This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Pakistan lies on a massive transcontinental geological feature that runs through the earth's crust from Eastern Europe right across to Mongolia. It is known as the Tethyan Magmatic Arc. A Magmatic arc occurs in areas where earth's tectonic plates collide or sub duct with each other and are often areas of intense volcanic activity. When continental plates collide in this way, they form major mountain systems such as the Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes. But what makes Magmatic arcs so special is the ore deposits found within them —deposits of copper and gold. Credible international surveys indicate the wealth of resources and suggest that the area is home to one of the biggest copper reserves in the world with over 2 billion Tons of copper and 21 million ounces of gold. Moreover it as also believed, on the basis of surveys carried out by FATA authorities, that the copper ore reserves in Waziristan are even more than those explored in Reko Diq, but are not being explored yet due to political reasons. TYPES OF COPPER DEPOSITS: VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide ) Copper occurs in veins, vein lets, fractures and also in disseminated form. Have high grade but low tonnage. Copper ore grade ranges from 0.3% to 10%. Copper deposit of Oman, Cyprus, Bay of Iseland complex are the examples of this type. Porphyries Porphyries are a specific type of ore deposit found at the tip of subductive arcs all over the world. They are very large, low-grade deposits with a very high tonnage and normally contain copper, gold, tin, tungsten and molybdenum. Copper ore is disseminated in the host rocks. Ore grade generally ranges between 0.2% - 1%.
Most of the world's copper comes from such deposits located primarily in South America, New Guinea, Indonesia, the United States, and Canada.
COPPER ORE IN PAKISTAN 1. SAINDAK-BALOCHISTAN The discovery of copper deposits at Saindak was made in the 1970s in collaboration with a Chinese engineering firm. The Saindak Copper-Gold Project was set up by Saindak Metals Ltd, a company wholly owned by the government of Pakistan, by the end of 1995 at a cost of Rs.13.5 billion Location Saindak Copper-Gold Mine is located in Saindak town, District Chagai Balochistan, Pakistan. The mineralized area is easily accessible through fair weather roads Mineralogy The Saindak ore contains on average 0.5 gram of gold per tone and 1.5 grams of silver per tone.
Reserves The Saindak project was based on estimated ore reserves of 412 million tones. The mine is reported to have produced about 50,000 tones since October 2003. According to official estimates, the project has the capacity to produce 15,800 tones of blister copper annually, containing 1.5 tones of gold and 2.8 tones of silver. ..
2. REKO DIQ – BALOCHISTAN The Tethyan Magmatic Arc is one of the least explored of the world's major copper belts. Pakistan lies on this copper belt, which runs through Baluchistan’s 'tail end' — an area which is also unfairly known in the West as 'The Devil's Triangle' as its three sides border Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Reko Diq literally means "sandy hill" in Balochi. It is actually an ancient volcano that has eroded over time to form a few low hills that lie in a roughly circular shape and is approximately 10km in diameter. LOCATION OF REKO DIQ Reko Diq is a remote location in the North-West of Chagai district. Chagai is a sparsely populated western desert province of Balochistan. It is mostly low relief and thinly populated desert. The weather of Chagai ranges from very hot summers of 40-50°C to very cool winters of up to -10°C with less than 40 mm precipitation (winter rain and minor snow). It also exhibits periods of high wind and dust/sand storms which have a demobilizing impact on the local activities and trade. Access to the Chagai district is via the Zahidan - Quetta highway also known as the London Road.
The Reko Diq area is part of the Tethyan Magmatic Arc, extending through central and southeast Europe ( Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece) Turkey, Iran and Pakistan through the Himalayan region into Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. It contains wealth of large copper-gold ore deposits of varying grades.
The eastern and central sections of the belt are well recognized hosting world class mineralization such as Grasberg, Batu Hijau in Indonesia, Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea and Sar Cheshmeh in Iran. Whereas in the eastern Europe it host world class porphyry/epithermal cluster of Bor, Majdanpek in Serbia and more recent developments include Skouries and Olympias Greece, and Copler in Turkey.
Reko Diq area is one of many eroded remnant volcanic centers in the Chagai volcanic chain of mountains which runs in an east west line across Balochistan between the Quetta to Taftan railway and the border with Afghanistan. GOP has identified a large low grade copper-gold resource at Reko Diq. REKO DIQ RESOURCE The project has an estimated mine life of 56 years. A large low-grade copper porphyry deposit, Reko Diq has total mineral resources of 5.9 billion tons of ore with an average copper grade of 0.41 per cent and gold grade of 0.22 g/ton. It contains 28-31% copper and 7-22 g/ton gold The economically mine able portion of the deposit has been calculated at 2.2 billion tons, with an average copper
grade of 0.53 per cent and gold grade of 0.30 g/ton. The annual production is estimated at 200,000 tons of copper and 250,000 ounces of gold contained in 600,000 tons of concentrate. In order to achieve this production rate approximately 110,000 tons of ore shall be processed daily
According to the extensive technical and financial studies undertaken, in order to secure optimal economies of scale efficiencies, and lower mining and processing costs, a large scale, state of the art mining and processing unit is required at Reko Diq.
