Climate Change Adaptation in Asian River Basins

1-5 December 2008, Selangor, Malaysia

Mahaweli & A Case of the Kala-Oya Sub Basin Kalain Sri Lanka

The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

by: Sudharma Elakanda, Project Director Dam Safety & Water Resources Planning Project Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is an Island which consists of a mountainous area in the south-central parts and a vast coastal plain, which south central plain surrounds it. Total Land Area is 65,000 sq km. Demography Population is 19 million Annual population growth rate is 1.5 15 Administratively Province - 9 Districts 24 Di t i t -24 Divisional secretariats-335 and GN Divisions Topography Hill country Low country Coastal zone

y Climatically Wet zone Intermediate zone Dry zone Sri Lanka receives rainfall from two monsoons NE

South west South-west (May to September) North-East ( December to February)
Mean annual rainfall varies from 900mm – 5500mm. Total annual rainfall is approximately 127 billion m3 Annual water resources per capita- 2300m3 Low Country temperature varies from 25° to 30° C 25° 30° while it varies from 12° to 16°C in Central hills. 12° 16° SW

There are 103 river basins in Sri Lanka. M h L k Mahaweli River Basin is the li Ri B i i th largest . (10327 Agriculture is a major economic activity.

Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka (MASL)
• The Mahaweli Development Programme is the largest multi-purpose, rural p g g p p , development programme ever undertaken in Sri Lanka Vision of the MASL Harnessed rivers, Well-managed basins moved form Agrarian to Prosperous society and Promote Economic Development Main objectives : 1. Ensure timely Allocation of Irrigation Water for Agriculture Development - 300,000 ha 2.Hydro-power 2 Hydro power generation – 1 257 GW h 1,257 Mahaweli Contribution to National Grid -30%

• • •

Mahaweli Project area covers about 39% of the total land area of the country. Hydropower generates by 4 major reservoirs in upper watershed After HP generation, regulate this water to divert to down stream areas for g , g Agricultural Development.

Mahaweli Contribution to the Power Sector







0 Mahaw eli Hydro Thermal Pow er

86 1278 8

















826 1367 1471 1718 1529 1559 1905 2207 2661 1808 1620 1980 2116 1518 1409 530 202 57 5 260 640 183 275 269 1110 1051 1218 1895 2925 3476

Non Mahaw eli - Hydro 1367 1352 1231 1331 1427 1587 1341 1891 1882 1856 1439 1821 2362 2032 1606 1636 Year Mahaw eli Hydro Thermal Pow er Non Mahaw eli - Hydro

A Pilot Basin – Kala Oya Basin (KOB)
• MASL has selected KOB for the pilot study as KOB consists p y of all the characteristics of a typical river basin.
There are plenty of Natural Resource in the KOB • Water Resource W R • Forest - 24% • Nature Reserves • Minerals • Coastal Resources C t lR • Wetland Basin Population - 415000 Extent of the Basin - 2870 Major R M j Reservoirs i -9 Small tanks - 856 Mean annual rainfall varies from 1200mm -1700mm

• • • • •

1. Lack of Policies and weak law enforcement . (Illicit Sand Mining). Salt water intrusion into inland areas. Impacts are on water supply, lowland agriculture, flood plains and biodiversity of costal area area. 2. Temperature rise The overall impacts are too complicated to be stated definitely. But the i B t th rise may i increase evaporation and evapo-transpiration. ti d t i ti Mainly affects to irrigation reservoir storages & Irrigated agriculture. As well as inland fishery industry. 3. Droughts A large part of the KOB falls within the dry zone (76%) and is vulnerable to droughts even under normal circumstances. Climate change is likely to increase the length and severity of droughts. Affects directly to surface runoff, groundwater recharging and soil moisture. Reduction of Forest Cover largely.

4. High-intensity rainfall High-intensity rainfall will produce more frequent extreme events – Flash floods that will cause damages. It will also concentrate the river discharge to a shorter period. Some threats to safety of the Dams. 5. Changes in seasonal rainfall pattern, Mis- match between SOPs and actual rainfall timing and it will directly affect to cultivation, lead crop losses, reduction of yield and finally it affect badly to the economy. F Farmers will not ready to accept this change. ill t d t t thi h 6. Lack of community awareness on the impacts of Climate g p p Change and importance of adaptation. 7. Reluctance to allocate funds , since return can’t be seen quickly.

Water Resources: Rehabilitate irrigation Dams & Reservoirs Encourage rain water harvesting Techniques Explore trans-basin diversions p Conserve seasonal lakes Promote micro-watershed management (cascade development) Regulation of groundwater extraction and monitoring in vulnerable areas
Irrigation Tank Rehabilitation - Before - After Pond Construction for Agriculture

Ferro Cement Tank For Drinking Water

“Pathaha” Construction

Establish Water Quality laboratory.

Human Settlements & Public Utilities Conduct training program and promote awareness on climate change and related issues. (School children, farmer organizations) Carry out socio economic surveys Flood plain mapping and conservation Conserve natural drainages Better design for flood and drainage Re-locate water intakes of rivers affected by salinity

Introduction of salinity tolerant crop varieties and crop diversification as a adaptation for salt water intrusion. Introduce drought resistant rice varieties with high yields. Change cropping patterns to offset any unpredicted weather ff changes by developing tree crop agriculture. Improve water management. Improve conservation farming technique to reduce erosion due to high intensity rainfall (specially in upper watersheds). Land use planning to ensure the proper utilization of land. Build awareness among the vulnerable.
Vetivar Strip Stone Bunds Micro Irrigation

Forestry & Environment Establish Forest Plantation nursery to introduce forests or any other vegetation for degraded or non-forested lands. Promote mixed cropping and agro-forestry instead of monoculture wherever possible. Wetland conservation (Remove water weeds) Improve Riverine vegetation zone (Establish tissue culture laboratory). Introduce Clean river “Pavithra Ganga” Programme

Establish Forest Plantation nursery

1. Climate Change Projection
a. Share Potential Methodologies & Strategies on CC Projections. b. Train on Computer Models on projections

2. Impact Assessments on
a. Socio- economic Situations. b. Crop production

3. 3 Adaptation strategy
a. Share new approaches for CC Adaptation.

Learn & Establish Data & Information Sharing Mechanism Learn and apply effective adaptation initiatives i iti ti Twining Arrangements to share g g experience more lively. Joint impact assessment Training program on climate change adaptation d t ti

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Thank You for your Attention
Climate Change Adaptation for - Prosperous Future ……

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