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The term paper money is a misnomer as the bills is a combination of cotton and abaca fibers, thereby making them slightly grainy to the touch. 2. The portrait on the face of the bill is solid and life-like. The biggest feature occupying the largest space in front is the portrait It is bolder in color, and composed of well-defined lines that give it a 3D effect and make it stand out from the background. The eyes are made of concentric lines that provide the portrait with an animated appearance. 3. Vignettes at the back are depicted in rich detail. Take for example the sketches featuring highlights in the life of Ninoy Aquino that appear at the back of the P500 peso bill. These designs consist mainly of finely defined lines separated by white spaces. Lacework and other background designs are likewise done in geometric patterns made up of intricate and welldefined lines. 4. Security colored fibers and metallic threads are embedded in the bill. Red and blue fibers can be found embedded at random on the face and back of the note. A pointed instrument can actually pick these tine fibers off. A metallic thread located vertically off center to the right is also embedded while printing. 5. A shiny band is placed vertically across portrait. A 10-millimeter gold-colored stripe on which the figures 100, 500 or 1000 measuring 5 millimeter in height are printed can be found shimmering vertically off center to the left.
6. Paper feels substantial and solid to the touch. The uncut material with 32 pieces of money is ordered from abroad, and is subjected to tremendous pressure from a sharp machine to separate the bills in a printing process called intaglio (to slice, to carve, to indent).Consequently, paper money is packed solidly with no fraying edges and thread. 7. Watermark figure is distinct and well defined. Perhaps the method most familiar to the layman when checking the authenticity of money, the shadow of the composite portrait appears in sharp detail against a clear field area when money is held against the light.
which are very different from what we use to write our letters on. The diving threads are usually made of foil.see the right pic (taken from 1000 pesos argentinos). In fact. It's also a good practice to have denomination on the watermark. It's made as follows: 2 different pictures are printed simultaneously on the sides of the banknote. they may be solid (left pic. SECURITY THREADS Security threads are among the most reliable features. Each banknote should have fair resistance to water and wear. in the left). CRISP SOUND Genuine banknotes (especially not worn) make very specific sound. Portraits are considered more reliable as a security feature as they contain more semi-shadows. which are extremely difficult to be made without specialized equipment. There are 2 common types of threads: internal and diving. or "crisps".000 roubles 1995. They can be made of metal and plastic. special kinds of flax and / or cotton are added to the cellulose when banknote paper is produced. from 10 kuna. Usually these threads have text in them. the darker areas of a watermark are where the cellulose layer is thicker. like on the Russia banknotes of 19952001 (pic from 100.SECURITY FEATURES USED BY MODERN MONEY ISSUING INDUSTRIES PAPER QUALITY The banknotes are usually made of the special kinds of paper. Their location is so exact that when held against . The purpose is to provide the longer life cycle of the note and make it harder to counterfeit. which are parts of one whole sign or symbol. and you can often see it glittering on the face sides of the banknotes. The process of making a watermark is very complicated and involves many stages when paper is made of raw and wet cellulose. These are embedded into the paper when the banknote is yet being made of raw cellulose.see in the middle (taken from DEM 100 banknote) and whole area marks. which cover the entire banknote . a portrait . at least 2000 folds should be made before torns appear. Internal ones are completely inside the paper sheet. containing micro-inscriprions. MATCHING ELEMENTS An extremely difficult thing to counterfeit is the matching element. when being folded? WATERMARKS Watermarks are among the most popular and well-known security features of paper money. Croatia and DEM 100). There are 2 common types of watermarks: localized. from DKK 500) and may be transparent. Normally. which can be seen against the light (middle and the right pics. for instance.
