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Sensible Air-to-Air Energy Exchangers Single Units 500 – 40,000 SCFM Multiple Units 40,000+ SCFM
INTEGRAL FINNED TUBES
ZERO CROSS CONTAMINATION
SIZE & PERFORMANCE FLEXIBILITY
Heat Exchangers and Energy Recovery Systems
...........................................................................14 ...................................................13 Speciﬁcations ...........................................................................12 Dimensional Data ............ Heating one side of a heat pipe establishes a continuous process within it whereby the warmer side acts as an evaporator and the colder side a condenser....................6 Application Considerations ...................................................................................1 Model Nomenclature........... The device contains rows of ﬁnned tubes partially ﬁlled with refrigerant and permanently sealed......................................................2 Application Features ................................................................3 Construction Features .............................................................................11 Heat Exchanger Performance ................................................................................................................................................................................................. A sensible heat transfer from the hot to the cold airstream results......................................................... TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S Introduction ..................10 Selection Procedure .........................................................8 Psychrometric Data ........ A sealed center partition prevents cross contamination of the two airstreams...................................................INTRODUCTION The Des Champs heat pipe heat exchanger provides sensible heat transfer between two airstreams using a counterﬂow conﬁguration to maximize heat transfer and minimize pressure drop......................................................................................................................................
C D I G I T: 1.7. 7. 2.5: Number of rows in heat exchanger Digits 6.13.8: Number of tubes in the face of heat exchanger Digit 9. 11 . 2 and 3: Unit Designator FHP = Finned Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger Digit 4.0 9 6 .11: Heat pipe tube length in inches Digit 12. 10. 5 .0 7 .10.4.0 4 8 .0 1 6 . 8 .16 Digits 1. 13.14: Heat pipe exhaust side tube length in inches OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT Digit 15: Casing material A = Aluminum B = Galvannealed C = Stainless Steel 2 .MODEL NOMENCLATURE H E AT P I P E H E AT E X C H A N G E R MODEL NUMBER: F H P .9.12.6. 14 .A . 3 .15 .
chillers. air distribution system. and energy distribution system can be reduced by the amount of energy recovered • Reduces Cooling Requirements Compressors.APPLICATION FEATURES A L L O W S O U T D O O R A I R D E S I G N P R O B L E M S TO B E S O LV E D • Responsibly Allows Codes to be Met Use of Des Champs heat pipe heat exchangers allows the designer to meet ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 ventilation requirements with minimum energy requirements • Reduces Heating Requirements The size of the heating plant. pumps. and piping can be reduced by the amount of energy transferred between the outside and exhaust airstreams • Solves Existing Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Problems Economically permits the introduction of additional ventilation air without overloading HVAC system 3 . cooling towers.
. a unit can be designed to ﬁt any location and meet any performance requirement. they are also easier to clean than other types of heat exchangers. because heat pipe heat exchangers have no moving parts. In addition. the number of rows. LOW MAINTENANCE. Compact design allows more space for other equipment in crowded mechanical rooms. and the number of tubes in the face of the heat exchanger. LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION • Maintenance-Free 4 There is no maintenance required under normal HVAC conditions. • Passive Energy Recovery Heat pipe heat exchangers require no external power for operation. • Size Flexibility By varying the lengths of the heat pipes.APPLICATION FEATURES E A S Y TO S E L E C T A N D A P P LY • Compactness The eight-row heat pipe heat exchanger is only 17 inches deep in direction of airﬂow. • Retroﬁt Capabilities The complete size ﬂexibility of the heat pipe heat exchanger makes replacement of heat transfer wheels in existing systems easy.
