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Lorenzo Magnea Universit` di Torino a I.N.F.N. Torino magnea@to.infn.it XI Seminario Nazionale di Fisica Teorica

Abstract These lectures describe the treatment of mass divergences in perturbative QCD, concentrating on hadron production in electron-positron annihilation. I perform an explicit and detailed one-loop calculation, and use it to infer some results and techniques valid to all orders in perturbation theory. I introduce some of the tools necessary to prove factorization theorems, and show how they can be used also to resum certain classes of logarithmic contributions to all orders in perturbation theory.

Ubi maior ... : G. Sterman: An introduction to quantum field theory. P. Nason: http://castore.mib.infn.it/~nason/misc/QCD... M.L. Mangano: http://home.cern.ch/~mlm/talks/cern98... G. Sterman: hep-ph/9606312.

– Parma, 05/09/2002 –

Outline

• On mass divergences in perturbative QCD – Mass divergences, low energies e long distances. – Cancellation for physical observables, KLN theorem. – Factorizable and IR/C safe observables in PQCD. • An explicit example: Re+ e− – Deﬁnitions, cut diagrams, tree level. – O(αs ): the calculation. – Approximations and observations. • Other infrared ﬁnite quantities – Sterman–Weinberg jets. – Event shapes. • Methods for all-order calculations – Singularities of Feynman diagrams and trapped surfaces. – Landau equations and Coleman-Norton picture. – Infrared power–counting and ﬁniteness of Re+e− . • Factorization and resummation – Multi-scale problems and large logarithms. – From factorization to resummation. – Examples: the quark form factor; the thrust.

– Parma, 05/09/2002 –

1

**Mass divergences: qualitative discussion
**

• Fact: in quantum ﬁeld theory, two kinds of divergences are associated with the presence of massless particles. – Infrared (IR). Emission of particles with vanishing four momentum (λDB → ∞); in gauge theories only; they are present also when matter particles are massive. – Collinear (C). Emission of particles moving parallel to the emitter; they are present if all particles in the interaction vertex are massless. • Example: a massless fermion emits a gauge boson in the ﬁnal state.

k

M

p+k

p

→

− igu(p)/(k)ta

i(p + k / /) M, (p + k)2 + iε

**Singularities: 2p · k = 2p0k0 (1 − cos θpk ) = 0 , → k0 = 0 (IR); cos θpk = 0 (C). Note: p0 = 0 not a problem (singularities are always integrable).
**

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• Origin of mass singularities – In covariant perturbation theory ( pµ conserved in every vertex; intermediate particles generally oﬀ–shell): the emitting fermion is on–shell, so that it can propagate indeﬁnitely. – In time-ordered perturbation theory (all particles are on– shell, energy however is not generally conserved in the interaction vertices): the IR/C emission vertex conserves energy, so it can be placed at arbitrary distance from the primary process. – Mass divergences originate from physical processes happening at large distances. • Available terapies . – The sickness is serious. Because of mass divergences, the S matrix cannot be constructed in the Fock space of quarks and gluons – Observe. Mass divergences are associated with the existence of experimentally indistinguishable, energy degenerate states. All physical detectors have ﬁnite resolution in energy and angle. – KLN Theorem. Physically measurable quantities (such as transition probabilities, cross sections, after summing coherently over all physically indistinguishable states) are ﬁnite, mass divergences cancel.

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∗ long-distance eﬀects can be isolated in universal factors. partonic level one identiﬁes suﬃciently inclusive cross sections. Consider a theory deﬁned by its hamiltonian H . depending on the initial state but not on the hard process being studied (factorizable cross sections). Then the quantity P (E0. – Working at the perturbative.j∈D (E0 ) X P (i → j) is ﬁnite in the massless limit to all orders in perturbation theory • Note. with = 0. Masses acquire a scale dependences such that m2(µ2) → 0 as µ2 → ∞. • The situation in perturbative QCD – Long distance (d > 1fm). – Parma. ) ≡ i. and let D (E0) be the set of eigenstates of H characterized by energies E0 − ≤ E ≤ E0 + .• KLN theorem. Let P (i → j) be the transition probability per unit volume and per unit time from eigenstate i to eigenstate j . such that ∗ long-distance eﬀects are suppressed thanks to cancellations (IR–safe cross sections). or low energy (E < 1GeV) ∼ ∼ physics is not perturbatively calculable. – The KLN theorem is not directly applicable when a sum over initial states is necessary (we have no control on the structure of hadronic initial states). In an asimptotically free ﬁeld theory the limit m → 0 and the high-energy limit formally coincide. 05/09/2002 – 4 .

having a ﬁnite limit when the IR regulator removed ( → 0. One computes σpart = σpart Q . such that σpart = f m2 µ2 F ! ∗ σpart b Q2 µ2 . g. µ2 2 2 )! . with an infrared regulator (e. 05/09/2002 – 5 . F µ2 µ2 ! +O m2 µ2 F !p ! . inclusive quantities. is transcribed at hadron level. αs (µ2). proved at parton level. • Factorization. σpart = σpart ! Q2 . 0} + O 2 µ ( m2 µ2 !p .The strategy of perturbative QCD • All calculations are performed at partonic level. • These partonic. b – Parma. 2 µ 2 ( m (µ ) . m2 (µ2) → 0).: = 2 − d/2 < 0). {0. )! . the goal is constructing factorizable quantities. • IR–safe quantities are selected. requiring the presence of at least one hard scale Q2. αs (µ2 ). Distribution functions f are measured. valid ` ´ modulo O (ΛQCD /Q)p corrections. admitting a perturbative expansion in powers of αs (Q2) 1. are interpreted as estimates of the corresponding hadronic quantities. cross sections σpart are derived with a perturbative calculation. • With hadrons in the initial state.

