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- - - Reverón

**MECHANICS OF BIOMATERIALS – List of PROBLEMS
**

Alexandro Acevedo Torres, Eduardo Reverón Guzmán, Gerardo Román Ramírez and Luis Traverso Aviles

**____________________________ Numbers in parentheses refer to the appended references.
**

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This review article was prepared on December 8, 2003. Course Instructor: Dr. Megh R. Goyal, Professor in Agricultural and Biomedical Engineering, General Engineering Department, PO Box 5984, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 00681-5984. For details contact: m_goyal@ece.uprm.edu or visit at: http://www.ece.uprm.edu/~m_goyal/home.htm The authors are in alphabetical order.

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December 2003

Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine, GED – University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez

GED – University of Puerto Rico. the thickness of the arm is 0. and (c) The bearing stress between the pin and the foot gusset. A person is supporting his upper body with his prosthetic arm. If the force exerted by the body is 180 N vertically to the surface.6 cm and the thickness of the forearm is 0. [Modified from Gere 2001. A stainless steel adapter lifts a foot weighting 25 N. A leg prosthesis supports half the body weight of a person weighting 200 lbf. COMPRESSION AND SHEAR 3. the pin is 0. If the force exerted on it is 450 N and the leg has a diameter of 2 cm.TENSSION. A stainless steel adapter is used for a prosthetic leg. What is the tensile strength on the cylinder? Assume it is a vertical force.4 cm. 43] December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. what is the stress? [Modified from Gere 2001. [Modified from Gere 2001. 42]. 65] 4. 1. Mayagüez 1 . (b) The shear stress in the pin. Find: (a) The bearing stress between the leg gusset and the pin. 54] 2. what is the bearing stress and shear stress? [Modified from Gere 2001.25 cm of diameter.

the normal strain ε . December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. GED – University of Puerto Rico. Estimate the yield stress at a 0. Since then he have been using prosthesis similar to the one shown on the drawing.003418 .05 in2? [Group – L 2003]. thus applying 200 lb of force vertically. 7.005063 . A person with the same prosthesis tests it by jumping with it.02 in. has diameter of 1.33. 6. Mayagüez 2 . and the lateral strain ε ' [ Hall.012006 .59 139.50 fracture (MPa) Draw the stress versus strain diagram. 42].2 in2. The leg beam measures 13 in.002405 . Classify the bone as brittle or ductile. When the weight is completely over his body. A man who sustained an injury has his arm leaned on a support so it doesn’t move.008569 .010097 .3 in2. what is the stress in the bones of his arm if the bone had constant area of 1. a Poisson's ratio of 0. Find the stress applied to the strap [Group – L 2003. What is the compressive stress it receives on that moment? [Group – L 2003].50 133.5. A person lost his left leg.53 75. Find the compressive stress σ . and shrinks 0.06 43. Estimate the elasticity limit and the yield stress.001392 . A weight lifter can lift a weight of 300 lb.016000 Stress 11.015006 . Assume a moment where constant force is exerted axially. 2000]. 8.00 128.000633 .00 120.000 psi.20 90. Also assume a constant circular area on the first phalange of the index finger of 0. 10. Assuming the elbow is a fixed point and the weight of an arm is 10 pounds and the cross sectional area of the strap is 0. What is the minimum diameter needed to support his weight Use a safety factor of 2? [OIME 2001a].29 61. A guitar player exerts a force of one pound over the fret board of the guitar to obtain the desired tones.2% offset [Modified from Gere 2001.004177 . just below his knee on a car accident. The following is a table giving the stress and the strain for cortical bone: strain . If he weights 180lbs and the material of the prosthesis is aluminum alloy which yield strength is 36. 9.39 25.5 in.

What will be the shear stress at the pin “C”? [Modified from Gere 2001. load of a bar. Assume no other force acts on the muscle and the muscle has a minimum cross sectional area of 4 in2 Find the maximum stress that occurs on the Muscle [Modified from Gere 2001. The force of the muscle is acting at 3 cm of the elbow. The diameter of bar A is 1. Determine δ (the contraction of bar A). and has a diameter of 3 in when the arm is extended.49. How much force can the dentist exert on the pliers without breaking the tooth? Maximum compressive strength that can be applied on the tooth without breaking it is 200 MN/m2 [Gere 2001. A man has prosthesis in his right hand is trying to pull a 200 lb. GED – University of Puerto Rico.9 ft. what is the lateral contraction of the biceps if the axial contraction is 2 inches which happens when the hands touches the shoulder? [Modified from Gere 2001. 42].7 in.500 psi [Modified from Gere 2001. 54]. A dentist is trying to pull out a molar tooth of the mouth of a patient. 9]. A man is lifting a weight of 30 pounds. 49].For biceps that measures 0. 15. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. Assuming air inside the piston generates a compressive stress of 1450 psi and there is no deformation in body C or in the pedal. a. 13. b. The bar is a prosthesis made of titanium alloy which has a modulus of elasticity of 14. Find the force applied by the muscle and the bone. 12. Mayagüez 3 .11. 14. 54]. The Poisson’s ratio of the muscle is 0.

