PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÒN Y CAPACITACIÒN PERMANENTE 2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

THE USE OF MATERNAL LANGUAGE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
ORMACIÓN Y CAPACITACIÓN PERMANENTE 2011

INTRODUCTION
Teaching a foreign language has different characteristics depending among other factors, the method used, the purpose for which it is being taught, the stage or the social context is done, the means and resources that account, interests of students and teachers or the institution where they teach, the level of language required, the objectives of a specific curriculum and teacher preparation level. This article aims to make some reflections on the use of maternal language in the teaching of English. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA Teaching has presented very marked differences regarding the use or not of the Spanish language in English classes. English is taught as a foreign language and the predominant use of the eclectic method with a preponderance of the techniques, exercises, strategies and objectives of the communicative approach. It is in this scenario where the authors are valid reflections and insights they offer. Development.

The use of maternal language in foreign language teaching has been a point of discussion since the emergence of the methodology of language teaching. Discard a method, it takes another, and each of them is a different view on this topic. Some rely heavily on the language and rely on her and others completely outlawed. For example, Stern writes on the side approach to comparative linguistics and asks: "Side paid attention to the concept of difficulty in language learning ... As an individual tends to transfer the characteristics of their maternal language to foreign language, a comparative study would be useful in identifying the similarities and differences between languages" Previously, the same author, in an analysis of methods and approaches used in teaching a foreign language arose in the grammar-translation method (grammar-translation method) "... the memorization of rules and facts related to the meanings of the first language through the massive practice of translation ", is the essence of the method. On the other hand, refers to another method, the direct method (direct method) that "is characterized mainly by the use of language is learned as a medium of instruction and communication in the language classroom and avoid use of language and technical translation". In reviewing the literature on the topic are considerable arguments about the use or non-native language in teaching a foreign language. Abbot, in connection with the English language, says that students "can learn much about their own language as a result of mental comparisons with English." The authors have seen this assertion with his own students, in sometimes have noted Spanish characteristics of those who were not aware. For example, the use of two verbs in Spanish (ser and estar) to fulfill the role that English language only gives a verb (to be). Native

1

www.pronafcap-unica.org

PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÒN Y CAPACITACIÒN PERMANENTE 2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

Spanish speakers use these two verbs correctly, accurately and automatically as they have "acquired" that ability in the normal development of language. In many cases, it is only through the study of English to realize the difference in meaning of these two verbs. Would you say being in the presence of ORMACIÓN which one learns about through learning? a case in Y CAPACITACIÓN PERMANENTE 2011 Widdowson, seems to favor the use of mother tongue in language teaching. He proposes the scheme-toDiscourse Discourse which is based on 3 principles, the principle of rational appeal, the principle of integration and the principle of control. When explaining the first principle states the following: "... language learners should be aware of what they are doing when performing language tasks, should be guided to recognize that these tasks relate to how they use their own language for the achievement of genuine communication. This principle naturally leads to the association of the language is learned is already known and use of language for UNIVERSIDAD the exploration and extension of their knowledge. " NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA This author suggests exercises "instead of illocutionary acts or speech acts operating in the acts of the individual, which makes call students' attention to the way in which these events differ in their realization in 2 languages ". It is important to note that at times some exercises in the textbooks of the students have instructions to perform them are given in a language level higher than students have. If you want the students to perform properly, it is advisable to give instructions on what to allow compliance with the objective of the exercise in a proper way. Similarly, the student should be allowed to use their own language to ask for some clarification on the language aspect that should be familiar with. Bolitho, states that "at times in language teaching you have to allow students to say what they mean, and if they do that, you're going to have to let them use their mother tongue at times." Whorf quotes Clark6 who "believes that different languages impose different worldviews in their speakers and to learn a new language involves a new conceptual framework." At this point, there is the light of experience, that learning a language is not simply changing the labels from one language to another. It is book which said book or change the word house to house or maison. In this regard, Widdowson4 states that "knowledge of a language means not only knowledge of the rules that generate an infinite number of sentences, but the knowledge of the rules governing the use of prayers for appropriate addresses," and to generate proper addresses, adding that more than a simple change of labels. Take for example the word lunch in Spanish. When spoken, heard or read, have a different implication for different Spanish speakers. Lunch does not mean the same to a Cuban for an Argentine or a native of Andalusia in Spain. And this happens within the framework of a common language. This word will evoke different experiences in each of the speakers mentioned, according to their own experiences and culture, time to do it, you eat food, where is, and so on. So what would be the result of simply teaching that lunch in Spanish is to Have lunch déjeuner in English or in French? One of the most significant arguments against the use of language is that it is responsible for a series of errors, so-called interlingual causes of errors or external interference or negative language transfer. On this, Clark said: "If we try to apply the stimulus-response theory to the problem of translation, we become entangled in a web of conflicting arguments. For example, we argue that learning to produce words in a new language the student acquires an additional set of responses to stimuli that originally caused only answers in the language. Two sets of answers to the same stimuli must be kept distinct if it is to not interfere with each other. This seems to be the argument which has influenced those opposed to the use of language in the classroom. However, one could also argue that when the subject is learning the meaning of words in the new language, language can be very useful. "