• Face and Bypass Dampers This temperature control option will provide supply air temperature regulation as well as frost protection. Contact the factory for speciﬁc applications. • Anticorrosion Coating A carboline coating suitable for most corrosive applications is available.OPTIONS • Aluminum or Stainless Steel Casing For use in corrosive environments. Contact the factory for speciﬁc applications. as much as half the potentially recoverable heat is wasted. when used in Northern climates for frost protection. Unfortunately. which reduces or increases the amount of refrigerant in the evaporator section of the heat pipes. • Tilt Control Package The air temperature can be controlled with great precision by tilting the heat exchanger. . The tilt package comes complete with actuator and controls for full operation and control of exhaust air temperature to prevent freezing within the heat exchanger and supply air temperature for seasonal changes. 5 • Indirect Evaporative Cooling Summer energy recovery can be enhanced by the installation of a direct spray indirect evaporative cooling system on the return air side of the heat pipe heat exchanger.
and creates a smooth surface for the application of optional anticorrosive coatings. It is provided to prevent cross contamination between the two airstreams and can be placed in any position to accommodate unbalanced ﬂow systems. since failure of one heat pipe has little effect on the overall performance of the heat exchanger. • Refrigerant R-22 is utilized as the standard working ﬂuid in HVAC applications. 6 • Sealed Center Partition The partition is fabricated using 16-gauge galvannealed steel. • End Covers End covers are fabricated using 16-gauge galvannealed steel to protect the individual heat pipes. . other ﬂuids may be utilized for specialized applications (contact the factory).CONSTRUCTION FEATURES • Integral Fin Design Each heat pipe is fabricated using a single piece of aluminum to eliminate the possibility of ﬁn and tube separation and to maximize heat transfer. Integral ﬁn construction is very durable and withstands high pressure air or water cleaning. • Individual Heat Pipes This means greater reliability in performance. This design technique also prevents corrosion or contamination between ﬁn and tube. however. • Heat Exchanger Casing The heat exchanger frame is fabricated using 14-gauge galvannealed steel as shown in the dimensional data section.
However. there is typically less ductwork required to install a heat pipe heat exchanger as compared to a plate type heat exchanger of equal capacity. the most economical heat recovery system performance of installed units is between 60 and 70%. C U T. • Quality Assurance Each heat exchanger manufactured by Des Champs is subjected to a rigorous quality assurance process to ensure structural integrity and conformance with design requirements.CONSTRUCTION FEATURES • Counterﬂow Design The counterﬂow conﬁguration allows Des Champs heat pipe heat exchangers to recover up to 90% of exhausted energy under ideal conditions. • Performance Flexibility A large selection of row depths and face areas are available for required energy recovery performance.AWAY V I E W O F H E AT P I P E 7 . counterﬂow. • Lower Installation Cost By utilizing the simplest airﬂow conﬁguration.
and regulations applying at the job site. D R A I N PA N S Drain pans are recommended under the entire exchanger both as a condensate collection system and for cleaning purposes. The duct design should be in accordance with good practice in establishing a uniform airﬂow across entire coil surface. If the hot airstream is expected to exceed 125º F.APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS COUNTERFLOW DESIGN Having a counterﬂow design means the exhaust and supply airstreams ﬂow in opposite directions through separate sides of the heat exchanger. T E M P E R AT U R E L I M I TAT I O N S The heat pipe heat exchanger is a commercial product. designed to be operated at temperatures of 125°F and below. CODE REQUIREMENTS Installation of the exchanger should conform to all codes. M U LT I P L E U N I T C O N F I G U R AT I O N S For larger airﬂow applications or where space limitations exist. and within an 1/8 inch level end-to-end. laws. tilt angle exhaust end down. and the condenser (cooler air) region is on top. . V E R T I C A L I N S TA L L AT I O N Vertical installation of the heat pipe exchanger is possible if the evaporator (warmer air) region is on the bottom. ACCESS DOORS Access doors should be provided to allow periodic inspection of the exchanger and to facilitate cleaning when necessary. DUCT DESIGN The exchanger is manufactured with a center partition and frame such that standard duct ﬂanges can be screwed to the frame. when used for heating. consult the factory for selection of the proper working ﬂuid. 8 F I LT R AT I O N R E Q U I R E M E N T S Performance speciﬁcations are based upon clean air and a clean heat transfer surface. It is required that adequate ﬁltration be utilized in both exchanger airstreams to insure optimum performance and minimum maintenance. using 3/8 inch length sheet metal screws. SUPPORTING STRUCTURE The exchangers should be secured rigidly so as not to allow more than 1/8 inch total bow end-to-end. LEVELING EXCHANGER Heat pipe heat exchangers are installed with 1/4 inch per ft. and air conditioning. when used for heating or ventilating only. it may be desirable to install two or more heat pipe heat exchangers in series or in parallel. ventilating.
