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Project Additional Mathematic 2011 work 1.
Nurull Ahmadi bin Ahmad Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Taman Dato’ Harun 6/27/2011
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS PROJECT YEAR 2011 FORM5
NAME BIN FORM NO I/C TEACHER CHONG. : NURULL AHMADI AHMAD. : 5 ANGGERIK. : 940323-06-5563. : SIR TAN CHING
Content page :
1. 2. 3. 4.
Content Appreciation Objective Method investigation Definision : • Introduction • Introduction of integration • History
5. Problem Solving : • Diagram • PART 1 • PART 2 • PART 3 • PART 4 • PART 5 Further exploration 6. Conclusion 7 Reflection . 8 Further Exploration
. 9 Reference .
Grace be upon god,with blessing,this Additional Mathematics project work finally have been done. Firstly,I would like to express my appreciation to my Additional Mathematics teacher Sir Tan Ching Chong for her contructive critism and helpful suggestion during the process to finish this Additional Mathematics project work. Not to forget,my parents that also give me a lot of help and supporting me to complete this project.Besides that,I also wish to thank to the member of my group for their support to make sure that this project work can be finished.
Lastly,I also want to thank to whom that participate in the process to finish this project work wether indirect or not.
The aims of carrying out this project work are to enable students to :
Apply mathematics to everyday situations and appreciate theimportance and the beauty of mathematics in everyday lives Improve problem-solving skills, thinking skills , reasoning andmathematical communication Develop positive attitude and personalities and instrinsicmathematical values such as accuracy , confidence andsystematic reasoning Stimulate learning environment that enhances effectivelearning inquiry-base and teamwork Develop mathematical knowledge in a way which increase students’ interest and confidence.
In solving and finishing this project work done,some method is used :1. Communication Discussion with teacher and friend help in solving problem.The information from this discussion used as a reference materials to success this project. 2. Reference Additional of information from various of reference material help me to find the method to solve the problem.For this Additional Mathematics project,I can get the reference from library,internet,my friends,my teacher and many more. 3. Lesson session
The lesson session in the class help me in solve problem by using heuristics what I learn in the class.
The Petronas Towers of Kuala Lumpur Often we know the relationship involving the rate of change of two variables, but we may need to know the direct relationship between the two variables. For example, we may know the velocity of an object at a particular time, but we may want to know the position of the object at that time. To find this direct relationship, we need to use the process which is opposite to differentiation. This is called integration (or antidifferentiation). The processes of integration are used in many applications. The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur experience high forces due to winds. Integration was used to design the building for strength.
Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera House is a very unusual design based on slices out of a ball. Many differential equations (one type of integration) were solved in the design of this building. Wine cask Historically, one of the first uses of integration was in finding the volumes of wine-casks (which have a curved surface).Here is a LiveMath illustration of a 3D shape. We learn to find the volume of these objects later (in volume of solid of revolution). Other uses of integration include finding areas under curved surfaces, centres of mass, displacement and velocity, fluid flow, modelling the behaviour of objects under stress, etc.
Introduction of integration
In mathematics,integration is a technique of finding a function g(x) the derivative of which, Dg(x), is equal to a given function f(x). This is indicated by the integral sign “∫,” as in ∫f(x), usually called the indefinite integral of the function. (The symbol dx is usually added, which merely identifies x as the variable.) The definite integral, written with a and b called the limits of integration, is equal to g(b) − g(a), whereDg(x) = f(x).Some antiderivatives can be calculated by merely recalling which function has a given derivative, but the techniques of integration mostly involve classifying the functions according to which types of manipulations will change the function into a form the antiderivative of which can be more easily recognized. For example, if one is familiar with derivatives, the function 1/(x + 1) can be easily
recognized as the derivative of loge(x + 1). The antiderivative of (x2 + x + 1)/(x + 1) cannot be so easily recognized, but if written as x(x + 1)/(x +
1) + 1/(x + 1) = x + 1/(x + 1), it then can be recognized as the derivative of x2/2 + loge(x + 1). One useful aid for integration is the theorem known as integration by parts. In symbols, the rule is ∫fDg = fg − ∫gDf. That is, if a function is the product of two other functions, f and one that can be recognized as the derivative of some function g, then the original problem can be solved if one can integrate the product gDf. For example, if f = x, and Dg = cos x, then ∫x·cos x = x·sin x − ∫sin x = x·sin x − cos x + C. Integrals are used to evaluate such quantities as area, volume, work, and, in general, any quantity that can be interpreted as the area under a curve.