The cable measures 15 ft.6 x 10 °F . 2.62 x 10 -6 1.268 in2 and a modulus of elasticity of E = 20 x 106 psi. image from <http://www. What is the thermal strain change? [Group – L 2003].com/shared/ImageGallery /SharedImages/Products/HOME%20page%2 0products/ProductsFootTemp. considering their change of volume with temperature? Use a change in temperature of 10°F [Group – l 2003].ossur. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine.2 in. The screw is of stainless steel [Group – L 2003].AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS 3. A man has a screw in his pelvis. thickness 0. Which one is better. 5. how much will the cable stretch for (a) 300 lb. They are considering Titanium alloy and Stainless Steel.jpg> Calculate Wallow on the support [Allegro 2003]. He complains of pain in a cold environment the.5. The cable has an effective area of 0. GED – University of Puerto Rico. The top half of the support is an Aarm while the bottom consists of a hollow cylinder of outer diameter 1. Considering that the temperature of the room is 23. and (b) 500 lb [Gere 2001... Neglecting friction between the cable and the pulley. maximum yield stress ( σ y )max of 70 ksi and a margin of safety of 1. A person goes to the gymnasium to lift weights of the machine shown. A patient uses a stainless steel support to relieve effort from his ailing left foot.2 in. Mayagüez 4 . Coefficient of thermal Expansion (α) for Titanium alloy is 9 x 10 -6 °F -6 Coefficient of thermal Expansion (α) and for Stainless Steel is 9. What can possibly be the reason for this pain? What are the mechanical effects of the temperature? If the man comes from a place where temperature was 100 °F and goes to an office where the temperature is 77 °F. 4. A company of prosthesis is designing leg prosthesis. °C . Leg Prosthesis. p. 899]. If a person has a crystal eyeball that is put it on the eye hole. Considering that the thermal coefficient of expansion (α) for the crystal is 8.8 °C and the body temperature is 37 °C.

8 inch diameter.6. The diameter of the stalk of the prosthesis is 0. 9. Calculate the tension on the cable and the tensile stress if the nominal diameter of the cable is 0. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. 1.62 psi. If the surroundings of the plate experience a change of temperature of 35°F when he enters an air conditioned room from ambient temperature [Gere 2001. GED – University of Puerto Rico. and modulus of elasticity of 24x106 psi. 121]. 11. Find the thermal strain in the gold piece on the teeth of the person. Find the elongation on bone [Group – L 2003]. 10. 93]. A person hangs on a tubular shaft grabbing it only with his right hand. If a leg hangs as shown in the figure. This piece receives 60% of the total force applied to an arm positioned horizontally. The weight of the leg is 40 lb [Modified from Gere 2001. 7. if it is under compressive stress of 30 psi [Gere 2001. Mayagüez 5 . What is the maximum load for the prosthesis to avoid failure? [Sawson and Freeman 1977. Thus. 44]. The figure shown is a prosthesis inside a shoulder. he is applying an axial load of 150 lb to the bone of his arm. If the prosthesis is made of Polyethylene. A person had a surgery where a metal plate of titanium was attached to his left femoral bone with four screws. which has an ultimate stress of 6236.8”. 121]. 156]. Consider a change in temperature of 5° C [Gere 2001. Find the strain energy density of the piece of gold inserted on the teeth. Assuming the bone segment shown behaves like a solid shaft of 13 inch height.5 in and it is a cable made of stainless steel. 8.

