IPTV Testing

Service Quality Monitoring, Analysis, and Diagnostics for IP Television Systems and Services

Lawrence Harte

IPTV Testing

Lawrence Harte

Althos Publishing Fuquay-Varina, NC 27526 USA Telephone: 1-800-227-9681 Fax: 1-919-557-2261 email: info@althos.com web: www.Althos.com

Althos

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the authors and publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Copyright c 2008 By Althos Publishing First Printing Printed and Bound by Lightning Source, TN. Every effort has been made to make this manual as complete and as accurate as possible. However, there may be mistakes both typographical and in content. Therefore, this text should be used only as a general guide and not as the ultimate source of information. Furthermore, this manual contains information on telecommunications accurate only up to the printing date. The purpose of this manual to educate. The authors and Althos Publishing shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the information contained in this book.

International Standard Book Number: 1-932813-88-8

About the Author

Mr. Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider which researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte managed a repair and calibration laboratory, created many test and measurement procedures, and is the inventor of several patents on communication systems. Mr. Harte has appeared on television as an industry expert and has been referenced in over 75 communications related articles in industry magazines. He has been a speaker and moderator at numerous industry seminars and trade shows. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. Mr. Harte has instructed communication courses at The Billing College, Wray Castle, Nokia, MCI, Panasonic, Telcordia, and at many other companies. He has received numerous certificates and diplomas including IPTV, VoIP/Internet Telephony, 3G wireless, wireless billing, Bluetooth technology, Internet billing, cryptograph, microwave measurement, calibration, radar, nuclear power, Dale Carnegie, 360 leadership, and public speaking. As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990).

iii

Introduction to IPTV Testing

iv

Table of Contents
IPTV TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IPTV CONNECTION . . . . . . . . . IPTV LAYERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS) . . . QUALITY OF EXPERIENCE (QOE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6

WHY TEST FOR IPTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION . . . . . . . . NETWORK UTILIZATION . . . . . . . . . FAILURE PREDICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . OPPORTUNITY IDENTIFICATION . . . . SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENT (SLA)

IPTV TESTING CHALLENGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MIXED MEDIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CONTENT DEPENDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MULTIPLE CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CONTENT PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ERROR CONCEALMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 TESTING TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 OPERATIONAL TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 FUNCTIONAL TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

v

. . . . . . LABORATORY TESTING . . . . . . PACKET TRANSMISSION PACKET RECEPTION . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOOPBACK TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 IPTV SYSTEM . . ACCESS NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . MULTILAYER TESTING . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIEWING DEVICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIAGNOSTIC TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUDIO . . . . . . . . . . . LOAD TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICE CAPACITY TESTING . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACCEPTANCE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIELD TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DECOMPRESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . . PACKETIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMANCE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DECODING . . . . .Feature Function Testing END TO END TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEDIA CAPTURING . . . . ALPHA TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPRESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . PREMISES NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BETA TESTING . . . . . . . . CORE NETWORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTEROPERABILITY TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . . 18 CONTENT AGGREGATION HEADEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRESS TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 19 19 19 20 20 20 CONTENT FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 FRAMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Spatial Compression (Image Compression) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Macroblocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Time Compression (Temporal Compression) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACKET ELEMENTARY STREAM (PES) PROGRAM STREAM (PS) . . . . . . .34 Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Pixels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 SUBJECTIVE QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 GROUPS OF PICTURES (GOP) . . .Table of Contents AUDIO COMPRESSION . . . . . 22 Waveform Coding . . .32 VIDEO ELEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Predicted Frames (P-Frames) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 MEDIA STREAM (MS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 VIDEO COMPRESSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 OBJECTIVE QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 44 44 45 45 QUALITY METRICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Intra Frames (I-Frames) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) . 49 vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ELEMENTARY STREAM (ES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 MPEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Perceptual Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . .36 FRAME RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Bi-Directional Frames (B-Frames) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 QUANTIZER SCALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Slice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Mean Square Error (MSE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 VIDEO . . . . . . .30 Coding Redundancy (Data Compression) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRANSPORT STREAM (TS) . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . OBJECT RETENTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 TILING . 53 VIDEO QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACKET JITTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACKET DISCARD RATE (PDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 FULL REFERENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . COLOR PIXELATION . . . . . . . ARTIFACTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONTRAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 AUDIO FIDELITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BRIGHTNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 PACKET LOSS RATE (PLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 65 65 65 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JERKINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AUDIO QUALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SLICE LOSSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 NOISE LEVEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLURRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 54 55 56 56 56 57 58 59 59 59 59 60 TESTING MODELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 REDUCED RATE REFERENCE . . ERROR BLOCKS . . . . . . . . . . 61 ZERO REFERENCE (NON REFERENCE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PACKET LATENCY . . .65 . . . . . . . 62 NETWORK MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Packet Delay Variation (PDV) OUT OF ORDER PACKETS . . . . . 52 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION (THD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QUANTIZATION NOISE ALIASING EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 FREQUENCY RESPONSE (FR) . . . . . . . RINGING . . . . . . . .

. . . 71 FRAME COUNT . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 COMPRESSION RATIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 DELAY FACTOR (DF) . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 ROUTE FLAPPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 LOSS OF SIGNAL . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Transport Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Program Association Table Error (PAT Error) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Program Map Table Error (PMT Error) . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 JITTER DISCARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 BUFFER TIME . . . . . . . . . .75 Continuity Count Error . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Program Clock Rate Error (PCR Error) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 LINE RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 FRAME LOSS RATE (FLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 CLOCK RATE JITTER . . . .75 Transport Stream Synchronization Loss (TS-Sync Loss) . 70 STREAM RATE . . . . . . . . . . 73 AUDIO VISUAL SYNCHRONIZATION OFFSET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 CONNECTION SUCCESS RATE (CSR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Packet Gap . . 72 STREAM INTEGRITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Packet Identifier Error (PID Error) . . . . . . . . 70 CONTENT QUALITY MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 REBUFFER TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 PROGRAM TRANSPORT STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 PROTOCOL CONFORMANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 MEDIA LOSS RATE (MLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents GAP LOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 REBUFFER EVENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 ERROR FREE SECONDS (EFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 PROGRAM STREAM RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 TRANSPORT STREAM RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS Error) . 70 BIT ERROR RATE (BER) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Video Mean Opinion Score (MOS-V) . . . 77 COMMAND AND CONTROL MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Gap Video Mean Opinion Score (Gap MOS-V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 VIDEO SERVICE AUDIO QUALITY (VSAQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Multicast Join Time . . . . . . . . . . . 87 88 88 88 88 x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 TEST EQUIPMENT .86 Audio Mean Opinion Score (MOS-A) . . . . 82 VIDEO SERVICE TRANSMISSION QUALITY (VSTQ) . . . . . . . . . 84 PERCEPTUAL EVALUATION OF VIDEO QUALITY (PEVQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 MEAN OPINION SCORE (MOS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Burst Video Mean Opinion Score (Burst MOS-V) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cyclic Redundancy Check Error (CRC Error) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 VIDEO SERVICE PICTURE QUALITY (VSPQ) . . . . . . . . . . . 77 CHANNEL CHANGE TIME (ZAP TIME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 MOVING PICTURE QUALITY METRICS (MPQM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 MISSING CHANNELS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PROTOCOL ANALYZER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Channel Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 ENCODER INITIALIZATION TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 SET TOP BOX INITIALIZATION TIME . . . .76 IMAGE ENTROPY . . . . . . . .86 Audiovisual Mean Opinion Score (MOS-AV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 SINGLE STIMULUS CONTINUOUS QUALITY EVALUATION (SSCQE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 MEDIA DELIVERY INDEX (MDI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 CONTENT QUALITY RATING SYSTEMS . MPEG GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 V FACTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 VIDEO ANALYZER . . . . . . . . . BUILT-IN TEST EQUIPMENT (BITE) IMPAIRMENT EMULATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 CONNECT TIME . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Measurement Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IPTV TEST EQUIPMENT MANUFACTUERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 FAULT FINDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 INDEX. . . . . . 95 APPENDIX II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 APPENDIX I . . . . . . . . . . . 92 FAULT PREDICTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 NETWORK PROBES . . . . . . .89 In Line Monitoring . . . . . . 89 Active Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Reference Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 HEARTBEAT GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . .ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 TEST CLIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 MIRROR PORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 FAULT MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Hierarchical Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 xi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90 Alarm Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 FAULT ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents NETWORK MONITORING . . . . . .

xii .

Copyright ©. system or service that provides television service through data networks to validate its successful operation and/or performance. Inc -1- . 2008.IPTV Testing IPTV testing is the performing of measurements or observations of a device. IPTV Connection IPTV systems use switched video service (SVS) that dynamically setup (on demand) video signal connections between two or more points. Broadcast systems are designed for controlled continuous transmission while IPTV systems use packet transmission that is subject to varying transmission patterns and packet losses (burst errors). IPTV systems differ from broadcast television systems as they use transmission systems that provide varying levels of performance. SVS services can range from the setup of data connections that allow video transfer to the organization and management of video content and the delivery of video programs. ALTHOS. IPTV testing can be complicated because there are many interrelated processes which all can reduce the quality of the media and processes that are used to control the media flow.

IPTV Video Connection Copyright ©. This example shows that the switched video service (SVS) system allows the user to connect to various types of television media sources including broadcast network channels. This diagram shows how a standard television is connected to a set top box (STB) that converts IP video into standard television signals. ALTHOS. and movies on demand. Figure 1.1. 2008. subscription services. This diagram shows that the user only needs one video channel to the SVS to have access to virtually an unlimited number of video sources. The STB is the gateway to an IP video switching system. the control commands (usually entered by the user with a television remote control) are sent to the SVS and the SVS determines which media source the user desires to connect to. Inc -2- . When the user desires to access these media sources.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1.1 shows how a basic IP television system can be used to allow a viewer to have access to many different media sources.

Introduction to IPTV Testing IPTV Layers IPTV systems can be divided into multiple layers ranging from a layer that physically transports data to the layer that presents the media to the viewer. The session layer coordinates and oversees that transfer of the media components for the program channel (such as MPEG). The application layer coordinates the information interface between the communication device and the end user or the program they are using. The physical layer is responsible for converting bits of information into data packets that are transferred on a network. The physical layer is responsible for converting bits of information into data packets that are transferred on a network. The application layer presents the media to the viewer. The MAC layer is responsible for requesting access and coordinating the flow of information. The MAC layer is responsible for requesting and coordinating access to the physical channel. Copyright ©. The PES layer assigns media components (such as audio and video) to specific packet streams. The transport layer is responsible for transferring packets (such as UDP/RTP) between the sender and the receiver. The divisions of the hierarchy are referred to as layers or levels.2 shows an IPTV system that has been divided into multiple layers. The MPEG transport stream layer combines multiple media streams (audio and video) into a single program transport stream. ALTHOS. The Internet protocol (IP) layer is responsible for adding the network address to packets. Figure 1. each protocol layer obtains services from the protocol layer below it and performs services to the protocol layer above it. Inc -3- . The packet elementary stream (PES) layer maps and coordinates the media components to the transport streams. with each layer performing a specific task. The UDP/RTP (transport layer) is responsible for transferring packets between the sender and the receiver. 2008. The Internet protocol (IP) layer is responsible for adding the network address to packets so they can travel through the network to reach their destination. In addition.

Copyright ©. Inc -4- .2. 2008. IPTV Layers The operation of IPTV systems is commonly measured by a combination of objective quality of service (QoS) and quality of experience (QoE) evaluation processes.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. ALTHOS.

network utilization. Why Test for IPTV The benefits of testing IPTV systems include customer satisfaction. failure prediction. Inc -5- . cost. 2008. types of programming. Quality of Experience (QoE) Quality of experience (QoE) is one or more measurements of the total communications experience or the entertainment satisfaction from the perspective of the end user. and validation of performance for service level agreement terms. Copyright ©. maximum bit error rate (BER). QoE measures may include service availability. minimum committed bit rate (CBR) and other measurements that are used to ensure quality communications service. QoS measures may include service availability. Customer satisfaction for IPTV systems can be influenced by the content offered. ALTHOS. quality of service. audio and video fidelity. opportunity identification. features.Introduction to IPTV Testing Quality of Service (QoS) Quality of service (QoS) is one or more measurements of desired performance and priorities of a communications system. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is the perceived value that a customer has that a product or service fulfills their needs or desires. and other factors. ability to use and the value of interactive services.

IPTV testing can be used to monitor and adjust services to ensure they meet customer SLA levels. reduce cost. Testing can be used to determine how network resources are assigned and when additional resources need to be acquired (reducing the need to overbuild). Failure Predictions Fault predictions are estimated unwanted conditions that are likely to occur as a result of measured or observed conditions. The SLA may include fees and discounts for the services based on the actual performance level received by the customer. Copyright ©. or increase customer satisfaction. IPTV testing can be used to identify people or customers that have specific types of needs or buying patterns. ALTHOS.Introduction to IPTV Testing Network Utilization Network utilization is a comparison of how many network resources are being used as compared to the total amount of availability of network resources. Inc -6- . 2008. Service Level Agreement (SLA) Service level agreements are a set of terms between a customer and a service provider that defines the services provided by the carrier and the performance requirements of the customer. Testing can be used to identify potential areas of a system that may fail reducing the cost of emergency service. Opportunity Identification Opportunity identification is the awareness of services or products that may be provided to earn additional revenue.