05/09/2002 – 6 . 2 2 2 ” e2 µ2 1 − “ µν 2 σtot (q ) = −g Hµν (q ) . σtot (q ) = µν 2 1 µν 2 Lµν (k1 . 2q 2 Current conservation implies qµHµν = qν Hµν = 0. (q ) = q q − q g 2 µν Hµν (q ) = (3 − 2 ) q H(q ) . to leading order in α. so that H µν ´ e2 µ2 ` µ ν ν µ L (k1 . 2 2q 4 X spin normalized dividing out the total muon-pair production cross section “ ” Re+ e− ≡ σtot e+ e− → hadrons σtot (e+ e− → µ+ µ−) In d = 4 − 2 . 2q 4 3 − 2 2 – Parma. Z 1X 1 X dΓX σtot (q 2 ) = |M(k1 + k2 → X)|2 . k2 )H (q ) .An explicit example: Re+e− The prototype of IR–safe cross sections is the total annihilation cross section for e+ e− → hadrons. H (q ) = e µ qf X This leads to −g ” “ µ ν 2 µν H(q 2 ) . q4 X µν 2 2 2 2 d d 0|Jµ(0)|X X|Jν (0)|0 (2π) δ (q − pX ) . k2 ) = k1 k2 + k1 k2 − k1 · k2 g µν .

. γµ2 γµ1 ω1 . 05/09/2002 – 7 . γµi γ5 . Pictorially ui uf ui uf ∗ vi ui vf vi ui vf ∗ vi p vi p 2πδ+ (p2 ) p / To the right of the cut all explicit i’s in the Feynman rules and all momentum components change sign. Consistency with spinor and color algebra is easily veriﬁed using ` ˆ ˜ ´∗ ω 1 γµ1 γµ2 . becomes the phase space integral. . . the loop momentum integral for cut loops. . • cut fermion loops carry the expected minus sign. . σµν . if needed. – Parma. . ˆ ˜∗ as well as hermiticity of group generators. .A technical interlude: cut diagrams A useful representation for |M|2 can be constructed in terms of cut diagrams. γµn ω2 = ˆ ˜ ω2 γµn . . γµi γ5 . . • for particles with spin = 0 the cut carries the sum over polarizations. σµν . . . • the rules apply for ﬁxed ﬁnal state momenta. . (ta)ij Note that = (ta )ji.

e e f – Parma. use the two δ+ distributions to perform k0 and |k| integrals. Γ(d) In d = 4 − 2 one ﬁnds then Γ(2 − ) 2 µ −Hµ = 2 α q Γ(2 − 2 ) 4πµ2 q2 ! whence the famous result. the trace evaluates to 4(1 − )q2 . (2π)2−2 The d-dimensional solid angle is given by the classic formula 2dπd/2 Γ(d/2) Ωd = . → X 2 Nc qf . for X 2 4πα2 σtot = Nc qf 3q 2 f → 0. /γ / / d−2 p q 4 2 !1− Ω2−2 .Exercise: Re+e− at tree–level k 2 2 1− σtot (q 2 ) = e µ4 3−2 (−g µν ) 2q q µ ν µ 2 −Hµ = e2 µ2 qf Z dd k (2π) In he center of mass frame (k − q)2 = q2 − 2 q2k0 . 05/09/2002 – 8 . Summing over quark colors and ﬂavors one ﬁnds X 2 µ −Hµ = 2(1 − )e2 µ2 Nc qf f ` ´ δ+(k2 )δ+ ((k−q)2 )Tr k µ (k − q )γ µ . f X 2 (0) R + − = Nc qf .

– Parma. Summing over positions of the cuts one obtains real and virtual diagrams in turn. Following the rules for cut diagrams one ﬁnds h i µ (1. 05/09/2002 – 9 .R) −Hµ = Z δ+ (p )δ+(k )δ+ ((p + k − q) ) −Hµ µ (2π)2d−3 ddpdd k 2 2 2 h i .t. One can integrate over the energies of p ˆ and k using the respective δ+. Let u ≡ cos θpk in the center of mass frame: one ﬁnds ” “ ” √ ˆ + 2pk(1 − u) . k = |k|.Radiative corrections Enumerating graphs contributing to the one-loop correction is easy in terms of cut diagrams h µ −Hµ i(1) = + c. ˆ δ+ ((p + k − q) ) = ϑ p0 δ s − 2 s(p + k) ˆ ˆ 2 “ ˆ where p = |p|. We examine them separately. Real emission It is convenient to compute separately the transition probability and three-body space. All angular integrations are trivial except the one on u. The transition probability depends on a single polar angle.

Introduce dimensionless variables (quark and gluon energy fractions) ˆ 2k 2p ˆ z= √ . The result is h i 1 Ω2−2 Ω1−2 µ (1. // −2q k / + 2 p k / . Cliﬀord algebra identities such as γµ p γ / γµ p k / /γ µ µ = = = −2(1 − )p .R) −Hµ = 8 (2π)5−2 „ «1−2 Z 1 Z 1 s 1−2 dxx dzz 1−2 2 0 0 „ « Z 1 i 1 1−z h − µ × dy [y(1 − y)] δ x− −Hµ . + 2 (2p · k) and can be simpliﬁed using Tr(tata) = NcCF . k·q = sz/2. / 4p · k − 2 p k . – Parma. 05/09/2002 – 10 . / /p / /q γµ p k /γ µ / /q and with the identiﬁcations p·q = sx/2. i 0 h Tr γµ (p + k)γσ pγ µ (−p − k)γ σ p / / / / / / X 2 2 2 µ a 2 2 qf g µ Tr(ta t ) @ −Hµ = −2e µ (2p · k)(2p · k) f h i1 σ (p + k)γ µ p Tr γµ (p + k)γσ pγ / / / / / / A . 1 − yz 1 − yz 0 The transition probability can be computed from the Feynman rules. p·k = sxyz/2. s s and deﬁne y = (1 − u)/2. x= √ .

