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Several global reports have ranked India among leading pesticide consuming countries; but a new study says pesticide consumption is the lowest in India. A report from the industry chamber Assocham says pesticide consumption in India is the lowest at 0.5 kg per hectare as agains t 17 kg per hectare of Taiwan, 12 in Japan [ Images ], 6.6 Korea, 7 USA and 2.5 in Europe. The report titled 'Pesticide Residues in Indian Food and Agricultural Products' debunks the perception that India is the larg est user of pesticides. But it points out that Indian food and agricultural products contain substantial quantities of pesticide residues as its farmers mak e indiscriminate use of fertilisers in the absence of adequate education. "What is needed is a stronger farmer training programme t hat can educate them on the right dosage of pesticide usage," the report said. It said the other reasons for high pesticide residue is the usage of sub -standard pesticides and wrong advice tenders issued to farmers by pesticide dealers which leads to inade quate treatment of effluents from pesticide manufacturing units. The report states that in countries like USA, Europe, Taiwan, Japan and Korea, the supplies of pesticides are affected in vol umes with absolutely scientific methods for their spray as landsca pe in these countries are so huge that proportionate use of pesticides is done in a meticulous manner as their farmers are well awakened. But in India things are entirely different and for obtaining higher yields, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilisers go totally unchecked by its farmers. The report, which has been submitted to the government, has suggested that only recommended doses of fertilizers to kill pest s should be effected by farmers and pesticide treatment both prophylactic and control should be judicious.
Chemical Industry Overview
India ranks twelfth in the world for production of chemicals by volume. India¶s chemical industry contributes about 3% to the nation¶s Gross Domestic Produce (GDP). The industry has a turnover of about US$ 30 b illion, and accounts for about 14% in the general Index of Industrial Production (IIP) and 17.6% in the manufacturing sector. It also accounts for about 13-14% of total exports and 8-9% of total imports of the country. The industry is mostly concentrated in western India, which accounts for 45-50% of the total industry size. The Indian chemicals industry comprises both small and large -scale units. While the fiscal concessions granted to the small sector in mid -eighties led to the establishment of a large number of units in the Small Scale Industries (SSI) sector, the industry is currently in the midst of major restructuring and consolidation. With the shift in emphasis on product innovation, branch building and environmental friendliness, this industry is increasingly moving towards greater customer orientation.
Specialty chemicals has a huge role in global economy. Not even a single industry can exist without the use of specialty chemical. In virtually every process of step followed in any industry the use of specialty chemical can be found. Even in agriculture specialty chemical is being used to increase the production of corps. In agriculture specialty chemical can be found in many forms like fertilizers.
Some major areas apart from agriculture, where specialty chemical is used are construction & pipes, electronic materials, ink and graphics, fabric care, packaging, paint and coating, paper and board, personal care, photo and digital imaging, plastics and rubber, textile and fibers, w ater treatment and in automotive areas. By reading this long list anyone can know how important is the role of Specialty chemical. Now for the convenience of our reader some more examples and illustrations are given below. Under the category specialty chemical there are several subcategories like adhesive chemicals, mining chemicals, agricultural chemicals, aromatic chemicals, automotive chemicals, battery chemicals, cleaning chemicals, coating chemicals, construction chemicals and cosmetics chemicals to n ame a few. Now, as far as the use of these chemicals are concerned their name suggests a lot about it. For example agricultural chemicals are used in field of agriculture, mining chemicals are used in mining industry and so on. Some specialty chemicals can be used in specific work like caustic soda is used in dry cleaning. Furthermore there could be different kind of industry/work specific specialty chemicals like electroplating chemicals, fabric chemicals, fine chemicals, laundry chemicals, metal cleanin g chemicals, petroleum refining chemical pharmaceutical chemicals and printing chemicals etc. The list of specialty chemical is formidable so as their work. The role of Specialty chemical is so vital in that without them modern industry and civilization ca n't be even dreamed of. Petroleum Refining Chemicals In the precess of Petroleum Refining, a variety of chemicals have been used. Petroleum Refining Chemicals are applied at different stages in the refining process. In order to obtain different output from petroleum products, a number of varied chemicals are applied to a specific stage. Some examples of petroleum refining chemicals are as mentioned below : Sulphuric Acid and Hydrofluoric Acid. Sulphuric acid and hydrofluoric acid are used primarily as catalysts in alkylation processes. Sulphuric acid is also used in some t reatment processes. Leaded Gasoline Additives. Tetraethyl lead (TEL) and tetramethyl lead (TML) are additives formerly used to improve gasoline octane ratings but are no longer in common use except in aviation gasoline. Caustics. Caustics are added to desalting water to neutralize acids and reduce corrosion. They are also added to desalted crude in order to reduce the amount of corrosive chlorides in the tower overheads. They are used in some refinery treating processes to remove contaminants from hydrocarb on streams. Oxygenates. Ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), tertiary amyl 0methyl ether (TAME), and other oxygenates improve gasoline octane ratings and reduce carbon monoxide emissions.
