Water & Climate Change Adaptation

:

ICIMOD s ICIMOD’s Strategy & Actions

International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
Kathmandu, Nepal

The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments th represent. ADB d t they t does not guarantee th accuracy of th data included in this paper and t t the f the d t i l d d i thi d accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Outline

1. What are the water-related problems and opportunities in the HKH region in relation to climate change adaptation? li t h d t ti ? 2. What is ICIMOD mandate and competencies? 3. How is ICIMOD responding to those challenges with regional and national approaches?

The HKH Region The HKH Region
Key Facts, Challenges, and Trends in  relation to water and climate change  adaptation

The HKH Region
10 river basins supply water to 1.3 billion people 13

The HKH region
The ‘water tower’ of Asia water

The HKH Region
The d l ’ f the Earth Th ‘3rd pole’ of th E th
• Home to 150 million people p p

• Himalayan glaciers: 17% of the global glacial area • 15’000 glaciers as l l i largest storage of freshwater • Sustenance to over 200 million people in the Himalayan Region The HKH region has global and regional significance.

The HKH Region
Evidence of warming in the Himalayan Highlands

Higher temperature at higher altitude
(Liu & Chen 2000, Tibetan Plateau) )

The HKH region
Rapid change in Glacier Mass Balance

Himalayan glaciers are shrinking more rapidly than elsewhere

(Dyurgerov and Meier, 2005)

The HKH region
Evidence of Glacier Retreat: Imja, Nepal

1956
(Photo: Fritz Muller; courtesy of Jack Ives)

2006
(Photo: Giovanni Kappenberger )

The HKH region
High altitude wetlands play a key role
• Contribute to water storage • Contain high biological and cultural diversity • Major component in livelihood support (water for pastoralists and farmers) but b t … high altitude wetlands hi h ltit d tl d issues are neglected.

The HKH Region
High altitude watersheds: emerging challenges

• Existing challenges (low rainfall, scare vegetation, high runoff etc.) will get reinforced due to Climate Change • S Severe natural resources l degradation • Low agriculture productivity • High levels of poverty

The HKH region
Vulnerability to Floods

The HKH region Changing socio economic contexts socio-economic

About ICIMOD About ICIMOD
Its vision, role, and programs

About ICIMOD
8 member countries

About ICIMOD
The organization, its role organization
Non-political intergovernmental organisation Development and D l t d advocacy of a mountain perspective Regional mandate Knowledge, learning and enabling centre Multi-disciplinary Multi disciplinary documentation center Capacity building of p y g partner institutions through training and applied research Consultative center

About ICIMOD Overall obj ti O ll bjective
ICIMOD in figures

To enhance the resilience and support adaptation of mountain communities

• 79 professional staff from 16 countries co ntries • 3 programs, 9 action areas • 4 divisions • 8 member countries • Board of Governors comprising of 8 member country representative and 7 independent members

About ICIMOD
Core competencies
Regional facilitator & knowledge broker Link Li k research with practice h ith ti Facilitate knowledge transfer across the region Customize international and regional knowledge Promote regional cooperation

ICIMOD has been selected as a new l t d Regional Knowledge Water Hub on Water Resources Management in g Mountainous areas by the APWF

About ICIMOD
3 strategic programmes

Integrated water and  hazard management Environmental change  g and ecosystem services Sustainable livelihoods  and poverty reduction and poverty reduction

About ICIMOD 4 Di i i Divisions

Geo‐information resources Knowledge management Gender and governance  Gender and governance Economic Analysis

Areas of activities and  collaboration in water  and climate change  d li h adaptation in the HKH  adaptation in the HKH region

Water program Key K areas of action f ti

Upstream Monitoring M it i snow and i d ice

Upstream
Inventories of glaciers, glacial lakes & GLOF I t i f l i l i ll k since 2000

Glaciers and Glacial lakes of Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and selected basins of India and TAR/China

Upstream Planned A ti Pl d Actions (2008 2012) (2008-2012) 1. Development of monitoring and 1 D l t f it i d assessment scheme for cryosphere and water resources on a regional scale t i l l 2. Strengthening national capacities for monitoring and assessment 3. Establishing a regional database g g

Upstream Work Pl W k Plan 2009
1. 1 To develop a scheme for monitoring ice and snow at a regional level 2. 2 To establish operational database on hydrological , cryological and water-related disaster in the existing ICIMOD web-based web based environmental database 3. To carry out field investigations in selected y g potential GLOF sites in Nepal

Downstream Disaster risk reduction Di t i k d ti

Downstream
Potentially dangerous g y g glacier lakes & hydropower y p in transboundary Kosi Basin