Content dependency causes some types of content to look good while other types of content look bad given the same network performance impairments. Copyright ©. an inability to measure the quality of protected (encrypted) content.Introduction to IPTV Testing IPTV Testing Challenges IPTV testing involves multiple types of tests because IPTV systems transmit mixed media. There may be several conversion processes along the content flow path in IPTV systems and one or more of them may degrade the quality of the media. the service can be content dependent. Multiple Conversions Media conversions are the process of changing information from one format to another format. This means that the user’s perceived quality can vary on the same network depending on the content that is sent through the network. The challenge that this can cause is in the way each media type is processed as it is distributed through the network. Mixed Media Mixed media is the combining of media of different types. audio. ALTHOS. and text graphics on a video or television monitor. Content Dependent Content dependency factors are a set of conditions such as rapid motion graphics that can influence the display or perception of media. An example of mixed media is the combining of video. 2008. Video and audio processing functions can result in different amounts of delay or quality resulting in acceptable quality on one type of media while another type of media has an unacceptable quality level. there are multiple media conversion (encoding) processes. Inc -7- . and hidden distortion due to error concealment techniques.

it is decoded and re-encoded for local distribution. The encoder may change the media format from variable bit rate (VBR) to constant bit rate (CBR). Lossy compression is a process of reducing an amount of information (usually in digital form) by converting it into another format (such as MPEG) that represents the initial form of information. additional distortion occurs. switched with other video sources. This example shows that the media is compressed and encoded into MPEG2 before it is distributed via a satellite system.Introduction to IPTV Testing IPTV media conversion commonly uses lossy media compression. When the satellite signal is received at the cable head end.3 shows how content may be converted multiple times between its high-quality format and when the media is received by the viewing device. Inc -8- . 2008. Figure 1. it is decoded. Content distributors may compress the media and send it to broadcasters (such as IPTV systems). The content producer (such as a studio) provides the media to a content distribution system (such as a satellite distribution system) usually in highquality uncompressed form. Each time the media is converted. and re-encoded into MPEG-4 before it is distributed to the viewer. When it is received by the IPTV systems. Copyright ©. The reencoding process may be in another compressed format (such as MPEG-4). Each of these conversions can add distortion to the media signal. ALTHOS.

Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. ALTHOS. IPTV Multiple Conversions Content Protection Content Protection is the end-to-end encryption system that prevents content from being pirated or tampered with in a communication network (such as in a television system). When content is encrypted or uniquely encoded. scrambling and encrypting the digital assets prior to play-out or storage (both in the network or end user devices) as well as the delivering the accompanying rights to allow legal users to access the content. it is usually not possible to analyze the underlying media.3. assigning the usage rights. Inc -9- . 2008. Content protection involves uniquely identifying the content. Copyright ©.

Testing Types There are many types of testing ranging from simple operational testing to multilayer testing. 2008. Functional Testing Functional tests are observations and/or measurements that are performed during normal operating conditions of a device.Introduction to IPTV Testing Error Concealment Error concealment is a process that is used by a coding device (such as a speech coder) to create information that replaces data that has been received in error. Copyright ©. Error concealment is possible when portions of the signal output of the coder have some relationship to other portions of the signal output and that relationship can be used to produce an approximated signal that replaces the lost information period (lost bits). service or system to determine if it can perform its designed functions. ALTHOS. Error concealment methods (such as repeating the last frame of video when a frame is lost) can influence the ability to accurately measure the effects of distortion (such as packet loss). application of test signals (if required) and measuring or observation of signals and test responses that ensure a system is operating correctly. Each testing type may have a set of test procedures associated with it to allow customer support and test personnel to reliably perform the tests. Inc -10- . Operational Testing Operational testing is the configuring of system equipment.

Inc -11- . transport. subsystem. link. system or service. End to end testing can be used to verify that all the paths and systems are operating. 2008. ALTHOS. Multilayer Testing Multilayer testing is the performing of measurements or observations of a network or system which interact with different functional levels such as physical. End to End Testing End to end testing is the process of verifying a communication transmission or service from its source (origin) to its end (termination). Copyright ©. and session to help understand the operation or performance of a device. Field Testing Field testing is the process of testing a device. or system at a location that typically involves its normal operation. Feature function testing may involve the combination of features to determine how they interact and influence each other. Acceptance Testing Acceptance testing is the performing of measurements that determine if the operations and performance of a system. or component parts within systems meet the required performance characteristics.Introduction to IPTV Testing Feature Function Testing Feature function testing is the verification of the desired operation of features and functional operations they are supposed to perform. assembly. Field testing commonly involves the use of portable test equipment that is used by qualified test technicians.

and other network parameters can be tested in loopback mode. Figure 1. the access network. confirm. To verify the core network. During error testing. packet loss rate. the error rate. and identify failed equipments in portions of a network such as the core network. Failure of one or more of these tests can be used to isolate and help diagnose problems within the system. error correction processes (such as FEC) may be disabled so that the automatic error correction processes do not interfere with the counting of errors in the test signals. the test signal can be sent to the modem at the access connection point portion of the network where it is looped back to the headend. ALTHOS. Loopback testing can be used to verify the operation or performance of the system. Inc -12- . This verifies that all the links in the network are operating correctly. Loopback Testing Loopback testing is the process of testing the transmission capability and functioning of equipment within a system in which a signal is transmitted through a loop that returns the signal to the source. If the core network is verified.Introduction to IPTV Testing Diagnostic Testing Diagnostic testing is the process of gathering information or data that can be used to identify parts of a device or system that are performing undesired processes or functions. If the access network is operating correctly. 2008. To verify the performance of the network. Copyright ©. The test verifies the capability of the source to transmit and receive signals. the test signal can be sent to the viewing device where it is looped back to the headend. the test signal is sent to the ONU at the access network connection point where it is returned (looped) back to the headend. and the end user viewer device.4 shows how loopback testing can be used in an IP television system to progressively test.

2008. usually performed by the in-house developers or programmers. ALTHOS.4.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Alpha testing is the initial internal and possibly limited field testing process used to confirm the operation and performance of new hardware or software prod- Copyright ©. IPTV Loopback Testing Laboratory Testing Laboratory testing is the process of measuring the characteristics or operation of a device. Inc -13- . prototyping or performance certification. Alpha Testing Alpha testing is the first stage in testing a new hardware or software product. or system at a location that typically involves its design. assembly.

Interoperability testing is very important to IPTV systems because different products. models. models. The key purpose of Beta testing is to identify problems and the reliability of operation during normal field operating conditions. Performance tests are used to determine if the device or service is operating within its designed operational parameters. Performance Testing Performance tests are measurements of operational parameters during specific modes of operation.g. The typical number of Alpha test participants is 10 to 50. Performance tests can be performed over time to determine if a system is developing operational problems.Introduction to IPTV Testing ucts. system or service to determine if the device will operate with other devices of a similar type or with devices that have been designed and tested to specifications (e. ALTHOS. Inc -14- . Interoperability Testing Interoperability testing is the performing of measurements or observations of a device. and software versions. The key purpose of Alpha testing is to identify basic problems during typical operating conditions. and software versions may not operate as expected when used with other products. usually performed by friendly customers or affiliates of the manufacturer or developer. industry standards). 2008. Beta Testing Beta testing is the field testing process used to confirm the operation and performance of new hardware or software products before a product is officially released. Copyright ©. Beta testing is the second stage for testing a new hardware or software product. The typical number of Beta test participants is 50 to several hundred.

Introduction to IPTV Testing Load Testing Load testing is the setup of a system where the services are consumed or provided at defined rates such as near or at maximum designed capacity limits. Stress tests are performed to determine how a network or system will operate under loaded or failed conditions. ALTHOS. Inc -15- . Load testing is performed to help ensure that a system will meet or exceed its performance requirements during high-capacity operating conditions. This helps to determine if the data network lines and switching points have enough capacity to provide both the data network and IPTV system needs. Service Capacity Testing Service capacity is the maximum amount of resources that can be effectively used to provide for processing or transmission of functions within a system or network. Service capacity testing gathers information about the usage patterns that exist in the network. A data network that has several routers can transfer data between computers in the company and other computers connected to the Internet. each router can be monitored for peak data transfer activity detection for several days. 2008. As part of the IPTV capability pre-test. A data network may be monitored for several days to determine the capacity and transmission delays at concentration points (routers and switches) within the network. Stress Testing Stress tests are observations and/or measurements of devices or services under operational conditions that are near or above their design limitations. Copyright ©.

audio segment. or clock reference message. transmission. Content flow includes capturing media. These packets are relatively small so Copyright ©. Compression Compression is the processing of digital information to a form that reduces the space required for storage. Inc -16- . Because the digital video data rates are relatively high (270 Mbps for standard definition video and 1. 2008. Media Capturing Media capturing is the process of gathering and processing signals or information. Each MPEG packet only contains a certain type of media such as a video segment. For IPTV systems.5 Gpbs for high definition video). packetization involves converting media into fixed size data packets (MPEG packets). Some of the compression techniques replace commonly occurring sequences of characters by tokens that take up less space and others convert media segments to other formats that approximate the media to dramatically reduce the data rate (lossy compression). decompression. Packetization Packetization is the process of dividing data files or blocks of data into smaller blocks (packets) of data. The higher the compression level (MPEG-3 video is approximately 200:1 compression). the more sensitive the media is to distortion (such as corrupted or lost data packets). and decoding of the media signal back into its original form. compression. For IPTV systems. packet reception. packetization. the digital video signal is compressed. media capturing can involve the conversion from analog video to digital video (A/D conversion).Introduction to IPTV Testing Content Flow Content flow in an IPTV system is the transfer of media from one functional area to another. ALTHOS. There are several types of compression that can be used for video and audio.

2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing several MPEG packets fit into the data portion (the payload) of an IP data packet. A destination address is added to the header part of each packet before it is sent into the packet data network. Decompression Decompression is the processing of compressed digital information to convert it into its original uncompressed format. Inc -17- . IPTV systems decompress multiple types of media such as video and audio. and controlling packets as they pass through switching points in a packet data network. Decoding Decoding is the process of converting encoded data into its original signal format. transferring. Packet reception may involve the requesting of retransmission of missing packets and filtering (elimination) of duplicate packets that are received. For IPTV systems. Packet Transmission Packet transmission is the process of addressing. Copyright ©. the decoding process may involve converting digital audio and video into forms that can be played or displayed to the user. Packet Reception Packet reception is the process of identifying and gathering packets with the correct destination address and routing them to the appropriate function or service within the receiving device (via the port number on the IP address). Control information (such as the maximum number of transfers or hops that may occur) is also added to the packet header. ALTHOS. several MPEG packets may be lost (including timing reference information). This means that if one IP packet is lost during transmission.

The system analyzes and compresses the media. Servers control the overall system access and processing of channel connection requests and gateways convert the IP television network data to signals that can be used by television media viewers. 2008. The receiver gathers and assembles the packets.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1.5. The data is then converted into its original video and audio forms. IP Television networks are primarily constructed of computer servers. IPTV System Content Flow IPTV System IPTV systems deliver multiple video and audio channels to viewing devices. Figure 1. gateways. access connections and end user display devices. This diagram shows that an IP video system digitizes (A/D) and reformats (codes) the original media (video and audio). Inc -18- . The media is decompressed back into its original video and audio data form. The IP address and transmission control information is added to each packet. The packets travel through a packet data network. ALTHOS.5 shows how video can be sent via an IP transmission system. Copyright ©.

including antennas and satellite dishes to receive signals. demodulators and modulators. 2008. Content Aggregation Content aggregation is the process of combining multiple content sources for distribution through other communication channels. It then manages (e.Introduction to IPTV Testing IPTV system operators link content providers to content consumers. Core Network The core network is the central network portion of a communication system. ALTHOS. or via stored media (DVDs or VHS tapes). frequency converters. playout) the content via an asset management system and transfers the content via a distribution network. IPTV systems gather content via a content acquisition network and convert the content to a format that it can use via a headend system. preamplifiers. Core networks for IPTV systems can be fiber optic rings that can simultaneously distribute (simulcast) simultaneously transmitted television signals (live channels) throughout a large geographic area and provide connections to other media sources (such as direct connection to a tele- Copyright ©. and scrambling and de-scrambling equipment. Content (such as movies or television programs) may be gathered or provided via communication lines (leased lines). The media is then converted to display on the desired viewing devices. Inc -19- .g. The core network primarily provides interconnection and transfer between edge networks. A variety of equipment is used at the headend. radio systems (satellite). A system may interconnect headends in different geographic regions through the use of regional or super headends. To do this. processors. Headend A headend is part of a television system that selects and processes video signals for distribution into a television distribution network.

