# Ch 7 Numerical Control

Sections: 1. Fundamentals of NC Technology 2. Computer Numerical Control 3. DNC 4. Applications of NC 5. Engineering Analysis of NC Positioning Systems 6. NC Part Programming

Numerical Control (NC) Defined
Form of programmable automation in which the mechanical actions of a machine tool or other equipment are controlled by a program containing coded alphanumeric data The alphanumeric data represent relative positions between a workhead (e.g., cutting tool) and a workpart When the current job is completed, a new program can be entered for the next job

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Basic Components of an NC System
1. Program of instructions Part program in machining 2. Machine control unit Controls the process 3. Processing equipment Performs the process

Program of Instructions
Step-by-step commands Part programmer The program is coded on a suitable medium for submission to the machine control unit Three class of “language” to be coded: - Machine language - Assembly language - High level language – C++, Pascal, Fortran - Object Oriented Language

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Machine Control Unit
Microcomputer and related control hardware Stores and executes the program Hardware includes interface component and reading devices Software – system software, calculation algorithms, and translation software Computer numerical control (CNC)

Processing Equipment
Performs the actual productive work Driven by instructions Common examples – the worktable and spindle, motors and controls

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Basic Components of an NC System NC Coordinate Systems Two axis systems Flat and prismatic workparts Rotational parts 4 .

NC Coordinate Systems For flat and prismatic (block-like) parts Milling and drilling operations Conventional Cartesian coordinate system Rotational axes about each linear axis Right hand rule Coordinate Axis System for Flat and Prismatic Parts 5 .

and z-axes y-axis not needed in turning 6 .Coordinate Axis System for Flat and Prismatic Parts The x.and y-axes are used to move and position the worktable to which part is attached The z-axis is used to control the vertical position of the cutting tool NC Coordinate Systems For rotational parts: Turning operations Conventional Cartesian coordinate system. but only x.

Coordinate Axis System for Rotational Parts Motion Control Systems Point-to-Point systems Continuous path systems 7 .

drilling) The programs consists of a series of points locations at which operations are performed Also applicable in robotics Point-To-Point Control in NC Drilling of Three Holes in Flat Plate 8 .Point-to-Point Systems Also called position systems System moves to a location and performs an operation at that location (e.g..

.g. milling and turning) Continuous Path Control in NC Profile Milling of Part Outline 9 .Continuous Path Systems Capable of continuous simultaneous control of two or more axes Also called contouring systems in machining System performs an operation during movement (e.

end point. center or radius. Helical interpolation Circular plus linear motion 4.Interpolation Methods Important aspect of contouring Why it is needed? Continuous (Equipment) vs Digital (NC) Interpolation Methods 1. Linear interpolation Straight line between two points in space 2. and direction 3. Circular interpolation Circular arc defined by starting point. Parabolic and cubic interpolation Free form curves using higher order equations 10 .

Circular Interpolation Approximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments. where tolerance is defined on only the inside of the nominal curve Circular Interpolation Approximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments. where tolerance is defined on only the outside of the nominal curve 11 .

Circular Interpolation Approximation of a curved path in NC by a series of straight line segments. where tolerance is defined on both the inside and outside of the nominal curve Absolute and Incremental Positioning Absolute positioning Locations defined relative to origin of axis system Incremental positioning Locations defined relative to previous position Example: drilling 12 .

50) In absolute positioning. Computer Numerical Control (CNC) – Definition An NC system whose MCU is based on a dedicated microcomputer rather than on a hard-wired controller.Absolute vs. the move is specified by x = 40. the move is specified by x = 20. y = 30. y = 50 In incremental positioning. 13 . Incremental Positioning The workhead is presently at point (20. 20) and is to be moved to point (40.

can be tested and corrected at the machine site . USB Program editing at the machine tool .More memory expansions Various forms of program input .multiple data entry capabilities . thus computed tool path will do the compensation .Computer Numerical Control (CNC) – Additional Features Please discuss!!! Storage of more than one part program .By software options Cutter length and size compensation .Use of tool length sensor 14 . Parallel.can also be optimized Computer Numerical Control (CNC) – Additional Features Fixed cycles and programming subroutines .full instructions vs call statement Interpolation Positioning features for setup .Manual entering may differ from program.RS-232 (Serial).