singular when y → 0 (gluon collinear to the quark).R) X 2 Ω2−2 Ω1−2 2 = 2Nc CF qf ααs (1 − ) q (2π)3−4 f 2µ q2 2 !2 (1 − z) (1 − yz) −2−2 z 1−2 [y(1 − y)] − (1 − yz)2 − yz 2 (1 − y) + y 1+ !# . • Collinear: y−1− e (1 − y)−1− . h −Hµ µ i(1.R) X 2 αs 2 = Nc C F α qf q π f 4πµ q2 2 !2 – . The y and z integrations yield Euler B functions (typical of oneloop calculations in one-scale problems). and y → 1 (gluon collinear to the antiquark). displaying the double infrared–collinear pole. Expanding around = 0 one gets the ﬁnal result for real emission. 1− × Γ(2 − 2 ) » 2 2 + 3 19 −π + + O( ) 2 2 – Parma. The expression simpliﬁes considerably and one gets h µ −Hµ Z 1 0 » dzdy (1 − )(1 − z)−2 (1 − yz)−2−2 z 1−2 (1 − y)1− 1−2 i(1. 1 One recognizes the announced singularities • Infrared: z −1−2 .One can integrate out the quark energy fraction x. gives a pole in when the gluon energy z tends to 0. 05/09/2002 – 11 . using the remaining δ . Note: mass singularities are regulated choosing < 0.

µ2 . the transition probability is proportional to the tree–level result. – Parma. Γµ (p1 . p2 |Jµ (0)|0 q2 . p2 . • For massles quarks. αs . = ν p2 The calculation greatly simpliﬁes by taking into account the general properties of the form factor. p 2 . the form factor is expressed in terms of a single scalar function. as a consequence of the conservation of the electromagnetic current. 05/09/2002 – 12 . αs ) ∂µ ∂αs « Γ Q . µ2 2 ! =0. QCD does not violate the QED Ward identity.Virtual contribution Purely virtual contributions to the production amplitude are given to all orders by the quark form factor. αs (µ2 ). „ µ ∂ ∂ + β( . multiplying the Dirac structure of the threee amplitude. Z1 = Zψ . 2 µ ! = −ieqf u(p1 )γµv(p2 ) Γ . • The form factor is renormalization group invariant (it has a vanishing anomalous dimension). p1 “ ” 2 Γν p 1 . ) ≡ p1 . µ . with an overall factor given by 2 ReΓ. As a consequence.

reconstruct the residue Rψ of the quark propagator. p 2 . Since.. µ . furthermore it depends on a cancellation of IR and UV eﬀects . including the respective counterterms. At one loop these observations are summarized by the identity 0 One is left with only one graph to be computed. k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 (2π)d – Parma. = which can be written as (1) 2 2 Γν = −eqf g µ CF Z dd k u(p1 )γσ (p 1 − k ν (p 2 + k σ v(p2 ) / /)γ / /)γ . the vertex correction (1) Γν “ ” 2 p1 . 05/09/2002 – 13 . −1/2 every external line must be multiplied times Rψ . • In Feynman gauge and in dimensional regularisation all 1PR graphs with the loop on the external fermion line vanish because they are expressed by scale-less integrals (p2 = 0). it is necessary to include these graphs on one of the two lines only.• Reducible (1PR) graphs on each fermion line. according to the reduction formulas.. i – Note! This is false in general in axial gauges (∃ n · pi).

(1) 2 2 2 α Γν = −eqf g µ CF u(p1 ) 2q γν I0 + 2(γν γα p 1 − p 2 γα γν )I / / −γ γα γν γβ γσ I σ αβ • The tensor integrals I0 = i v(p2 ) . α β α β α β β α – Parma. in order to get directly the scalar form factor Γ. (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 dd k kα . Iα may have collinear poles . then isolate integrals with diﬀerent / / powers of k. The result is Iα I αβ = = pα I1 + pα I2 . and only Iαβ can have UV divergences. 05/09/2002 – 14 ... 1 2 g αβ I3 + p1 p1 I4 + p2 p2 I5 + (p1 p2 + p1 p2 ) I6 . – Note: only I0 can have IR divergences.The steps to compute this diagram are standard. Summarizing • Sistematically use the mass–shell conditions (Dirac equation). (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 kα kβ dd k . • It may be useful to decompose tensor integrals ` la Passarino– a Veltman. u(p1 )p 1 = p 2 v(p2 ) = 0. h Z Z Z 1 dd k . (2π)d k2 (p1 − k)2 (p2 + k)2 Iα = Iαβ = can be computed with the usual Feynman parametrization.

Result We observe that. . where CF = 4/3. Summing the two. with the result X 2 4πα2 σtot = Nc qf 3q 2 f « „ αs 3 2 CF + O(αs ) .• In terms of the scalar integrals I1. . the virtual contribution has the same IR-C poles as real emission. 05/09/2002 – 15 . . It generates numerically important contributions. as expected. the (classical) result is X 2 (0) R + − = Nc qf e e f „ αs + O(α2 ) 1+ s π « . the factor exp(−iπ ) must be expanded to second order in . I6 one ﬁnds Γ (1) 2 2 = g µ CF 4(1 − ) I3 − 2q (I0 + I2 − I1 + (1 − )I6 ) . When taking the real part one must use (−q 2 + iε)− = (q 2 )− e−iπ . Because of the double pole. 1+ π 4 For SU (3). ! » – • The ﬁnal result for the form factor is αs (1) Γ = − CF 4π 4πµ −q 2 2 h 2 2 i Γ2 (1 − )Γ(1 + ) Γ(1 − 2 ) 2 2 + 3 + 8 + O( ) . Note! The sign of q2 is dictated by the Cutkosky rules. – Parma. the poles cancel and one can take the limit → 0. .

in the IR and C limits the amplitude for the emission of a real gluon becomes proportional to the Born amplitude. and in the deﬁnition of p . a p . • commute p and p in order to impose the mass-shell condition. just as was the case for the virtual diagram.Soft approximation The cancellation that was just exhibited is possible only because. 05/09/2002 – 16 . 2p · k 2p · k " When the gluon is soft one can • neglect k in the numerator. i k. i p.j µ # / /)ε ε (k)(p + k µ / / /)Γ Γµ (p + k /(k) aµ a Aij = gtij u(p) − v(p ) . / / The result is ˛ aµ ˛ Aij ˛ = gta ij soft " # p·ε p ·ε µ − A0 . – Parma. This result can be made systematic introducing the soft approximation. p·k p ·k where Aµ = u(p)Γµv(p ) is the Born amplitude (whatever the 0 explicit form of the vertex Γµ). / / p v(p ) = u(p)p = 0.j Aij = aµ k. p. a µ p .