Premises Network A premises distribution network (PDN) consists of the equipment and software that are used to transfer data and other media in a customer’s facility or home. Figure 1. This diagram shows how the IPTV system gathers content from a variety of sources including network feeds. as well as being able to communicate using multiple types of access networks and streaming protocols. The core network may also be used to provide individual connection to stored media programs (on demand programming). stored media.Introduction to IPTV Testing vision studio). powerline. optical lines. The headend converts the media sources into a form that can be managed and distributed. PDN systems may use wired Ethernet. 2008. audio or images into a form that can be experienced by humans. Access Network An access network is a portion of a communication network (such as the public switched telephone network) that allows individual subscribers or devices to connect to the core network. wireless broadband. Viewing devices may contain support for servicing different media formats and compression (codec) formats. coaxial and phone lines to transfer data or media. The distribution system simultaneously Copyright ©.6 shows a sample IPTV system. Inc -20- . cable modem. communication links and live studio sources. or powerline data lines. IPTV access networks can be DSL. ALTHOS. moves and sends out (playout) the media at scheduled times. wireless LAN. The asset management system stores. Viewing Devices A viewing device is a combination of hardware and software that can convert media such as video. A PDN is used to connect terminals (computers) and media devices (such as TV set top boxes) to each other and to wide area network connections.

Copyright ©. transferring. addressing. receiving. coding.Introduction to IPTV Testing transfers multiple channels to users who are connected to the IPTV system. Transmission of IP audio involves digitizing audio. on multimedia computers or on IP televisions (data only televisions). decoding and converting (rendering) IP audio data into its original audio form. Figure 1.6. ALTHOS. Users view IPTV programming on analog televisions that are converted by adapter boxes (IP set top boxes). 2008. Inc -21- . IPTV System Audio IP audio is the transfer of audio (sound) information in IP packet data format.

2008. Audio Copyright ©. store or transfer audio signals.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Figure 1. decodes the data and converts the digital audio back into its original video form. adds IP address information to each packet. codes and/or compresses the data. Inc -22- . recombines the packets and extracts the digitized audio. ALTHOS. IP Audio System Audio Compression Audio compression is a technique for converting or encoding audio (sound) information so that a smaller amount of information elements or reduced bandwidth is required to represent. transfers the packets through a packet data network.7.7 shows how audio can be sent via an IP transmission system. This diagram shows that an IP audio system digitizes and reformats the original audio.

This means that audio signals do not have a high amount of redundancy. perceptual coding and voice coding. Compression ratio is a comparison of data that has been compressed to the total amount of data before compression. Copyright ©. 2008. a file compressed to 1/4th its original size can be expressed as 4:1. compression ratio also refers to the amount of bandwidth-reduction achieved. For example. ALTHOS. Inc -23- . It is possible to highly compress digital audio by removing sounds that can be heard or perceived by listeners through the process of perceptual (lossy) coding. The characteristics and limitations of human hearing can be taken advantage of when selecting. Digital audio data is random in nature unlike digital video. The human ear can hear sounds from very low frequencies (20 Hz) to approximately 20 kHz. In telecommunications. Audio compression systems can be lossless or lossy. Lossless compression is a coding system that analyzes a data or media signal and produces a new file format that can be converted back to its exact original form. Lossy compression is the process of reducing an amount of information (usually in digital form) by converting it into another format (such as MP3 or AAC) that represents the initial form of information. However. Lossless compression searches the data or file for redundant patterns and converts them to smaller codes or tokens. lossy compression does not have the ability to guarantee the exact recreation of the original signal when it is expanded back from its compressed form. which has repetitive information that occurs on adjacent image frames. Some of the basic coding processes include waveform coding. For example. 4:1 compression of a 64 kbps channel is 16 kbps. making traditional data compression and prediction processes ineffective at compressing digital audio.Introduction to IPTV Testing compression coders and decoders (codecs) analyze digital audio signals to remove signal redundancies and sounds that cannot be heard by humans. However. the ear is most sensitive to sounds in the 1 kHz to 5 kHz. designing and using audio signals.

music and other complex signals such as fax or modem signals. audio. Using perceptual coding. Inc -24- . For example. Because waveform coding processes represent most of the information in an audio signal waveform. error protection bits may be added to the more significant bits of the compressed audio stream to maintain the audio quality when errors occur. Perceptual Coding Perceptual coding is the process of converting information into a format that matches the human senses’ ability to perceive or capture the information. Because audio coders compress information or data into codes or data that represent tones or other audio attributes. high volume levels or key frequency tones) can be more sensitive to the listener than errors that occur on other data bits. small errors that occur during transmission can produce dramatically different sounds. speech audio as compared to music).g. Perceptual coding can take advantage of the inability of human senses to capture specific types of information. Waveform coders are capable of compressing and decompressing voice. Copyright ©. 2008. Waveform Coding Waveform coding consists of an analog to digital converter and a data compression circuit that converts analog waveform signals into digital signals that represent the waveform shapes. errors that occur on some of the audio data bits (e. the human ear cannot simultaneously hear loud sounds at one tone (frequency) and soft sounds at another tone (different frequency). As a result. Key types of audio coding include waveform coding. it would not be necessary to send signals that cannot be heard even if the original signal contained multiple audio components.g. In some cases. waveform coders do not offer much compression.Introduction to IPTV Testing The type of coder (type of analysis and compression) can dramatically vary and different types of coders may perform better for different types of audio sounds (e. This commonly results in larger media files or higher data transmission rates for waveform coders as compared to perceptual coders or voice coders. perceptual coding and voice coders. Perceptual coding may remove frequency components (frequency masking) or sequences of sounds (temporal masking) that a listener cannot hear. ALTHOS.

8 shows the basic operation of an audio codec. 2008. The digital information contains characteristics of the video signal and the position of the image (bit location) that will be displayed. ALTHOS. Inc -25- . Copyright ©. Audio Codec Operation Video Digital video is a sequence of picture signals (frames) that are represented by binary data (bits) that describe a finite set of color and luminance levels. Figure 1.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1.8. This diagram shows that the audio coding process begins with digitization of audio signals. Sending a digital video picture involves the conversion of an image into digital information that is transferred to a digital video receiver. The compressed code is transmitted to the receiving device that converts the code back into its original audio form. The next step is to analyze the signal into key parts or segments and to represent the digital audio signal with a compressed code or set of codes that represent the characteristics of the audio signal.

transfers the packets through a packet data network. adds IP address information to each packet. ALTHOS.9. Transmission of IP video involves digitizing video. 2008. coding. receiving. decodes the data and converts the digital video back into its original video form. IP Video System Copyright ©. This diagram shows that an IP video system digitizes and reformats the original video. Figure 1. decoding and converting (rendering) IP video data into its original video form.9 shows how video can be sent via an IP transmission system. codes and/or compresses the data. recombines the packets and extracts the digitized video.Introduction to IPTV Testing IP video is the transfer of video information in IP packet data format. transferring. Inc -26- . addressing. Figure 1.

Introduction to IPTV Testing Video Compression Video compression is the process of reducing the amount of transmission bandwidth or the data transmission rate by analog processing and/or digital coding techniques. The JPEG committee has produced an image compression standard format that is able to reduce the bit per pixel ratio to approximately 0. you don’t get exactly the same image that you started with despite the fact JPEG was specifically designed to discard information not easily detected by the human eye. The JPEG committee has defined a set of compression methods that are used to provide for high-quality images at varying levels of compression up to approximately 50:1. image or section of information. One of the common forms of spatial compression is specified by the joint picture experts group (JPEG).5 bits per pixel for high quality. this has a much lower compression ratio. When you decompress the original image. a video signal can be transmitted on circuits with relatively narrow channel bandwidth or using data rates 50 to 200 times lower than their original uncompressed form.25 bits per pixel for fair quality to 2. ALTHOS. Copyright ©. Spatial Compression (Image Compression) Spatial compression is the analysis and compression of information or data within a single frame. JPEG uses lossy compression methods that result in some loss of the original data. Inc -27- . Moving pictures can be compressed by removing redundancy within each image (spatial redundancy) or between successive images over a period of time (temporal redundancy). 2008. However. JPEG is a working committee under the auspices of the International Standards Organization (ISO) with the goal of defining a standard for digital compression and decompression of still images for use in computer systems. The JPEG compression system can use compression that is fully reversible (no loss of information) or that is lossy (reversible with some loss of quality). When compressed.

The compression system may choose to remove frequency components that have a limited amount of information (low levels) through a threshold process. the resulting data is then also compressed using run length encoding (RLE) and variable length encoding (VLE) processes. DCT uses thresholding to vary the amount of compression on an image. RLE represents repetitive data information by a notation that indicates the data that will be repeated and how many times the data will be repeated (run length). This is because the compression methods tend to approximate portions of the image and the approximation of lines or sharp boundaries tends to get blurry with unwanted artifacts. The JPEG compression process begins by dividing a digital image into groups of blocks. Inc -28- . VLE Copyright ©. ALTHOS. Thresholding is used in lossy data compression processes (such as image compression) to reduce the amount of data through the loss of accuracy of information that has little impact on the user. Thresholding is the process of modifying numbers or measurements that are within a range or meet some criteria to produce a lower or lesser number of data elements. These frequency components are then converted into specific levels. The data is then compressed using run length encoding to remove (to represent) long sequences by shorter codes (run length encoding) and then by variable length coding to convert repeated sequences over varying lengths into shorter codes (variable length encoding).Introduction to IPTV Testing JPEG compression typically works better for photographs and reference video frames (key reference frames) rather than line art of cartoon graphics. DCT is a form of frequency analysis that is applied to discrete signals (e. binary data) to produce an output that is composed of the frequency components and the levels (coefficients) that represent the original digital signal. These blocks are then converted from a pixel domain (bit maps) into a frequency domain (a group of images with different detail levels) using a discrete cosine transform (DCT) process. In addition to analyzing and compressing images into its frequency components.g. 2008. A DCT output is composed of a DC component (basic intensity) and a series of increasing frequency components that reflect the complexity of the underlying data.

2008. Figure 1. the coefficient levels can be changed a small amount (lossy compression) without significant image differences (thresholding). The sum of these DCT coefficient components can be processed and added together to reproduce the original block.10 shows the basic process that can be used for JPEG image compression. This diagram shows that JPEG compression takes a portion (block) of a digital image (lines and column sample points) and analyzes the block of digital information into a new block sequence of frequency components (DCT). Inc -29- . first using run length coding (RLC) to reduce repetitive bit patterns and then using variable length coding (VLC) to convert and reduce highly repetitive data sequences. The new block of coefficients is converted to a sequence of data (serial format) by a zigzag process.10.Introduction to IPTV Testing represents repetitive groups of data information by codes that are used to look up the data sequence along with how many times the data will be repeated (variable length). The data is then further compressed. Optionally. ALTHOS. Figure 1. JPEG Image Compression Copyright ©.

2008. Using Key Frames in Digital Video Copyright ©. These standards specify the data compression and decompression processes and how they are delivered on digital broadcast systems.Introduction to IPTV Testing Time Compression (Temporal Compression) Temporal compression is the analysis and compression of information or data over a sequence of frames.11. To accomplish this. ALTHOS. images or sections of information. MPEG is part of International Standards Organization (ISO). Figure 1.11 shows how key frames can be used to reduce the amount of data that is transmitted for video signals. MPEG is a working committee that defines and develops industry standards for digital video systems. This example shows two scenes in a Figure 1. One of the more common forms of temporal compression used for digital is specified by the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG). Inc -30- . time compression can use key frames and motion estimation. Temporal video compression involves analyzing the changes that occur between successive images in a video sequence so that only the difference between the images is sent instead of all of the information in each image.

g. Motion Estimation Copyright ©. Figure 1. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing video clip. Motion estimation is a computer-intensive process that is used to achieve high compression ratios. The process involves an exhaustive search of the many blocks surrounding the current block from the previous frame. a new key frame is sent. Motion estimation is the process of searching a fixed region of a previous frame of video to find a matching block of pixels of the same size under consideration in the current frame. This diagram shows that a bird in a picture is flying across the picture. When a new scene occurs. digital video).12 shows how a digital video system can use motion estimation to identify objects and how their positions change in a series of pictures. the motion estimation system looks for blocks that approximate other blocks in previous pictures. This example shows that a key frame is sent at the beginning of a scene and only the changes to the key frame are subsequently sent. Block matching is the process of matching the images in a block (a portion of an image) to locations in other frames of a digital picture sequence (e. Over time. In each picture frame.12. Inc -31- . ALTHOS. The first scene is of a sail boat that is slowly moving across the horizon on the water and the second scene is of a house on the shoreline. the digital video motion Figure 1.

Data compression is a technique for encoding information so that fewer data bits of information are required to represent a given amount of data. Coding Redundancy (Data Compression) Coding redundancy is the repetition of information or bits of data within a sequence of data. Figure 1.13 shows how video compression may use spatial and temporal compression to reduce the amount of data to represent a video sequence. 2008. ALTHOS. This diagram shows that a frame in a video sequence may use spatial compression by representing the graphic elements within the frame by objects or codes. The next sequence of images only needs to move the bird on the background (temporal compression). Inc -32- .Introduction to IPTV Testing estimation system finds matches and determines the paths (motion vectors) that these objects take. The first frame of this example shows how a picture of a bird that is flying in the sky can be compressed by separating the bird image from the blue background and making the bird an object and representing the blue background as a box (spatial compression). Some of the common forms of data compression used in video compression include run length encoding (RLE) and variable length encoding (VLE). Copyright ©. Using data compression can help to reduce coding redundancy.