2

www.pronafcap-unica.org

PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÒN Y CAPACITACIÒN PERMANENTE 2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

It is clear that some errors may occur due to the transfer of expressions or structures of language, which supports the idea already expressed that learning a language is not just simply changing the labels. It is very common to hear phrases like In This Moment (literal translation of the Spanish phrase at this point) ORMACIÓN Y CAPACITACIÓN PERMANENTE 2011 instead of now or phrase at the moment that would be correct to express this meaning in English. I have a Doubt is another commonly heard phrases in students to express the idea of having a question, rather I have a question about ... or I have a problem with ... that would be appropriate sentences for same purpose in English.

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

Krashen in his theory of 'monitor model' (monitor model theory) no room to use the maternal language of students in the classroom. However, states that teachers "need to provide students with tools to help you get more input (input)." So why deny the use of language to make the "input" is more complete and clear? After having discussed some considerations and arguments for and against the use of mother tongue in the language classroom, it requires some comments. The authors' experience in teaching English as a foreign language can argue that either extreme is dangerous. The use of mother tongue in the classroom has its space and time. It is a tool that properly used, can be powerful and useful. There are situations where the use of the student's native language does provide a great help. Could the explanation of difficult terms, facilitate the understanding of instructions for a particular activity, especially in the early stages of learning or to contrast differences and similarities between the mother tongue and a foreign language. English teachers whose mother tongue is that language can say that the use of language, has given excellent results for the explanation of grammatical similarities of what is called in English the present perfect and past perfect. These are very similar grammatical structures in both languages, just be careful because its use does not always coincide. It has also been very helpful in clarifying the meaning of vocabulary related to the abstract and some forms of collocation. In addition, allowing the student to use their mother tongue language to clarify certain points will lead to greater confidence between the student and teacher. The language is an invaluable tool when used wisely and rationally. In the example, state of the art technology, literally "state of the art technology" in Spanish is referred to as technology. It's more reliable to explain this statement by telling the students the equivalent there of in their native language to get into complicated explanations in English. This makes clear the road to understanding. Other examples occur when English is taught for specific purposes, in medicine, for example, the phrase blood film (literally "blood film") blood thinner (literally "blood tuner") for what in Spanish we use the word anticoagulant, sitz bath, sitz bath, stillborn, born dead. It is advisable to tell the meaning of these words in Spanish, since it provides compression, also saving time on explanations of difficult terms and complicated. Although Atkinson suggests limited use and careful mother tongue in foreign language classes. It also raises that can be used for translation as a technique in teaching and in relation to this Widdowson said that

3

www.pronafcap-unica.org

PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÒN Y CAPACITACIÒN PERMANENTE 2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

"translation conceived in a way, can be a useful teaching tool, and in some circumstances, especially in those where new language is learned 'special purpose' can be seen as a service tool, the translation of this type can provide the most effective means of teaching".
ORMACIÓN Y CAPACITACIÓN says: "The 2011 Ur suggests that mother tongue is beneficial for the student and PERMANENTElanguage is extremely useful for the clarification and instruction for the quick translation, as an alternative to long explanations and difficult for comparative analysis at the time raise awareness of language and help students avoid the interference of the mother tongue. It also has a place in the evaluation when the student can give a rough translation of an item or foreign-language text that is fairly reliable evidence that he has understood".