The transition probability can be computed summing P εµ ε∗ = −gµν . |k| (1 − cos θpk )(1 + cos θpk ) −1 0 – Parma. 2|k|(2π)3 p · k p · k In the center of mass frame (q = 0) and in the soft approximation the quark and the antiquark are still back to back. • Soft gluon emission has universal characters. 05/09/2002 – 17 . Soft cross section It’s easy to recover the singular part of the real emission cross section. One then recovers the structure of IR and C singularities. Long-wavelength gluons cannot analyze the short-distance properties of the emitter (spin. αs soft σq q g = σq q C F ¯ ¯ π Z 1 Z ∞ d|k| 2 d cos θpk . p·k p ·k To get the cross section one integrates over phase space soft 2 σq q g = g C F σq q ¯ ¯ Z d3 k 2p · p .Remarks • The soft amplitude is gauge–invariant (it vanishes if ε ∝ k). which is over colors and polarizations (using ν allowed in this case). • Identical considerations apply to gluon emission from gluons. |Asoft | = g CF |A0 | 2 2 2 2p · p . internal structure). they only detect the global color charge and the direction of motion These considerations generalize to multiple emission.

v⊥ . 0⊥ . v± = √ (v 0 ± v 3 )/ 2. ∀µ . ∀µ. v = v . One can parametrize them introducing a scaling variable λ. with some care. or the approximation may break down. in some cases it becomes necessary to deform integration contours. containing the virtual double pole. • Consider for example the integral I0. → COLL . 0. one can neglect k2 with respect to ” “ + p = p . – Note: the approximation is not uniformly valid. • Using light-cone coordinates one can set ” “ − (p ) = 0. q q 2 2 . (p ) . 0⊥ . |k | ∼ λ q 2 .Virtual diagrams The soft approximation can be applied to virtual diagrams as well. 05/09/2002 – 18 . according to q k ± q ∼ q2 . v 2 = 2v + v − − |v⊥|2 . ∼λ q ⊥ k ∼λ µ → IR . k q 2 . In the eikonal approximation and in d = 4 1 (eik) = I0 32π4 q 2 Z dk+ dk−d2 k⊥ . ” “ µ + − – Note: For a generic four-vector. µ µ p q 2 . as well as k in numerators (eikonal approximation). (−k− + i )(k+ + i )(2k+ k− − |k⊥ |2 + i ) There are three integration regions giving rise to divergences. – Parma. v . • When kµ pi · k in denominators.

05/09/2002 – 19 . – Parma. The partial distributions Wi are not positive deﬁnite. In that frame the quark and the antiquark are typically emitted forming a small angle (θpp π). but they enjoy special properties. but singular for emissions parallel to either the quark or the antiquark. angular ordering) • It links perturbative and non–perturbative regimes (resummations. (1 − cos θpk ) (1 − cos θp k ) = where Wq = (1 − cos θpk )(1 − cos θp k ) 1 − cos θpp + while Wq is found exchanging p ↔ p . and one has soft dσq qg ¯ = 1 − cos θpp αs d|k| dφk dσq q CF d cos θk ¯ π |k | 2π (1 − cos θpk )(1 − cos θp k ) dσq q CF ¯ ´ αs d|k| dφ 1 ` d cos θk k Wq + Wq ¯ π |k | 2π 2 1 1 − .Angular ordering The soft approximation is of great practical relevance in perturbative QCD. ¯ The full angular distribution is positive deﬁnite. • It displays the universal properties of soft color radiation (color transparency. hadronization Monte Carlo) The simplest example of angular ordering is the diﬀerenzial cross section dσq qg in a frame in which the decaying photon has a large ¯ momentum q.

– Parma. Gluons which are radiated later are forced on average to the inside of the cones deﬁned by previously emitted gluons and quarks. ¯ • Azimuthal averages are positive deﬁnite and can be interpreted as probability distributions for the emission of soft gluons independently of the quark and of the antiquark. Thus: the distribution of soft radiation on average is given by a sum of uncorrelated contributions from the quark and from the antiquark. • Perturbative evolution in the soft limit is local in phase space. each vanishing outside the cones built rotating the direction of one of the fermions around that of the other one. ¯ • The azimuthal average of Wq (with respect to the axis deﬁned by p) vanishes if θpk > θpp . while the opposite is true for Wq . An identical equation applies to Wq . Z 2π ” “ 1 2 dφ Wq (φ) = Θ θpp − θpk . 05/09/2002 – 20 . Comments • This property can be generalized to higher orders.Properties of Wq e Wq ¯ • Wq is singular only when cos θpk → 1. 2π 0 1 − cos θpk as can be proven using cos θp k = cos θpk cos θpp + sin θpk sin θpp cos φ . so that color singlet parton clusters are likely to be formed inside collimated particle beams (jets).

it is suﬃcient to consider suﬃciently inclusive observables. Therefore the partonic two-jet cross section is ﬁnite. At parton level: • All events are two-jet events at leading order.Sterman–Weinberg jets Momentum conﬁgurations responsible for singularities and needed for their cancellation are infrared and collinear. Thus it is not necessary to integrate real emission over the entire phase space in order to obtain a ﬁnite result. • At O(αs) two-jet events are those in which the gluon is IR (and emitted in any direction). or C (with any energy). such that gluon emission be integrated over IR and C conﬁgurations. 05/09/2002 – 21 . – Parma. Prototype: two-jet cross section Eout < √ δ s √ Ein > (1 − ) s Deﬁnition: an event is a two-jet event iﬀ ∃ two opposite cones with opening angle δ . such that all the energy. ﬂows into the cones. All other events are three-jet events. as expected. except at most a fraction . • Virtual contributions are two-jet events.