Inc -33- .Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. ALTHOS. Video Compression Video Elements Video images are composed of pixels. Digital video systems group pixels within each image into small blocks and these blocks are grouped into macroblocks. The different types of frames can be combined into a group of pictures. which come in several different types. Copyright ©. Slices make up frames. 2008. Macroblocks can be combined into slices and each image may contain several slices.13.

a frame comprises two fields. ALTHOS. Slices can vary in size and shape. For the MPEG system. Blocks Blocks are portions of an image within a frame of video usually defined by a number of horizontal and vertical pixels. Copyright ©. each block is composed of 8 by 8 pixels and each block is processed separately. a frame is divided into 16 by 16 pixel sized macroblocks. More pixels per unit area provide more detail in the image. The number of pixels per unit of area is called the resolution. which is four 8 by 8-pixel blocks. Slice A slice is a part of an image that is used in digital video and is composed of a continuous group of macroblocks. Each field contains half of the video scan lines that make up the picture. Frames A frame is a single still image within the sequence of images that comprise the video. In an interlaced scanning video system. Inc -34- . Typically. with the first field typically containing the odd numbered scan lines and the second field typically containing the even numbered scan lines. Pixels can range in size and shape and are composed of color (possibly only black on white paper) and intensity.Introduction to IPTV Testing Pixels A pixel is the smallest component in an image. Macroblocks A macroblock is a region of a picture in a digital picture sequence (motion picture) that may be used to determine the motion compensation from a reference frame to other pictures in a sequence of images. 2008.

predicted frames that are based on previous reference frames (P-frames). bidirectionally predicted frames using preceding frames and bidirectional frames (B-Frames). These formats vary from frame types that only use spatial compression (independently compressed) to frame types that use both spatial compression and temporal compression (predicted frames). I-frames are used as a reference for other compressed image frames and I frames are completely independent of other frames. Inc -35- . This means that I-frames usually require more data than other types of compressed frames. Intra Frames (I-Frames) Intra frames (I-Frames) are complete images (pictures) within a sequence of images (such as in a video sequence). Copyright ©. Predicted Frames (P-Frames) Predicted frames (P-Frames) are images (pictures) within a sequence of images (such as in a video sequence) that are created using information from other images (such as from I-Frames). The only redundancy that can be removed from I frames is spatial redundancy.Introduction to IPTV Testing To compress video signals. Since image components are often repeated within a sequence of images (temporal redundancy). MPEG system frame types include independent reference frames (I-frames). the MPEG system categorizes video images (frames) into different formats. ALTHOS. 2008. the use of P-Frames provides substantial reduction in the number of bits that are used to represent a digital video sequence (temporal data compression).

Frame Rate Frame rate is the number of images (frames or fields) that are displayed to a movie viewer over a period of time. some frames can be dropped. Because B-frames must be compared to two other frames. and I frames (very high impact on video quality). ALTHOS. The common frame rates for television signals range from 25 to 30 frames per second (fps) and 50 to 60 fields per second (fps). Frame rate is typically indicated in frames per second (fps). Inc -36- . Bframes require the use of frames that both precede and follow the B-frames.Introduction to IPTV Testing Bi-Directional Frames (B-Frames) Bi-directional frames (B-Frames) are images (pictures) within a sequence of images (such as in a video sequence) that are created using information from preceding images. The process of dropping frames can be prioritized by dropping B frames first (lowest impact on video quality). motion estimation) is typically higher than P frames. P frames. When a frame is dropped. or images that follow (such as from intra frames (IFrames) and predicted frames (P-Frames). Frame dropping is the process of discarding or not using all the video frames in a sequence of frames. it may be replaced by an adjacent frame.g. To reduce the bandwidth of video streams. Copyright ©. the amount of image processing that is required for B-frames (e. 2008. B-frames offer more data compression capability than P-Frames. Because B-Frames are created using both preceding images and images that follow.

Groups of Pictures (GOP) Frames can be grouped into sequences called a group of pictures (GOP). Inc -37- . Viewers are more sensitive to motion judder during motion or high activity scenes. A GOP can be characterized as the depth of compressed predicted frames (m) as compared to the total number of frames (n). the frames so referenced (I-frames and Pframes) are also included within that same GOP. The longer the GOP length. Typical values for MPEG GOP are M equals 3 and N equals 12. The types of frames and their location within a GOP can be defined in time (temporal) sequence. P-frame. A GOP is an encoding of a sequence of frames (I-frame. The depth m represents the number of frames that exist between the I-frames and P-frames. For all frames within a GOP that reference other frames (such as B-frames and P-frames). M is the distance between successive P-Frames and N is the distance between successive I-Frames.Introduction to IPTV Testing When frames are dropped. Copyright ©. This example shows that a GOP starts within an intra-frame (I-frame) and that intraframes typically require the largest number of bytes to represent the image (200 kB in this example). The temporal distance of images is the time or number of images between specific types of images in a digital video. Motion judder is the perceived variations in a sequence of images. and Bframes) that contain all the information that can be completely decoded within that GOP. the longer the GOP length. the viewer may perceive motion judder distortion in the video. 2008. However.14 shows how different types of frames can compose a group of pictures (GOP). ALTHOS. the longer it takes for a video error to be corrected as errors are propagated over the P and B frames until the next I frame occurs. Figure 1. the lower the bandwidth that is used (higher video compression).

Introduction to IPTV Testing

Figure 1.14, MPEG Group of Pictures (GOP)

Groups of pictures can be independent (closed) GOPs or they can be relative (open) to other GOPs. An open group of pictures is a sequence of image frames that requires information from other GOPs to successfully decode all the frames within its sequence. A closed group of pictures is a sequence of image frames that can successfully decode all the frames within its sequence without using information from other GOPs.

Copyright ©, 2008, ALTHOS, Inc -38-

Introduction to IPTV Testing

Because P and B frames are created using other frames, when errors occur on previous frames, the error may propagate through additional frames (error retention). To overcome the challenge of error propagation, I frames are sent periodically to refresh the images and remove and existing error blocks. Figure 1.15 shows how errors that occur in an MPEG image may be retained in frames that follow. This example shows how errors in a B-Frame are transferred to frames that follow as the B-Frame images are created from preceding images.

Figure 1.15, MPEG Error Retention

Copyright ©, 2008, ALTHOS, Inc -39-

Introduction to IPTV Testing

Quantizer Scaling
Quantizer scaling is the process of changing the quantizer threshold levels to adjust the data transmission rates from a media encoder. The use of quantizer scaling allows an MPEG system to provide a fixed data transmission rate by adjusting the amount of media compression. To perform quantizer scaling, image blocks (macroblocks) are converted into their frequency components through the use of discrete cosine transform (DCT). The DCT converts an image map into its frequency components (from low detail to high detail). Each frequency component is converted (quantized) into a specific value (coefficient). The accuracy of each of these quantized values determines how closely the image block represents the original image. Because many of the frequency components hold small values (small amounts of detail), it is possible to reduce the amount of data that represents a block of an image by eliminating the fine details through the use of thresholding. Thresholds are values that must be exceeded for an event to occur or for data to be recorded. Quantizer scaling uses an adjustable threshold level that determines if the level of frequency component should be included in the data or if a 0 level (no information) should be transmitted in its place. The higher the quantizer level, the higher the amount of compression. However, as the quantizer level increases, so do the image distortion levels. Figure 1.16 shows how MPEG systems can use quantizer scaling to control the data rate by varying the amount of detail in an image. This example shows that an image is converted into frequency component levels and that each component has a specific level. This example shows that setting the quantizer level determines if the coefficient data will be sent or if a 0 (no data) will be used in its place.

Copyright ©, 2008, ALTHOS, Inc -40-

16. ALTHOS. MPEG is part of International Standards Organization (ISO). MPEG is a working committee that defines and develops industry standards for digital video systems.. 2008. These standards specify the data compression and decompression processes and how they are delivered on digital broadcast systems.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Copyright ©. MPEG Quantizer Scaling MPEG Motion picture experts group (MPEG) standards are digital video transmission and control processes that coordinate the transmission of multiple forms of media (multimedia). Inc -41- .

separated. program streams (a group of elementary streams that make up a program) and transport streams that carry multiple programs. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing The MPEG system defines the components (such as a media stream or channel) of a multimedia signal (such as a digital television channel) and how these channels are combined.17 shows the basic operation of an MPEG system. transmitted.17. ALTHOS. data or video media). Figure 1. Inc -42- . This diagram shows that the MPEG system allows multiple media types to be used (voice. MPEG System Copyright ©. Figure 1. The basic components of an MPEG system include elementary streams (the raw audio. synchronized and converted (rendered) back into a multimedia format. received.

Copyright ©. individual media channels are decoded and decompressed and they are converted back into their original media form. ALTHOS. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing audio and data). Media Stream (MS) A media stream is a flow of information that represents a media signal (such as digital audio or digital video). This example shows that multiple program streams (e. When the MPEG signal is received. adds timing information and combines (multiplexes) the media channels into an MPEG program stream. the program channels are separated (demultiplexed). television programs) can be combined into a transport channel. periodically inserting time references and controlling temporary buffer sizes. MPEG systems are composed of various types of streams ranging from the basic raw data stream (elementary streams) to streams that contain a single television video (a program stream) or streams that combine multiple programs (transport streams). . The key elements to streaming in the MPEG system include combining multiple packet streams into a single program or transport stream.g.18 shows the basic process of streaming video programs through a packet data network. and managing the data buffers that are required to receive and process the elementary streams regardless of the varying packet transmission delays. adding the time reference information into the streams. This diagram shows that media streaming involves converting media into a stream of packets. codes and compresses each media type. A media stream may be continuous (circuit based) or bursty (packetized). Inc -43- . Figure 1.

Elementary streams may be video. Inc -44- . This packetization process involves dividing (segmenting) a group of bits in an elementary stream and adding packet header information to the Copyright ©. 2008. ALTHOS.18. Media Streaming Elementary Stream (ES) Elementary streams are the raw information component streams (such as audio and video) that are part of a program stream. MPEG system divides a multimedia source component into an elementary stream (ES).Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. audio or data and there may be several elementary streams for each type of media (such as multiple audio channels for surround sound). Packet Elementary Stream (PES) A packet elementary stream is a raw information component stream (such as audio or video) that has been converted to packet form (a sequence of packets).

2008. shorter packet lengths are typically used. PES streams may include time decoding and presentation time stamps that help the receiver to decode and present the media. Copyright ©. Program Stream (PS) A program stream is a combination of elementary streams (such as video and audio) that compose a media program (such as a television program).Introduction to IPTV Testing data. This packet header includes a packet identification code (PID) that uniquely identifies the packetized elementary stream from all other packetized elementary streams that are transmitted. A presentation time stamp is reference timing values that are included in MPEG packet media streams (digital audio. For media distribution systems that have medium to high error rates (such as radio transmission or Internet systems). For media distribution systems that have a low error rate. PES packets are variable length packets which have a length limit determined by 16 bits length field in the header of each packet. Decoding time stamps are the insertion of reference timing information that indicates when the decoding of a packet or stream of data should occur. video or data) that are used to control the presentation time alignment of media. The packet sizes for program streams can have different lengths. longer packets may be used. A program stream is called a single program transport stream (SPTS). A MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS) is also called a multi-program transport stream (MPTS). Inc -45- . ALTHOS. Transport Stream (TS) Transport Streams are the combining (multiplexing) of multiple program channels (typically digital video channels) onto a signal communication channel (such as a satellite transponder channel). All the packets in a program stream must share the same time reference system time clock (STC).

19 shows an MPEG transport stream and a transport packet structure. MPEG transport packets are a fixed size of 188 bytes with a 4 byte header. Because MPEG-TSs can carry multiple programs. This diagram shows that the MPEG-TS packet has a fixed size of 188 bytes including a 4 byte header. Inc -46- . The payload portion of the MPEG-TS packet is 184 bytes.Introduction to IPTV Testing MPEG transport streams (MPEG-TS) use a fixed length packet size and each transport packet within the transport stream is identified by a packet identifier.g. ALTHOS. Copyright ©. The scrambling control flag identifies if the data is encrypted. These program tables provide a list of programs and the associated PIDs for specific programs which allows the MPEG receiver/decoder to select and decode the correct packets for that specific program. A program (such as a television show) is usually composed of multiple PES channels (e. flow control bits. video and audio). An adaptation field control defines if an adaptation field is used in the payload of the transport packet and a continuity counter maintains a count index between sequential packets. The header contains various fields including an initial synchronization (time alignment) field. 2008. This is followed by an error indication (EI) bit that determines if there was an error in a previous transmission process. The beginning of a transport packet includes a synchronization byte that allows the receiver to determine the exact start time of the packet. The 13 bit packet identifier (PID) is used to define which PES is contained in the packet. packet identifier (tells which PES stream is contained in the payload) and additional format and flow control bits. Figure 1. The transport priority indicator identifies if the packet has low or high priority. A payload unit start indicator (PUSI) flag alerts the receiver if the packet contains the beginning (start) of a new PES. to identify the programs carried on a MPEG-TS. a program allocation table and program mapping table are periodically transmitted. which provide a list of the programs contained within the MPEG-TS. A packet identifier in an MPEG system identifies the packetized elementary streams (PES) of a program channel.

