellaneous Lifetime system components: PV modules 20 years. Geis. 2003. the batteries are designed for a storage capacity of 2 days Inverter and Charge Controller “Sunny Island”.7 × exp − 0. 2003.1 Main Assumptions for the Cost Analysis
Type of Costs PV Modules 400 €/kWp Wind Power Plants (incl. 2003. Puls.000 € Operating Costs Manpower. 4. 55 Personal Recommendation given by Mr. the following basic assumptions were made. in Eschborn/Germany. Inverter and Charge Controller 10 years
Personal Comment given by Mr.000 € Local grid. Diesel Genset 10 years. 2003.0394 ×
Own calculation based on available cost data
P in [€/kW] kW
Battery bank: 333 €/kWh for a 12V.. Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th. 500Ah battery. D. Support: 2.5kW: 5.. former KfW staff member. 2003). Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th. H. Assembly and Commissioning: 15% of total investment Transport: 1. Körner during a telephone interview on August 18th.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Annex D: Cost Analysis
For the cost analysis. Table D. Tower) For Plants ≤ 10kW: Costs = 4309 × exp − 0. 2003.
022.94 297.981.9 Total Investment Costs [€] 629.8 2.
.680.471. Twele during a telephone interview on September.48 3. 59 Personal Comment given by Mr.0 3.40 2.0 1.40 3.0 20. 2003.725.84 1.00 1. 2003)60
Personal Comment given by Mr. 1st.490.0 60.68 1.68 4.00 9.599.17 1.802.199.0 6.0 10.39 Specific Investment Costs [€/kW] 349.069.17
(Heyde.44 78.24 10.90 862.51 1. 2003) Including 11 m tower Bundesverband 58 Windenergie Including 18m tower Including 27m tower Including 30m tower Including 40m tower Bundesverband 59 Windenergie
17.67 5.00 2.20 3. 2003) Remarks Source
INCLIN 600 AC 752 turbo MAJA 1000 INCLIN 1500 neo GRT 2000 INCLIN 3000 neo INCLIN 6000 neo
Inventus 6 GRT 8000 AIRMAXX-10 Novatec ML10Eco Vergnet GEV10/20 Fuhrländer FL30 Vergnet GEV15/60 Lagerwej LW18
6.6 0.38 Source (Diesel.40 17. Twele during a telephone interview on September.97 3.68 2.420.742.80 6.373.998.60 Including 19 m tower Inventus Windpower GmbH Including 11 m tower (Heyde.0 30. Table D. 2003.381.0 80.3 Investment Costs for Diesel Gensets
Diesel Generator Mitsubishi MGE-1800 ROU Mitsubishi MGE-2900 ROU Capacity [kW] 1.60 5.8 1.08 19.310.751.00 60.00 89.954.5 2.117.0 3.2 Investment Costs for Small-Scale Wind Power Plants
Name Capacity Total Investment Specific Investment Costs [€] Costs [€/kW] [kW] 0.970.600. 1st.Annex D: Cost Analysis
The investment costs for wind power plants and diesel gensets are based on the costs for different plants from various manufacturers.80 29.509.165.970. The details are shown in the following tables.0 8.294.40
2.0 10.75 1.999.08 1.324.80 6.
90114 € (September 8th.116.00 100.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Diesel Generator Yamaha EF4000DE Yamaha YG4000D Yamaha EF5200DE Yamaha EF6600DE Yamaha EF12000DE
Capacity [kW] 4 4 5.00 0.37 251.431.
.51 1.63 × exp − 0.13 275.90114 € (September 8th.00 300.00 0 5 10 15
P Costs = 2016.000 1.46
(Diesel.000 5. 2003).000 500 0 0 50 100
Installed Capacity [kW]
P Costs = 4309 × exp − 0. Calculated Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 0.67 1.007 × in [€/kW] kW
Installed Capacity [kW]
P Costs = 345.20 2.000 1.00 200. 2003).242.