. δ) = σtot = Nc (1) (1) (1) • At NLO one ﬁnds only two. as expected for spin 1/2 quarks.More precisely: (0) (0) • At LO one ﬁnds simply σ2j ( . δ) = σtot − σ3j ( . Combining with the leptonic tensor one ﬁnds " # αs π2 7 (1) (0) σ3j ( . δ) . • It is easy to compute the dominant contributions as .). • For increasing q2 the perturbative result remains reliable for narrower cones.or three-jet events. δ → 0. δ) = σtot CF 4 log(δ) log(2 ) + 3 log(δ) + − .R) −Hµ = 2Nc CF qf α q dz 3j π 2 f × Z 1−δ 2 (1−z 2 /2) δ2 z(1 − y) 1−z dy + y(1 − yz)2 yz(1 − y) » – . f 3q 2 h i X 2 αs 2 Z 1 µ (1. π 3 4 Observe: • The total cross section is dominated by two-jet events at large q 2 (asymptotic freedom for jets . 05/09/2002 – 22 . – Parma. so that σ2j ( . • It is possible to compute (and verify experimentally) the angular distribution of two-jet events dσ2j /d cos θ ∝ 1 + cos2 θ . In d = 4 P 2 2 qf 4πα . (1) • σ3j is easily computed from the real emission matrix element with appropriate cuts on phase space. jets are more collimated..

. lim Em+1 (p1 . . .) = Em (p1 . At order αm−1 one must sum contributions with m + 1 partons s in the ﬁnal state. . . . . . = 2 de 2q m and its moments (and in particular the average value) are e n = Z emax emin de e n dσ de . . . . . . pm)) . pk . ” = ˛ O αm+1 s IR-C cancellation is preserved if the observable takes the same value for those conﬁgurations diﬀering only by the IR/C radiation. ˛ Z Z ˛ (R) (1V ) σ(e)˛ “ dσm+1 + dσm + . . pm) be the observable. . . . with one virtual m real partons. . . pj+1 . pj−1 . . and so on. . . . . µ m+1 1 µ p →αp j k – Parma.Event–shape variables The mechanism underlying the cancellation of IR and C divergences suggests a further generalization: study distributions of observables constructed with ﬁnal state momenta so as to assign equal weights to events diﬀering by IR or C emissions. . . The corresponding distribution is deﬁned by Z dσ 1 X dLIPSm |Mm|2 δ (e − Em (p1 . pj . 05/09/2002 – 23 . Given a ﬁnal state with m partons. . µ p →0 j lim E (p . . . . . . let Em(p1. Note: These are “weighted” cross sections. . . . . . pj + pk . . pj .) . . . . .) . .) = Em (p1 .

Cm = 3 − 2 (pi · q) pj · q i. • Jet algorithms and the related deﬁnitions of multi-jet events can be seen as particular event-shapes. hadronization corrections). |pi | i=1 • C parameter Also in this case 0 ≤ Cm ≤ 1. i=1 Tm = maxn Pm ˆ ˆ |pi · n| . C = 3(λ1λ2 + λ1 λ3 + λ2 λ3 ). The deﬁnition can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalues of the space part of the energymomentum tensor of the ﬁnal state.Examples of event–shape variables There is a variety of available IR/C safe event shapes. 05/09/2002 – 24 . ` ´2 m pi · pj 3 X ` ´ .j=1 • Jet masses ρm (H) H is one of the two hemispheres identiﬁed by the thrust axis. and Tm = 1 corresponds to two precisely collimated back to back particle beams. 1 = 2@ q 0 pi ∈H X pi A 12 Observe • Perturbative distributions are singular in the two-jet limit (logarithms of the form αn log2n−1 C ). • Great phenomenological relevance (for example: determination of αs . two-jet eventi have C = 0. – Parma. but expectation values s are ﬁnite. • Thrust Pm Clearly 0 < Tm ≤ 1.

• In QCD. – σ(e+e− → µ+µ− diverges starting at O(α3). and for σtot (∆). – IR divergences in QED can be explicitly resummed α σtot (∆) = σﬁn exp log π " ∆2 q2 ! f (m2 . – Parma. • In QED. There are similarities and diﬀerences. asimptotic states of QED are not isolated fermions. – σ(e+e− → qq diverges starting at O(α2αs ). which is ﬁnite. ∆). which n σ(e e is ﬁnite. – Interpretation: it is not possible to produce only qq . The true observable is σtot(∆) = P + − → µ+ µ− + nγ. the situation is almost ¯ analogous. q 2 ) # . σBorn is a good approximation. – Therefore σBorn is not a good approximation for σ. On the other hand it is a good approximation for σtot(e+ e− → hadrons). consider for example the process e+ e− → µ+µ−. ¯ – Therefore σBorn is not a good approximation for σ = 0 (conﬁnement). as well as collinear divergences in the massless limit. This is not a problem. so that lim∆→0 σtot(∆) = 0. the ¯ asimptotic states of QCD are not quarks and gluons. 05/09/2002 – 25 .A comparison with QED QED also has IR divergences. considering e+e− → qq . – Interpretation: it is not possibile to produce only µ+µ−.

