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Lorenzo Magnea Universit` di Torino a I.N.F.N. Torino magnea@to.infn.it XI Seminario Nazionale di Fisica Teorica

Abstract These lectures describe the treatment of mass divergences in perturbative QCD, concentrating on hadron production in electron-positron annihilation. I perform an explicit and detailed one-loop calculation, and use it to infer some results and techniques valid to all orders in perturbation theory. I introduce some of the tools necessary to prove factorization theorems, and show how they can be used also to resum certain classes of logarithmic contributions to all orders in perturbation theory.

Ubi maior ... : G. Sterman: An introduction to quantum field theory. P. Nason: http://castore.mib.infn.it/~nason/misc/QCD... M.L. Mangano: http://home.cern.ch/~mlm/talks/cern98... G. Sterman: hep-ph/9606312.

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Outline

• On mass divergences in perturbative QCD – Mass divergences, low energies e long distances. – Cancellation for physical observables, KLN theorem. – Factorizable and IR/C safe observables in PQCD. • An explicit example: Re+ e− – Deﬁnitions, cut diagrams, tree level. – O(αs ): the calculation. – Approximations and observations. • Other infrared ﬁnite quantities – Sterman–Weinberg jets. – Event shapes. • Methods for all-order calculations – Singularities of Feynman diagrams and trapped surfaces. – Landau equations and Coleman-Norton picture. – Infrared power–counting and ﬁniteness of Re+e− . • Factorization and resummation – Multi-scale problems and large logarithms. – From factorization to resummation. – Examples: the quark form factor; the thrust.

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1

**Mass divergences: qualitative discussion
**

• Fact: in quantum ﬁeld theory, two kinds of divergences are associated with the presence of massless particles. – Infrared (IR). Emission of particles with vanishing four momentum (λDB → ∞); in gauge theories only; they are present also when matter particles are massive. – Collinear (C). Emission of particles moving parallel to the emitter; they are present if all particles in the interaction vertex are massless. • Example: a massless fermion emits a gauge boson in the ﬁnal state.

k

M

p+k

p

→

− igu(p)/(k)ta

i(p + k / /) M, (p + k)2 + iε

**Singularities: 2p · k = 2p0k0 (1 − cos θpk ) = 0 , → k0 = 0 (IR); cos θpk = 0 (C). Note: p0 = 0 not a problem (singularities are always integrable).
**

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• Origin of mass singularities – In covariant perturbation theory ( pµ conserved in every vertex; intermediate particles generally oﬀ–shell): the emitting fermion is on–shell, so that it can propagate indeﬁnitely. – In time-ordered perturbation theory (all particles are on– shell, energy however is not generally conserved in the interaction vertices): the IR/C emission vertex conserves energy, so it can be placed at arbitrary distance from the primary process. – Mass divergences originate from physical processes happening at large distances. • Available terapies . – The sickness is serious. Because of mass divergences, the S matrix cannot be constructed in the Fock space of quarks and gluons – Observe. Mass divergences are associated with the existence of experimentally indistinguishable, energy degenerate states. All physical detectors have ﬁnite resolution in energy and angle. – KLN Theorem. Physically measurable quantities (such as transition probabilities, cross sections, after summing coherently over all physically indistinguishable states) are ﬁnite, mass divergences cancel.

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Consider a theory deﬁned by its hamiltonian H . Masses acquire a scale dependences such that m2(µ2) → 0 as µ2 → ∞. depending on the initial state but not on the hard process being studied (factorizable cross sections). – Parma. and let D (E0) be the set of eigenstates of H characterized by energies E0 − ≤ E ≤ E0 + . Then the quantity P (E0.• KLN theorem. • The situation in perturbative QCD – Long distance (d > 1fm). Let P (i → j) be the transition probability per unit volume and per unit time from eigenstate i to eigenstate j . ) ≡ i. – Working at the perturbative. 05/09/2002 – 4 . partonic level one identiﬁes suﬃciently inclusive cross sections. ∗ long-distance eﬀects can be isolated in universal factors. such that ∗ long-distance eﬀects are suppressed thanks to cancellations (IR–safe cross sections).j∈D (E0 ) X P (i → j) is ﬁnite in the massless limit to all orders in perturbation theory • Note. or low energy (E < 1GeV) ∼ ∼ physics is not perturbatively calculable. In an asimptotically free ﬁeld theory the limit m → 0 and the high-energy limit formally coincide. – The KLN theorem is not directly applicable when a sum over initial states is necessary (we have no control on the structure of hadronic initial states). with = 0.

)! . inclusive quantities. 0} + O 2 µ ( m2 µ2 !p . One computes σpart = σpart Q . Distribution functions f are measured. • These partonic. such that σpart = f m2 µ2 F ! ∗ σpart b Q2 µ2 . the goal is constructing factorizable quantities. {0. is transcribed at hadron level. m2 (µ2) → 0). 2 µ 2 ( m (µ ) . αs (µ2 ). • With hadrons in the initial state. σpart = σpart ! Q2 . valid ` ´ modulo O (ΛQCD /Q)p corrections. having a ﬁnite limit when the IR regulator removed ( → 0. F µ2 µ2 ! +O m2 µ2 F !p ! . proved at parton level. b – Parma. g. cross sections σpart are derived with a perturbative calculation.: = 2 − d/2 < 0). • Factorization. are interpreted as estimates of the corresponding hadronic quantities. with an infrared regulator (e. 05/09/2002 – 5 . • IR–safe quantities are selected. µ2 2 2 )! .The strategy of perturbative QCD • All calculations are performed at partonic level. requiring the presence of at least one hard scale Q2. αs (µ2). admitting a perturbative expansion in powers of αs (Q2) 1.