Specific Investm ent for Plants <=10kW Specific Investment [€kW] 6.1 Specific Investment for Wind Power Plants and Diesel Gensets
Calculated Exchange Rate: 1 US$ = 0.51
Specific Investment Costs [€/kW] 310.91 1.2 6.000 2.1068 × in [€/kW] kW
Specific Investm ent for Diesel Gensets
Specific Investment [€/kW] 400.500 2.7 × exp − 0.09 224.657.000 0 0 5 10 15 Installed Capacity [kW]
Specific Investm ent for Plants =>10kW
Specific Investment [€/kW] 2.693.500 1.0394 × kW
Figure D.000 4.6 12
Total Investment Costs [€] 1.67 279. 2003)61
The decline in specific investment cost per kW is reflected in the following graphs.000 3.
400 8.7 × exp − 0.000 8.000 9. still being relatively poor.400 9.0027 × in [€/kW] kW kW Figure D.1 Investment Costs
The analysis investment costs revealed the following results.0034 × kW kW
PV/Wind at 1 Day Battery 10. Here.000 10.
Investment Costs [€/kW]
. Regression coefficients of R2 = 0.000 6.000 8.000 0 20 40 60 80 Installed Capacity [kW] PV/Wind at 2 Days Battery 14.000 7.000 0 20 40 60 80
Investment Costs [€/kW]
Investment Costs [€/kW]
Installed Capacity [kW]
Installed Capacity [kW]
P P Costs = 8880.000 6.7163 for bigger plants were obtained. this leads to the following range of investment costs.8422.200 9.200 8.000 7.000 12.000 0 50 100 150 11.
9.0037 × in [€/kW] Costs = 11061 × exp − 0. With this data.800 8.5 × exp − 0.000 8.6659 in the case of smaller plants and R2 = 0.000 6.2 Specific Investment for Hybrid Systems of Different Capacities For the different village sizes as presented in Annex A.1 × exp − 0.0009 × in [€/kW] in [€/kW] Costs = 9564.Annex D: Cost Analysis
While the regression is rather fair in the case of diesel gensets with a regression coefficient of R2 = 0. the analysis of investment and electricity generating costs was performed.000 10.600 8. this is not the case for wind power plants.000 8. it was distinguished between plants of smaller capacity ≤ 10 kW and plants of higher capacity ≥ 10 kW in order to improve the accuracy of regression.
D.000 9.000 0 20 40 60 80 Installed Capacity [kW]
Investment Costs [€/kW]
P P Costs = 8241.
By adding the annuities of operation costs for manpower.05 9.44 12. With the help of the underlying assumptions as presented on page 101.67 6. the following formula was used to calculate the annuity of the investment costs of single components:
a = C0 ×
(1 + i )n − 1
i × (1 + i )
= Annuity = Interest Rate = 6%
C0 = Capital Value n = Component Lifetime The total annuity of investment is then the sum of the single annuities.2 Electricity Generating Costs
The electricity generating costs per kWh were calculated with the help of the annuity method. the following results were obtained:
. repair and diesel fuel.4 Range of Investment Costs for Hybrid Systems
System PV/Diesel Systems Wind/Diesel Systems PV/Wind Systems at 2 days battery capacity PV/Wind Systems at 1 day battery capacity Investment Costs at 30 Households [€/W] 9. Division of the annual costs by the annual electricity production leads to the specific electricity generating costs per kWh.18 Investment Costs at 300 Households [€/W] 8. maintenance.86
D.00 9.20 10.23 8. the total annual costs can be calculated.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Table D. For the different systems and varying diesel fuel prices.