049 in2 13. 74]. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. GED – University of Puerto Rico. The company wants to know how much torsion the eyeglass can handle at the middle because it has to support torsion.625 in. The prosthesis is made of pure titanium (E=100 GN/m2). The Area of the Aluminum bar is 0. How much would be the elongation of the bar in the middle of the prosthesis if it is made out of magnesium alloy? Assume that the modulus of elasticity for magnesium alloys is 6. 74]. A company is designing a new model of eyeglasses. Suppose that the length of the prosthesis is 18 inches. A weight lifter with prosthesis on his right forearm is pulling a 500 lb bar.75 in. 2.736 in2 The Area of the Stainless Steel bar rod is 0. 44]. Mayagüez 6 . What will be the flexibility and stiffness in the middle bar of the prosthesis if it is constructed of a titanium alloy? Modulus of Elasticity for Titanium alloy is 16000 ksi [Modified from Gere 2001. Calculate the elongation of the stalk when the force is applied and calculate the stiffness of the stalk [Sawson and Freeman 1977. What will be the actual load that each of the materials is receiving separately? [Modified from Gere 2001.25x106 psi [Modified from Gere 2001. what is the torsion? [Group – L 2003]. If the maximum shear is 30 psi. TORSION 1.12. 87]. A 200 lb person has prosthesis in his left leg. 15. The prosthesis has length of 11 inches and a radius of 0. Someone is pulling a man from the arm and generates a force of 133 N which concentrates on the prosthesis as the 60% of the total force. She puts an initial stress of 80 psi on the aluminum. An older woman uses a cane made of aluminum with an inner bar of stainless steel. What is τ max in the bar? [Group – L 2003]. The stopping device of a wheelchair is made of a stainless steel cylinder whose diameter is 0. Determine the torsion in the cylinder after it stops the wheelchair if a torque of 30 lb-ft is applied. 14.

Calculate the maximum shear stress. What is the rate of twist? 6.165 in and the torque is 10 psi? [Modified from Gere 2001. Find the torsion flexibility (ft) on the prosthesis if the material used is an Al alloy with a shear modulus of elasticity of 28 GPa [Modified from Gere 2001. GED – University of Puerto Rico.9 in.45cm and a diameter of 2 cm. 198]. 5.8 in [Group – L 2003]. Mayagüez 7 . 255]. The diameter of the arm bone is 1. what is the τ max? [Group – L 2003]. 198]. 9. a. A bar used in a leg prosthesis has a diameter of 1. A surgeon has to drill a bone to insert a screw.3 N-m.m and the diameter of the rod is 2 cm [Modified from Gere 2001. He applies a torque of 50 lb-ft. The diameter of the bit is 0. He creates a torsion of 3 lb-ft upon his Homeruns bone. Calculate the total angle of twist? [Sawson and Freeman 1977. A person has a forehand/hand prosthesis. A Gymnast twists himself as shown in the figure. What is the shear stress on the rod if the torque used to open a door handle is 150 N. 4. which is assumed to be cylindrical with a diameter 1.5 in. And the shear modulus of elasticity G of the bit is 80 GPa [Group – L 2003].3. 11]. If it is applied a torque of 250 lb-ft. 8. 7. A person has a forehand/hand prosthesis. Inside a hearth valve there is a bolt-nut holding one of the pieces. An individual twists his body applying torque to his arm. The bone opposes the force with a resisting torque of 1. What is the shear stress? The diameter of the bolt is 0. The modulus of rigidity (G) is 478. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine.25 cm. and length of 10 in. What is the maximum shear stress? Max in the bit? b.95 psi. The rod has a length of 0.

The ultimate shear stress for an adult cortical bone is 60 MPa. 13. [Sawson and Freeman 1977.ca/PublicationsAn dNewsletters/YHRWinter2002/Research/d efault. GED – University of Puerto Rico. An arm is subjected to a Torque T. When he hits the ball the prosthesis suffer two torsions at different directions. 15. from: <http://www. Ten percent of the torque goes to the stalk of a prosthesis. A person with prosthesis in the left hand is going to start up a Porsche. The stalk has a diameter of 2 cm and length of 3 cm.0 cm (From the axis to the lower part of the joint). The prosthesis is made of stainless steel with a shear modulus of elasticity of 70 MPa. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. A bone is a circular cross section with a diameter of 4. 255].? As shown on the drawing [Modified from Gere 2001. What is the maximum shear stress in the bar and the angle of twist at point C. If the bar inside the prosthesis has a diameter of 1.10. Mayagüez 8 . A knee prosthesis shown in the figure has an axis A which offers a torque to the cylinder. The diameter of the prosthesis is 1. Image from <http://www. 11 ].biometmerck.0003 radians per meter.com/english/pr oducts/knee/alpina. A dog bites the leg prosthesis of a person and generates a torque of 50 lb-ft and with an angle of 30°.6 cm.mtsinai. 255]. 14. The material of the joint is an aluminum Alloy (G = 28 MPa). What is the maximum torque that can be applied to the bone? [Sawson and Freeman 1977. and the torque exerted to start the car T=20 lb-ft. What is the shear modulus of rigidity (G)? [Modified from Gere 2001.5 in. Find the torque applied to the arm necessary to get an angle of twist of 0.htm> 12. What is the torsion in the prosthesis? [Modified from Gere 2001. A torque of 25 N-m is applied to the leg and 50% of the torque goes to the cylinder which has a diameter of 4. A person using a prosthesis of different diameters on his right leg is playing baseball. 11 ].0 cm and a length of 3.htm> 11. Cortical Bone Cross Section. 44]. 255].5 in and length of 20 in.on. What is the angle of twist of the cylinder in radians? [Sawson and Freeman 1977.