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Fine Chemicals A variety of chemicals have been used to treat fabric after they are cleaned. These chemicals performs different functions such as flame retardants, waterproofing, deodorizing, stain repellents, refurbishing and pest control. By applying different chemical processes to a fab ric, its durability can be enhanced.Here durability means that fabric can stand up to abrasion, exposure to sunlight and daily wear and tear, tough stains, while still performing consistently. Chemical application on a fabric can improve its versatility. B y applying chemical process to a fabric one can obtain any texture, any thickness in that particular fabric. Industrial Chemicals Industrial chemicals are widespread in consumer products and in the environment. A large number of industrial chemicals are known to cause harm to our environment and to our health. Industrial chemicals are used for solving problems, though the consequences or the price to be paid, in the form of environmental degradation and poor public health is not known. Commercially available industrial chemicals are used as starting materials or precursors, in the production of chemical agents. Industrial chemicals include chlorine, ammonia, solvents, pesticides, fertilizers and petrochemicals such as ethylene glycol and chlorinated hydrocarbons (such as chloroform and TCE). Industrial chemicals are extensively used in plastic manufacturing. Many toxic industrial chemicals might be used as weapons. For example, methyl isocyanate, the deadly gas that killed thousands in Bhopal, India. Laboratory Chemicals Laboratory chemical consists numerous types of chemicals and the use and storage of these laboratory chemicals follow different guidelines. Some of the laboratory chemicals are aluminium chloride AlCl3 x6 H2O , aluminium nitrate Al(NO3)3 x9 H2 O, ammonium acetate, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hexaboride, barium nitrate, cadmium carbonate, gadolinium acetylacetonate CH 3 COCH=C(O) ± CH 3 Gd, x H2O and many more. In general one should follow some simple guidelines to manage and store the laboratories chemicals. These provide a safe and secure work environment for students, staff, faculty, and visitors. Some of the guidelines are that all the containers in which chemicals are stored must be clearly labeled. Absorbent material must be r eadily available so as to absorb any kind of spills and leaks. Inventory of the materials stored is important so as to keep in touch with the chemicals that may have been forgotten. Chemicals must be stored at an appropriate temperature and humidity level. Chemicals should never come in contact with direct sunlight. Chemicals that are no longer to be used for research purposes should be properly disposed of. Laboratories should separate chemicals according to similar hazards, such as flammability, corrosivi ty, sensitivity to water or air, and toxicity. Appropriate care should be exercised in the storage and handling of explosive chemicals.
Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. Fertilizers can be organic (composed of organic matter), or inorganic (made of simple, inorganic chemicals or minerals). They can be naturally occurring compounds such as peat or mineral deposits, or manufactured through natural processes (such as composting) or chemical processes (such as the Haber process). Fertilizers typically provide, in varying proportions, the three major plant nutrients (nitroge n, phosphorus, and potassium), the secondary plant nutrients (calcium, sulfur, magnesium), and sometimes trace elements (or micronutrients) with a role in plant nutrition: boron, chlorine, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum. In the past, both o rganic and inorganic fertilizers were called "manures," but this term is now mostly restricted to man-made manure.Though nitrogen is plentiful in the earth's atmosphere, relatively few plants engage in nitrogen fixation (conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a biologically useful form). Most plants thus require nitrogen compounds to be present in the soil in which they grow. Growth of Fertilizer Industry The Indian fertilizer industry has succeeded in meeting almost fully the demand of all chemical fertili zers except for MOP. The industry had a very humble beginning in 1906, when the first manufacturing unit of Single Super Phosphate (SSP) was set up in Ranipet near Chennai with an annual capacity of 6000 MT. The Fertilizer & Chemicals Travancore of India Ltd. (FACT) at Cochin in Kerala and the Fertilizers Corporation of India (FCI) in Sindri in Bihar were the first large sized -fertilizer plants set up in the forties and fifties with a view to establish an industrial base to achieve self sufficiency in food grains. Subsequently, green revolution in the late sixties gave an impetus to the growth of fertilizer industry in India. The seventies and eighties then witnessed a significant addition to the fertilizer production capacity. Fertilizer Budget The install ed capacity as on 30.01.2003 has reached a level of 121.10 lakh MT of nitrogen (inclusive of an installed capacity of 208.42 lakh MT of urea after reassessment of capacity) and 53.60 lakh MT of phosphatic nutrient, making India the 3rd largest fertilizer p roducer in the world. The rapid build -up of fertilizer production capacity in the country has been achieved as a result of a favourable policy environment facilitating large investments in the public, co operative and private sectors. Presently, there are 57 large sized fertilizer plants in the country manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous, phosphatic and complex fertilizers. Out of these, 29 unit produce urea, 20 units produce DAP and complex fertilizers 13 plants manufacture Ammonium Sulphate (AS), Ca lcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) and other low analysis nitrogenous fertilizers. Besides, there are about 64 medium and small -scale units in operation producing SSP. India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilizers. The installed capacity of th e fertilizer industry as on November 1, 2006 was 123 lakh MT of nitrogen and 57 lakh MT of Phosphatic nutrient. During April -October 2006, total fertilizer production grew by 6% over the corresponding period of the previous year. While phosphatic fertilize r production increased by 13%, urea production grew by 3%. The import of manufactured fertilizers during H1¶07 compared to H1¶06 also surged by about 39%.Some of the main issues confronting the fertilizer industry are with respect to pricing and availabili ty of feedstock. With the industry competing with the power sector for gas and the Government favoring conversion of existing Naphtha based units to gas, shortages are expected in future as well. The existing Naph based units have been given time till end of FY¶2009 for conversion to gas. The government recently approved the Stage III of the Urea pricing policy based on the recommendations of the Dr.Y.K.Alagh Committee. The scheme will be effective from October 1, 2006 till March 31, 2010. The policy seeks to encourage efficiencies in production and distribution of Urea. The government has also dispensed with the prior permission required for producing beyond 100% of the installed capacity. As per industry estimate s, the total subsidies for the fertilizer sector in FY¶07 would be around Rs.34,036cr including an amount of Rs.5,913cr carried over from the previous fiscal. However, the budget estimates for FY¶07 were far lower at Rs.17,252cr. Even after accounting for two supplementary grants, a gap of Rs.11,583cr exists. Inadequate subsidies as well as delays in disbursement of allocated subsidies have added to the problems of the industry. The budget lays emphasis on agricultural development with higher allocation un der various programmes. The Bharat Nirman programme continues to be the cornerstone of the Government¶s policy and an additional 24 lakh hectare is to be bought under irrigation under this policy. Budgetary support for the programme has been increased fro m Rs.18,600 cr in 2006-07 to Rs.24,603 cr in 2007-08. Under the accelerated irrigation development programme, 35 new projects are to be completed and an additional irrigation potential of 9 lakh hectares is to be created. The outlay for the programme has i ncreased from Rs.7,121 cr in 2006- 07 to Rs.11,000 crore in 2007-08. Customs duty on drip irrigation systems and agricultural sprinklers has been reduced from 7.5% to 5%. Subsidy outlay for the fertilizer sector has been increased from Rs.17,252 (B.E 2006-2007) to Rs.22,452 cr in R.E.2006-07. Department of Fertilizers is to work along with the industry in evolving a mechanism for administering subsides directly to the farmers. A pilot programme for the same is to be implemented in at least one district of e ach state in FY 2008. Peak rate of customs duty on all fertilizers has been reduced to 7.5% which is likely to have an impact on the realizations of players manufacturing complex fertilizers and other secondary nutrients. At the same time, imports of Urea used for the manufacture of complex fertilizers will attract a lower duty of 5%. The main fertilizer products of Urea and DAP will continue to attract lower duties at 5%. In terms of subsidies, though the budget has increased the quantum of subsides for the sector, this is likely to be inadequate. It may be noted that the R.E 2006 -07 and budgeted estimate for 2007-08 are similar and, with no change in the farmgate prices of fertilizer and rising feedstock costs, the actual subsidy burden is likely to be m uch higher than the allocated amount. It is however expected that the government will continue to reimburse the industry with the subsidy component albeit with delays. The focus on agricultural development is likely to benefit the fertilizer sector indirectly. While the increased area
under irrigation is likely to have a positive impact on fertilizer consumption, the ability of the domestic industry to take advantage of the same remains to be seen.