49 1.43 1.48 1.47 1.52 1.47 1.49 1.44 1.45 1.45 1.51 1.49 1.47 1.7 1.49 1.70 1.69 1.45 1.48 1.44 1.44 1.46 1.47 1.57 1.48 1.43 1.5 Electricity Generating Costs of PV/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]
Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300 Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.46 1.6 1.49 1.49 1.54 1.43 1.58 1.9 1.49 1.47 1.71 1.47 1.47 1.49 1.47 1.51 1.43 0.51 1.5 1.44 1.48 1.45 1.44 1.46 1.46 1.50 1.46 1.46 1.62 0.56 1.5 1.53 1.48 1.46 1.64 1.48 1.48 1.45 1.49 1.68 1.44 1.49 1.46 1.55 1.46 1.47 1.53 1.50 1.51 1.47 1.71 1.49 1.48 1.49 1.65 1.52 1.48 1.44 1.3 1.44 1.8 1.48 1.48 1.53 1.46 1.46 1.51 1.46 1.47 1.3 1.51 1.49 1.49 1.46 1.51 1.49 1.45 1.46 1.50 1.42 1.53 1.45 1.66 1.48 1.52 1.52 1.50 1.51 1.51 1.50 1.50 1.44 1.48 1.46 1.44 1.47 1.43 1.52 1.49 1.45 1.52 1.4 1.50 1.44 1.44 1.4 1.51 1.51 1.52 1.48 1.48 1.72 1.43 1.44 1.53 1.53 1.61 0.50 1.50 1.47 1.1 1.2 1.49 1.9 1.49 1.48
Table D.68 1.48 1.51 1.50 1.48 1.52 1.50 1.73 1.49 1.68 1.45 0.47 1.49 1.46 1.50 1.54 1.43 1.52 1.50 1.48 1.49 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Table D.54 1.50 1.51 1.46 1.48 1.49 1.45 1.50 1.47 1.52 1.45 1.45 1.45 0.46 1.50 1.53 1.51 1.47 1.46 1.65
.47 0.43 0.48 1.50 1.46 1.48 1.51 1.65 1 1.53 1.48 1.73 1.51 1.49 1.50 1.48 1.45 1.44 0.47 1.60 0.49 1.43 1.46 1.2 1.55 1.70 1.48 1.48 1.49 1.48 1.47 1.67 1.47 1.46 1.48 1.46 1.6 Electricity Generating Costs of Wind/Diesel Systems [€/kWh]
Number of Households 30 35 40 Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.52 1.50 1.54 1.43 1.45 1.59 0.7 1.69 1.47 1.67 1.49 1.56 1.43 1.45 1.45 1.44 1.47 1.42 1.64 0.55 1.50 1.50 1.54 1.47 1.47 1.49 1.45 1.47 1.52 1.45 1.47 1.47 1.52 1.45 1.49 1.63 0.55 1.47 1 1.46 0.53 1.48 1.42 0.43 1.47 1.52 1.47 1.70 1.45 1.42 1.45 1.51 1.47 1.47 1.61 0.48 1.54 1.66 1.45 1.51 1.6 1.46 1.48 1.44 1.45 1.43 1.45 1.44 1.42 1.48 1.53 1.43 1.46 1.56 1.51 1.47 1.55 1.8 1.43 1.63 0.48 1.50 1.44 1.47 1.49 1.46 1.48 1.47 1.47 1.50 1.47 1.49 1.1 1.53 1.46 1.44 1.53 1.69 1.45 1.49 1.45 1.
45 1.46 1.43 1.47 1.51 1.40 1.48 1.42 1.53 1.50 1.47 1.4 1.50 1.48 1.51 1.55 1.50 1.46 1.59 1.50 1.42 1.49 1.43 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.48 1.55 1.52 1.45 1.51 1.49 1.61 1.53 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Number of Households 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300
Diesel Fuel Price [€/l] 0.41 1.51 1.47 1.51 1.44 1.60 1.58 1.56 1.50 1.47 1.48 1.50 1.55 1.48 1.44 1.44 1.56 1.49 1.53 1.43 1.49 1.48 1.53 1.48 1.49 1.43 1.45 1.47 1.52 1.51 1.49 1.57 1.50 1.44 1.55 1.58 1.55 1.53 1.46 1.43 1.45 1.55 1.47 1.45 1.48 1.50 1.46 1.46 1.3 1.46 1.48 1.50 1.49 1.46 1.56 1.51 1.44 1.47 1.47 1.45 1.54 1.52 1.49 1.49 1.45 1.53 1.44 1.42 1.51 1.45 1.57 1.61 1.51 1.52 1.44 1.55 1.51 1.53 1.51 1.44 0.53 1.50 1.50 1.56 1.49 1.52 1.52 1.51 1.5 1.52 1.45 1.44 1.48 1.9 1.48 1.47 1.45 1 1.48 1.41 1.7 1.51 1.51 1.50 1.54 1.60 1.52 1.42 0.53 1.48 1.44 0.50 1.50 1.59 1.45 1.49 1.49 1.46
These figures can be illustrated with the graphs on the following page.43 1.52 1.50 1.43 0.46 1.1 1.48 1.48 1.