The ornament on the layer is usually very small and sometimes simple. and three layers in different colours can be seen. Shown are gradient coloured text (top) and gradient background (bottom) of 10 kuna banknote. and the third gives you an idea of what they form together (letter "H"). but when several layers are combined.1/3 mm high and can be seen only by the people with very sharp eyesight. Usually the image is "hidden" in the areas of the same tone and it's built of raised parallel lines. in this case). . Click a pic to enlarge it and to see the text. Croatia (click to enlarge them). (taken from EEK 50 banknote. See the element on the left: it's at least 4X natural size. To improve the protection. The colour is changing so slightly and so gently that the finest copier will be able to draw strips of different colours only. See the pics on the right: the first 2 are pics from both sides of the banknote (10 kuna. It's made with the help of intaglio printing (see below). BACKGROUND DECORATIONS Background decorations and ornaments usually consist of several "layers". It's nearly impossible to repeat when making plain copies of the banknotes. in massive strips and single lines. is a relatively new feature added to the banknotes beginning with the 1980ies.it can be running near the ornaments. at certain angles you will see the picture appearing and then changing into negative. MICROTEXT Here is a picture of the microtext from 5 litai banknote of Lithuania. Croatia. moreover. it can be hidden on the background and be nearly invisible without a microscope or a strong lense. When you rotate such area with the light reflecting from it. On the original banknote these letters are approximately 1/2 . KIPP EFFECT Kipp effect. and no soft colour change will ever be seen. these letters have different colour intensiveness. Microtext can be hidden anywhere on the banknote . when the next layer is printed over the previous one. click to enlarge). or the latent image. The pic shows how it looks like on the DEM 100 banknote.the light they form a perfectly matching drawing. around the portraits. they form a very complicated background. GRADIENT COLOURING Gradient colouring is another security feature which is nearly impossible to reproduce even with the best copying equipment. which are perpendicular to the raised lines of the background.
they gain more and more popularity. It's one of the most interesting things about the modern banknotes. I think.000 dinars (bottom). in brief. Zaire 1000 new zaires (middle) and Croatia 50.like those coupon issues of Ukraine (early ones) and small Belarus roubles (first banknotes). the denomination is repeated in many more ways .in case you tear it. sometimes impossible when they stand too close.to avoid all possible disputes and questions. too. while holograms depict portraits. Each banknote's number is unique. but.. backgrounds and in words (or combined). The numerals can be increasing in size (like shown on a pic from EEK 50 banknote) or decreasing. but the numbers on the banknote usually have relation to the security features. The way of writing a number can be a security feature. some have not. There are plenty number formats used in the world . The letters (or drawings) thus acquire volume and you can feel them with your fingers." from the DEM 100 banknote. Click the pics to enlarge and see this feature at Belarus 100 roubles (top). KINEGRAMS Holograms and kinegrams are reported to be the most advanced security features of today. it will be easier to see which banknote was torn (for the purpose of it's utilization). As usual. . and they never repeat. NUMBERS One may find it strange.the others may have 11.INTAGLIO PRINTING "Intaglio" means "raised". some numbers may include 5 digits . The technology is rather complicated. while kinegram changes colours when a viewpoint is changed. And at the same time it's applied so strongly that you can't scratch the paint off. too. To prevent this. The numbers are usually repeated twice on the banknote . the kinegrams incorporate the denomination of the banknote . On the left is the kinegram image from the 50 euro banknote. On the left you can see the letters "Cla. Holograms usually show a volumetric image. which are raised above the microtext. it's usually not enough to protect the note. There are certain banknotes that have no numbers at all . DENOMINATION MARKS On most banknotes the denomination is written several times in large numerals in all the locations on the banknote. Usually the numbers depict the working place at the banknote factories where they are made. it's developed to place about 60 layers of paint on the same place on the note and to apply the effort which equals 60 tons in weight. However. Impossible to be reproduced without extremely expensive equipment. HOLOGRAMS.some numbers have series in letters. Very often the counterfeiters increase the number of zeroes on the note to change it's face value.like in the microtexts. It's far more difficult to change all the numerals that stand in a huge row.
click to enlarge) COLOUR CHANGING One of the most interesting features used with the modern banknotes. I wouldn't say it's a reliable feature. sometimes in combination with other features like latent image or glowing in UV rays (see below).. (Picture from 50 EEK banknote. banknotes look like a bit overdecorated in my opinion. right .ANTICOPYING FEATURES Anty-copy features refer to the specially drawn lines and decorations which make the banknote impossible to be copied with the help of specialized copying equipment. not the original. you'll see that this imprint consists of the raised poligonal objects. The edges of such blocks have very different distances between the lines. pale yellow strip changes into blue one). That is a special kind of paint which has smallest metal particles in it that give the banknotes a unique metal glitter where applied. Russian 5 rouble banknote metal dust plated numeral on the pic. METALLOGRAPHICS Many modern banknotes have the so called "metal dust" on them. while the sides have another.Bosnian 50 feninga note. SIGNATURES For a certain reason signatures are often added to the banknotes. and it changes it's colour when you view the banknote from a different angle. When you change the angle. and it seems substituted by another. It's used for many purposes. Although they are not very easy to conterfeit and hense their usage is good for security. Central Banks' chairmen of the boards of directors. . This looks like there is an imprint of some glittering sand on the banknote. middle .so small they are. rather an element of the banks' obligation to pay the bearer on demand. See the pic on the left: the thin lines which run parallel in many blocks are to be seen with a lense . isn't it ? (Pics: left . but. general secretaries of those banks. etc.top view of the element on the turkish 500. FOIL Foil plating is a nice idea to make the banknotes brighter and more protected at the same time. and when attempting to copy the banknote. Small pieces of different coloured foil are imbedded in the paper. Their topmost sides have one colour. you stop viewing one colour. Some signatures are really difficult to reproduce. (The pic: foil spots on Peru 10 new soles banknote). Exciting.side view. these edges appear as dark and displaced areas which show that you see a copy of the note.. (The pic: signatures from Argentina 50 australes banknote). and glitter on the banknote.000 lire note. They belong to the head treasurers. This effect is quite complicated: if you look at the banknote with a microscope.