If component B is subjected a distributed load of 2 lb and the length of B is 3”. The force P1 is applied to hand and P2 is applied in the exact center of the arm. One end of B is completely fixed to the rest of the prosthesis [Sawson and Freeman 1977. What is the minimum force that should be exerted by an arm to be in equilibrium and not let fall a case? If its length is 14 inches and hold 100 pounds in the side of the hand and has a distributed force of 10 (lb/in) [Modified from Gere 2001. 303]. Find maximum bending moment [Modified from Gere 2001. 6. and has a growing force from 0 to 50 in the entire arm [Modified from Gere 2001. a. Mayagüez 9 . The upper plaque is subjected to these loads. What is the maximum distributed force that can be supported by the arm? Its length is 14 inches and hold 100 pounds on the side of the elbow and 60 pound on the side of the hand [Modified from Gere 2001. The sum of the moments is cero. GED – University of Puerto Rico. one in x axis and one in y axis. 306]. 3. 318]. 4. 44]. Assuming that the elbow have two reactions.SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT 1. 278]. To avoid fracture of the bone what should be the relationship between M 1 and M 2 ? Find the maximum bending moment [Modified from Gere 2001. Prove that 2P1 = P2 b. The figure shows a representative surface replacement type of knee prosthesis. 2. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. 5. A free body diagram shows how forces are applied in the prosthesis. To maintain the femur bone without relative displacement within himself the plaque with screws must overcome bending moments. Draw the shear force diagram of component B. 303]. the length of the arm is 16 inches. What is the minimum force that should be exerted by the side of the arm to be in equilibrium and not let fall a case? If the force exerted by the hand is 140 pounds.

297]. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. Mayagüez 10 . draw the shear force diagram and bending moment diagram. Find shear force and bending moment [Modified from Gere 2001. Draw the bending moment diagram and find maximum bending moment [Modified from Gere 2001. In the figure shown bellow and with the given data: Determine the longitudinal normal strain E at the top surface of the strip [Gere 2001. Draw the shear force diagram [Modified from Gere 2001. 13. A gentleman works out his legs at the gym as shown. 10. A prosthetic hand can develop a force of 40 N grabbing an item. 307]. Assuming the leg behaves like a simple beam. 271]. P= 20 lbs [Modified from Gere 2001. Draw the Shear Force diagram [Modified from Gere 2001. and the reaction in the muscle is 540 lb. 297]. The 40 N is distributed along the hand’s 8 cm. At the fixed end there is a reaction in the Y direction and 0 force reactions in the X direction. 305]. ‘finger’. W= 12 lbs. A force is applied to a forearm and a moment of torsion as well. A person with a prosthesis in the shape of a solid bar as his arm is carrying a shopping bag as shown on the drawing. 11. What is the shear force and the bending moment on the leg? [Group – L 2003]. 280]. 12. 8. GED – University of Puerto Rico. 9. A martial artist hits a person just below the knee with a force of 200 lb and an angle of 55°. The reaction in the bone is 510 lb. Note that ΣM=ΣFx=ΣFy=0.7.