2 2q 4 X spin normalized dividing out the total muon-pair production cross section “ ” Re+ e− ≡ σtot e+ e− → hadrons σtot (e+ e− → µ+ µ−) In d = 4 − 2 . 2q 2 Current conservation implies qµHµν = qν Hµν = 0. 2 2 2 ” e2 µ2 1 − “ µν 2 σtot (q ) = −g Hµν (q ) . (q ) = q q − q g 2 µν Hµν (q ) = (3 − 2 ) q H(q ) . σtot (q ) = µν 2 1 µν 2 Lµν (k1 . H (q ) = e µ qf X This leads to −g ” “ µ ν 2 µν H(q 2 ) . so that H µν ´ e2 µ2 ` µ ν ν µ L (k1 . k2 ) = k1 k2 + k1 k2 − k1 · k2 g µν . 2q 4 3 − 2 2 – Parma.An explicit example: Re+e− The prototype of IR–safe cross sections is the total annihilation cross section for e+ e− → hadrons. q4 X µν 2 2 2 2 d d 0|Jµ(0)|X X|Jν (0)|0 (2π) δ (q − pX ) . k2 )H (q ) . Z 1X 1 X dΓX σtot (q 2 ) = |M(k1 + k2 → X)|2 . 05/09/2002 – 6 . to leading order in α.

γµi γ5 . . . . γµ2 γµ1 ω1 . . becomes the phase space integral. 05/09/2002 – 7 . ˆ ˜∗ as well as hermiticity of group generators. Pictorially ui uf ui uf ∗ vi ui vf vi ui vf ∗ vi p vi p 2πδ+ (p2 ) p / To the right of the cut all explicit i’s in the Feynman rules and all momentum components change sign. if needed. γµn ω2 = ˆ ˜ ω2 γµn . . Consistency with spinor and color algebra is easily veriﬁed using ` ˆ ˜ ´∗ ω 1 γµ1 γµ2 . (ta)ij Note that = (ta )ji. . σµν . • for particles with spin = 0 the cut carries the sum over polarizations. . σµν . . • the rules apply for ﬁxed ﬁnal state momenta. γµi γ5 . the loop momentum integral for cut loops. .A technical interlude: cut diagrams A useful representation for |M|2 can be constructed in terms of cut diagrams. . – Parma. • cut fermion loops carry the expected minus sign. . .

Exercise: Re+e− at tree–level k 2 2 1− σtot (q 2 ) = e µ4 3−2 (−g µν ) 2q q µ ν µ 2 −Hµ = e2 µ2 qf Z dd k (2π) In he center of mass frame (k − q)2 = q2 − 2 q2k0 . for X 2 4πα2 σtot = Nc qf 3q 2 f → 0. Summing over quark colors and ﬂavors one ﬁnds X 2 µ −Hµ = 2(1 − )e2 µ2 Nc qf f ` ´ δ+(k2 )δ+ ((k−q)2 )Tr k µ (k − q )γ µ . /γ / / d−2 p q 4 2 !1− Ω2−2 . Γ(d) In d = 4 − 2 one ﬁnds then Γ(2 − ) 2 µ −Hµ = 2 α q Γ(2 − 2 ) 4πµ2 q2 ! whence the famous result. 05/09/2002 – 8 . (2π)2−2 The d-dimensional solid angle is given by the classic formula 2dπd/2 Γ(d/2) Ωd = . the trace evaluates to 4(1 − )q2 . e e f – Parma. f X 2 (0) R + − = Nc qf . → X 2 Nc qf . use the two δ+ distributions to perform k0 and |k| integrals.

Let u ≡ cos θpk in the center of mass frame: one ﬁnds ” “ ” √ ˆ + 2pk(1 − u) . Real emission It is convenient to compute separately the transition probability and three-body space.t. One can integrate over the energies of p ˆ and k using the respective δ+. Following the rules for cut diagrams one ﬁnds h i µ (1. 05/09/2002 – 9 . We examine them separately. The transition probability depends on a single polar angle. Summing over positions of the cuts one obtains real and virtual diagrams in turn. ˆ δ+ ((p + k − q) ) = ϑ p0 δ s − 2 s(p + k) ˆ ˆ 2 “ ˆ where p = |p|.Radiative corrections Enumerating graphs contributing to the one-loop correction is easy in terms of cut diagrams h µ −Hµ i(1) = + c.R) −Hµ = Z δ+ (p )δ+(k )δ+ ((p + k − q) ) −Hµ µ (2π)2d−3 ddpdd k 2 2 2 h i . All angular integrations are trivial except the one on u. k = |k|. – Parma.

Cliﬀord algebra identities such as γµ p γ / γµ p k / /γ µ µ = = = −2(1 − )p . / /p / /q γµ p k /γ µ / /q and with the identiﬁcations p·q = sx/2. + 2 (2p · k) and can be simpliﬁed using Tr(tata) = NcCF .Introduce dimensionless variables (quark and gluon energy fractions) ˆ 2k 2p ˆ z= √ . s s and deﬁne y = (1 − u)/2. i 0 h Tr γµ (p + k)γσ pγ µ (−p − k)γ σ p / / / / / / X 2 2 2 µ a 2 2 qf g µ Tr(ta t ) @ −Hµ = −2e µ (2p · k)(2p · k) f h i1 σ (p + k)γ µ p Tr γµ (p + k)γσ pγ / / / / / / A .R) −Hµ = 8 (2π)5−2 „ «1−2 Z 1 Z 1 s 1−2 dxx dzz 1−2 2 0 0 „ « Z 1 i 1 1−z h − µ × dy [y(1 − y)] δ x− −Hµ . x= √ . 1 − yz 1 − yz 0 The transition probability can be computed from the Feynman rules. The result is h i 1 Ω2−2 Ω1−2 µ (1. 05/09/2002 – 10 . p·k = sxyz/2. // −2q k / + 2 p k / . k·q = sz/2. / 4p · k − 2 p k . – Parma.