A pesticide is any chemical which is used by ma n to control pests. The pests may be insects, plant diseases, fungi, weeds, nematodes, snails, slugs, etc. Therefore, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, etc., are all types of pesticides. Some pesticides must only contact (touch) the pest to be deadly. Others must be swallowed to be effective. The way that each pesticide attacks a pest suggests the best way to apply it; to reach and expose all the pests. For example, a pesticide may be more effective and less costly as a bait, rather than as a surface sp ray. Types of Pesticides Bactericides A bactericide or bacteriocide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. Bactericides are either disinfectants, antiseptics or antibiotics. Fungicides Fungicides are chemical compounds used to prevent the spread of fungi or plants in gardens and crops, which can cause serious damage resulting in loss of yield and thus profit. Though oomycetes are not fungi, they use the same mechanisms to infect plants and therefore in phytopathology chemic als used to control oomycetes are also referred to as fungicides. Fungicides are also used to fight fungal infections.Fungicides can either be contact or systemic. A contact fungicide kills fungi when sprayed on its surface; a systemic fungicide has to be absorbed by the plant.Fungicide residues have been found on food for human consumption, mostly from post -harvest treatments. Some fungicides are dangerous to human health, such as Vinclozolin, which has now been removed from use.Like other pesticides, fungicides can induce pesticide resistance. Equivalently, antifungal drugs can induce drug resistance. Herbicides A herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Herbicides used to clear waste ground are nonselective and kill all plant material with which they come into contact. Some plants produce natural herbicides, such as the genus Juglans (walnuts). Herbicides are widely used in agriculture and in landscape turf management. They are applied in total vegetation control (TVC) programs for maintenance of highways and railroads. Smaller quantities are used in forestry, p asture systems, and management of areas set aside as wildlife habitat. Insecticides An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects. Insectici des are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century. Nearly all insecticides have the potential to signif icantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. Miticides Miticides or acaricides are pesticides that kill mites. Antibiotic miticides, carbamate miticides, formamidine miticides, mite growth regulators, organochlorine, permethrin and organophosphate miticides are all in this category. Diatomaceous earth will also kill mites by cutting through the skin which drys out the mite. Ivermectin can be prescribed by a medical doctors to rid humans of mite and lice infestations and there are agricultural formulations for birds and rodents that are infested. Common miticides Methoprene is virtually harmless to non-insects, and the US EPA has exempted it from tolerance. It is widely available in supermarkets, ctc. Hydroprene is toxic to fish & perhaps birds. Both are for indoor use only, as they break down in sunlight. Methoprene is applied as a wetting spray, hydroprene as an aerosol space spray. Neither will affect adult insects; they work on future generations by preventing growth or maturation. Permethrin can be applied as a spray or in more targeted forms (e.g. Damminix TickTubes ) that attac k the ticks and mites on mammalian hosts. Their effects are not limited to mites: lice, cockroaches, fleas, mosquitos, & other insects will be affected. Permethrin, however, is not known to harm mammals or birds, as it has a low mammalian toxicity and is p oorly absorbed by skin. Molluscicides Molluscicides are pesticides used to control molluscs, such as motts, slugs and snails. These substances include metaldehyde, methiocarb and aluminium sulfate. They should be used with caution, as they can be harmful to nontarget animals. Most molluscicides are not used in organic gardening, though there are exceptions, such as iron phosphate. Nematicides A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill parasitic nematodes (roundworms). One common nematici de is obtained from neem cake, the residue obtained after cold -pressing the fruit and kernels of the neem tree. Known by several names in the world, the tree was first cultivated in India since ancient times and is now widely distributed throughout the world. Rodenticides Rodenticides are a category of pest control chemicals intended to kill rodents.Single feed baits are chemicals sufficiently dangerous that the first dose is sufficient to kill.Rodents are difficult to kill with poisons because their