We conclude that Schweers agree when he says that "English should be the first vehicle of communication in the environment of the teaching of this language." But he adds that whatever tool the teacher uses the UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA classroom to help students to perceive what is taught in a clear and efficient, valid, and one of these is the use of the mother tongue of students. "Lado (1957) Was Concerned With The concept of Difficulty in learning language ... Since an individual Tends to transfer the historical features of the native language to foreign language, a comparative study Identifying will be useful in the Likeness and Difference between the languages" ( Stern, 1983:159). "... The Memorization of rules and facts related to first language meanings by Means of massive translation practice" (Stern, 1983:455). "... is characterized, Above all, by the use of the target language as a Means of instruction and communication in the language classroom and by the avoidance of the use of the first language and of translation as a technique "(Stern, 1983:456). "... learn quite a lot Apr About His own language as a result of mentally Comparing It With Spanish "(Abbott, 1982:29). "... Language learners made aware of Should Be What They are Doing When They undertaker language tasks, That They Should Be That led to Recognize These tasks relate to the Their Own Way They use language for the Achievement of genuine communication purposes. This leads to Principle Naturally the language to be associate with what the learner Learned Already knows and to use the language for the exploration and extension of historical knowledge "(Widdowson, 1979:158-59). "... change in operating on individual illocutionary Acts Both L1 and L2 in drawing the learner's THUS Attention to the way in Which These Acts are conducted on the Differently two languages "(Widdowson, 1979:159). "... Some work experience at teaching in your language You have to allow the learners to say what They want to say, and If They are going to do this, you are going to Have to allow to use Them Sometimes Their mother tongue "(Bolitho, 1983: 238). "... Believe imposer That Different Languages Different World On Their views and users learning a new language That Involved Acquiring a new conceptual frame work" (Clark, 1976:341). "Knowledge of a language does not only mean Knowledge of the rules generate an infinite Which Will number of sentences, But Knowledge of the rules Which Regulate the use of sentences for making Appropriate utterance" (Widdowson, 1979:12). "If we Attempt to apply stimulus-response theory to the question of translation, we get tangled in a web of conflicting arguments. For instance, we reason That May in learning to produce new words in the language the learner is Acquiring an additional set of responses to stimuli elicit responses Which originally only in the native language. Two sets of responses to the Same Have to Be Kept stimuli distinct remove if they are not to interfer with one another. this seems to be the argument which people who influenced you are opposed to the use of

4

www.pronafcap-unica.org

PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE FORMACIÒN Y CAPACITACIÒN PERMANENTE 2011 UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

the first language in the classroom. Howeve, one reason that could also when it comes to learning the Meaning of Words in the new language, the first language Can be very helpful "(Clark, 1976:41). "But if the L1 and L2 the features similar to Have the learner Then May Be Able to Benefit from the 'positive ORMACIÓN Y CAPACITACIÓN PERMANENTE 2011 transfer' of L1 knowledge" (Yule, 1997:194). "... Need to provide tools to help students Obtain more input "(Krashen, 1982:76). "... translation, Conceived of in a Certain Way, can be a pedagogic device and very Useful in Some Circumstances Indeed, notably in foreign language where Those Being Learnt is for 'special Purposes' as a service subject, translation of a kind May Provide The Most Effective Means of learning "(Widdowson, 1979:103). "Mother tongue is Extremely Useful for clarification and instruction, for quick translation as an alternative to lengthy and apologetic explanation, for Contrastive analysis to raise awareness and help students language mother-tongue Avoid Interference. Also it have a place in testing students if you give a dog rough translation of a foreign language or text item is pretty reliable Evidence That They Have Understood That it "(Ur 2000:27). "Should be the primary Spanish vehicle of communication in the environment Spanish" (Schweers, 1999:6).
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL “SAN LUIS GONZAGA” DE ICA

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. HH Stern. Fundamental concepts of language teaching. Oxford: University Press, 1983. 2. Abbott G, Wingard P. The teaching of English as an international language. Glasgow and London: Collins, 1981. 3. HG Widdowson. Teaching language as communication. UK: Oxford University Press, 1979.

5

www.pronafcap-unica.org