• Collinear: y−1− e (1 − y)−1− . Note: mass singularities are regulated choosing < 0.One can integrate out the quark energy fraction x.R) X 2 αs 2 = Nc C F α qf q π f 4πµ q2 2 !2 – . 1− × Γ(2 − 2 ) » 2 2 + 3 19 −π + + O( ) 2 2 – Parma. and y → 1 (gluon collinear to the antiquark). displaying the double infrared–collinear pole. 05/09/2002 – 11 . Expanding around = 0 one gets the ﬁnal result for real emission. The y and z integrations yield Euler B functions (typical of oneloop calculations in one-scale problems). using the remaining δ . h −Hµ µ i(1.R) X 2 Ω2−2 Ω1−2 2 = 2Nc CF qf ααs (1 − ) q (2π)3−4 f 2µ q2 2 !2 (1 − z) (1 − yz) −2−2 z 1−2 [y(1 − y)] − (1 − yz)2 − yz 2 (1 − y) + y 1+ !# . gives a pole in when the gluon energy z tends to 0. The expression simpliﬁes considerably and one gets h µ −Hµ Z 1 0 » dzdy (1 − )(1 − z)−2 (1 − yz)−2−2 z 1−2 (1 − y)1− 1−2 i(1. 1 One recognizes the announced singularities • Infrared: z −1−2 . singular when y → 0 (gluon collinear to the quark).

αs ) ∂µ ∂αs « Γ Q . p2 . „ µ ∂ ∂ + β( . p 2 . • For massles quarks. µ . Z1 = Zψ . As a consequence. • The form factor is renormalization group invariant (it has a vanishing anomalous dimension). multiplying the Dirac structure of the threee amplitude. p2 |Jµ (0)|0 q2 .Virtual contribution Purely virtual contributions to the production amplitude are given to all orders by the quark form factor. 2 µ ! = −ieqf u(p1 )γµv(p2 ) Γ . ) ≡ p1 . αs . Γµ (p1 . as a consequence of the conservation of the electromagnetic current. QCD does not violate the QED Ward identity. µ2 2 ! =0. = ν p2 The calculation greatly simpliﬁes by taking into account the general properties of the form factor. – Parma. p1 “ ” 2 Γν p 1 . µ2 . the form factor is expressed in terms of a single scalar function. 05/09/2002 – 12 . the transition probability is proportional to the tree–level result. αs (µ2 ). with an overall factor given by 2 ReΓ.

• In Feynman gauge and in dimensional regularisation all 1PR graphs with the loop on the external fermion line vanish because they are expressed by scale-less integrals (p2 = 0).. p 2 . 05/09/2002 – 13 . including the respective counterterms. according to the reduction formulas. furthermore it depends on a cancellation of IR and UV eﬀects .• Reducible (1PR) graphs on each fermion line. At one loop these observations are summarized by the identity 0 One is left with only one graph to be computed. k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 (2π)d – Parma. reconstruct the residue Rψ of the quark propagator. the vertex correction (1) Γν “ ” 2 p1 . µ . = which can be written as (1) 2 2 Γν = −eqf g µ CF Z dd k u(p1 )γσ (p 1 − k ν (p 2 + k σ v(p2 ) / /)γ / /)γ . −1/2 every external line must be multiplied times Rψ . i – Note! This is false in general in axial gauges (∃ n · pi). it is necessary to include these graphs on one of the two lines only.. Since.

Summarizing • Sistematically use the mass–shell conditions (Dirac equation). (1) 2 2 2 α Γν = −eqf g µ CF u(p1 ) 2q γν I0 + 2(γν γα p 1 − p 2 γα γν )I / / −γ γα γν γβ γσ I σ αβ • The tensor integrals I0 = i v(p2 ) . α β α β α β β α – Parma. (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 kα kβ dd k . (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 dd k kα . and only Iαβ can have UV divergences. Iα may have collinear poles . in order to get directly the scalar form factor Γ. 05/09/2002 – 14 .The steps to compute this diagram are standard. The result is Iα I αβ = = pα I1 + pα I2 . 1 2 g αβ I3 + p1 p1 I4 + p2 p2 I5 + (p1 p2 + p1 p2 ) I6 . h Z Z Z 1 dd k ... – Note: only I0 can have IR divergences. (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 Iα = Iαβ = can be computed with the usual Feynman parametrization. u(p1 )p 1 = p 2 v(p2 ) = 0. then isolate integrals with diﬀerent / / powers of k. • It may be useful to decompose tensor integrals ` la Passarino– a Veltman.

05/09/2002 – 15 . I6 one ﬁnds Γ (1) 2 2 = g µ CF 4(1 − ) I3 − 2q (I0 + I2 − I1 + (1 − )I6 ) . with the result X 2 4πα2 σtot = Nc qf 3q 2 f « „ αs 3 2 CF + O(αs ) . the (classical) result is X 2 (0) R + − = Nc qf e e f „ αs + O(α2 ) 1+ s π « . where CF = 4/3. as expected. the factor exp(−iπ ) must be expanded to second order in . Summing the two.• In terms of the scalar integrals I1. . Result We observe that. ! » – • The ﬁnal result for the form factor is αs (1) Γ = − CF 4π 4πµ −q 2 2 h 2 2 i Γ2 (1 − )Γ(1 + ) Γ(1 − 2 ) 2 2 + 3 + 8 + O( ) . . Because of the double pole. . the virtual contribution has the same IR-C poles as real emission. Note! The sign of q2 is dictated by the Cutkosky rules. – Parma. 1+ π 4 For SU (3). the poles cancel and one can take the limit → 0. It generates numerically important contributions. When taking the real part one must use (−q 2 + iε)− = (q 2 )− e−iπ . .

in the IR and C limits the amplitude for the emission of a real gluon becomes proportional to the Born amplitude. 2p · k 2p · k " When the gluon is soft one can • neglect k in the numerator. a µ p .Soft approximation The cancellation that was just exhibited is possible only because. just as was the case for the virtual diagram.j µ # / /)ε ε (k)(p + k µ / / /)Γ Γµ (p + k /(k) aµ a Aij = gtij u(p) − v(p ) . p·k p ·k where Aµ = u(p)Γµv(p ) is the Born amplitude (whatever the 0 explicit form of the vertex Γµ). • commute p and p in order to impose the mass-shell condition. 05/09/2002 – 16 . / / The result is ˛ aµ ˛ Aij ˛ = gta ij soft " # p·ε p ·ε µ − A0 . – Parma. This result can be made systematic introducing the soft approximation. / / p v(p ) = u(p)p = 0. and in the deﬁnition of p . p.j Aij = aµ k. i p. a p . i k.