.40 0.49 1.54 1.56 1.48 1.47 1.47 1.53 1.44 1.57 1.51 1.2 1.50 1.57 1.50 1.53 1.53 1.44 1.47 1.8 1.51 1.51 1.49 1.48 1.52 1.47 1.45 1.44 1.49 1.55 1.43 1.63 1.47 1.42 0.53 1.48 1.47 1.56 1.46 1.41 0.50 1.51 1.56 1.62 1.54 1.46 1.48 1.54 1.47 1.53 1.42 1.61 1.52 1.46 1.49 1.46 1.54 1.6 1.50 1.41 1.53 1.49 1.49 1.54 1.52 1.46 1.47 1.45 1.54 1.59 1.49 1.46 1.48 1.50 1.47 1.49 1.51 1.48 1.40 0.48 1.52 1.51 1.46 1.48 1.53 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.55 1.50 1.45 1.52 1.54 1.41 1.59 1.46 1.51 1.49 1.46 1.42 1.
where it is calculated that electricity generating costs are
. This is due to the fact that the decline in investment costs of diesel gensets at certain installed capacities does not trade off the high investment for the PV modules anymore.70 1.3 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for PV/Diesel
1.50 1. PV/Diesel systems.55 1.70-1.40 1.40-1.50-1.40 1.60 1.60 1.40-1. where costs decline over the whole area of investigation due to the decrease in specific investment costs for wind power plants with higher capacities.50 1.55-1..45 1.20 30 45 60 110 140 170 225 Num ber of Households 75 90 0.45
Figure D.30 1. which they are likely not to fall below. This observation is supported by the investigations of the Fraunhofer Institute in (Sauer.55 1. meanwhile. This effect is stronger in the case of Wind/Diesel systems. 1999).Annex D: Cost Analysis
Figure D.50-1.60 Electricity Costs [€/kWh] 1.1 300 1 Diesel Price [€/l] 1.60-1.70 1.30 30 45 60 110 140 170 225 Num ber of Households 75 90 0. seem to reach a threshold value at all diesel fuel prices.80 1.. The buckling in the curve progression is a result of the different equations used for small and big wind generators.4 Illustration of Electricity Generating Costs for Wind/Diesel The cost analysis of hybrid systems here reveals that electricity generating costs are decreasing with higher loads and lower diesel fuel prices.1 300 1 Diesel Costs [€/l] 1.50 1.35 1.60 1. et al. D.45-1.80 Electricity Costs [€/kWh] 1.
54 1.04 1.98 0.04 1.03 Euro/kWh for systems with lower annual consumption of 15.58 1.98 0.01 1.56 1.59 1.09 1.99 0.03 1.54 1.64 1.98
.76 1.57 1.7 Electricity Generating Costs PV/Wind
Number of Households 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175 200 225 250 275 300 PV/Wind Systems with Battery Capacity for 2 Days 1. the following results were obtained with regard to electricity generating costs per kWh: Table D.52 1.63 1.01 1.57 1.53 1.12 1.000 kWh and at an interest rate of 6%.58 1.03 1.03 1.58 1.69 1. For PV/Wind systems.05 1.73 1.18 1.56 1.02 1.56 1.00 1.54 1.56 1.62 1.10 1.03 1.00 1.55 1.07 1.15 1.02 1.66 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis
likely not to become lower than 1.58 1.01 1.55 1.52 1 Day 1.53 1.00 0.54 1.22 1.99 0.01 1.