Downloading part programs .Detect malfunctions .Diagnose system breakdowns Configuration of CNC Machine Control Unit 15 .Interfacing with peripheral equipment Diagnostics .Collecting operational data .Computer Numerical Control (CNC) – Additional Features Acceleration and deceleration computations Communications interface .

Store large programs and data files 16 . RAM .perform calculations Immediate access memory .CPU Brain of the MCU Three section: control section .ROM.retrieves command and generate signals ALU unit .temporary storage Memory Main memory .Operating system software and machine interface programs Secondary memory .

and rotational speed of the machine tool spindle Consist of a drive control circuit and a feedback sensor interface 17 . Operator control panel.Input/Output Interface Provides communication between components Transmit and receives data and signals to and from external devices Eg.. display Machine Tool Controls Hardware component – control position and velocity.

Sequence Controls Additional functions Eg.communication link Application software . and discrete numerical data CNC Software Operating system software .control program . interlocks..executive program Machine interface software .editor . on/off actuations.for machining applications 18 .

which are CNC Present technology Two way communication Components of Direct NC Central Computer Bulk memory at the central computer site Set of controlled machines Telecommunications line to connect the machines to the central computer 19 .DNC Direct numerical control (DNC) – control of multiple machine tools by a single (mainframe) computer through direct connection and in real time 1960s technology Two way communication Distributed numerical control (DNC) – network consisting of central computer connected to machine tool MCUs.

Advantages .flexibility and reliability 20 . which are themselves computers. In distributed NC.easier and less cost .General Configuration of a Direct Numerical Control System Connection to MCU is behind the tape reader (BTR).possible of expansion . entire programs are downloaded to each MCU. which is CNC rather than conventional NC Distributed NC (DNC) The central computer is connected to MCUs.

Distributed Numerical Control Configurations Switching network Distributed Numerical Control Configurations Local area network (LAN) 21 .

boring. etc. Other NC applications: Component insertion machines in electronics Drafting machines (x-y plotters) Coordinate measuring machines Tape laying machines for polymer composites Filament winding machines for polymer composites Common NC Machining Operations Turning 22 . mill-turn centers Punch presses. drilling. turning centers. turning. grinding Machining centers.Applications of NC Machine tool applications: Milling. thermal cutting machines.

Common NC Machining Operations Milling Drilling CNC Horizontal Milling Machine 23 .

The part is expensive Advantages of NC Nonproductive time is reduced Greater accuracy and repeatability Lower scrap rates Inspection requirements are reduced More complex part geometries are possible Engineering changes are easier to make Simpler fixtures Shorter lead times Reduce parts inventory and less floor space Operator skill-level requirements are reduced 24 . Complex part geometries 4. Many separate machining operations on the part 6. Repeat orders 3.NC Application Characteristics (Machining) Where NC is most appropriate: 1. Batch production 2. Much metal needs to be removed from the starting workpart 5.

the apparatus would be piggybacked on top of a second perpendicular axis 25 .Disadvantages of NC Higher investment cost CNC machines are more expensive Higher maintenance effort CNC machines are more technologically sophisticated Part programming issues Need for skilled programmers Time investment for each new part Repeat orders are easy because part program is already available Higher utilization is required NC Positioning System Typical motor and leadscrew arrangement in an NC positioning system for one linear axis For x-y capability.

Accuracy 3.no feedback to verify that the actual position achieved is the desired position 2. Control resolution 2.three measures: 1. Repeatability Open-Loop Motion Control System Operates without verifying that the actual position achieved in the move is the desired position 26 . Closed-loop .Analysis of Positioning NC Systems Two types of NC positioning systems: 1. Open-loop .uses feedback measurements to confirm that the final position is the specified position Precision in NC positioning .

Closed-Loop Motion Control System Uses feedback measurements to confirm that the final position of the worktable is the location specified in the program Optical Encoder Device for measuring rotational position and speed Common feedback sensor for closed-loop NC control 27 .

distance separating two adjacent addressable points in the axis movement 2. Accuracy . Accuracy.defined as ±3σ of the mechanical error distribution associated with the axis Definitions of Control Resolution. and Repeatability 28 . Repeatability .Precision in NC Positioning Three measures of precision: 1. Control resolution .maximum possible error that can occur between the desired target point and the actual position taken by the system 3.