• Only in two cases the singularity cannot be avoided by a deformation: either the contour is trapped between two poles. dyi ˆ y1 k2 + y2 (p − k)2 + y3 (p + k)2 + i (2π)d 0 i=1 dd k Z 1Y 3 Let D0 be the denominator. Example: the scalar form factor Introduce Feynman parameters y1. or one has end-point singularities.On singularities of Feynman diagrams To study IR and C divergences to all orders one must characterize the generic singularity structure of Feynman diagrams. P1 O P2 – Parma. • The vanishing of D0 on one integration contour is not suﬃcient to determine a singularity of the integral. yi. I0 . The contour can be deformed. y2. Then I0 = 2 Z δ(1 − y1 − y2 − y3 ) ˜. with an analytic structure determined by the i prescription. The only possible singularities of I0 must lie on surfaces where D0 = 0. Furthermore • The integrand is a function of the complex variables kµ. Let us begin with a simple example. y3. a pole migrates to the edge of an integration contour. 05/09/2002 – 26 P .

kµ = 0 . ∂kµ – dyi integrals can only have end-point singularities (in yi = 0). “ ” ∂ µ D0 yi . Alternatively. D0 however is quadratic in kµ. p = 0 . so that yi becomes useless for the deformation. k . This is expressed by the Landau equations y1 kµ − y2 (p − k)µ + y3 (p + k)µ = 0 yi = 0 or and 2 li = 0 . D0 can be independent of yi on the surface D0 = 0. y3 = 0 . αy1 = (1 − α)y2 µ µ µ k = −βp . • Landau equations for I0 A necessary condition for a singularity of I0 is that all integration variables be trapped. Are there other solutions of Landau equations? – Parma. since D0 is linear in yi . µ where li is the momentum ﬂowing through the line with parameter yi. p.• Singularities of I0 – dkµ integrals cannot have end-point singularities (I0 is UV convergent). βy1 = (1 − β)y3 We recognize the expected IR and C singularities. so that two poles can trap the contour if they coalesce. • Solutions of Landau equations It’s easy to ﬁnd the expected solutions. y2 = 0 . y2 /y1 = y3 /y1 = 0 µ IR C C k = αp . 05/09/2002 – 27 .

Then i ∆xi = ∆xi vi . – On–shell lines describe physically admissible processes for the classical propagation of massless particles. Observe that – if line i in a loop is oﬀ–shell it must be that yi = 0. 05/09/2002 – 28 . Interpretation: ∆xµ describes classical propagation of a i massless particle with momentum li .• Coleman–Norton physical picture The search for solutions of Landau equations is simpliﬁed by the fact that they admit a simple physical representation. where – Oﬀ–shell lines are contracted to points. 0 li ! . • Interpretation: the solutions of Landau equations are given by reduced diagrams. – The Landau equations for I0 can now be written as X i σ(i) ∆xi = 0 ∆xi = 0 µ µ on shell oﬀ shell . – Parma. µ – Let ∆xµ ≡ yili . vi = µ 0 µ µ li 1. for each on-shell line li .

where all remaining loops can be interpreted as classically permitted processes. . ∆xij ≡ xi − xj . • Coleman–Norton picture Solutions are again reduced diagrams (with oﬀ–shell lines contracted to points). . For any loop. • Landau equations X i µ ηij ∆x = 0 i µ ∆x = 0 i on shell . pr = yi li i linee ` ´ N yi . ∀j/i ∈ j . . .General case • Feynman parametrization Thanks to the identity “ “P ” ” P N a Z 1 N „ « δ 1 − N yi Γ Y 1 a −1 i=1 i i=1 dyi y i . ai = QN i “P ”PN a Γ(ai ) 0 i=1 D i=1 i N y D i=1 i=1 i i=1 i i N Y an arbitrary Feynman diagram G(pr ) can be written as G(pi ) = linee 0 Y Z 1 dyi δ @1 − 0 X i yi A 1 loops Y Z dd k where the denominator D is a sum of propagators “ ” X ` ´ 2 (p. lˆ ` D yi . pr ´˜ . k = 1. µ µ µ µ µ – Parma. oﬀ shell . it must be possible to associate to all its vertices coordinates µ xk . kl . + ∆xM 1 = 0 . kl . . k) − m2 + i . M such that ∆x12 + . . pr N and the momenta li are linear functions of pr and kl . kl . D yi . 05/09/2002 – 29 .

. G(q 2 . 2 . 0 . If one produced particle has non-vanishing momentum the other ones must compensate moving in the opposite direction. Proof: • Normal thresholds are solutions of Landau equations. when q > 0 one can choose q = q 2 . 05/09/2002 – 30 . which do not move. Once separated they cannot meet again in free motion. – Parma. n = 1. . m2 ) = q q Theorem: the only singularities of the diagram (and thus of G(q 2 . The Coleman–Norton process is the creation of n > 1 particles at rest.Example: the two-point function Consider an arbitrary 1PI diagram for the two-point function G(q 2 . An example with n = 4 is q q • No other reduced diagram satisﬁes Coleman–Norton. m2 ). ” “p 2 µ In fact. . and interact until they are absorbed. in a theory with only one species of particle with mass m2 . m2 )) are normal thresholds q 2 = n2 m2 . for an arbitrarily long time.

ˆ p p Example: for I0 . n ˆ ˆ2 i ˆ1 i S Example: for I0 . Set ni = λai ni and consider ˆ λ → 0. |k⊥| ∼ λ q2 . k p. identify among the {ki } intrinsic coordinates (movement in S ) and normal coordinates (distance from S ). to determine the strength of the singularities.: IR divergences in φ3). the homogeneous integral is the eikonal one.g. ni ﬁnite. taking the dominant power of λ in every factor of the graph. k⊥} are normal. yi }. {k−. 05/09/2002 – 31 . µ • For every S . If phase space has high enough dimension singularities are suppressed (e. k− ∼ λ2 q2 . – Parma. similar to those employed in the UV. • Construct the homogeneous integral for S . Example: for I0. k p. • Given a diagram. use the CN representation to identify a µ trapped surface S in the space {ki . 6 One must develop power counting techniques. k+ is intrinsic. • Introduce a scaling variable determine the relative weight (integration volume)/singularity.IR/C power counting The Landau equations are only necessary conditions for the manifestation of IR/C divergences.