Remarks • The soft amplitude is gauge–invariant (it vanishes if ε ∝ k). |k| (1 − cos θpk )(1 + cos θpk ) −1 0 – Parma. αs soft σq q g = σq q C F ¯ ¯ π Z 1 Z ∞ d|k| 2 d cos θpk . The transition probability can be computed summing P εµ ε∗ = −gµν . 05/09/2002 – 17 . p·k p ·k To get the cross section one integrates over phase space soft 2 σq q g = g C F σq q ¯ ¯ Z d3 k 2p · p . One then recovers the structure of IR and C singularities. which is over colors and polarizations (using ν allowed in this case). 2|k|(2π)3 p · k p · k In the center of mass frame (q = 0) and in the soft approximation the quark and the antiquark are still back to back. • Identical considerations apply to gluon emission from gluons. • Soft gluon emission has universal characters. internal structure). Long-wavelength gluons cannot analyze the short-distance properties of the emitter (spin. |Asoft | = g CF |A0 | 2 2 2 2p · p . Soft cross section It’s easy to recover the singular part of the real emission cross section. they only detect the global color charge and the direction of motion These considerations generalize to multiple emission.

(−k− + i )(k+ + i )(2k+ k− − |k⊥ |2 + i ) There are three integration regions giving rise to divergences. k q 2 . v . containing the virtual double pole. ∀µ . or the approximation may break down. |k | ∼ λ q 2 . ” “ µ + − – Note: For a generic four-vector. q q 2 2 . with some care. – Parma. according to q k ± q ∼ q2 . 0. • Consider for example the integral I0. • When kµ pi · k in denominators. as well as k in numerators (eikonal approximation). 05/09/2002 – 18 . – Note: the approximation is not uniformly valid.Virtual diagrams The soft approximation can be applied to virtual diagrams as well. v 2 = 2v + v − − |v⊥|2 . • Using light-cone coordinates one can set ” “ − (p ) = 0. one can neglect k2 with respect to ” “ + p = p . ∼λ q ⊥ k ∼λ µ → IR . → COLL . v± = √ (v 0 ± v 3 )/ 2. v = v . v⊥ . in some cases it becomes necessary to deform integration contours. 0⊥ . ∀µ. 0⊥ . In the eikonal approximation and in d = 4 1 (eik) = I0 32π4 q 2 Z dk+ dk−d2 k⊥ . µ µ p q 2 . One can parametrize them introducing a scaling variable λ. (p ) .

hadronization Monte Carlo) The simplest example of angular ordering is the diﬀerenzial cross section dσq qg in a frame in which the decaying photon has a large ¯ momentum q. The partial distributions Wi are not positive deﬁnite. – Parma.Angular ordering The soft approximation is of great practical relevance in perturbative QCD. but they enjoy special properties. angular ordering) • It links perturbative and non–perturbative regimes (resummations. In that frame the quark and the antiquark are typically emitted forming a small angle (θpp π). ¯ The full angular distribution is positive deﬁnite. 05/09/2002 – 19 . and one has soft dσq qg ¯ = 1 − cos θpp αs d|k| dφk dσq q CF d cos θk ¯ π |k | 2π (1 − cos θpk )(1 − cos θp k ) dσq q CF ¯ ´ αs d|k| dφ 1 ` d cos θk k Wq + Wq ¯ π |k | 2π 2 1 1 − . • It displays the universal properties of soft color radiation (color transparency. (1 − cos θpk ) (1 − cos θp k ) = where Wq = (1 − cos θpk )(1 − cos θp k ) 1 − cos θpp + while Wq is found exchanging p ↔ p . but singular for emissions parallel to either the quark or the antiquark.

05/09/2002 – 20 . Gluons which are radiated later are forced on average to the inside of the cones deﬁned by previously emitted gluons and quarks. so that color singlet parton clusters are likely to be formed inside collimated particle beams (jets). – Parma. • Perturbative evolution in the soft limit is local in phase space. Z 2π ” “ 1 2 dφ Wq (φ) = Θ θpp − θpk . ¯ • Azimuthal averages are positive deﬁnite and can be interpreted as probability distributions for the emission of soft gluons independently of the quark and of the antiquark. An identical equation applies to Wq . each vanishing outside the cones built rotating the direction of one of the fermions around that of the other one. 2π 0 1 − cos θpk as can be proven using cos θp k = cos θpk cos θpp + sin θpk sin θpp cos φ . Comments • This property can be generalized to higher orders. Thus: the distribution of soft radiation on average is given by a sum of uncorrelated contributions from the quark and from the antiquark. ¯ • The azimuthal average of Wq (with respect to the axis deﬁned by p) vanishes if θpk > θpp .Properties of Wq e Wq ¯ • Wq is singular only when cos θpk → 1. while the opposite is true for Wq .

05/09/2002 – 21 . • Virtual contributions are two-jet events. Prototype: two-jet cross section Eout < √ δ s √ Ein > (1 − ) s Deﬁnition: an event is a two-jet event iﬀ ∃ two opposite cones with opening angle δ . Therefore the partonic two-jet cross section is ﬁnite. At parton level: • All events are two-jet events at leading order. such that all the energy. such that gluon emission be integrated over IR and C conﬁgurations. it is suﬃcient to consider suﬃciently inclusive observables. or C (with any energy).Sterman–Weinberg jets Momentum conﬁgurations responsible for singularities and needed for their cancellation are infrared and collinear. • At O(αs) two-jet events are those in which the gluon is IR (and emitted in any direction). as expected. Thus it is not necessary to integrate real emission over the entire phase space in order to obtain a ﬁnite result. – Parma. All other events are three-jet events. except at most a fraction . ﬂows into the cones.