D. D. 2002)
PV/Diesel hybrid system for Sevilla/Spain with costs on planning... Result o Electricity generating costs of 1.0 kWh 6.0 % 37.6 kW 96.
1.9 kWp 6.6 kWh 1. F.000 full load hours for wind generators.
Fraunhofer Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE in (Sauer.00 Euro/l 5.34 Euro/kWh. 1999)
PV/Diesel hybrid system for Mexico City.Annex D: Cost Analysis
The analysis of PV/Wind systems shows the high dependency of electricity generating costs from the size of the battery bank. Result
50 kWh/d 9. For the chosen location of Trapani/Italy with annual global radiation of 1.30 Euro/l 6% 350 Euro/d
. Assumptions o Electricity Consumption: o Capacity PV Modules: o Capacity Diesel Genset: o Battery Bank: o Inverter: o Energy Management System applied o Global radiation in Sevilla/Spain: o Diesel Costs: o Interest rate: o Labour Costs: 2. the circumstances are just moderately suited for fully renewable coverage of electricity demand.3 Electricity Generating Costs from Different Sources
Institut für Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) in (Kininger.000 kWh/a 77% 0. et al.752 kWh/m2/a 1. These costs increase for remote regions.5 Euro/h
Electricity generating costs of 0.
11. transport and construction for Kassel/Germany.664 kWh/m2/a and under the assumption of 2.
1.76 Euro kWh. Assumptions o Electricity Consumption: o Solar Coverage Rate: o Diesel Fuel Price: o Interest Rate: o Labour Costs: 2.
Shen. 100 W PV) for household electrification. Costs are related to the size of the system. Result
PV/Wind Household hybrid systems for Inner Mongolia. B.
Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ. PV/Wind hybrid systems (300 W Wind. Inner Mongolia
System specification PV-Battery-Inverter System (100 W) Wind-Battery-Inverter System (300 W) Wind-PV-Battery-Inverter System (300 + 100 W) Investment costs [RMB] 6.837 6. Electricity Generating Costs: 0.087 11.8 Investment and Operating Costs of Different Household Systems.720 Operating costs/year [RMB/a] 100 119 119
Table D.Annex D: Cost Analysis
National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL)/University of Delaware in (Byrne. 2003)
Application of PV/Diesel and Wind/Diesel hybrid systems for village electrification. Wallace.75 US$/kWh PV/Wind Household System 0. W.72 US$/kWh. China.85 US$/kWh Wind/Diesel Village System 0..150 kWh/m2/a 150 W/m2 300 W 100 W 0.43 US$/kWh – 0.
1.. Assumptions o Global radiation: o Wind Energy Density: o Capacity Wind: o Capacity PV: o Diesel Fuel Price: o Interest Rate: 2.9 Electricity Generating Costs of Hybrid Systems in Inner Mongolia
PV/Diesel Village System 1.82 US$/l 12%
Levelised costs based on field analysis of battery’s lifetime. in (GTZ. with large hybrid systems being less expensive. J.37 US$/kWh
51 €/kWh 1.Annex D: Cost Analysis
Wuppertal Institute in (Wuppertal Institute.45 €/kWh 1. 2002)
Table D.450 23.75 € 1.740 Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 0.70 €/kWh Electricity Generating Costs at Diesel Price of 1.5 € 1.84 €/kWh 1. ratio 80:20 Wind/Diesel.825 22.10 5 kW Hybrid Systems at Different Diesel Prices
Capacity: 5 kW Electricity Output: 2. ratio 80:20 Investment costs in € 11.59 €/kWh
.190 kWh/a Diesel Genset PV/Diesel.
. 2003. pp. Cabraal. Frankfurt/Germany. Best.
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