feeding habits reflect their place as scavengers. They will eat a small bit of something and wait, and if they don't get sick, they continue. An effective rodenticide must be tasteless and odorless in lethal concentrations, and have a delayed effect. Virucides It is for the control of viruses. Pesticides can also be classed as synthetic pesticides or biological pesticides, although the distinction can sometimes blur. Broad-Spectrum Pesticides are those that kill an array of species, while narrow -spectrum, or selective pesticides only kill a small group of species A Systemic Pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. This movement is usually upward (through the xylem) and outward. Increased efficiency may be a result. Systemic insectic ides which poison pollen and nectar in the flowers may kill needed pollinators such as bees. Uses and Benefits Pesticides are used to control organisms which can otherwise result in harm.For example, they are used to kill mosquitoes that can transmit potentially deadly diseases like west nile virus and malaria and bees, wasps or ants that can cause allergic reactions. Insecticides can protect animals, because infestations by parasites such as fleas may cause them illness.Pesticides can prevent sickness in humans that could be caused by moldy food or diseased produce. Herbicides can prevent accidents by clearing roadside trees and brush, which may block visibility. They can also kill invasive weeds in parks and wilderness areas which may cause environmental damage. Uncontrolled pests such as termites and mold can damage structures such as houses.Pesticides are often very cost -effective for farmers. Pesticides are used in grocery stores and food storage facilities to manage rodents and insects that infest food such as grain. Each use of a pesticide carries some associated risk. Proper pesticide use decreases these associated risks to a level deemed acceptable and increases quality of life and protects property and the environment. In 2006, the World Health Organization suggested the resumption of the limited use of DDT to fight malaria. They called for the use of DDT to coat the inside walls of houses in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent. Dr. Arata Kochi, WHO's malaria chief, said, "One of the best tools we have against malaria is indoor residual house spraying. Of the dozen insecticides WHO has approved as safe for house spraying, the most effective is DDT."Scientists estimate that DDT and other chemicals in the organophosphate class of pesticides have sa ved 7 million human lives since 1945 by preventing the transmission of diseases such as malaria, bubonic plague, sleeping sickness, and typhus. Banned Pesticides Pesticides Banned for manufacture, import and use (25 Nos.)
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Aldrin Benzene Hexachloride Calcium Cyanide Chlordane Copper Acetoarsenite CIbromochloropropane Endrin Ethyl Mercury Chloride Ethyl Parathion Heptachlor Menazone Nitrofen Paraquat Dimethyl Sulphate Pentachloro Nitrobenzene Pentachlorophenol Phenyl Mercury Acetate Sodium Methane Arsonate Tetradifon Toxafen Aldicarb Chlorobenzilate Dieldrine Maleic Hydrazide Ethylene Dibromide TCA (Trichloro acetic acid)
Pesticide / Pesticide formulations banned for use but their manufacture is allowed for export (2 Nos.)
Nicotin Sulfate Captafol 80% Powder
Pesticide formulations banned for import, manufacture and use (4 Nos) Methomyl 24% L Methomyl 12.5% L Phosphamidon 85% SL Carbofuron 50% SP
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Pesticide Withdrawn(7 Nos) Dalapon Ferbam Formothion Nickel Chloride Paradichlorobenzene (PDCB) Simazine Warfarin
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Pesticides Restricted for use in India Aluminium Phosphide DDT Lindane Methyl Bromide Methyl Parathion Sodium Cyanide Methoxy Ethyl Merciru Chloride (MEMC) Monocrotophos(ban for use on vegetables)
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Effect of Pesticides on human health The effect of pesticides on human health is worst.Due to pesticides there can be number of diseases which are lungs cancer Chronic liver damage cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis, endocrine and reproductive disorders, immuno suppression, cytogenic effects, breast cancer, Non hodkins lymphoma, polyneuritis, etc, etc