In d = 4 P 2 2 qf 4πα . δ) = σtot = Nc (1) (1) (1) • At NLO one ﬁnds only two.. • It is easy to compute the dominant contributions as . so that σ2j ( . δ) = σtot − σ3j ( .or three-jet events. (1) • σ3j is easily computed from the real emission matrix element with appropriate cuts on phase space. δ → 0. f 3q 2 h i X 2 αs 2 Z 1 µ (1.). jets are more collimated.More precisely: (0) (0) • At LO one ﬁnds simply σ2j ( . δ) . δ) = σtot CF 4 log(δ) log(2 ) + 3 log(δ) + − . Combining with the leptonic tensor one ﬁnds " # αs π2 7 (1) (0) σ3j ( . • It is possible to compute (and verify experimentally) the angular distribution of two-jet events dσ2j /d cos θ ∝ 1 + cos2 θ . π 3 4 Observe: • The total cross section is dominated by two-jet events at large q 2 (asymptotic freedom for jets ..R) −Hµ = 2Nc CF qf α q dz 3j π 2 f × Z 1−δ 2 (1−z 2 /2) δ2 z(1 − y) 1−z dy + y(1 − yz)2 yz(1 − y) » – . – Parma. • For increasing q2 the perturbative result remains reliable for narrower cones. as expected for spin 1/2 quarks. 05/09/2002 – 22 .

. pj . . lim Em+1 (p1 . . . . . . pm) be the observable. ” = ˛ O αm+1 s IR-C cancellation is preserved if the observable takes the same value for those conﬁgurations diﬀering only by the IR/C radiation. . pj + pk . . . . . . . .) . . . pj+1 . with one virtual m real partons.) = Em (p1 . ˛ Z Z ˛ (R) (1V ) σ(e)˛ “ dσm+1 + dσm + . . . . . pj . pk .) = Em (p1 . . 05/09/2002 – 23 . . µ m+1 1 µ p →αp j k – Parma. pj−1 . . . . . The corresponding distribution is deﬁned by Z dσ 1 X dLIPSm |Mm|2 δ (e − Em (p1 . . . and so on. . Given a ﬁnal state with m partons. .Event–shape variables The mechanism underlying the cancellation of IR and C divergences suggests a further generalization: study distributions of observables constructed with ﬁnal state momenta so as to assign equal weights to events diﬀering by IR or C emissions. . . .) . = 2 de 2q m and its moments (and in particular the average value) are e n = Z emax emin de e n dσ de . µ p →0 j lim E (p . . At order αm−1 one must sum contributions with m + 1 partons s in the ﬁnal state. Note: These are “weighted” cross sections. let Em(p1. . . . . . . pm)) . . .

Cm = 3 − 2 (pi · q) pj · q i. and Tm = 1 corresponds to two precisely collimated back to back particle beams. two-jet eventi have C = 0. i=1 Tm = maxn Pm ˆ ˆ |pi · n| .Examples of event–shape variables There is a variety of available IR/C safe event shapes. but expectation values s are ﬁnite. hadronization corrections). 1 = 2@ q 0 pi ∈H X pi A 12 Observe • Perturbative distributions are singular in the two-jet limit (logarithms of the form αn log2n−1 C ). • Great phenomenological relevance (for example: determination of αs . • Thrust Pm Clearly 0 < Tm ≤ 1. ` ´2 m pi · pj 3 X ` ´ . |pi | i=1 • C parameter Also in this case 0 ≤ Cm ≤ 1.j=1 • Jet masses ρm (H) H is one of the two hemispheres identiﬁed by the thrust axis. – Parma. The deﬁnition can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of the space part of the energymomentum tensor of the ﬁnal state. • Jet algorithms and the related deﬁnitions of multi-jet events can be seen as particular event-shapes. 05/09/2002 – 24 . C = 3(λ1λ2 + λ1 λ3 + λ2 λ3 ).

• In QCD. – IR divergences in QED can be explicitly resummed α σtot (∆) = σﬁn exp log π " ∆2 q2 ! f (m2 . On the other hand it is a good approximation for σtot(e+ e− → hadrons). which n σ(e e is ﬁnite. as well as collinear divergences in the massless limit. the situation is almost ¯ analogous. The true observable is σtot(∆) = P + − → µ+ µ− + nγ. and for σtot (∆). 05/09/2002 – 25 . so that lim∆→0 σtot(∆) = 0. q 2 ) # . – σ(e+e− → qq diverges starting at O(α2αs ). • In QED. ¯ – Therefore σBorn is not a good approximation for σ = 0 (conﬁnement). asimptotic states of QED are not isolated fermions. There are similarities and diﬀerences. This is not a problem. ∆). σBorn is a good approximation. – σ(e+e− → µ+µ− diverges starting at O(α3). – Parma. – Interpretation: it is not possibile to produce only µ+µ−. the ¯ asimptotic states of QCD are not quarks and gluons. considering e+e− → qq . – Interpretation: it is not possible to produce only qq . consider for example the process e+ e− → µ+µ−. which is ﬁnite. – Therefore σBorn is not a good approximation for σ.A comparison with QED QED also has IR divergences.

Furthermore • The integrand is a function of the complex variables kµ. dyi ˆ y1 k2 + y2 (p − k)2 + y3 (p + k)2 + i (2π)d 0 i=1 dd k Z 1Y 3 Let D0 be the denominator. P1 O P2 – Parma. 05/09/2002 – 26 P . with an analytic structure determined by the i prescription.On singularities of Feynman diagrams To study IR and C divergences to all orders one must characterize the generic singularity structure of Feynman diagrams. a pole migrates to the edge of an integration contour. • Only in two cases the singularity cannot be avoided by a deformation: either the contour is trapped between two poles. y3. y2. Then I0 = 2 Z δ(1 − y1 − y2 − y3 ) ˜. yi. I0 . Let us begin with a simple example. The contour can be deformed. or one has end-point singularities. Example: the scalar form factor Introduce Feynman parameters y1. • The vanishing of D0 on one integration contour is not suﬃcient to determine a singularity of the integral. The only possible singularities of I0 must lie on surfaces where D0 = 0.