Sheet metal safe-offs direct the airﬂow through the heat exchanger. I N S TA L L AT I O N I N A PA C K A G E D S Y S T E M The heat pipe heat exchanger is installed directly on the ﬂoor. 9 .INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS C O N N E C T I O N TO OT H E R A I R HANDLING UNIT SECTIONS The heat pipe heat exchanger casing is best connected to the duct work by means of ﬂanges.
This means latent heat is not exchanged between the supply and exhaust airstreams. the process is reversed. Figure 1 shows a typical sensible heat recovery process. if the exhaust airstream is cooled below its dew point. S E N S I B L E H E AT T R A N S F E R H E AT P I P E In summer. any gains in effectiveness will be offset if frosting is not controlled in the winter. However. condensation occurs and some latent energy is transferred. Therefore.PSYCHROMETRIC DATA The heat pipe heat exchanger is a sensible heat recovery device. The price for this “enhanced” effectiveness comes in the form of increasing pressure drops due to the condensate as well as frosting of the exhaust side in the winter. the warmer airstream (outside air) is cooled from point A to B. In winter. FIGURE 1 90 % 70 % 50 % 10 B A OUTDOOR AIR SUMMER C D EXHAUST AIR SUMMER H E 35 45 G EXHAUST AIR WINTER OUTDOOR AIR WINTER 55 F 65 75 ELAT 10% R MID IVE HU ITY 85 95 105 DRY BULB TEMPERATURE (DEGREES F) The figure above shows various operating conditions based upon 70% efficiency. and therefore no moisture is transferred. Condensation can thus increase the heat transfer rate and enhance sensible effectiveness. The colder outside air is heated from E to F and the warmer indoor air is cooled from G to H. 30 % 115 . while the colder airstream (exhaust air) is being heated from C to D. since each pound of condensed moisture transfers about 1050 Btu to the supply airstream.
DFV. For equal DFV on supply and exhaust sides: EL = FL x (QE/(QS + QE)) [Round to the nearest inch.] Select heat pipe rows required in direction of airﬂow using Figures 2 and 3 to achieve the required thermal effectiveness and pressure drop. 11 Step 6 Step 7 Step 8 *Each heat pipe heat exchanger can have up to a maximum of 28 tubes in the face. FH = 2. For larger airﬂows. this will be at the center of the ﬁnned length. ft3/min) Tubes in Face of Heat Pipe Finned Height (inches) Finned Length (inches) Finned Length–Exhaust Side (inches) Effectiveness (%) outside air inlet temperature (°F) supply air outlet temperature (°F) return air inlet temperature (°F) outside air standard CFM lesser of exhaust air or outdoor air standard CFM SCFMOA = SCFMMIN = Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Determine design face velocity per side. ft3/min) Exhaust Airﬂow (CFM.TSA)/(TOA .] Calculate position of center divider. this location can be changed to balance the pressure loss. See dimensional data on page 13 for weight and overall dimensions of selected heat exchanger. . Determine leaving supply temperature. it is necessary to combine multiple exchangers with 28 tubes or less per bank. typically 300 to 600 fpm (feet per min). For unbalanced ﬂows. Each individual bank will have its own casing according to the data in the dimensional section. This will ensure that the individual airﬂow velocity is close to the design.TRA) x 100% See heat exchanger selection example on page 12 for temperature calculation.125 x TF [Up to 28 tubes per exchanger*] Determine the required ﬁnned tube length (FL) based on the face area from Step 2. Determine required face area for both airﬂows (in2): FA = 144 x (QS + QE)/DFV Select the number of tubes in the face (TF) of the heat pipe to match an acceptable ﬁn height (FH). FL = FA/FH [Round to the nearest inch. For balanced ﬂows.SELECTION PROCEDURE DEFINITIONS FA DFV QS QE TF FH FL EL E TOA TSA TRA = = = = = = = = = = = = Total Face Area (in2) Design Face Velocity per side Supply Airﬂow (CFM. page 12) is deﬁned as: E = (SCFMOA/SCFMMIN) x (TOA . The effectiveness (see Figure 2.