logarithmic when nS = 0. If. ˆ ˜ d4xeiqx 0|T Jµ (x)Jν (0) |0 Unitarity gives X ˜ ˆ 2 4 4 2 Im ρµν (q) = e 0|Jµ(0)|n n|Jν (0)|0 (2π) δ (q − pn ) . for every line. 05/09/2002 – 32 . li (p. then i nS = X i ai − X i Ai + nnum . nS ≤ 0 signals a divergence. k) − n m2 → λAi f (ˆ ). which in turn comes from unitarity. P C 2 Im pi Z C kj pi kj generalizing T T † = −i(T − T † ). Application: ﬁniteness of Re+e− The all-order ﬁniteness of σtot(e+e− → hadrons) follows from its relationship with the correlator of two elettromagnetic currents. n – Parma. Deﬁne then ρµν (q) ≡ ie 2 ” “ 2 2 = qµ qν − q gµν π(q ) .• The degree of divergence is given by the power of λ associated 2 with the homogeneous integral.

in d dimensions. • The only trapped surfaces are those with all particles having vanishing momentum. In that case. nS = d LS − 2gS = 2(1 − )gS which is positive in d > 2. The worst case is then if S contains only gluons. 0 ” S H These however are ﬁnite by power counting. • In a frame in which q = one sees that there are no allowed classical processes with non-vanishing momenta such that the photon decays and then reconstitutes. as may be expected (all lines in H are oﬀ–shell). – Parma. 05/09/2002 – 33 . Thus there are no trapped surfaces with non-vanishing momenta. with LS loops and gS gluons in S . q It is then suﬃcient to prove the ﬁniteness of π(q2 ).σtot(e e + − h i e2 2 → hadrons) = 2 Im π(q ) . • To see it note that fermion lines at zero momentum are less singular than gluon lines. This follows from the Coleman-Norton representation. and reduced diagram µ “p q2.

Application: the quark form factor Considering Γ(q2) one ﬁnds collinear divergences associated with observed quarks. p 2 . • Fermion lines connecting diﬀerent subgraphs (except the necessary q e q) are suppressed. • These considerations suggest a factorization Γ = J1 J2SH . plus a new soft propagator dominated by the new soft loop). The most general reduced diagram is “ ” 2 Γν p 1 . only the (anti)quark line connects the jet J to H . = J H S J Further simpliﬁcations are possible • Gluons connecting S directly to H are suppressed (one more oﬀ–shell propagator. – Parma. ¯ • In an axial gauge. −n n·k (n · k)2 so that the degree of IR/C singularity is reduced. 05/09/2002 – 34 . n · A = 0. µ . Contracting with kµ cancels the denominator k Gµν (k) = µ ax kν nν 2 . In fact the axial gauge gluon propagator is ax Gµν (k) = 1 k2 + iε „ nµ kν + nν kµ 2 kµ kν −gµν + −n n·k (n · k)2 « .

k⊥ . • Grammer-Yennie approximation in the numerator → → 1 u(p1 )γ + (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)k+ γ − v(p2 ) → / / / / + k 1 + u(p1 )γ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k) k v(p2 ) . Feynman gauge. / / / / / k · u2 ˆ µ p1 = “ p+ . – Parma. 0. One ﬁnds / / /) / Γ(coll) ∝ µ Z dd k u(p1 ) u 2 (p 1 − k γµ v(p2 ) / / /) . in general non local). Microexample: again the one-loop form factor. recognizing only charge and direction. 05/09/2002 – 35 . k2 (p1 − k)2 k · u2 The gluon-antiquark coupling simpliﬁes. it becomes eikonal.Diagrammatics of factorization Identifying the leading integration regions in momentum space is only the ﬁrst step towards factorization. • Kinematics: {k− . k = k . One must then • exploit simpliﬁcations in Feynman diagrams in the leading regions (soft/collinear approximations. con k+ µ σ + − u(p1 )γσ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)γ v(p2 ) → u(p1 )γ (p1 − k)γµ (p2 + k)γ v(p2 ) / / / / / / / / • Ward identity: k = (p 2 + k − p 2 . • organize all-order subtractions a tutti gli ordini so as to avoid double counting (diﬀerent factor functions have operator deﬁnitions. k⊥ }. k . 0⊥ 1 ” ” “ + − . collinear region k p1 . Ward identities).

one may introduce eikonal Feynman rules α. One uses then eikonal identities like 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + . • Typical result In an axial gauge the form factor factorizes Γ q2 µ2 ! = J1 (p1 · n)2 µ 2 n2 ! J2 (p2 · n)2 µ 2 n2 ! S (ui · n) H q2 µ2 ! . a = iguα ta ij j i j u i ij = u·k+iε iδ in terms of these rules the previous calculation reads coll • More than one gluon Summing over all possible insertions of two or more collinear gluons. k1 · u k2 · u (k1 + k2 ) · u k1 · u (k1 + k2 ) · u k2 · u All collinear gluons couple to the same eikonal line. one ﬁnds sistematic cancellations.• Eikonal lines Graphically. – Parma. due to Ward identities. 05/09/2002 – 36 .

and be left with“IR/C poles. αs (µ ) µ2 ! “ ” 2 = σ 1. αs (q ) . There are single log(1/x). • DIS. 05/09/2002 – 37 In a massless theory one may choose µ2 = q2 . Some examples. • Drell–Yan. . resummed by the BFKL equation. The two 2 2 scales are q2 and q⊥. resummed ` la a Sudakov. Γ q2 µ2 ! αs =1− CF log2 4π q2 µ2 ! + . Double log(1 − q2/s) are resummed a ` la Sudakov.. • The “Sudakov” form factor. The process is qq → µ+µ−(q2).. and double log(1 − x). • The transverse momentum distribution in Drell–Yan. . with p ≤ n (single s logarithms) or p ≤ 2n (double logarithms). With masses one ﬁnds duble logarithms ” 2 2 2 log q /m . the two hard scales ¯ 2 2 are s = (p1 + p2) and q . – Parma. Most problems however have several hard scales. The two hard scales are Q2 = −q2 and W 2 = (p + q)2 = Q2 (1 − x)/x. the reliability of perturbation theory is put 2 2 in jeopardy by terms like αn logp (q1 /q2 ). If for example 2 2 q1 q2 ΛQCD .Multi-scale problems and large logarithms For observables depending on a single hard scale all logarithms are resummed using the renormalization group σ q2 2 . giving double log(q⊥/q2 ). They all arise from IR/C dynamics.