2. Manual part programming Computer-assisted part programming Part programming using CAD/CAM Manual data input Binary Coded Decimal System Each of the ten digits in decimal system is coded with four-digit binary number The binary numbers are added to give the value BCD is compatible with 8 bits across tape format. the original storage medium for NC part programs Eight bits can also be used for letters and symbols 29 . 4. 3.NC Part Programming 1.

row of bits across the tape Word . y-axis position) Block .g.Creating Instructions for NC Bit ..used on all modern CNC controllers Uses a letter prefix to identify each type of word Spaces to separate words within the block Allows any order of words in a block Words can be omitted if their values do not change from the previous block 30 .0 or 1 = absence or presence of hole in the tape Character .sequence of instructions (blocks) Block Format Organization of words within a block in NC part program Also known as tape format because the original formats were designed for punched tape Word address format .sequence of characters (e.collection of words to form one complete instruction Part program .

Y. Z .Types of Words N . y.spindle speed T .preparatory words Example: G00 = PTP rapid traverse move X.tool selection M .sequence number prefix G .miscellaneous command Example: M07 = turn cutting fluid on Example: Word Address Format N001 G00 X07000 Y03000 M03 N002 Y06000 31 .prefixes for x. and z-axes F .feed rate prefix S .

g.0 F30 Cutter offset G42 G01 X100.0 Y040.. tedious.0 D05 Computer-Assisted Part Programming Manual part programming is time-consuming.Issues in Manual Part Programming Adequate for simple jobs.0 Y040. e. PTP drilling Linear interpolation G01 G94 X050. and subject to human errors for complex jobs Machining instructions are written in English-like statements that are translated by the computer into the low-level machine code of the MCU APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) The various tasks in computer-assisted part programming are divided between The human part programmer The computer 32 .5 Z100.0 F40 S800 Circular interpolation G02 G17 X088.0 R028.0 Y086.

Define the part geometry 2.Computer-Assisted Part Programming Sequence of activities in computer-assisted part programming Part Programmer's Job Two main tasks of the programmer: 1. Specify the tool path 33 .

90. using previously defined geometry elements Point-to-Point command: GOTO/P0 Continuous path command GOLFT/L2.TANTO.C1 34 .P2 C1 = CIRCLE/CENTER.RADIUS.P8.0 L1 = LINE/P1. it is composed of basic geometric elements and mathematically defined surfaces Geometry elements are sometimes defined only for use in specifying tool path Examples of part geometry definitions: P4 = POINT/35.30 Specifying Tool Path and Operation Sequence Tool path consists of a sequence of points or connected line and arc segments.Defining Part Geometry Underlying assumption: no matter how complex the part geometry.

. Inc. Groover. Upper Saddle River. and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation. by Mikell P. Third Edition. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. NJ. without permission in writing from the publisher. No portion of this material may be reproduced. in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. Production Systems.Other Functions in Computer-Assisted Part Programming Specifying cutting speeds and feed rates Designating cutter size (for tool offset calculations) Specifying tolerances in circular interpolation Naming the program Identifying the machine tool ©2008 Pearson Education. Cutter Offset Cutter path must be offset from actual part outline by a distance equal to the cutter radius 35 .

but user gets immediate visual feedback about the created geometry 36 . Input translation – converts the coded instructions in the part program into computer-usable form 2. Arithmetic and cutter offset computations – performs the mathematical computations to define the part surface and generate the tool path.Computer Tasks in Computer-Assisted Part Programming 1. as in APT. Editing – provides readable data on cutter locations and machine tool operating commands (CLDATA) 4. geometry must be created. including cutter offset compensation (CLFILE) 3. Postprocessing – converts CLDATA into low-level code that can be interpreted by the MCU NC Part Programming Using CAD/CAM Geometry definition If the CAD/CAM system was used to define the original part geometry. no need to recreate that geometry as in APT Automatic labeling of geometry elements If the CAD part data are not available.

Tool Path Generation Using CAD/CAM Basic approach: enter the commands one by one (similar to APT) CAD/CAM system provides immediate graphical verification of the command Automatic software modules for common machining cycles Profile milling Pocket milling Drilling bolt circles Examples of Machining Cycles in Automated NC Programming Modules Pocket milling Contour turning 37 .

Examples of Machining Cycles in Automated NC Programming Modules Facing and shoulder facing Threading (external) Manual Data Input Machine operator does part programming at machine Operator enters program by responding to prompts and questions by system Monitor with graphics verifies tool path Usually for relatively simple parts Ideal for small shop that cannot afford a part programming staff To minimize changeover time. system should allow programming of next job while current job is running 38 .