This is expressed by the Landau equations y1 kµ − y2 (p − k)µ + y3 (p + k)µ = 0 yi = 0 or and 2 li = 0 . since D0 is linear in yi . p. D0 however is quadratic in kµ. Are there other solutions of Landau equations? – Parma. D0 can be independent of yi on the surface D0 = 0. µ where li is the momentum ﬂowing through the line with parameter yi. αy1 = (1 − α)y2 µ µ µ k = −βp . so that two poles can trap the contour if they coalesce. • Landau equations for I0 A necessary condition for a singularity of I0 is that all integration variables be trapped. y2 /y1 = y3 /y1 = 0 µ IR C C k = αp . βy1 = (1 − β)y3 We recognize the expected IR and C singularities.• Singularities of I0 – dkµ integrals cannot have end-point singularities (I0 is UV convergent). ∂kµ – dyi integrals can only have end-point singularities (in yi = 0). kµ = 0 . Alternatively. • Solutions of Landau equations It’s easy to ﬁnd the expected solutions. so that yi becomes useless for the deformation. y2 = 0 . p = 0 . “ ” ∂ µ D0 yi . 05/09/2002 – 27 . y3 = 0 . k .

Observe that – if line i in a loop is oﬀ–shell it must be that yi = 0. – On–shell lines describe physically admissible processes for the classical propagation of massless particles. • Interpretation: the solutions of Landau equations are given by reduced diagrams. Then i ∆xi = ∆xi vi . – The Landau equations for I0 can now be written as X i σ(i) ∆xi = 0 ∆xi = 0 µ µ on shell oﬀ shell . 0 li ! . for each on-shell line li . 05/09/2002 – 28 . µ – Let ∆xµ ≡ yili . where – Oﬀ–shell lines are contracted to points.• Coleman–Norton physical picture The search for solutions of Landau equations is simpliﬁed by the fact that they admit a simple physical representation. – Parma. vi = µ 0 µ µ li 1. Interpretation: ∆xµ describes classical propagation of a i massless particle with momentum li .

it must be possible to associate to all its vertices coordinates µ xk . . lˆ ` D yi . . k) − m2 + i . ∀j/i ∈ j . where all remaining loops can be interpreted as classically permitted processes. k = 1. For any loop. oﬀ shell . pr = yi li i linee ` ´ N yi . • Landau equations X i µ ηij ∆x = 0 i µ ∆x = 0 i on shell . ∆xij ≡ xi − xj .General case • Feynman parametrization Thanks to the identity “ “P ” ” P N a Z 1 N „ « δ 1 − N yi Γ Y 1 a −1 i=1 i i=1 dyi y i . 05/09/2002 – 29 . kl . pr ´˜ . kl . pr N and the momenta li are linear functions of pr and kl . M such that ∆x12 + . ai = QN i “P ”PN a Γ(ai ) 0 i=1 D i=1 i N y D i=1 i=1 i i=1 i i N Y an arbitrary Feynman diagram G(pr ) can be written as G(pi ) = linee 0 Y Z 1 dyi δ @1 − 0 X i yi A 1 loops Y Z dd k where the denominator D is a sum of propagators “ ” X ` ´ 2 (p. . kl . D yi . • Coleman–Norton picture Solutions are again reduced diagrams (with oﬀ–shell lines contracted to points). . + ∆xM 1 = 0 . . µ µ µ µ µ – Parma. .

and interact until they are absorbed. . in a theory with only one species of particle with mass m2 . 0 . for an arbitrarily long time. The Coleman–Norton process is the creation of n > 1 particles at rest. Proof: • Normal thresholds are solutions of Landau equations. – Parma.Example: the two-point function Consider an arbitrary 1PI diagram for the two-point function G(q 2 . If one produced particle has non-vanishing momentum the other ones must compensate moving in the opposite direction. which do not move. . m2 )) are normal thresholds q 2 = n2 m2 .. 2 . 05/09/2002 – 30 . n = 1. m2 ) = q q Theorem: the only singularities of the diagram (and thus of G(q 2 . G(q 2 . An example with n = 4 is q q • No other reduced diagram satisﬁes Coleman–Norton. Once separated they cannot meet again in free motion. ” “p 2 µ In fact. when q > 0 one can choose q = q 2 . m2 ).

If phase space has high enough dimension singularities are suppressed (e. taking the dominant power of λ in every factor of the graph. • Construct the homogeneous integral for S . • Introduce a scaling variable determine the relative weight (integration volume)/singularity. similar to those employed in the UV. ni ﬁnite. Example: for I0. k p. • Given a diagram. k⊥} are normal.IR/C power counting The Landau equations are only necessary conditions for the manifestation of IR/C divergences. {k−. yi }. k+ is intrinsic. identify among the {ki } intrinsic coordinates (movement in S ) and normal coordinates (distance from S ). – Parma. the homogeneous integral is the eikonal one. ˆ p p Example: for I0 .g. k p. |k⊥| ∼ λ q2 . to determine the strength of the singularities. Set ni = λai ni and consider ˆ λ → 0. k− ∼ λ2 q2 .: IR divergences in φ3). µ • For every S . n ˆ ˆ2 i ˆ1 i S Example: for I0 . 05/09/2002 – 31 . 6 One must develop power counting techniques. use the CN representation to identify a µ trapped surface S in the space {ki .

nS ≤ 0 signals a divergence. Deﬁne then ρµν (q) ≡ ie 2 ” “ 2 2 = qµ qν − q gµν π(q ) . 05/09/2002 – 32 . which in turn comes from unitarity. k) − n m2 → λAi f (ˆ ). li (p. If. Application: ﬁniteness of Re+e− The all-order ﬁniteness of σtot(e+e− → hadrons) follows from its relationship with the correlator of two elettromagnetic currents. for every line. n – Parma. ˆ ˜ d4xeiqx 0|T Jµ (x)Jν (0) |0 Unitarity gives X ˜ ˆ 2 4 4 2 Im ρµν (q) = e 0|Jµ(0)|n n|Jν (0)|0 (2π) δ (q − pn ) .• The degree of divergence is given by the power of λ associated 2 with the homogeneous integral. then i nS = X i ai − X i Ai + nnum . P C 2 Im pi Z C kj pi kj generalizing T T † = −i(T − T † ). logarithmic when nS = 0.