55 x ( 4000 ) x (95 .818 7.714 11.870 5.948 2.000 SCFM exhaust air at 75°F with a minimum effectiveness of 58%.073 22.635 14. To determine the leaving supply temperature: TSA = TOA .302 2.729 7.958 5.156 12.E x (SCFMMIN/SCFMOA) x (TOA .135 2.583 16.961 11.304 / 34 = 67.125 x 16 = 34 in.844 6.HEAT EXCHANGER PERFORMANCE H E AT E X C H A N G E R SELECTION EXAMPLE EFFECTIVENESS.208 9.958 6.c. Selection: Using Figure 2.206 5. weight = 750 pounds.354 18.029 22.792 8.815 19.604 5.320 4.000 SCFM outside air at 95°F and 4.609 15.641 7.458 14.029 4.534 6.982 16.531 18.00 0.198 6./min.719 4.766 9.313 5.60 0. (on center) .253 10.042 12. and are based on a face velocity of 500 ft.870 5.458 14.174 13.083 7.633 9. I N .094 10.20 1. w.409 3.958 5.682 2.667 6.167 1.875 16.896 4.125 2.708 18. 800 800 For balanced ﬂow. EL = 34 in.198 1.823 1.427 5.388 15.792 8.438 8.411 9.625 11. Any number of tubes in the face may be selected other than those shown in the ﬁgure.60 1.000 + 4. % 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 330 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 FIGURE 2 Select a heat pipe heat exchanger for 4.888 6.0.479 3. FL = 2.922 21.578 5.099 3.505 19.755 6.331 6.917 10.552 24.719 4.935 11.099 3.083 7.115 17.208 9. W. DFV = 500 fpm.359 10.479 2. C . From dimensional data.500 9.859 2.727 2.396 13.617 13.8 in.917 11. overall size is 74" long x 38" high x 15.40 0.969 8.40 1.557 17.453 4.169 2.648 4.214 2.328 1.854 9.542 4.878 3.526 7.333 12.057 8.984 4.250 4.854 1.635 14.750 13.151 1.417 2.068 12.000) / 500 = 2.25" deep.365 4. [Round to 68] 8 7 6 5 4 ROW ROW ROW ROW ROW 3 ROW 2 ROW 700 750 750 216 A I R P R E S S U R E D R O P. FA = 144 x (4.281 14.935 11.542 3.047 5.411 8.214 3.80 1. pressure loss per side.299 15.747 8.677 9.00 1.86 in.339 4. at 500 fpm.888 6.482 8.427 4.755 6.688 12.20 0.740 10.771 2.833 3.776 12.029 4.641 7.570 8.549 1.479 2.80 0.268 5.833 21.784 10.906 7.180 5. Using Figures 2 and 3.198 7.141 15.922 3.792 Note: Airﬂows are for one side of the heat exchanger in an equal ﬂow arrangement. FH = 2.661 13.789 3.75) 4000 TSA = 84°F FACE VELOCITY (FEET PER MINUTE) 2.523 3.313 23.240 1.594 19.656 3.510 1.495 16. 7 rows gives 55% effectiveness and 0.602 17.375 7.TRA) TSA = 95 .304 in2 For TF = 16.00 330 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 FIGURE 3 8 ROW 7 ROW 6 ROW 5 ROW 4 ROW 3 ROW 2 ROW 12 700 FACE VELOCITY (FEET PER MINUTE) HEAT PIPE AIRFLOWS (CFM) FIN # OF HEIGHT TUBES (INCHES) IN FACE 14 7/8 21 1/4 27 5/8 34 40 3/8 46 3/4 53 1/8 59 1/2 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 TA B L E 1 FIN TUBE LENGTH IN INCHES 72 84 96 108 120 132 144 156 168 180 192 204 228 240 24 620 885 36 930 48 60 1.