The process of finding a function, given its derivative, is called antidifferentiation (or integration). If F'(x) = f(x), we say F(x) is an anti-derivative of f(x). Examples F(x) =cos x is an anti-derivative of sin x, and ex is an anti-derivative of ex. Note that if F(x) is an anti-derivative of f(x) then F(x) + c, where c is a constant (called the constant of integration) is also an anti-derivative of F(x), as the derivative of a constant function is 0. In fact they are the only anti-derivatives of F(x).
We write f(x) dx = F(x) + c. if F'(x) = f(x) . We call this the indefinite integral of f(x) . Thus in order to find the indefinite integral of a function, you need to be familiar with the techniques of differentiation.
Over 2000 years ago, Archimedes
(287-212 BC) found formulas for the surface areas and volumes of solids such as the sphere, the cone, and the paraboloid. His method of integration was remarkably modern considering that he did not have algebra, the function concept, or even the decimal representation of numbers. Leibniz (1646-1716) and Newton (1642-1727) independently discovered calculus. Their key idea was that differentiation and integration undo each other. Using this symbolic connection, they were able to solve an enormous number of important problems in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. Fourier (1768-1830) studied heat conduction with a series of trigonometric terms to represent functions. Fourier series and integral transforms have
applications today in fields as far apart as medicine, linguistics, and music.
Gauss (1777-1855) made the first table of integrals, and with many others continued to apply integrals in the mathematical and physical sciences. Cauchy (1789-1857) took integrals to the complex domain.Riemann(18261866)andLebesgue(18751941) put definite integration on a firm logical foundation. Liouville (1809-1882) created a framework for constructive integration by finding out when indefinite integrals of elementary functions are again elementary functions. Hermite (1822-1901) found an algorithm for integrating rational functions. In the 1940s Ostrowski extended this algorithm to rational expressions involving the logarithm. In the 20th century before computers, mathematicians developed the theory of integration and applied it to write tables of integrals and integral transforms. Among these mathematicians were Watson, Titchmarsh, Barnes, Mellin, Meijer, Grobner,
Hofreiter, Erdelyi, Lewin, Luke, Magnus, Apelblat, Oberhettinger, Gradshteyn, Ryzhik, Exton, Srivastava, Prudnikov, Brychkov, and Marichev.
In 1969 Risch made the major breakthrough in algorithmic indefinite integration when he published his work on the general theory and practice of integrating elementary functions. His algorithm does not automatically apply to all classes of elementary functions because at the heart of it there is a hard differential equation that needs to be solved. Efforts since then have been directed at handling this equation algorithmically for various sets of elementary functions. These efforts have led to an increasingly complete algorithmization of the Risch scheme. In the 1980s some progress was also made in extending his method to certain classes of special functions. The capability for definite integration gained substantial power in Mathematica, first released in 1988. Comprehensiveness and accuracy have been given strong consideration in the development
of Mathematica and have been successfully accomplished in its integration code. Besides being able to replicate most of the results from well-known collections of integrals (and to find scores of mistakes and typographical errors in them), Mathematica makes it possible to calculate countless new integrals not included in any published handbook.
Route Distnc e Bearin g
1.1 131 km Goe s to nort h
2.1 24km Goes to east
1.2 2.2 √109k √307km m N73.3 N27.9ºW º
1.3 √85k m N77. 5ºE
2.3 √104km N78.7º E
Coordi nates Possibl Cor Shark,in e al fested Danger reef water s
Shark,inf Gian Giant ested t octopus, water,su octo thunder nken pus storm ship, thunderst orm For route 1(1.1,1.2,1.3)=55minutes 59seconds For route 2(2.1,2.2,2.3)=1hour 31minutes36seconds
Coral, reef, sunke n ship
Judging from the possible dangers & possibilities of intruding into the preserved and conservation aresas and the time taken to reach the offshore oil rig,route 1 is the recommended optio
Vresultant=Vboat+Vcurrent = Vresultant= = = Vcurrent= v=36sin a V=60sin a _________① v=36cos a-15______② From ①, ②,we get a=22.4º,v=22.55km/h Time taken= hour =0.4375hour
Vresultant= = Vboat= Vcurrent= Vresultant=Vboat+Vcurrent = +
By using the similar concept as shown in step ①,B=54.6 º,v=29.915km/h Time taken= hour=20.3416
Vresultant=Vboat+Vcurrent Vcurrent= Vboat= Vresultant= = Similary,by working it out youself,C=20.3 º,v=22.548km/h Time taken= =0.48hour d)Time to reach the wind – farm=10.00a.m+26minutes15seconds+20minute s28seconds =10:46:43+2hours+28minutes48seconds =13:15:31a.m
P=cAu2 C= = = =5.917 b)(1)E= 50000000= = =10000t t=5000seconds (2)500000000= = = = = t=1850.6seconds
a)v=πR2h = Vfull=1000000000 = πR2h πR2 (3000)=100000000 πR2= v= πR2h = = __________① 3000metres=(10x365x24)hours = = = = barrels per hour
V=πr2h =π(0.25)2h =0.0625πh =0.0625π_______① Vfull=π(0.25)2(1) =0.0625π Tfull=(5x60)seconds
= = x
= 0.0625π = =20cms-1
Par t 5
Oil Reserves - Top 20 Nations (% of Global) Saudi Arabia has 261,700,000,000 barrels (bbl) of oil, fully 25% of the world's oil. The United States has 22,450,000,000 bbl.