ornaments. 1995.like the transparent windows in them (see the pic. In half a year so many "corrected" banknotes appeared that the government had to issue new notes with this kind of security feature. there's a more advanced way to make life easier for the blind. some security features of the polymer notes are unique . the banknote paper itself has a very specific colour under UV: most banknotes' paper appears dark blue. a voice tells the denomination. Besides that. Their task is to act as an additional security feature as they use to glow with different colour under the UV rays. Depending on the denomination. The average life term of polymer note is several years (unlike 8 months of a paper note). coats of arms . POLYMER BANKNOTES Polymer banknotes are the most advanced banknotes of today. Those can be the banknote's denomination. Plastic is far more resistant to wear than paper. Besides. and there were reasons for that. soetimes with pink. MARKS FOR THE BLIND Marks for the blind are closely involved with intaglio printing as they are what the blind people can feel with their fingertips.000 roubles of Russia. The amount of such "hair" can be different from note to note. In several countries it was decided that polymer is a better substitute to the paper. Picture taken from Argentina 50 australes banknote. "HAIR" "Hair" are small pieces of specially treated materials (silk as usual) added to the banknote paper when it's being made. the "finger picture" will differ. like that was made in Canada. There are certain types of paint used which glow under these rays and show you the pictures you don't see under normal.from Canada $2 banknote). while ordinary paper shines very bright blue. sun lighting. taken from 2000 leu of Romania).whatever the fantasy allows. the worst situation was in Georgia. right pic . (Left pic: marks on the 100. (The pic DEM 100 banknote under UV rays). PROTECTION ORNAMENT Protection ornaments are normally used to prevent the volunteers add extra nulls to the denomination.UV GLOWING A fascinating thing about the banknotes is the way they glow under UV rays. and they have no fixed location. . However. when coupon banknotes were introduced. it doesn't dissolve in water and doesn't burn. Canadian banknotes have magnetic marks (viewed as black marks on the reverse) and when installed in a special small reading machine.
These are the russian rouble and the euro. meaning "reflecting strip for copying protection". which is alike with the UV-glowing. On the left is the gamma of russian banknotes issued in 1995. IR GLOWING One of the most recent development among the security features. It's use in driving the copying equipment crazy when trying to reproduce the banknote. All other details may have geometric proportions or may be much easier to reproduce than the human face. using such feature. The idea is to make the banknote paper have it's own unique colour tone. To the moment I'm aware of only 2 currencies. It's a nice security feature. Some areas of the banknote are covered with the paint which makes the picture darker under the IR rays. PAPER TONING Paper toning is one of the most widely spread security features. A good idea is to combine portraits with other security features like intaglio printing and UV glowing. The more details the portrait has. a polymer strip with transparent and foil-plated areas. STRAP STRAP is a french abbreviation. And the more delicate the tone is. Take a look at the portrait from Lithuanian 5 litai banknote (click a pic to enlarge) to see how many details it consists of. as the reflective properties of the strip's areas are very different. The additional bonus of such feature is that it's easier to distinguish the banknotes of different values by colour than by any other properties. this feature is quite rarely seen on the notes (perhaps due to the expensiveness of production). the more difficulty it is to reproduce. .COMPLICATED PORTRAITS Portraits are perhaps the hardest thing to counterfeit in the banknotes. the more difficult it is to draw. is the IR-glowing (Infra Red). Unfortunately.