This example shows how a video and an audio packet elementary stream may be combined on an MPEG-TS. ALTHOS. Since the division of PES packets into 184 byte segments will likely result in a remainder portion (segment) that is not exactly 184 bytes. Inc -47- . This example shows that each of the PES packets is larger than each MPEG transport stream packet.20 shows how PES packets are inserted into an MPEG transport stream. Figure 1. Copyright ©. 2008. Each packet in the transport stream only contains data from a single PES. an adaptation field is used to fill the transport packet. Each PES packet is divided into segments that fit into the transport stream packets. This requires that the PES packets be divided into segments so they can fit into the 184 byte payload of a transport packet. An adaptation field is a portion of a data packet or block of data that is used to adjust (define) the length or format of data that is located in the packet or block of data.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1.19. MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG-TS) Packet PES packets tend to be much longer than transport packets.

Copyright ©. Objective Quality Objective quality is the determination of accuracy or the ability of a system to provide desired results using evaluation criteria and sources that are repeatable. Transferring MPEG PES packets into TS Packets Quality Metrics Quality metrics are the gathering and/or use of values that indicate how accurately a system or service can reproduce media or perform actions within desired levels.20. ALTHOS.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Inc -48- . Objective quality of video signals can be calculated by comparing the pixel locations or signal levels in a source (reference) image to the pixel location or signal levels in a received image. 2008. These calculations can be in the form of average or peak error between the images or signals.

ALTHOS. total harmonic distortion. Inc -49- . 2008. MSE indicates the expected amount of error for a sample set of values. Copyright ©. noise level and signal to noise ratio. Audio compression devices reduce the data transmission rate by approximating the audio signal and this may add distortion. a PSNR that has less than 20 dB (100x) is considered unwatchable. Some of the measures of audio quality include fidelity. frequency response. The larger the PSNR level. For video signals. Audio Quality Audio quality is the ability of a speaker or audio transfer system to recreate the key characteristics of an original digital audio signal. the better the quality. The type of audio coder that is used along with its compression parameters influences digital audio quality. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) Peak signal to noise ratio is a measure of the difference between the maximum received signal level and the level of interfering signals (noise).Introduction to IPTV Testing Mean Square Error (MSE) Mean square error is the sum of the average error amount squared adjusted for by offset bias squared. Subjective Quality Subjective quality is determination of accuracy or the ability of a system to provide desired results using evaluation sources that can vary (such as the opinions of people) for determining the amount of a quantity or quality of data or media.

21. ALTHOS. The loss of packets can result in the temporary muting of the audio signal. compressed and error protection coded prior to transmission. 2008. The compression type influences the amount of distortion that occurs with packet loss or bit errors. Even when small amounts of error occur in a speech coder. Muting is the process of inhibiting audio (squelching). Figure 1.Introduction to IPTV Testing Packet loss and packet corruption errors will result in the distortion or muting of the audio signal. Audio coders that have high compression ratios (high efficiency) tend to be more sensitive to packet loss and errors. Muting can be automatically performed when packet loss is detected.21 shows some of the causes and effects of audio distortion in IP Television systems. the result may be very different sounds (a “warble”) due to the use of codebooks. This example shows that audio signals are digitized. During the transmission process. IP Audio Distortion Copyright ©. The warble sound results from the creation of different sounds than those originally sent. Because the data Figure 1. some packets are lost or corrupted. Inc -50- . Warbles are sounds that are produced during the decoding of a compressed digital audio signal that has been corrupted (has errors) during transmission.

The difference in signal levels represents the distortion that occurs between the source and receiver of the audio signal. This diagram shows that fidelity testing can identify the distortion that is added at various places in the recording. Inc -51- .22. Audio fidelity can be determined by comparing an original (reference) audio signal with a received audio signal to determine the difference levels.22 shows how to measure audio fidelity. Figure 1. ALTHOS. Audio Fidelity Audio fidelity is the degree to which a system or a portion of a system accurately reproduces upon its output. transmission and recreation of an audio signal. the essential characteristics of the signal impressed upon its input. This example Figure 1. When there is significant data corruption. Audio Fidelity Testing Copyright ©. 2008. packet corruption results in the creation of a different altered sound than the sound that was previously transmitted. unusual artifact sounds (“Warble” sounds) can be created.Introduction to IPTV Testing compression process represents sounds by different codes that represent the original audio signal.

Frequency response in digital audio systems is typically limited to one half the sampling frequency (Nyquist limit). The comparator removes the original reference signal to show the amount of distortion that is added in the transmission and processing of the signal. Copyright ©. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) Total harmonic distortion is a ratio of the combined amplitudes of all signals related harmonically to the amplitude of a fundamental signal. ALTHOS. 2008. Frequency response is expressed as a frequency range with a specified amplitude tolerance in decibels. THD is typically expressed as a percentage of signal level. Noise level is commonly specified as a ratio (in decibels) of noise level on a given circuit as compared to decibels above reference noise level for an electrical system or decibels sound pressure level for an acoustical system. Inc -52- . Noise Level Noise level is a measure of the combined energy of unwanted signals. Frequency Response (FR) Frequency response is a measure of system linearity or performance in reproducing signals across a specified bandwidth.Introduction to IPTV Testing explains that the same reference test signal is applied to the input of the system and to a comparator.

23 shows some of the causes and effects of video distortion that may occur in IP Television systems. artifacts (edge busyness) and object retention. The difference between these two levels (commonly converted to dB) is the signal to noise ratio. jerkiness. a connection is setup and a test audio signal is applied to the transmitter. Figure 1. The energy level at the receiving end is measured and recorded. Copyright ©. error blocks. This example shows that some types of distortion include tiling. differences in color components (Cr. Packet loss and packet corruption result in distorted video signals. Digital video and transmission system impairments include tiling. ALTHOS. and time shifts in object or frame display. Distortion indicators for video signals can include differences in brightness (luminance). Video Quality Digital video quality is the ability of a display or video transfer system to recreate the key characteristics of an original digital video signal. Distortion indicators are characteristics values of media (such as error blocks on a video display) that can be used to qualify and quantify distortion characteristics. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) Signal to noise ratio is a comparison of the information-carrying signal power to the noise power in a system. error blocks and retained images. Inc -53- . Cb). This example shows that video digitization and compression convert video into packets that can be sent through data networks (such as the Internet). The audio test signal is then removed and the energy level at the receiving end (the noise) is measured and recorded. For SNR testing.

IP Video Distortion Tiling Tiling is the changing of a digital video image into square tiles that are located in positions other than their original positions on the screen.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Tiling can occur during a burst of data errors where multiple blocks are incorrectly displayed. ALTHOS. Block distortion can occur in compressed image or video signals that use media blocking for compression (areas of the graphics are compressed separately) when some of the blocks or lost or distorted. Error Blocks Block distortion (blockiness) is a variation in graphics display where square or rectangular areas of the display have been changed.23. Inc -54- . Copyright ©. 2008.

Introduction to IPTV Testing Error blocks are groups of image bits (a block of pixels) in a digital video signal that do not represent error signals other than the original image bits that were supposed to be in that image block. Figure 1. the error blocks continue to display until a new image that is received does not contain the errors. This diagram shows that transmission errors result in the loss of picture blocks. 2008.24. Jerkiness may occur when a significant number of burst errors occur during transmission resulting in the inability of a receiver to display a new image frame.24 shows an example of how error blocks are displayed on a digital video signal. the digital video receiver may display the previous frame to minimize the perceived distortion (a jittery image is better than no image). ALTHOS. Copyright ©. Inc -55- . Figure 1. Instead. Digital Video Error Blocks Jerkiness Jerkiness is the holding or skipping of video image frames or fields in a digital video. In this example.

Quantization noise can be caused by the processes or settings in the capture card or A/D converter assembly. ALTHOS. Copyright ©. Ringing can be reduced or eliminated through the use of a capture system that can detect and compensate for ringing variations. Quantization noise in video signals appears as a display of distortions (snow) across an entire image. This term also is known as quantization distortion.Introduction to IPTV Testing Ringing Ringing is the process of the inclusion of repetitive variations (such as ripples in a video) that results from the conversion (quantization) of a media signal. Inc -56- . Quantization noise is reduced by increasing the number of samples or the number of bits that represent each sample. Aliasing effects commonly appear as lines or ripples in the scanned or converted image. Quantization Noise Quantization noise (or distortion) is the error that results from the conversion of a continuous analog signal into a finite number of digital samples that can not accurately reflect every possible analog signal level. 2008. Aliasing Effects Aliasing effects are unwanted distortions that result from the conversion of an image where the sampling of the image is at a speed less than half of the most rapid changes in the image.

This diagram shows that the use of lossy compression on images that have sharp edges (such as text) can generate blurry images.25. unwanted aberrations in media or information (such as blocks on a video image or speckles on a picture image around sharp edges). Figure 1. Inc -57- . ALTHOS. 2008. Mosquito Noise Artifacts Copyright ©. Artifacts may be created during the media compression process. Mosquito noise is a blurring effect that occurs around the edges of image shapes that have a high contrast ratio. Mosquito noise can be created through the use of lossy compression when it is applied to objects that have sharp edges (such as text). A common artifact that is produced in digital video systems is mosquito noise. Figure 1.Introduction to IPTV Testing Artifacts Artifacts are unintended.25 shows an example of mosquito noise artifacts.

26. The digital video receiver decides to keep displaying the existing object in successive frames until an error free frame can be received. 2008. This means that object retention may occur only in parts of IPTV systems that use MPEG-4 compression. This example shows an original sequence where Figure 1.26 shows a how a compressed digital video signal may have objects retained when errors occur. Digital Video Object Retention Copyright ©. Inc -58- . Object retention occurs when the data stream that represents the object becomes unusable to the digital video receiver. Advanced compression systems (such as MPEG-4) can represent components of media as objects rather than video.Introduction to IPTV Testing Object Retention Object retention is the keeping of a portion of a frame or field on a digital video display when the image has changed. ALTHOS. Figure 1.

Copyright ©. which results in the objects remaining (a bird and the sail of a boat) in the next few images until an error free portion of the image is received. white reference). Slice Losses Slice losses are sequential blocks of display information that are lost or unable to be displayed. Blurring Blurring is the reduction of detail images or sequences of images near the boundaries of graphics areas on the display. Inc -59- . The eye is more sensitive to the intensity (brightness) of some colors than others. some of the bits from image objects are received in error. blurring can become more pronounced during video sequences that have high motion or activity. For video signals. The contrast control adjusts video gain (white bar. contrast is proportional to the difference between black and white voltage levels of the video signal. Brightness Brightness is an attribute of a video display which is the amount of light that a display appears to emit. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing the images have been converted into objects. ALTHOS. Contrast Contrast is the range of light-to-dark values of an image. Because the amount of blurring that can occur increases as the amount of compression increases. When the scene change occurs.

or zero reference testing models. systems. blur and PSNR. partial reference. Full Reference Full reference testing is the process of verifying the operation or performance of a system using a comparison between the received signal and the complete original signal.Introduction to IPTV Testing Color Pixelation Color pixelation is the changing of small image elements (pixels) on a graphics image or display. blockiness. ALTHOS. The first step for full reference testing is to time align the signals (image frames) so they can be compared. or services. The components (pixel location and levels) are then compared to determine the error between the reference signal and the signal (PSNR) under test. Figure 1.27 shows how full reference testing compares an original signal (full reference) with a received or test signal to determine the quality or accuracy of the signal. it is commonly used for laboratory testing where both are available at the same location. Video quality measurement full reference is a subjective testing process for video that is defined in ITU-T J. The full reference video quality system ranks the quality using a variety of metrics including MOS.144. Color pixelation can occur when the format of media is changed or sent through a transcoder process. 2008. Copyright ©. Testing Models Testing models are a set of equipment configurations and tests that can be used to identify and quantify the operation or performance of devices. Because full reference testing requires both the original signal and the signal under test. IPTV testing models can use full reference. Inc -60- .

Figure 1. Inc -61- . After the reduced rate testing is time aligned. 2008. the portion of the signal to be compared is spatial aligned. Copyright ©.28 shows how reduced rate reference testing compares a portion of an original signal (partial reference) with a received or test signal to determine the quality or accuracy of the signal.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. The components (pixel location and levels) within the reduced area are then compared to determine the error between the reference signal and the signal (PSNR) under test. Reduced rate reference testing can be used to provide an end to end reliable test while using a small amount of bandwidth for the reduced rate signal. ALTHOS. Full Reference Testing Reduced Rate Reference Reduced rate reference testing is the process of verifying the operation or performance of a system using a comparison between the received signal and a portion of the original signal. The reduced rate reference is created from portions or components of the original reference signal.27.

and media display errors (missing I. error rate.28. This example shows that zero reference testing for video signals can detect missing packets. Figure 1.29 shows how zero rate reference testing evaluates the quality or accuracy of a received or test signal using information contained within the signal (no reference signal required). packet jitter. and by determining how the data is processed (compression levels). P. and B frames). This example shows that the loss of a B-frame has relatively low impact on the viewer as only a single frame is lost. 2008. IPTV zero reference testing can determine the quality of a system using loss of signal information.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Copyright ©. Inc -62- . ALTHOS. data format. Reduced Rate Reference Testing Zero Reference (Non Reference) Zero reference testing is the process of verifying the operation or performance of a system using characteristics of the received signal without using any of the original signals.