g0 ) = Zi (Λ/µ. 2 . αs (Q2 ) m ! e =C N. – Parma. Gauge invariance plays a key role. αs (Q2 ) m2 µ2 F ! . g(µ)) . n Y 1/2 (n) (n) G0 (pi . d log µF The quark form factor Consider the factorization Γ q µ2 2 ! = J1 (p1 · n1 ) µ 2 n2 1 2 ! J2 (p2 · n2 ) µ 2 n2 2 2 ! S (ui · ni ) H q . i=1 dG0 (n) dµ =0 → d log GR d log µ (n) =− Solving this equation resums in exponential form the logarithmic dependence on µ. . µ. Λ. can already be seen from the renormalization group. 2 . g(µ)) GR (pi . n X i=1 γi (g(µ)) . ni µ2 2 ! . e dF2 =0 → dµF “ ” e d log f 2 = γN αs (Q ) . The Altarelli–Parisi equation similarly leds to the resummation of (single) logarithms of µF . In terms of Mellin moments e F2 Q2 N.Factorization and resummation The deep connection between factorization and resummation. αs (Q2 ) µF Q2 ! e f N. 05/09/2002 – 38 . Ordinary renormalization group is not suﬃcient. Or: use eﬀective ﬁled theory (SCET). Double logarithms are more diﬃcult.

< 0) = 0.s. λ2 . then Γ Q2 . αs (µ2 ). so that ∂ log Γ ∂ log J1 ∂ log H ∂ log S =0 → =− − . αs (µ2) becomes αs (µ2. 2 s µ The exponentiation is non trivial. α . ∂p1 · n1 ∂ log(p1 · n1 ) ∂ log(p1 · n1 ) ∂ log(u1 · n1 ) The two functions on the r. 2 µ ξ2 µ2 ! 8 < 1 Z −Q2 dξ2 h “ ” 2) = exp K .The form factor is gauge invariant. s – Parma. have diﬀerent arguments. The equation for Γ can be solved. µ2 ! . ! Z 2 1 µ dλ2 + γ 2 ξ2 λ2 K α G −1. Then “ ” ∂ log J 2 + GJ = KJ αs (µ ). αs (µ2 ). The function G contains all q2 dependence. the exponent has only single poles in of the form αn / n+1 . α (µ2 ). Since Γ is divergent. αs (µ + :2 0 ξ2 ! .h. 05/09/2002 – 39 !!39 = 5 . d log µ d log µ with a ﬁnite anomalous dimension. The whole form factor obeys an equation of identical form. . αs (µ2 ). ∂ log q q2 . so that dG dK =− = γK (αs (µ)) . . The K function contains all singularities in (H is ﬁnite as → 0). one needs to keep consistently the dependence on < 0 to all orders. ) which implies Γ(q2 = 0. independent of q2 . Furthermore the form factor is renormalization group invariant.

. behaving as αn log2n−1 (1 − T )/(1 − T ). so they have a non-vanishing invariant mass m2 ∝ (1 − T )q2 as T → 1. As T → 1 the distribution can be factorized in a manner similar to Γ. which satisfy ˆ ∂ log J ˆ = KJ ∂ log q q 2 . . exp4− log Γ ˆ αs (λ2 ) − Γ ˆ αs (λ2 ) 2 2 J 2 q 2 /N λ λ J µ Leading logarithms are determined by ΓJ = γK + . – Parma. N µ2 n2 µ 2 ! ˆ ˆ ˆ J2 S H . as ˆ J q2 N µ2 ! ˆ =J 2 3 ! „ Z 2 “ ” “ ”« q2 1 q µ dλ2 5. 05/09/2002 – 40 . leading logarithms are in the jet functions J . These logs can be resummed with s similar methods. αs (µ ) 2 Nµ 2 ! ˆ + GJ q 2 . Neglecting ˆ ˆ running coupling eﬀects one easily ﬁnds J ∼ exp(αs log2 N ). αs (µ ) 2 µ 2 ! .The thrust distribution The thrust distribution is singular as T → 1. In an axial gauge. ˆ ˆ One can then solve for J(N ) in terms of J(1). σ0 dT π 1−T π Note: dσ/dT → 0 as T → 1 (“Sudakov suppression”). Inverting the Mellin transform. – » 1 dσ αs log(1 − T ) αs 2 = −2CF exp −CF log (1 − T ) . The jets J now enter the ﬁnal state. J Z 1 1 N dσ ˆ σ(N ) ≡ dT T = J1 σ0 0 dT q 2 (p1 · n)2 ..

In fact αs (k ) = 2 Letting z ≡ log q2 /k2. 1 − β0 αs (q 2 )z The Landau pole on the integrazion contour induces an ambiguity of the same parametric size as the residue » ˛ ˛ ˛ 2 ˛ ˛δfa (q )˛ ∝ exp − – Parma. 41 . • The integral is ambiguous. In fact fa (q ) = (q ) αs (q ) 2 2 a 2 Z ∞ 0 e−az dz .The borders of the perturbative regime Resummations test the limits of the perturbative theory. 05/09/2002 – a β0 αs (q 2 ) – = Λ2 QCD q2 !a . 2 2 a n=0 0 n=1 ` ´ . consequence of the Landau pole. One gets in fact integrals of the form fa (q ) = 2 Z q2 0 dk2 2 a (k ) αs (k2 ) . 2 k One sees esplicitly the non–convergence of perturbation theory at high orders. 1 + β0 αs (q 2 ) log k2 /q 2 αs (q 2 ) ∞ ∞ X n n+1 2 Z ∞ X −az n n fa (q ) = (q ) β0 αs (q ) dze z = cn αs n! . one observes that • The perturbative expansion in powers of αs(q2 ) diverges. but the ambiguity is suppressed by powers of q2 .

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