About 54% of the catchment area lies in Tibet

Downstream
Vulnerability to GLOF at Dingboche Nepal Dingboche,

If Imja breaks…

Dingboche Di b h
(Photo: 2006)

In the village of Brep, Pakistan, houses and livelihoods  were destroyed in 2005. were destroyed in 2005

Downstream
Documentation of local adaptation strategies to floods & droughts

Downstream: Planned A ti Pl d Actions (2008 2012) (2008-2012) 1. Assessing water-related risks b 1 A i t l t d i k based on d risk identification, evaluation and mapping using b th scientific and l i i both i tifi d local l knowledge 2. Developing and delivering training courses in DRR 3. Knowledge sharing platform on DRR

Downstream
Workplan 2009

1. Assessment of local adaptation strategies 1 A t fl l d t ti t t i (NIDM India, AKRSP Pakistan, Kunming IB, PRC IB PRC, ISET N Nepal, CICERO N l Norway, SEI Sweden, others) 2. Socioeconomic impacts assessment of downstream GLOF risks 3. Assessment of human health in context ( ) of CC and water hazards (WHO)

Upstream-Downstream Linkages
Connectivity and water allocation

Manage the risks…
Water for hydropower Water for irrigation

Wetlands Floods Urban Water Shortage

Water for Tourism

…Share the benefits

Upstream-Downstream linkages Brahmaputra water level B h t t l l
5+ Days Lead Time
Water Level Tibet, China Bangladesh

6st Sep 07 Sep. 1st Sep. 07

Time

Upstream-Downstream Linkages
Flood mitigation needs end to end forecast process end-to-end

Communication

Data

Decision Support

Notify N tif

Forecast

Coordinate

Actions

Source: NOAA website

Upstream-Downstream Linkages
Regional flood information system in the HKH

Objective • Establish a Regional Flood Information System (end to end system) in the HKH Method • Development of a regional strategy for the exchange of information and data to support flood forecasting in the HKH region through a pp g g g series of meetings held since 2001 Activities • Demonstration and testing phase done: partners in Bangladesh Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal and Pakistan are sharing near real time data from selected hydro-meteorological stations through a web interface from June 2005 onwards. • Proposal for 2nd phase

Upstream-Downstream Linkages
Demonstration: regional flood data sharing

www.southasianfloods.icimod.org

Upstream-Downstream Linkages Planned A ti Pl d Actions (2008 2012) (20081. Developing regional flood information systems for facilitating regional y g g cooperation in flood risk management through data-sharing for flood forecasting g g g and EWS 2. Promotion of transboundary dialogue 3. Regional flood forecasting

Upstream-Downstream Linkages
Workplan 2009 1. Testing and application of satellite rainfall estimates products in the region, also training and di d dissemination (NOAA USGS) i ti (NOAA, 2. Development of flash flood risk management and assessment methods, also t d d t th d l to develop l training modules and conduct trainings 3. 3 Development of scenarios of climate change impacts on hydrological regimes in major river basins

Reducing underlying risk factors
Ecosystem services

Reducing underlying risk factors
High altitude wetlands conservation

Planned action (2008-12): • Assessment of high altitude wetlands functions and services Workplan 2009 • To develop a regional p g program on Himalayan wetlands

Reducing underlying risk factors
Integrated watershed management I t t d t h d t
IWM as an approach to CC adaptation promoting the use of cc “tolerant”, cc “sensitive” technologies Change of agricultural practices if e g crops are CC sensitive e.g. Change in water regimes, e.g. drying up of springs (water harvesting) Shift in vegetation patterns (exploring new species) Etc.

• •

• •

Reducing underlying risk factors
Integrated Watershed Management
Planned action Pl d ti • Promoting the development and use of “green” technologies a d o g ee ec o og es and payment for environmental services at the watershed level Workplan 2009 • Action research in arid highland areas of Nepal for the application of suitable watershed management strategies t t t i

Expected outcomes in 5 Years

• Close partnership with national programs on key areas in CC Adaptation (e.g., Environment & Poverty) P t ) • Successful pilots mainstreamed in adaptation strategies in different sectors • Active regional knowledge sharing & learning • Key partner organizations in member countries strengthened in CC Adaptation

ICIMOD can promote regional cooperation in water and climate change ti i t d li t h adaptation as:
• A regional platform for sharing of knowledge, experiences, information & data on water and climate change • A f ilit t f monitoring and analyzing facilitator for it i d l i changes in snow and ice in the Himalayas and downstream impacts p • Support training and capacity building in risk assessment and watershed management t d t h d t

Thank you y

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