134 1.015 2.893 2.260 2.764 1.756 1.976 3.656 1.66 WEIGHT CORRECTION FACTORS ROWS DEEP 4 5 6 0.871 1.442 1.909 2.882 1.146 1.067 1.036 1.38 2 0.128 3.028 1.823 2.050 1.267 2.404 2.518 2.671 2.770 1.56 .542 2.549 1.321 1.433 Heat Exchanger Weight (lbs) = Base Weight from Table 5 x Correction Factor WEIGHT CALCULATION FINS PER INCH 11 TA B L E 5 7 1.261 1.512 1.19 Note: For larger ﬁn height or ﬁn length requirements. multiple exchangers may be combined.281 3.301 2.697 1.974 2.281 1.106 1.183 1.194 2.129 2.086 2. For design purposes.334 1.605 1.142 1.299 1.092 1.214 2.009 1.648 1.167 1.030 1.420 1.366 2.979 2.383 2.83 1.725 1. For heat exchanger performance selection contact the factory or your local sales representative.327 1.196 1.790 1.338 1.679 2.408 1.384 1.750 1.226 1. X=3" DEPTH (D) 5 7/8 7 3/4 9 5/8 11 1/2 TYPICAL HEAT EXCHANGER DIMENSIONS Height (H) Length (L) 14 7/8 TA B L E 3 53 1/8 96 59 1/2 108-240 21 1/4 27 5/8 34 60 40 3/8 46 3/4 24 36 48 72 84 13 3/8 15 1/4 17 1/8 11 1/2 13 3/8 15 1/4 TOTAL BASE WEIGHT FOR 5 ROWS (POUNDS) FIN # OF HEIGHT TUBES (INCHES) IN FACE 14 7/8 TA B L E 4 132 615 822 144 662 884 156 710 947 168 757 180 805 192 852 204 900 216 947 228 995 240 1. Dimensions and weights are for reference only.119 1.580 1.648 1.441 1. X=2" If L ≥ 14'.451 1.505 2.570 1.992 2.00 1.042 13 FIN TUBE LENGTH IN INCHES 24 188 260 331 403 474 546 617 689 36 235 322 409 495 582 668 755 841 48 283 384 486 588 689 791 892 994 60 330 447 563 680 797 913 72 378 509 641 772 904 84 425 572 718 865 96 473 634 796 957 108 520 697 873 120 568 759 951 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 21 1/4 27 5/8 34 40 3/8 46 3/4 53 1/8 59 1/2 1.628 2.012 1.49 3 0.071 1.493 1.305 1. use certiﬁed data.DIMENSIONAL DATA 2" FLANGE H H + 2X* AIR-TIGHT CENTER PARTITION 4" D L L + 6 X HEAT PIPE DEPTHS ROWS 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TA B L E 2 FIN DEPTH 4 5 7/8 7 3/4 9 5/8 *Value of x: If L < 14'.235 1.138 2.403 1.061 2.717 1.604 1.954 3.259 1.158 1.817 2.525 1.855 1.415 1. 8 1.
requiring no rotation or other movement for heat transfer. and air conditioning applications.063 inch wall thickness. shall be paid by the contractor. 14 D E S I G N A N D C O N S T R U C T I O N F E AT U R E S 1. Heat pipe ﬁn surface shall be integral to the tube. Two-component heat pipes such as expanded tube-to-ﬁn shall not be acceptable in order to prevent efficiency degradation due to eventual weakening of the ﬁn-to tube bond. manufacture. Manufacturers of alternate equipment must be approved to bid via addendum.437 inch mean ﬁn height. seamless. for the design. Fin surface from root to ﬁn tip shall have a minimum of 0. Performance data derived from laboratory testing on heat exchanger conditions is in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 84-1991 “method of testing air-to-air heat exchangers. The manufacturer must have a quality management system in place. Heat pipes shall be a maximum of 2 1/8 inches on center in the face and shall be 1 7/8 inches on center row-to-row. or within 1/8 inch level end-to-end when used for heating. tapered root to ﬁn tip. Costs associated with dimensional. or other deviations from the speciﬁed equipment. and service of heat exchangers and packaged ventilation/air conditioning equipment. and shall have a minimum of 0. Fin density shall be 11 ﬁns per inch. The heat pipe heat exchanger shall be a passive device. noting inlets and outlets of exhaust and supply. equal to the quality assurance standard ISO-9001. . and shall be capable of operating at temperatures ranging from -60°F minimum to 125°F maximum.MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS The packaged humidity control system shall be a Model FHP ______________ as manufactured by Des Champs Laboratories. The heat pipe shall be installed: with 1/4 inch per foot tilt angle exhaust end down when used for heating and ventilating application only. The air-to-air heat exchangers must be manufactured in the United States of America. ventilating.” Performance shall be rated in accordance with ARI testing procedures. Inc. in writing by the specifying engineer. If the equipment is not pre-approved then under no circumstances shall the contractor invest time or money in receiving submittals or considering the equipment. The heat pipe shall transfer heat between outgoing and incoming airstreams in a counterﬂow arrangement. at least two weeks prior to bid time in order for their bid to be accepted by the contractor. performance. The capillary wick structure shall be the result of a knurling process and shall not degrade the integrity of the heat pipe wall. integrally ﬁnned 3003 aluminum tubes with 0. Heat pipes shall have a circumferential capillary wick structure integral to the inside of each individual tube. and shall be labeled for direction of airﬂow. including engineering costs to evaluate such deviations.015 mean ﬁn thickness.D. The manufacturer must also have a net worth greater than ﬁve times the value of the equipment being bid and must have been a manufacturer of air-to-air heat exchangers for at least ﬁve years prior to bid time. Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger Heat pipes shall have 1-inch I.