Some of the key network measurements for IPTV systems include packet loss rate. Inc -63- .29. delay. 2008. latency. error rate.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Packet loss rate can be a significant challenge for IPTV systems as each IP packet can hold up to 7 MPEG media packets. Packet Loss Rate (PLR) Packet loss rate is a ratio of the number of data packets that have been lost in transmission compared to the total number of packets that have been transmitted. Copyright ©. Zero Reference Testing Network Measurements Network measurements are the identification and quantity determination of data related to the operation and performance of a network. and jitter. ALTHOS.

The packets are forwarded toward their destination as usual. The key to a successful IP data network is to design the system to discard packets that have low priority or low impact on the service they are providing. Packet 6 is lost (discarded) when a router has exceeded its capacity to forward packets because too many were arriving at the same time.30 shows how some packets may be lost during transmission through a communications system. Figure 1. the capacity of the system is overbuilt. If packets are not discarded in IP data networks. Figure 1. This example shows that several packets enter into the Internet. Packet Loss Rate Copyright ©. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing IP systems are designed to lose packets during temporary increases in data traffic. ALTHOS. it can request that another packet be retransmitted.30. This diagram shows that the packets are serialized to allow them to be placed in correct order at the receiving end. it is common that packet retransmission requests are not performed and the lost packets simply result in distortion of the received information (such as poor audio quality). If the time delivery of packets is critical (such as for packetized voice). a lighting strike corrupts (distorts) packet 8 and it cannot be forwarded. Unfortunately. When the receiving end determines a packet is missing in the sequence. Inc -64- .

Packet Latency Packet latency is the amount of time delay between the sending of a packet to the time when the packet is received or decoded. transmission propagation time (packet travel time) and packet processing time (switching). PDV is used by applications to determine the amount Copyright ©.Introduction to IPTV Testing Packet Discard Rate (PDR) Packet discard rate is a ratio of the number of data packets that have been eliminated during reception compared to the total number of packets that had to be eliminated. packet buffering can be used. Packet Delay Variation (PDV) Packet delay variation is the difference between the maximum and minimum possible delay that a packet will experience as it goes out over a communication channel. Packet latency is caused by a combination of delays that include transmitter queuing time (waiting for a transmit slot). While a packet buffer is commonly located in the receiving device. a packet buffer may also be used in the sending device to allow the rapid selection and retransmission of packets when they are requested by the receiving device. and forward by routers in the connection path. Packet Jitter Packet jitter is the undesirable random change in the arrival rate of packets. To overcome packet jitter. 2008. processed. Packet jitter can be caused by changes in packet travel paths (route flapping) and changes in how packets are received. ALTHOS. Inc -65- . Packet buffering is the process of temporarily storing (buffering) packets during the transmission of information to create a reserve of packets that can be used during packet transmission delays or retransmission requests.

Packets may take different routes to reach their destination or routers in the connection path resulting in varying transmission times.31 shows how packet buffering can be used to reduce the effects of packet delays and packet loss for streaming media systems. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing of buffer space needed at the receiving side in order to restore the original data transmission pattern. Packet Buffer Out of Order Packets Out of order packets are the receipt of packets in an order than was originally processed or scheduled. Figure 1. Copyright ©. ALTHOS. Inc -66- . Out of order packets can occur due to variable transmission delays. some of the packet transmission times vary (jitter) and some of the packets are lost during transmission. The packet buffer temporarily stores data before providing it to the media player. This provides the time necessary to synchronize the packets and to request and replace packets that have been lost during transmission. This diagram shows that during the transmission of packets from the media server to the viewer.31. Figure 1.

Out of order packets may be measured by an out of sequence packet rate. Packets may travel through the network over different paths which can result in variable transmission delays. Out of sequence packet rate is the ratio of the number of packets that have been received out of sequence to the total number of packets that have been received. Figure 1. The decoding and presentation times for frames may not be the same because some of the frames may be created from future frames.32. Some proto- Figure 1. Out of Order Packets Copyright ©. The quality of packet delivery can also be indicated by measuring the number of duplicated packets. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing Out of order packets may cause additional distortion because MPEG packet sequencing from the encoder is not necessarily the same sequence that is required by the decoder.32 shows how packets may arrive out of order when transmitted through a packet network. ALTHOS. Duplicate packet rate is the ratio of the number of packets that have been received more than one to the total number of packets that have been received. Inc -67- .

Gap length is the amount of time between the beginning and end of gap losses (when packets arrive after the buffer can accept them). 2008. This example shows that when other packets are mixed in with the packets (from other parts of the network). the packet may be discarded if the time delay is higher than the jitter buffer time. These packets are combined onto a single transmission channel through a router.33 shows how inter-packet gap loss can occur in IPTV systems. and program clock reference . The time duration between these packets is the inter-packet gap time. Packet Gap Packet gap is the time duration between successive packets. audio (A). Seven MPEG-TS packets are put into the payload of an IP data datagram (packet).Introduction to IPTV Testing cols add a packet sequence number that allows the received packets to be reassembled in the correct order. Copyright ©. Inc -68- . If the packet gap is excessive.PCR (C) packets. Gap Loss Gap loss is the number of packets or data that are not able to be received or processed due to a transmission delay that exceeds the amount of jitter buffer time. Gap loss rate is the ratio of the number of packets that have not been received during a gap interval (when packets arrive after the buffer can accept them) to the total number of packets that should have been received. Figure 1. Each of these channels are providing an MPEG transport stream (MPEG-TS) that contains a mix of video (V). the inter-packet gap time can increase. ALTHOS. This diagram shows 3 media sources (channels).

ALTHOS. Router flapping is overcome by newer IPV6 protocols and reservation protocols. These different paths can result in significant variance in transmission delay times (excessive jitter). Inc -69- .33. 2008. Inter-Packet Gap Route Flapping Route flapping is the continual changing of a network connection path that results from an intermittent congestion period or loss of circuit connection that indicates to the current router connection path that there is a loss in connection or that a better connection path exists. This causes the packet routing path to continually change. Loss of Signal Loss of signal is the inability of a receiver or device to successfully receive or process a signal.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Copyright ©.

Connection success rates can be influenced by network activity or packet congestion resulting in the inability for devices or services to request and to receive an assigned a service connection. Inc -70- . 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing Error Free Seconds (EFS) Error free seconds are the amount of time that a signal or operation has been performed without any errors. Stream Rate Stream rate is the amount of media information (the stream) that is transferred through a system or to a device over a specific period of time. Bit Error Rate (BER) BER is calculated by dividing the number of bits received in error by the total number of bits transmitted. Line Rate Line rate is the total amount of information that is transferred over a transmission line during a specific period of time. Copyright ©. ALTHOS. It is generally used to denote the quality of a digital transmission channel. Connection Success Rate (CSR) Connection success rate is a measure of how many connection request attempts have achieved their desired or allowable connection results.

2008. Copyright ©. traffic congestion and the ability of packets to take alternative routes to reach their destination. frame loss rate. Frame Loss Rate (FLR) Frame loss rate is a ratio of the number of frames (data or image frames) that have been lost in transmission compared to the total number of frames that have been transmitted. or bidirectional frames (B-frames). media loss rate. Inc -71- . Frame count may be divided into categories of frames such as independent frames (I-frames). stream integrity. Frame Count Frame count is the number of frames that have been transferred or received over a period of time. Packet delay is the amount of time packets take to travel from their source to their destination. Packet delay occurs due to the processing time of routers. rebuffering events.Introduction to IPTV Testing Content Quality Measurements Content quality measurements are the identification and quantity determination of how accurately media can be rendered (displayed) to a user. and synchronization offset. Delay Factor (DF) The media delay factor can be used to determine how long a media stream must be buffered to prevent packet loss and it can provide information that determines the amount of jitter that occurs within a network. ALTHOS. Some of the key measurements for IPTV for content include delay factor. predictive frames (P-frames).

which is the amount of rebuffer time as compared to the amount of play time. Rebuffer events usually cause video or audio to stop playing on the last available media frame. Like buffer delays. Buffer Time Buffer time is the duration that occurs between the request to setup a buffer storage area to when a buffer begins to provide data to an application or service. 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing Media Loss Rate (MLR) Media loss rate is a ratio of the number of data packets that have been lost in transmission compared to the total number of packets that have been transmitted over a period of time (such as over 1 second). Rebuffer events may be triggered when a buffer runs out of data due to long packet transmission delays or a high number of packet retransmission requests. buffer time can be several seconds. rebuffer events can last for several seconds. Rebuffer time can be used to calculate the rebuffer ratio. Rebuffer Time Rebuffer time is the time period that occurs from when a request for rebuffering is initiated to when media playing starts again. Rebuffer events may be measured over a time period (such as 15 rebuffer events per hour). Inc -72- . Rebuffer Events Rebuffer events are processes that initiate the setup of a new buffer. ALTHOS. For IP media streaming services. Copyright ©. Buffer time should be long enough to ensure enough packets are available to continuously supply the application when packet transmission delays occur.

ALTHOS. Copyright ©. Synchronization offset can vary due to transmission and processing delays that vary between each media stream. Transport Streams are the combining (multiplexing) of multiple program channels (typically digital video channels) onto a signal communication channel (such as a satellite transponder channel). These channels may be statistically combined in such a way that the bursty transmission (high video activity) of one channel is merged with the low-speed data transmission (low video activity) of other channels so that more program channels can share the same limited bandwidth communication channel.Introduction to IPTV Testing Stream Integrity Stream integrity is the accuracy of a sequence of data or information as compared to its original information source. 2008. Stream integrity may be verifiable through the use of protocol analysis and error detection codes that are sent along with the original data information. Inc -73- . Audio Visual Synchronization Offset Audio visual synchronization offset is the time duration between the playing of audio information as compared to the associated video components (such as facial characteristics) of a presentation. A transport stream may contain multiple program or communication channels. Transport Stream Rate Transport stream rate is the amount of data or media information for a combination of control and data transport (the transport channel) that is transferred through a system or to a device over a specific period of time.

Content quality measurement systems such as V Factor may use compression ratio as a factor for the determination or rating of quality level.Introduction to IPTV Testing Program Stream Rate Program stream rate is the amount of data or media information in a combination of control and media for a program (such as the audio and video media sources in a television program) that is transferred through a system or to a device over a specific period of time. Compression Ratio Compression ratio is a comparison of data that has been compressed to the total amount of data before compression. the more sensitive the media is to bit errors. delays. ALTHOS. Clock Rate Jitter Clock rate jitter is the undesirable random changes that occur in a clock timing reference signal (such as a program clock rate . and packet loss. The higher the compression ratio.PCR) Jitter Discards Jitter discard are the number of packets that are eliminated due to excessive fluctuating (jitter) delay time. Copyright ©. Inc -74- . Protocol Conformance Protocol conformance is the ability of a device or system to communicate and process commands according to the syntax (structure) of a protocol specification or its rules. 2008.

Packet Identifier Error (PID Error) A packet identifier is information that is contained within a packet that identifies the contents and format of the packet. IPTV systems may measure various components of a transport stream including table (program data) errors. or repeated. Inc -75- . Continuity Count Error A continuity count is a measure of how many packets in a sequence of packets are lost. A packet identifier in an MPEG system identifies the elementary stream (ES) of a program channel. Program Association Table Error (PAT Error) A program association table contains the identification codes and system information associated with MPEG programs that are contained in a transport stream. duplicated.Introduction to IPTV Testing Program Transport Stream A program transport stream is the combination (multiplexing) of multiple media streams (typically audio and video streams) on a signal transport channel. continuity count. ALTHOS. The PAT is usually sent every 20 msec to 100 msec to allow the receiver to quickly acquire a list of available programs. Program Map Table Error (PMT Error) Program map table error contains information that identifies and describes the components (such as the video and audio elementary streams) that are part of a program (such as a television show). Transport Stream Synchronization Loss (TS-Sync Loss) Transport stream synchronization loss is the inability of a signal or process to time align itself or relate its information with data and media that is Copyright ©. and synchronization loss. 2008.