The worst case is then if S contains only gluons. in d dimensions. – Parma. • To see it note that fermion lines at zero momentum are less singular than gluon lines. as may be expected (all lines in H are oﬀ–shell). nS = d LS − 2gS = 2(1 − )gS which is positive in d > 2. In that case. 05/09/2002 – 33 . and reduced diagram µ “p q2. • In a frame in which q = one sees that there are no allowed classical processes with non-vanishing momenta such that the photon decays and then reconstitutes. with LS loops and gS gluons in S . This follows from the Coleman-Norton representation.σtot(e e + − h i e2 2 → hadrons) = 2 Im π(q ) . • The only trapped surfaces are those with all particles having vanishing momentum. Thus there are no trapped surfaces with non-vanishing momenta. q It is then suﬃcient to prove the ﬁniteness of π(q2 ). 0 ” S H These however are ﬁnite by power counting.

= J H S J Further simpliﬁcations are possible • Gluons connecting S directly to H are suppressed (one more oﬀ–shell propagator. • These considerations suggest a factorization Γ = J1 J2SH . 05/09/2002 – 34 . only the (anti)quark line connects the jet J to H . n · A = 0. Contracting with kµ cancels the denominator k Gµν (k) = µ ax kν nν 2 . −n n·k (n · k)2 so that the degree of IR/C singularity is reduced. – Parma. µ . p 2 . plus a new soft propagator dominated by the new soft loop). • Fermion lines connecting diﬀerent subgraphs (except the necessary q e q) are suppressed.Application: the quark form factor Considering Γ(q2) one ﬁnds collinear divergences associated with observed quarks. In fact the axial gauge gluon propagator is ax Gµν (k) = 1 k2 + iε „ nµ kν + nν kµ 2 kµ kν −gµν + −n n·k (n · k)2 « . ¯ • In an axial gauge. The most general reduced diagram is “ ” 2 Γν p 1 .

Ward identities). in general non local). Microexample: again the one-loop form factor. 05/09/2002 – 35 . collinear region k p1 . Feynman gauge. k2 (p1 − k)2 k · u2 The gluon-antiquark coupling simpliﬁes. k . One must then • exploit simpliﬁcations in Feynman diagrams in the leading regions (soft/collinear approximations. 0. – Parma. • Grammer-Yennie approximation in the numerator → → 1 u(p1 )γ + (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)k+ γ − v(p2 ) → / / / / + k 1 + u(p1 )γ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k) k v(p2 ) . 0⊥ 1 ” ” “ + − . k = k . k⊥ }. recognizing only charge and direction. it becomes eikonal. • organize all-order subtractions a tutti gli ordini so as to avoid double counting (diﬀerent factor functions have operator deﬁnitions.Diagrammatics of factorization Identifying the leading integration regions in momentum space is only the ﬁrst step towards factorization. k⊥ . • Kinematics: {k− . / / / / / k · u2 ˆ µ p1 = “ p+ . con k+ µ σ + − u(p1 )γσ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)γ v(p2 ) → u(p1 )γ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)γ v(p2 ) / / / / / / / / • Ward identity: k = (p 2 + k − p 2 . One ﬁnds / / /) / Γ(coll) ∝ µ Z dd k u(p1 ) u 2 (p 1 − k γµ v(p2 ) / / /) .

05/09/2002 – 36 . One uses then eikonal identities like 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + . • Typical result In an axial gauge the form factor factorizes Γ q2 µ2 ! = J1 (p1 · n)2 µ 2 n2 ! J2 (p2 · n)2 µ 2 n2 ! S (ui · n) H q2 µ2 ! .• Eikonal lines Graphically. one may introduce eikonal Feynman rules α. – Parma. due to Ward identities. k1 · u k2 · u (k1 + k2 ) · u k1 · u (k1 + k2 ) · u k2 · u All collinear gluons couple to the same eikonal line. one ﬁnds sistematic cancellations. a = iguα ta ij j i j u i ij = u·k+iε iδ in terms of these rules the previous calculation reads coll • More than one gluon Summing over all possible insertions of two or more collinear gluons.

. They all arise from IR/C dynamics. the reliability of perturbation theory is put 2 2 in jeopardy by terms like αn logp (q1 /q2 ). resummed by the BFKL equation. • Drell–Yan. . αs (q ) . Most problems however have several hard scales. with p ≤ n (single s logarithms) or p ≤ 2n (double logarithms).Multi-scale problems and large logarithms For observables depending on a single hard scale all logarithms are resummed using the renormalization group σ q2 2 . 05/09/2002 – 37 In a massless theory one may choose µ2 = q2 . With masses one ﬁnds duble logarithms ” 2 2 2 log q /m . and double log(1 − x). The two 2 2 scales are q2 and q⊥. αs (µ ) µ2 ! “ ” 2 = σ 1. the two hard scales ¯ 2 2 are s = (p1 + p2) and q . The two hard scales are Q2 = −q2 and W 2 = (p + q)2 = Q2 (1 − x)/x. – Parma. If for example 2 2 q1 q2 ΛQCD . resummed ` la a Sudakov. • The transverse momentum distribution in Drell–Yan. • DIS. Γ q2 µ2 ! αs =1− CF log2 4π q2 µ2 ! + . giving double log(q⊥/q2 ). Some examples.. Double log(1 − q2/s) are resummed a ` la Sudakov. There are single log(1/x). . and be left with“IR/C poles. • The “Sudakov” form factor. The process is qq → µ+µ−(q2).

