ANSWER SCHEME 2009 SHORT ESSAY: Action of estrogen: Bone ● Increased osteoblastic activity ● Changes in body configurations; narrow

shoulders & broad hip ● Cause early uniting of epiphyses with shafts of long bones *after menopause: ● Decreased osteoblastic activity ● Bone matrix decrease ● Deposition of calcium & phosphate decrease
1. 2.

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Breast Development of stromal tissues of breasts and nipples. Growth of duct system Increase deposition of fats in the breasts Pigmentation of areola

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Causes of menstruation ● Loss of hormonal support due to decreased in blood level of estrogen, progesterone and inhibin. ● Spasms of bvs by locally produced PGs leading to areas of necrosis in the endometrium & walls of special arterioles leading to hgic areas which unite together forming menstrual flow. 3. Compare GH & Cortisol Protein metabolism GH Cortisol Increase transport of AA into ● Cortisol reduces cellular interior of cell through cell protein in ALL body cells membrane EXCEPT those of the liver. Increased protein synthesis by ● Incresed liver proteins & PPs direct effect on ribosomes ● Increased blood amino acids Stimulates transcription of DNA ● Increased rate of deamination into RNA of AA and converts it into Decreases catabolism of protein glucose & AA(protein sparer) ● Increased protein synthesis in liver ● Increased formation of plasma in liver

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CHO Metabolism GH Decreases utilization of glucose for energy Increases glycogen deposition Diminishes uptake of glucose by cells(in excess GH, it may lead to hyperglycemia) Decreases the no. of insulin receptors

Cortisol Maintains blood glucose lvl by: -stimulation of gluconeogenesis in liver -increased hepatic glucose output -causes mobilization of AA from extrahepatic tissues to enter into gluconeogenesis

process of liver

Decreased glucose utilization by cells by depressing glucose transport into cells


Hormones affecting growth: i. GH ii. Thyroid hormone Thyroid Hormone Due to the hormone’s action on protein synthesis. Thyroid hormones are required for production & action of GH & insulin-like growth factor Promotes growth and development of brain during fetal life and for first few years of life. Essential for normal myelination & development of nervous system in infant Deficient of thyroid hormone during infancy and childhood can cause mental retardation

Growth Hormone(GH) Indirect action: -On cartilage and bone -causing mainly liver and other tissues to form somatomedins A,B ,C leading to proliferation of chondrocytes and appearance of osteoblasts

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5. The juxtaglomerular hypothesis for autoregulation of GFR: ● This hypothesis attributes autoregulation of GFR in



hypotension to 2 special feedback mechanism: i. Afferent arteriolar VD feedback mechanism: ■ Too little flow of glomerular filtration into tubules causes decreased Na & Cl ion concentration at macula densa ■ Decreased ion concentration causes adderent arteriolar dilatation ■ This increases rate of blood flow into glomerulus and increases glomerular pressure ■ Increased glomerular pressure increases the GFR back towards the required level ii. Efferent arteriolar VC feedback mechanism: ■ Too low GFR causes excess reabsorption of Na & Cl ions from the filtrate, reducing the concentration of these ions in macula densa ■ Low concentration of ions then causes the JG cells to secrete rennin from their granules ■ Rennin causes formation of Angiotensin 2 ■ Ag 2 constricts efferent arterioles, which causes pressure in glomerulus to rise ■ Increased pressure then causes GFR to return back to normal.

Diluting mechanism of kidney:

i. ii.

LOH & 1st segment of distal tubule Late distal tubule & CD

Problem 1: Tetany due to low calcium level in blood below than 7mg%. Hypoparathyroidism due to accidental removal of parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy b. Causes of tetany due to low calcium level in blood: -Alkalosis, vitamin D deficiency, malabsorption of calcium, renal disease. c. Role of hormones in controlling calcium homeostasis ● There are 3 hormones primary controlling calcium metabolism; 1, 25dihydroxy cholecalciferol, PTH, calcitonin. 1, 25-dihydroxy PTH calcitonin cholecalciferol Increases calcium Increases calcium Decreases calcium blood level blood level blood level Powerful regulator Weak regulator

Problem 2:
1. 2.

C-15ml/min D-filtered, reabsorbed, secreted

Problem 3:
a. b. c. d. e.


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