The United States government recently declared Alberta's oil sands to be 'proven oil reserves.' Consequently, the U.S. upgraded its global oil estimates for Canada from five billions to 175 billion barrels. Only Saudi Arabia has more oil. The U.S.
ambassador to Canada has said the United States needs this energy supply and has called for a more streamlined regulatory process to encourage investment and facilitate development. - CBC Television - the nature of things - when is enough enough Oil Production & Consumption, Top 20 Nations by Production (% of Global) Here are the top 20 nations sorted by production, and their production and consumption figures. Saudi Arabia produces the most at 8,711,000.00 bbl per day, and the United States consumes the most at 19,650,000.00 bbl per day, a full 25% of theworld'soil consumption.
Exports & Imports Here's export and imports for all the nations listed in the CIA World Factbook, sorted alphabetically as having exports and imports. Conspicuously missing is the United States, but I can tell you that we consume 19,650,000.00 bbl per day, and produce 8,054,000.00, leaving a discrepancy of 11,596,000.00 bbl per day. This compares to the European Union, which produces 3,244,000.00 bbl per day and consumes 14,480,000.00 bbl per day for a discrepancy of 11,236,000.00 per day. Basically, about the same.
World Oil Market and Oil Price Chronologies: 1970 2003
Petroleum engineers work in the technical profession that involves extracting oil in increasinglydifficult situations as the world's oil fields are found and depleted. Petroleum engineers searchthe world for reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. Once these resources are discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologicformation and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, determine the drilling methods to be used, and monitor drilling and production operations. Low-end Salary: $58,600/yr Median Salary: $108,910/yr High-end Salary: $150,310/yr EDUCATION: Engineers typically enter the occupation with a bachelor¶s degree in mathematics or anengineering specialty, but some basic research positions may require a graduate degree. Mostengineering programs involve a concentration of study in an engineering specialty, along withcourses in both mathematics and
the physical and life sciences. Engineers offering their servicesdirectly to the public must be licensed. Continuing education to keep current with rapidlychanging technology is important for engineers.
College AlgebraGeometryTrigonometryCalculus I and IILinear AlgebraDifferential EquationsStatistics
WHEN MATH IS USED:
Improvements in mathematical computer modeling, materials and the application of statistics, probability analysis, and new technologies like horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery,have drastically improved the toolbox of the petroleum engineer in recent decades.
About 37 percent of engineering jobs are found in manufacturing industries and another 28 percent in professional, scientific, and technical services, primarily in architectural, engineering,and related services. Many engineers also work in the construction, telecommunications, andwholesale trade industries. Some engineers also work for Federal, State, and local governmentsin highway and public works departments. Ultimately, the type of engineer determines the typeof potential employer.
Engineering diplomas accounted for 12 of the 15 toppaying majors, with petroleum engineeringearning the highest average starting salary of $83,121.
I have done many researches throughout the internet anddiscussing with a friend who have helped me a lot in completing this project. Through the completion of this project, I have learned many skills and techniques. This project really helps me to understand more about the uses of progressions in our daily life. This project also helped expose the techniques of application of additional mathematics in real life situations. While conducting this project, a lot of information that I found.Apart from that, this project encourages the student to work together and share their knowledge. It is also encourage student to gather information from the internet, improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication.Last but not least, I proposed this project should be continue because it brings a lot of moral values to the student and also test the students understanding in Additional Mathematics.
After spending countless hours,day and night to finish this Additional Mathematics Project,here is what I got to say:
Doing this project makes me realize how important Additional Mathematics is.Also, completing this project makes
me realize how fun it is and likable is Additional Mathematics
REFERENCES:Books:i) Longman SUPER SCORE Additional Mathematics Form 4 – Tam Siew Hong ii) Pelangi Analysis Series SPM Additional Mathematics – Chong Pak Cheong iii) SetiaEmas AGENDA A+ Additional Mathematics Form 5 – H.S.Wong iv) Longman Essential Additional Mathematics SPM 2011 - Lan Foo Huat, Yong KienChen v) Success Additional Mathematics SPM, Oxford FajarSdn.Bhd. Wong Pek Wei and Dr.Wong Sin Mong