charged. End covers shall be fabricated from 16-gauge galvannealed steel. hermetically sealed. The partition shall be fabricated from a minimum 16-gauge. both front and back. The frame shall be supplied with a minimum of 2-inch wide ﬂanges on all four sides. and factory tested. Intermediate heat pipe supports shall be furnished as required. galvannealed steel and shall extend beyond the ﬁnned surface with a 4-inch mid-seal (2 inches to supply side and 2 inches to exhaust side). Tilt Control Tilt control shall be provided by Des Champs for: a) Economizer mode b) Regulation of supply leaving temperature c) Frost prevention of the exhaust side of the unit.MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS Heat pipes shall be individually processed. The heat exchanger shall be provided with a partition to isolate the outgoing and incoming airstreams. The face and bypass damper option shall be integral to the heat exchanger module. Casing The heat exchanger frame shall be fabricated from minimum 14-gauge galvannealed steel. Dampers shall be constructed of minimum 16-gauge galvanized steel and operated by a damper motor (specify modulating or two-position) controlled by a thermostat (specify factory or customer provided). 15 . Face & Bypass Dampers Face and bypass dampers shall be provided by Des Champs for: a) Economizer mode b) Regulation of supply leaving temperature c) Frost prevention of the exhaust side of the unit. 3. End covers shall be provided to protect the heat pipe ends. 4. Refrigerant Heat pipe heat exchanger refrigerant shall be selected on the basis of heat pipe operating temperature and compatibility with heat pipe tube material. Heat pipe heat exchanger refrigerant used shall be classed as group 1 in the American National Standard Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration. 2. there shall be no cross contamination. Heat pipe heat exchanger shall be installed as shown on the manufacturer’s submittal drawings. Temperature Controls (Optional) The following three options are available for temperature control: A. B.
16 . and 0-135 W with full modulation. Protective Coating (When Required) Air dried carboline coating to protect against corrosion. Coating to be factory applied to supply and exhaust sides. Temperature sensors shall be placed in the supply entering and leaving airstreams. The tilt package shall be suitable for operation at 0-10 V DC. The arrangement shall be such that the heat pipe can pivot freely about the axis of the bearings. The tilt package shall have ﬂexible connectors to minimize cross-contamination between airstreams. and the exhaust leaving airstreams to sense their respective temperatures.MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS The main support for the tilt control package shall consist of a heavy-duty. Customer duct connections shall be rigid. sealed. large diameter shaft on two heavy-duty. pillow block bearings at the center of the heat pipe unit. The tilt package shall be powered by a heavy-duty drive motor and connecting linkage. while permitting the heat pipe assembly to tilt. 5. 4-20 mA.
O. Box 220 • Douglas Way • Natural Bridge Station. VA 24579 •  291-1111 • FAX  291-2222 © 1998 Des Champs Laboratories Incorporated HPHE-698/10M (SUPERSEDES HPHX694) .DES CHAMPS LABORATORIES INCORPORATED P.