Synchronization loss can occur due to the loss or excessive delay of a packet containing MPEG PCR. 2008. Cyclic Redundancy Check Error (CRC Error) Cyclic redundancy check error is receipt of data which does not match the cyclic redundancy check validation process. Transport Error Transport error is a variation in the command structure. Copyright ©. Channel Map A channel map is a listing of media components within a transport channel (such a programs within an MPEG transport stream). or alteration of data that occurs on a transmission channel.Introduction to IPTV Testing included in a transport stream. processing. Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS Error) Presentation time stamp error is the reception of a time reference value for presentation of media that is beyond a time limit (typically over 700 msec for MPEG). ALTHOS. Transport error can be detected by reviewing the header information of the transport packets. Inc -76- . Program Clock Rate Error (PCR Error) Program clock rate error is the reception of program clock rate values or messages at times that are outside the expected receipt time limits (typically 100 msec for PCR).

recording and tear down of streaming sessions. communication with the network. 2008. channel rights validation. processes and procedures that are used for delivering and controlling the real-time delivery of media (such as audio and or video streaming). ALTHOS. Image entropy may be used as a factor in determining the amount of compression that can be used (less entropy. acquisition and synchronization with the video stream itself. IGMP join & leave. Control protocols control the setup. Command and Control Measurements Control protocols are commands. playing.Introduction to IPTV Testing Image Entropy Image entropy is a measure of the amount of information that is contained within an image or display sequence. A test set or network probe may monitor for missing channels to determine where a stream or group of streams are lost (ended) within a network. A high image entropy level usually indicates a higher level of image complexity or image objects. Missing Channels Missing channels are programs or data streams that are not available or cannot be received by recipients. Control protocols that are used for IPTV systems include real time streaming protocol (RTSP) and digital storage media command and control (DSM-CC). Inc -77- . Channel Change Time (Zap Time) Channel change time (CCT) is the period of time that occurs from when a user presses the channel change button on the remote until a stable picture appears for the requested channel. Channel changing time is the sum of the individual delays associated with processing in the set top box. pausing. Copyright ©. and finally. more compression).

adding the device to the multicast routing table.Introduction to IPTV Testing Channel change delay can be a significant amount of time associated with changes in media stream signals (such as IPTV). filling up the channel buffer for the new channel. channel rights validation. Inc -78- .34. Identifying the causes of delays in channel change time can be difficult as some systems can use a fast channel change process that increases (bursts) the data transmission rate during a channel change request. 2008. sending a IGMP join message to the nearest multicast router that is carrying the channel. This fills up the buffer quickly which reduces the channel change time.34 shows some of the contributors to channel change time in IPTV systems. Channel change time is the sum of the individual delays associated with processing the channel change request in the set top box. Figure 1. Figure 1. Channel Change Time Copyright ©. ALTHOS. and presenting the media to the viewer.

Set Top Box Initialization Time Set top box initialization time is the duration between when a set top box is powered on (power button pressed) to when it begins to play media on a display. Inc -79- . and V Factor. ALTHOS. Some of the key rating systems include moving picture quality metrics. Content Quality Rating Systems Content quality rating systems analyze and process multiple measurements to provide an indication of the relative quality level content. Copyright ©. media delivery index. Encoder Initialization Time Encoder initialization time is the duration between when an encoder (such as a video encoder that is installed in a news broadcast vehicle) to xxx Connect Time Connect time is the time interval that occurs between the initiation of a service request (such as selecting an audio file to play) and when the service begins (when the audio starts playing). 2008.Introduction to IPTV Testing Multicast Join Time Multicast join time is the duration between the start of a multicast join request process and when the media is received by the group participant.

MPQM uses entropy analysis to determine the amount of information in an object or media (which can be expressed in units) and the program clock reference in its signal quality analysis. error rate. 2008. ALTHOS.35.Introduction to IPTV Testing Moving Picture Quality Metrics (MPQM) Moving picture quality metrics is a video quality rating score that is calculated using a mix of content dependent factors along with a combination of network impairments such as delay and packet loss rate. MPQM uses network impairments such as packet delay. MPQM is a real time quality monitoring system that is based on a model of the human vision system. The MPQM factor score ranges from 1 to 5. and packet loss as factors to the quality score. MPQM is a single ended test system so it does not require comparative reference signals. Entropy analysis is used to determine the complexity and value of the content. image entropy.35 shows that the MPQM quality metrics system uses measurements from timing jitter. MPQM Testing Model Copyright ©. Figure 1. and network impairments to deter- Figure 1. Inc -80- .

some of the media is lost (packet loss) due to congestion and other factors. Packets are also delayed due to queuing and other factors.36 shows how media delivery index (MDI) video quality measurement uses delay factor (DF) and media loss rate to estimate the quality of the video signal as it progresses through a network. through the core network. MDI is a highly scalable monitoring solution. Copyright ©. Key MDI measurement parameters include media delay factor (MDIDF) and media loss rate (MDI-MLR). Media Delivery Index (MDI) Media delivery index is a measure of the transmission of digital video signals. The kid’s central channel has had media loss at a core ONU and it has also experienced delay at the customer’s access modem/router.Introduction to IPTV Testing mine the quality score The program clock reference is verified to determine timing jitter and network measurements are used to determine quality packet loss. MDI is displayed as delay factor:media loss rate (DF:MLR). through an optical network unit (ONU). and to an IPTV receiver (STB). ALTHOS. As the packets progress through the network. MDI is defined by RFC 4445. Figure 1. 2008. Inc -81- . MDI quality is measured in this network which displays how the quality changes as signals travel from their content source. The MPQM system also evaluates the type of content to determine the entropy that can influence how the video is displayed. Because MDI involves simple network measurements (lightweight calculations). into a home access modem. This example shows that a headend and other sources are distributing media (packets) through an IPTV system.

2008. Video Quality Measurement using Media Delivery Index V Factor V factor is a video quality rating score that is based on MPQM and it adds measurements that help to evaluate quality based on the content format and processing types. Inc -82- . Copyright ©. V-factor uses additional content related information such as compression type. group of pictures (GOP).36. The V-factor score ranges from 1 to 5. and quantizer levels to determine the V factor quality score.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. V-factor takes into account the underlying video content processing differences (such as group of pictures and compression amount) to adjust the quality score. ALTHOS.

Figure 1. and the quantizer level to determine the entropy that can influence how the video is displayed.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1.37. and B). V-Factor Testing Model Copyright ©. 2008. The MPQM system also evaluates the type of content using the type of coder. The program clock reference is verified to determine timing jitter and network measurements are used to qualify packet loss. P. Inc -83- . V-Factor uses measurements from timing jitter. enhanced image entropy. and network impairments to determine the quality score. the mix of image frames (I.37 shows that V-Factor uses and enhanced version of the MPQM quality metrics system to determine the quality of a video signal. ALTHOS.

and other distortion indicators. Inc -84- . ALTHOS. The PEVQ score is determine by a combination of packet delay. perceptual difference evaluation. Perceptual Evaluation of Video Quality (PEVQ) Perceptual evaluation of video quality is a full reference objective test measurement system that can be used to assess the quality of video signals. and distortion indicator integration. VSAQ uses compression type. The distortion classification determines and gives values to the types of distortion. and GOP structure to determine a value that ranges from 0 to 50. The temporal and spatial alignment ensures that the same components of the reference media and received media are correctly compared. Video Service Audio Quality (VSAQ) Video service audio quality is a value that indicates the ability of a media delivery system to play audio media to the listener. The perceptual difference function calculates the differences in luminance and chrominance. bit rate. Video Service Picture Quality (VSPQ) Video service picture quality is a value that indicates the ability of a media delivery system to display media to the viewer. and packet loss to determine a value that ranges from 0 to 50. The distortion integration function evaluates the types of distortion to determine a PEVQ score.Introduction to IPTV Testing Video Service Transmission Quality (VSTQ) Video service transmission quality is a value that indicates the ability of an Internet protocol data network to transport IP video signals. contrast. brightness. Copyright ©. frame rate. VSPQ uses compression type. 2008. media alignment (time and spatial). The VSTQ value is codec independent and ranges from 0 to 50. distortion classification. PEVQ contains four key functions. PSNR. packet loss.

There are Copyright ©. Figure 1. Cb). These differences are characterized and rated to determine a PEVQ score.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. Inc -85- . PEVQ Analysis Mean Opinion Score (MOS) Mean opinion score (MOS) is a measurement of the level of quality as perceived by a person. This example shows that a reference video source and test video source (received video) are aligned in time and space. Good quality telephone service (called “toll quality”) has a MOS level of 4. The MOS is a number that is determined by a panel of viewers or listeners who subjectively rate the quality of audio on various samples.38.0. The PEVQ system then determines the differences between the video signals (Y. ALTHOS. Cr.38 shows how a PEVQ score is calculated. The rating level varies from 1 (bad) to 5 (excellent). 2008.

Copyright ©. Audiovisual Mean Opinion Score (MOS-AV) Audiovisual mean opinion score is a measurement of the level of audio and video quality as perceived by a person. Burst Video Mean Opinion Score (Burst MOS-V) Burst video mean opinion sore is a measure of the perceived video quality during burst outage or poor transmission periods of operation. Inc -86- . Gap Video Mean Opinion Score (Gap MOS-V) Gap video mean opinion sore is a measure of the perceived video quality during normal or acceptable periods of operation. The rating level varies from 1 (bad) to 5 (excellent).Introduction to IPTV Testing variations of MOS that are used to rate video. Video Mean Opinion Score (MOS-V) Video mean opinion score is a measurement of the level of video quality as perceived by a person. The MOS-AV is a number that is determined by a panel of people who subjectively rate the quality of the combination of audio and video on various samples. The rating level varies from 1 (bad) to 5 (excellent). ALTHOS. The MOS-A is a number that is determined by a panel of listeners who subjectively rate the quality of audio on various samples. audio. 2008. Audio Mean Opinion Score (MOS-A) Audio mean opinion score is a measurement of the level of audio quality as perceived by a person. The MOS-V is a number that is determined by a panel of viewers who subjectively rate the quality of video on various samples. The rating level varies from 1 (bad) to 5 (excellent). and audiovisual quality during regular or burst error conditions.

MPEG-4 (H.Introduction to IPTV Testing Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation (SSCQE) Single stimulus continuous quality evaluation is a subjective testing process for video that is defined in ITU-R B. Test Equipment Test equipment can consist of a device or assembly that can measure or verify that a particular product or system meets specific requirements or if it is capable of performing specific functions or actions. frame loss rate. Video analyzers may include small video displays that allow the technicians to see the channel content. frame count.T500. Video analyzers can usually identify the stream rates. The quality ranking criteria for SSCQE includes imperceptible. built in test equipment. protocol analyzers. The SSCQE system ranks the quality on a scale of 0 to 100 where 100 is the best quality and 0 is the worst quality. frame rates. Copyright ©. MPEG-2 (broadcast TV). slightly annoying. VC-1 (windows media). and very annoying. ALTHOS. Video Analyzer A video analyzer is a test instrument that is designed to receive and evaluate video or media signals. MPEG generators.264 packet video). and can also measure various types of errors such as bit error rate. Inc -87- . bit rates. display motion vectors. Most modern day media analyzers have the capability of evaluating multiple types of media in various formats such as MPEG-1. VP6 (Flash video). annoying. Some of the common types of test equipment that are used by IPTV service providers include video analyzers. and impairment emulators. quantizer values. 2008. perceptible but not annoying.

Impairment Emulator An impairment emulator is a system that creates or simulates impairments to the operation or communication with a software program or hardware Copyright ©. 2008. MPEG generators may have the capability to insert or adjust the error rate to simulate common network impairments. whereby they copy all packets that appear on the network. Most modern day protocol analyzers are aware of all commonly used. Inc -88- . industry standard protocols.Introduction to IPTV Testing MPEG Generator MPEG generator is an instrument that can create signals which simulate the source (headend) of a broadcast or IPTV system. without the devices being aware that the analyzer is present. More advanced protocol analyzers sit “in-line” between two devices. Protocol Analyzer A protocol analyzer is a test instrument that is designed to monitor a network and provide analysis of the communication taking place on the network. regardless of destination address. This allows a technician to monitor a network and provides information for problem determination and resolution. ALTHOS. MPEG generators are usually able to create both single program transport stream (SPTS) or multiple program transport stream (MPTS). Built-in Test Equipment (BITE) Built-in test equipment consists of capabilities and features that are designed or used within a device to support testing functions. Other less sophisticated protocol analyzers can be created using standard PCs with network interface cards in “promiscuous mode”.

gap loss. Impairment emulators may be used to evaluate the performance of systems under various conditions such as loaded and in failed conditions. The purpose of an impairment emulator is to allow developers to simulate the operation of programs or devices under conditions that may happen to their products or services and to determine the changes in performance or operation that may result from these impairments. interoffice. latency. Network monitoring may be passive (doesn’t interfere with the network operation) or active (processes or interacts with media or data). Copyright ©. Active Port An active port is a connection point (a port) on a router or switch that is configured to process traffic appearing on another one of the switch’s ports. out of order packets. or switching systems. Network Monitoring A network monitoring system is a combination of software and hardware that collects and analyzes information on network alarms and performance data and alerts a center if it detects trouble in loop. Some of the impairments the emulator may produce include jitter. burst loss. packet loss. Network monitoring may be setup in devices such as routers by copying or redirecting data to other ports (test ports) or through network probes that are installed at various points in the network. ALTHOS.Introduction to IPTV Testing device. 2008. Mirror Port A mirror port is a connection point (a port) on a switch that is configured to duplicate the traffic appearing on another one of the switch’s ports. Inc -89- . route flapping. and link failure.