3. 15. And is activating a mechanism as shown in the drawing. 2. Mayagüez 11 . 395] Stresses in Beams 1. 403]. Determine the maximum shear stress in the pole [Modified from Gere 2001.50 in. to being a solid shaft of unknown diameter. And is activating a mechanism as shown in the drawing. 305]. the vertical of 2. 403]. A person has a prosthesis on his arm. A person has a prosthesis on his arm. GED – University of Puerto Rico.5 meters high must support a lateral load equal to 12 kN. What is the minimum required outer diameter d2 of the aluminum tube if its wall thickness is to be one eighth of the outer diameter and the allowable bending stress in the aluminum is 50 MPa? [Modified from Gere 2001. 395]. Find the shear Force diagram [Modified from Gere 2001. For a leg prosthesis a company is proving an aluminum tube.25 in.14. Find the shear Force diagram [Modified from Gere 2001. A vertical pole used for a leg prosthesis of outer diameter d2 =2 in and inner diameter 1. For a load of 1000 pounds and using the same maximum shear stress of the problem before. 4. what is the diameter d0 of a solid circular pole? [Modified from Gere 2001. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. and inner diameter 1. Find the maximum shear stress in the previous design and find what the diameter for the new shaft will be if it has a horizontal load of 600 lb [Modified from Gere 2001.5 in is loaded by a horizontal force of 1000 pounds. 305]. A new prosthesis in development is being redesigned from being a hollow shaft with outer diameter 1.

6 ft and a width of 0. It has a length of 1. 318].5 m. 7. Find σmax. The longitudinal normal strain on the bottom surface of the beam is 0. Calculate the stress at the upper surface [Modified from Gere 2001.5 cm h=0. what is the minimum required outer diameter if the inner diameter is one eight of the outer diameter? [Modified from Gere 2001. though. long is being designed to withstand a lateral 20 kN load on the outer end. 395].379]. The cross sectional area of the plaques is a rectangle of b=7. A family owned company has been traditionally making luxurious wooden canes for generations. 8. What would you recommend to be the minimum diameter for a cane measuring a meter tall? [Group – L 2003]. 11. Determine the radius of curvature ρ and the curvature K [Modified from Gere 2001.000125 and the distance from the bottom surface to the neutral surface is 0. Nowadays. A prosthetic forearm 0. 318]. A design group is testing a leg prosthesis as shown on the figure [Modified from Gere 2001. The bar is subjected to pure uniform bending. A group of engineering students test how much distributed force can a prototype shaft for prosthesis withstand.2 cm. Gere. One of their canes is tested to support a lateral impact of 10 kN at the bottom end when being grabbed. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. subjected to a moment Mo=0.12 in. A titanium hollow tube for a prosthetic leg receives a horizontally oriented 150 lb force. If it is to be constructed of hollow aluminum tubing with allowable bending stress of 50 MPa. 6. 10.5. Mayagüez 12 . A plaque with screws is attached to the femur. 9. 388]. p. If the external diameter is 1.06 in.0”.01 N-m in pure bending. [Modified from James M. Beam AB is subjected to two moments Mo. they have to make sure their product complies with certain design standards. GED – University of Puerto Rico. what is the maximum shear stress? [Group – L 2003].

A. A cane is subjected to a load P.12. In the prosthesis shown in the diagram.vard. Department of Veterans Affairs. REFERENCES Allegro Medical Supplies Inc.12. Experimental and numerical predictions of the ultimate strength of a low-cost composite transtibial prosthesis. 379]. and Sawson.V. S. Hand Modules. M. December 2003 Applications of Engineering in Mechanics of Medicine. In the prosthesis shown in the diagram.Mechanics of Materials.allegromedical. what would be the maximum stress? If we assume the maximum bending moment is 10 lb-in [Modified from Gere 2001. What should be the minimum diameter of the bar to have an S of at least 0. <http://www. Calculate the moment of inertia and the section modulus [Group – L 2003]. and Minoru Taya. 2001. US.1. GED – University of Puerto Rico.com/walkers_canes_crutches/c rutches/> (Accessed 10. what would be the maximum stress? If we assume the maximum bending moment is 10 lb-in [Modified from Gere 2001. Mayagüez 13 .org/jour/00/37/4/hahl374. Gere. 1977. It has a diameter of 2 in. James M. AllegroMedical.com <http://www.oime. 379]. Brooks/Cole Thompson Learning. 15.ru/eng/upper_1.htm> (Accessed 9. 2003. 13. Orthopedic Industry Moscow Energy.2003) 14.2003) OIME.12.R.. 2000. The Scientific Basis of Joint Replacement.A. Walkers/Canes/Crutches. 379]. New York. <http://www. what would be the Stress Maximum? [Modified from Gere 2001. John Wiley & Sons. 2001b. J.15 in3? And with that S and a Maximum bending moment of 15 lb-in.html> (Accessed 9. Hall. 5th Ed.2003) Freeman.

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