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A: uniqueness: programs in juvenile courts successfully deal with juvenile gang violence and removal from their situation. COMMUNITY POLICING PROGRAMS LIKE PACE EFFECTIVE AT REDUCING GANG VIOLENCE Howell explains:
James C. Howell, former director of research and program development at the Office of Juvenile justice and Delinquency Prevention, 1997, Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence, p. 127-8

Community policing is an essential component of a comprehensive gang prevention program. Several community policing programs appear to have realized some success in dealing with youth crime problems. One of these is the Norfolk Police Assisted Community Enforcement (PACE) program, focused in lowincome housing areas. Although the PACE program has not been evaluated, crime has decreased by an estimated 29% in the targeted neighborhoods. Police report fewer service calls and a significant drop in on-street drug trafficking and gunfire in the targeted areas. One key to the apparent success of the PACE program is the formation of partnerships between police and neighborhood organizations, empowering neighborhoods through community mobilization to developin concert with the police and other city agenciessolutions to gang and other crime problems. These solutions include social and human service needs. Thus there are systems in place in the juvenile system that effectively deals with gang violence. B: the link: the adult court system exposes juveniles to adult offenders and increases their involvement of gangs and crime outside of prison. Juveniles transferred to the adult system end up joining gangs because of adjustment difficulties in prison. Sorensen explains:
Attapol Kuanliang, John Sorensen and Mark Cunningham 2008. Juvenile Imates in an Adult Prison System: Rates of Disciplinary Misconduct and Violence. Criminal Justice and Behaviorvol 35 no 9. 2008 Sagepub. TJ. Mumper.

young inmates were more likely to belong to gangs and more likely to violate institutional rules . Most
In nearly all other areas, young inmates were perceived to pose greater problems than older ones. There was virtual unanimity that respondents indicated that young inmates were more likely than older ones to steal from their fellows, to talk back to or verbally threaten prison

inmates under 18 had more difficulty adjusting to prison life. Several officials discussed some of those adjustment problems, which tended to reflect the immaturity of the inmates under 18. They included disinclination or inability to follow institutional rules, lack of respect for authority, impulsiveness, susceptibility to antisocial influences of peer leaders, and homesickness. One official commented that low levels of
officials, and even to physically threaten prison officials. A majority of respondents indicated that literacy among inmates less than 18 made it difficult or impossible for them to follow written rules.

Thus affirming increases juvenile gang involvement. Furthermore this increase in violence tendencies is empirically confirmed. Sorenson 2 explains: The biggest news is that related to the juvenile inmates. As noted in the bivariate analyses, inmates entering prison as juveniles were significantly more likely to become involved in prison rule violations even when the effects of the other potential confounds were taken into consideration in these models. Compared to the nearest age cohort, juveniles were 77% more likely, on average, to become involved in overall violations, potential violence, and general assaultive behavior. Furthermore, inmates who were juveniles upon entrance to the FDOC were 2.2 times as likely to commit an assault that resulted in injuries than their youthful adult counterparts and 3.4 times as likely to commit assaults that resulted in serious injuries controlling for other factors included in the models. Thus the violent tendencies of juveniles are greatly increased when put in the juvenile justice system. C: the impact is that gangs account for much violence both in and out of the criminal system and these impacts directly harm the community. Feinstein explains:
Gang Violence: An Environment of Fear U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein Gang Summit hosted by the US Department of Justice October 23, 2006

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There are now at least 30,000 gangs nationwide, with 800,000 members. In California, there are 3,700 gangs up and down the State. 171,000 juveniles and adults are committed to this criminal way of life. Thats greater than the population of 28 counties, and the same number of people that live in the City of Tracy. You are all too aware of the damage that gangs do. From 1992 to 2003, there were more than 7,500 gang-related homicides reported in California. Thats equivalent to the entire city of Sausalito. And in 2004, more than one-third (of the 2,000) homicides in California (698) were gang-related. Its worse among our young. Nearly 50 percent of the murders of 18-29 year olds were gang-related. And nearly 60 percent of the murders of teens under 18 were gang-related. Now, the rate of gang violence is not always the same everywhere. There has been a recent drop in
gang membership and gang violence in Los Angeles, for example. This is good news, but it is likely just a blip on the radar. Gang roots run deep in Los Angeles, and these gains may only be temporary. When you look at the big picture, you see that gangs continue to infiltrate our

It is estimated that gangs are now having an impact on at least 2,500 communities across the nation. They control neighborhoods through violence. They traffic in drugs, theft, extortion, prostitution, guns, and murder.

Thus gangs result in a huge amount of death and crime.