n Y 1/2 (n) (n) G0 (pi . Gauge invariance plays a key role. e dF2 =0 → dµF “ ” e d log f 2 = γN αs (Q ) . i=1 dG0 (n) dµ =0 → d log GR d log µ (n) =− Solving this equation resums in exponential form the logarithmic dependence on µ. 2 . Ordinary renormalization group is not suﬃcient. Or: use eﬀective ﬁled theory (SCET). 2 . 05/09/2002 – 38 . g(µ)) . The Altarelli–Parisi equation similarly leds to the resummation of (single) logarithms of µF . can already be seen from the renormalization group. d log µF The quark form factor Consider the factorization Γ q µ2 2 ! = J1 (p1 · n1 ) µ 2 n2 1 2 ! J2 (p2 · n2 ) µ 2 n2 2 2 ! S (ui · ni ) H q . n X i=1 γi (g(µ)) . µ. g0 ) = Zi (Λ/µ. Λ. ni µ2 2 ! . g(µ)) GR (pi . – Parma. αs (Q2 ) m2 µ2 F ! . Double logarithms are more diﬃcult. . In terms of Mellin moments e F2 Q2 N. αs (Q2 ) m ! e =C N. αs (Q2 ) µF Q2 ! e f N.Factorization and resummation The deep connection between factorization and resummation.

! Z 2 1 µ dλ2 + γ 2 ξ2 λ2 K α G −1. α . αs (µ2 ). d log µ d log µ with a ﬁnite anomalous dimension. αs (µ2 ). λ2 . The function G contains all q2 dependence. The equation for Γ can be solved. . have diﬀerent arguments. so that ∂ log Γ ∂ log J1 ∂ log H ∂ log S =0 → =− − .h. < 0) = 0. The whole form factor obeys an equation of identical form. ∂p1 · n1 ∂ log(p1 · n1 ) ∂ log(p1 · n1 ) ∂ log(u1 · n1 ) The two functions on the r. Since Γ is divergent. α (µ2 ). one needs to keep consistently the dependence on < 0 to all orders. the exponent has only single poles in of the form αn / n+1 . independent of q2 . Furthermore the form factor is renormalization group invariant. so that dG dK =− = γK (αs (µ)) . µ2 ! .The form factor is gauge invariant. then Γ Q2 . s – Parma.s. αs (µ2 ). 2 s µ The exponentiation is non trivial. 05/09/2002 – 39 !!39 = 5 . ) which implies Γ(q2 = 0. ∂ log q q2 . . 2 µ ξ2 µ2 ! 8 < 1 Z −Q2 dξ2 h “ ” 2) = exp K . The K function contains all singularities in (H is ﬁnite as → 0). αs (µ + :2 0 ξ2 ! . Then “ ” ∂ log J 2 + GJ = KJ αs (µ ). αs (µ2) becomes αs (µ2.

In an axial gauge. Inverting the Mellin transform. exp4− log Γ ˆ αs (λ2 ) − Γ ˆ αs (λ2 ) 2 2 J 2 q 2 /N λ λ J µ Leading logarithms are determined by ΓJ = γK + . so they have a non-vanishing invariant mass m2 ∝ (1 − T )q2 as T → 1.. 05/09/2002 – 40 . which satisfy ˆ ∂ log J ˆ = KJ ∂ log q q 2 . ˆ ˆ One can then solve for J(N ) in terms of J(1). – » 1 dσ αs log(1 − T ) αs 2 = −2CF exp −CF log (1 − T ) . As T → 1 the distribution can be factorized in a manner similar to Γ. behaving as αn log2n−1 (1 − T )/(1 − T ). leading logarithms are in the jet functions J . J Z 1 1 N dσ ˆ σ(N ) ≡ dT T = J1 σ0 0 dT q 2 (p1 · n)2 . . αs (µ ) 2 Nµ 2 ! ˆ + GJ q 2 . σ0 dT π 1−T π Note: dσ/dT → 0 as T → 1 (“Sudakov suppression”). These logs can be resummed with s similar methods. as ˆ J q2 N µ2 ! ˆ =J 2 3 ! „ Z 2 “ ” “ ”« q2 1 q µ dλ2 5. N µ2 n2 µ 2 ! ˆ ˆ ˆ J2 S H . αs (µ ) 2 µ 2 ! .The thrust distribution The thrust distribution is singular as T → 1. Neglecting ˆ ˆ running coupling eﬀects one easily ﬁnds J ∼ exp(αs log2 N ). The jets J now enter the ﬁnal state. – Parma. .

In fact fa (q ) = (q ) αs (q ) 2 2 a 2 Z ∞ 0 e−az dz . • The integral is ambiguous. consequence of the Landau pole. 1 − β0 αs (q 2 )z The Landau pole on the integrazion contour induces an ambiguity of the same parametric size as the residue » ˛ ˛ ˛ 2 ˛ ˛δfa (q )˛ ∝ exp − – Parma. 41 .The borders of the perturbative regime Resummations test the limits of the perturbative theory. 2 k One sees esplicitly the non–convergence of perturbation theory at high orders. 1 + β0 αs (q 2 ) log k2 /q 2 αs (q 2 ) ∞ ∞ X n n+1 2 Z ∞ X −az n n fa (q ) = (q ) β0 αs (q ) dze z = cn αs n! . One gets in fact integrals of the form fa (q ) = 2 Z q2 0 dk2 2 a (k ) αs (k2 ) . 05/09/2002 – a β0 αs (q 2 ) – = Λ2 QCD q2 !a . 2 2 a n=0 0 n=1 ` ´ . one observes that • The perturbative expansion in powers of αs(q2 ) diverges. In fact αs (k ) = 2 Letting z ≡ log q2 /k2. but the ambiguity is suppressed by powers of q2 .

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