CURRENT STATUS OF REKO DIQ PROJECT GOP has completed an extensive exploration program at Reko Diq with more than 300,000meters drilling comprising mainly diamond and reverse circulation drilling. A bankable Feasibility Report based on extensive world class engineering, technical and financial studies has been finalized. Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) report is also in final stages. FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS: SETUP OF MINING OPERATIONS The next steps to advance the project will be taken by GOP as soon the mining lease is granted, followed by project financing and construction of ancillary infrastructure to make the mine operational. The GOP Reko Diq Project shall consist of 4 main operations components: 1. An open-pit mine. 2. A processing facility.. 3. A concentrate pipeline to transport the product from the mine site to the port of Gwadar, and a dedicated marine terminal facility at the port for storage and transfer to shipping vessels for supply to smelters throughout the world.. 4. A project village for employees.
MINING TECHNIQUE USED The mining operation at Reko Diq is modeled on an open pit mine utilizing a conventional truck and shovel technique. This means that giant mechanical shovels shall be used to dig out the copper ore which shall then be loaded onto 360 ton trucks that will then haul tons of copper ore on a daily basis from the mine to the processing facility. At the processing facility the rocks (ore) shall be crushed in giant crushers. This crushed ore shall then be transferred to a fine-grinding stage where it will be converted into a powdered form. This powder, containing small quantities of copper and gold shall pass through a separation process called flotation, resulting in 30% concentrated slurry of copper and traces of gold. This concentrate is the final product of the Reko Diq Mining Project which shall then be transported for further processing to extraction & smelting units. MINING TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYED The Reko Diq mine will employ state-of-the-art mining equipment, support systems and maintenance practices. To operate this project latest technological innovation will be introduced, putting the Reko Diq project at the cutting edge of technology. This will include360 tons haul truck equipped with computer controlled engine management systems, and the Reko Diq process plant will be one of the only few hard-rock mines in the world to apply High Pressure Grinding Rolls (HPGR) between crushing and milling. Use of latest technology is critical to create efficiencies in the processes to make Reko Diq a long term economically viable project. TRAINING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER Significant skill and technology transfer shall take place during the life of the mine in Balochistan. GOP is committed to skill development and training of local employees to ensure that indigenous capabilities develop along with the technology transfer. GOP has on-site training programs for its employees and off-site training opportunities are provided within training institutes in Pakistan and also abroad. GOP has an integrated training program comprising a basic skills development module and a specialist vocational training module. ANCILLARY INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
i. ii. iii. iv.
Power plant Pipeline Port Project village
3. WAZIRISTAN COPPER DEPOSITS These deposits are of Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide type & Contain workable copper ore grade. Occurrences Khaddar Khel,Ismail Khel,Degan-Pai Khel and Shinkai areas. Shinkai area is considered as the most promising area. Location Copper bearing area lies at a distance of about 21 kilometers west of MiranShah,the head quarter of North Waziristan. The mineralized area is easily accessible through fair weather roads.
Geological Setting Copper ore occurs in ophiolites, comprising ultramafics, volcanic basalts, pillow lavas, limestone and jasparits. Mineralization occurs in the volcanic rocks of the ophiolites.
Oxidized iron caps or gossans represent the mineralized zones on the surface. Copper ore is thought to be of volcanogenic massive sulphide type This type of deposits are known to have workable potential of copper and other allied metals like lead, zinc, Silver, cobalt, iron and sulphur as additional by products.
Mineralogy Both primary and secondary sulfides and oxides ore occur in Waziristan. Primary minerals Chalcopyrite (CUFe S2).
Azurite Malachite Covellite Chalcocite Tenorite
(2CU CO3.CU (OH) 2 (CUCO3.CU (OH) 2. (CUS) (CU2S) (CUO)
Ore grade CU -------- 0.8%.
Zinc ------- 0,17% Nickel ------ 0.14% Cobalt ------ 0.12% Silver ------- 1 gm/ ton Sulfur ------ 10% Reserves - 700x400 sq.m area 8 million tons 27 million tons
Proved on the basis of 22drilling holes data. Estimated on the basis of IP data. and 5 bore holes data Up to depth of 150 meters.
Inferred on the base of IP geophysical survey at the depth of about 300 meters. 27 million tons ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total 62 million tons
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.