ALTHOS. Inc -90- . distribution. or reception. Probes can be passive or active. Hierarchical Monitoring Hierarchical monitoring is a structured measurement and reporting system that provides information on lower layer functions to areas combined with upper monitoring functions. Alarm views may be grouped into functional processes such as media acquisition. Active probes process or alter processes to perform their measurement functions. Alarm Views Alarm views are the presentation of monitoring conditions or events. Measurement probes are can be non-intrusive and simply monitor and report on information that passes through or by the probe. and produces or provides a signal on the line output. 2008. Copyright ©.Introduction to IPTV Testing In Line Monitoring In line monitoring is the use of a device or process that receives from a line input. Network Probes A network probe is a device or process that is inserted into a network to monitor for specific characteristics or conditions. performs measurements. Passive probes monitor signals or operations without changing or impacting the underlying functions or signals. Measurement Probe A measurement probe is a device or process that is inserted into a system or network to monitor and measure specific characteristics or conditions.

Test clients may be installed in network equipment or end user devices (such as set top boxes). and analyze their impact on the display of the video. Inc -91- . As a result. Test clients operate under the control of the operating system of the device for which it is installed. monitor packet jitter. It can communicate using standard commands such as simple network management protocol (SNMP) or via proprietary messages. These devices (such as set top boxes) may have limited processing power of the device that will perform the test measurements (such as a set top box). Test Client A test client is a software program and/or associated hardware that is configured to monitor and report information about the operation and service performance within a device or network. ALTHOS.39 shows how a software client may be installed in a set top box so that it can monitor and report performance conditions.Introduction to IPTV Testing Reference Probe A reference probe is a monitoring device that is used to gather values that can be used as a basis for comparison level that is used to compute other measurements or values. Figure 1. 2008. The test client typically is controlled by and communicates with the system which it is connected to. Copyright ©. This example shows a test software module that has been downloaded and installed into the memory of the STB. the type of monitoring that a test client can use may be restricted by the device operating system and available performance capability. This test software module can determine packet losses.

and corrects them. syslog. If the heartbeat is received by the sender. and RMON are typically used in fault management. it confirms that the network is still operating (it is alive). Fault management is one of the five functions defined in the Copyright ©. ALTHOS. Fault management is the reactive form of network management. failures and events. Inc -92- . Fault Management Fault management identifies the network problems. STB Test Client Heartbeat Generator A heartbeat generator is a communication test function that uses a repeated transmitted signal that travels through a system or network which is eventually returned back to the sender.Introduction to IPTV Testing Figure 1. SNMP traps.39. 2008.

Fault management systems can be used to predict future failures. Inc -93- . 2008. and analyze their causes. find faults. Fault Analysis Fault analysis is the evaluation of the failed components or processes in a device or service to determine what caused the fault.Introduction to IPTV Testing FCAPS model for network management. Copyright ©. Fault Finder A fault finder is a test set or other type of device that enables faults to be identified and localized. ALTHOS. Fault Predictions Fault predictions are estimated unwanted conditions that are likely to occur as a result of measured or observed conditions.

2008. Inc -94- . ALTHOS.Introduction to IPTV Testing Copyright ©.

Acronyms AN-Access Network BER-Bit Error Rate BITE-Built-In Test Equipment Blockiness-Block Distortion CBR-Constant Bit Rate CCP-Channel Change Performance CCT-Channel Change Time CDE-Content Delivery Engine CDS-Content Delivery System CN-Core Network COS-Class of Service CP-Content Protection CRC Error-Cyclic Redundancy Check Error Demarc-Demarcation Point DEU-Data Extraction Unit DF-Delay Factor DPI-Deep Packet Inspection DPI-Digital Program Insertion DPU-Data Polling Unit DUT-Device Under Test DVQ-Digital Video Quality EFS-Error Free Seconds EPSNR-Estimated Peak Signal to Noise Ratio FEC Effectiveness-Forward Error Correction Effectiveness FOA-First Office Application Gap MOS-V-Gap Video Mean Opinion Score HSS-Home Subscriber Subsystem HVS-Human Vision System IPLR-Internet Packet Loss Rate KQI-Key Quality Indicators Lab Tests-Laboratory Testing LOS-Loss of Signal Luma-Luminance MAC Address-Medium Access Control Address MAPDV-Mean Absolute Packet Delay Variation MDI-Media Delivery Index MIB-Management Information Base MLR-Media Loss Rate MOS-Mean Opinion Score MOS-A-Mean Opinion Score Audio MOS-AV-Mean Opinion Score Audiovisual MOS-V-Mean Opinion Score Video MPEG TS Analysis-MPEG Transport Stream Analysis MPLS-Multi-Protocol Label Switching MPQM-Moving Picture Quality Metrics MR-DVR-Multi-Room Digital Video Recorder MSE-Mean Square Error nDVR-Network Digital Video Recorder NMS-Network Management Station NMS-Network Management System OID-Object Identifier OS-Operating System PAQ-Perceived Audio Quality PCR-Program Clock Reference PCR Error-Program Clock Reference Error PDN-Premises Distribution Network PDR-Packet Discard Rate 95 .Appendix 1 .

Introduction to IPTV Testing PEVQ-Perceptual Evaluation of Video Quality PID-Packet Identifier PIP-Picture in Picture PLR-Packet Loss Rate PMT-Program Map Table POC-Proof of Concept POE-Point of Entry PQA-Picture Quality Analysis PS-Program Stream PSNR-Peak Signal to Noise Ratio PTS Error-Presentation Time Stamp Error QoE-Quality of Experience QoS-Quality Of Service QoS Awareness-Quality of Service Awareness RMON-Remote network MONitoring RMON Probe-Remote Monitoring Probe SDI-Serial Digital Interface SHE-Super Headend SI-System Integration SLA-Service Level Agreement SLA Violations-Service Level Agreement Violations SNMP-Simple Network Management Protocol SNMPv1-Simple Network Management Protocol version 1 SNMPv2-Simple Network Management Protocol version 2 SNMPv3-Simple Network Management Protocol Version 3 SOC-System On Chip SOM-Server Operations and Management SRD-System Requirements Document SSCQE-Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation SUT-System Under Test SVS-Switched Video Service SVT-System Verification Test Sync Impairment-Synchronization Impairments TAR-Test Accuracy Ratio Test Model-Testing Models TIMS-Transmission Impairment Measurement System TPU-Threshold Processing Unit TS Analysis-Transport Stream Analysis TS-Sync-Transport Stream Synchronization TS-Sync Loss-Transport Stream Synchronization Loss TV Server-Television Server TVQM-Television Video Quality Metrics VAC-Video Admission Control VBR-Variable Bit Rate V-Factor-Video Factor VPN-Virtual Private Network VQEG-Video Quality Experts Group VQS-Video Quality Score VSAQ-Video Service Audio Quality VSMQ-Video Service Multimedia Quality VSPQ-Video service picture quality VSTQ-Video Service Transmission Quality VTS-Video Test System 96 .

empirix.Triple Play http://www.com Ixia .com Anacise Testnology .Transport Testing http://www. Inc -97- .JDSU.agilent.Appendix 2 .miravid.com/IPTV.com JDSU .IPTV Test Equipment Manufacturers Agilent .Azimuth. ALTHOS.com/ Azimuth .com EXFO .com Copyright ©.IMS http://www.IPTV and IP Testing http://www.com MiraVid .IPTV and Communications Testing http://www.anacise.inneoquest.WiMAX http://www.exfo.com Hewlet Packard .IPTV Testing http://www.htm Empirix .HP.IPTV and Communication Testing http://www.Video Analyzers http://www.WiMAX http://www. 2008.Ixiacom.com Berkeley Varitronics .IPTV and Network Testing http://www.com Inneoquest .bvsystems.

Introduction to IPTV Testing Omnicor .symmetricom.com Sunrise Telecom .co.uk Shenick .omnicor.Video Quality Testing http://www.spirent.Website Load Testing http://www.IP Network Testing http://www.witbe.com Telchemy . 2008.IPTV and Other Test Equipment http://Tektronix.Pixelmetrix.IPTV and Optical Testing http://www.com Video Clarity .net Copyright ©. Inc.com Symmetricom http://www.IPTV and Network Testing http://www.shenick.videoclarity.IPTV and Broadcast Testing http://www.Video Quality Testing http://www.com Spirent .com Semaca .IPTV and VoIP Testing http://www.Video Testing http://www.Digital Video http://www.sunrisetelecom.com Opticom . .telchemy. ALTHOS.opticom.semaca.de Pixelmetrix . Inc -98- .com Witbe.com Tektronix .

11 Entropy Analysis. 26. 83 Impairment Emulator. 60 Jerkiness. 90 Alpha Testing. 87 Block Distortion (Blockiness). 28. 23. 50 Audio Quality. 13-14 Audio Distortion. 92-93 Fault Predictions. 16-17. 2008. 81 Customer Satisfaction. 5. 59. 53. 41 Delay Factor (DF). 19 Content Dependency Factors. 86 Audio Visual Synchronization Offset. 86 Headend. 7 Content Protection (CP). 60 Compression Ratio. 53. 80 Error Concealment. 19-20. 16-17. 93 Feature Function Testing. 54. 80 Image Entropy. 67 Encoder Initialization Time. 49. 84 Dropped Frame. 68-69 Interoperability Testing. 59. 90 Human Vision System (HVS). 78 Channel Change Time (CCT). 11 Access Network (AN). 24. 84 Clock Rate Jitter. 13 Channel Change Delay. 19-20. 56 Core Network (CN). 89 Gap Loss Rate. 27. 25. 12. 55 Capture. 12. 60-61 Functional Tests. 57. 79 Encoding. 88 Burst Errors. 77. 87 Frame Dropping. 30. 55 Copyright ©. 74 Color Pixelation. 11 Field Testing. 10 Gap Length. 88 Heartbeat.144. 71. 21. 53. 1. 7. 93 Fault Management. 27. 76 Decoding. 56 Certification. ALTHOS. 50. 81 Device Operating System. 76 Chrominance. 37 End To End Testing. 84 Built-In Test Equipment (BITE). 57. 92 Hierarchical Monitoring. 14 Bit Error Rate (BER).Index Acceptance Testing. 24. 77-78 Channel Map. 68 Gap Loss. 73 Audiovisual Quality. 9 Continuity Count Error. 91 Diagnostic Testing. 14 J. 24. 10 Error Free Seconds (EFS). 89 Alarm Views. 88 In Line Monitoring. 60 Blurring. 13-14 Frame Count. 74 Constant Bit Rate (CBR). 11. 7. 45. 50 Fault Analysis. 16. 12 Digital Video Quality (DVQ). 36 Full Reference Testing. 5-6 Cyclic Redundancy Check Error (CRC Error). 7-8. 6. 53 Distortion Indicators. 93 Fault Finder. 86 Beta Testing. 70. 84. 67 Decompression. 8 Content Acquisition. 90 Inter-Packet Gap. 36 Duplicate Packet Rate. 84 Conversion. 81. 5. 68. Inc -99- . 75 Contrast. 20 Active Port. 68 Gap Video Mean Opinion Score (Gap MOS-V). 64. 12. 59 Brightness. 71. 32. 22. 70 Error Protection.

4-5 Quality Score. 91 Operational Testing. 84-85 Performance Tests. 83 Mirror Port. 49. 86 Mean Opinion Score Video (MOS-V). 86 Mean Opinion Score Audiovisual (MOSAV). 16. 43. 57 Luminance (Luma). 69 Lossy Compression. 71-72 Reference Probe. 74 Program Stream Rate. 68. 65-66 Packet Corruption. 80. 60-61. 81 Media Player. 8. 81 Line Rate. 76 Program Map Table (PMT). 84 Packet Discard Rate (PDR). 7 Perceptual Difference. 63. 45-46. 49 Measurement Probe. 65 Packet Gap. 65. 16. 56 Quantizer Scaling. 14 Copyright ©. 71. 84 Mean Opinion Score (MOS). 88 Protocol Conformance. 44 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). 88 Protocol Analyzer. 76. 12. 71-72. Inc -100- . 86 Mean Square Error (MSE). 4. 16. 17. 73. 45. 40. 80-83 Quantization Noise. 83. 75. 76. 68 Packet Identifier (PID). 53 Packet Delay. 74 Program Transport Stream. 90 Media Compression. 29. 48 Operating System (OS). 2008. 89 Out of Sequence Packet Rate. 70 Load Testing. 16-17 Packet Transmission. 80. 5-6 Objective Quality. 10-11 Network Impairments. 66 Metrics. 90 Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS Error). 83 Program Clock Reference Error (PCR Error). 79-83 MPEG Generator. 4-5 Quality Of Service (QoS). 43-45. 77. 79. 80-81. 62. 79-80. 75 Program Stream (PS). 83 Network Monitoring System. 88 Network Measurements. 81-82 Media Loss Rate (MLR). 67 Packet Buffering. 60. 3. 85-86 Mean Opinion Score Audio (MOS-A). 62. 89 Missing Channels. 67. 1. 48. 79-80. 76 Program Clock Reference (PCR). 20 Presentation. 74.Introduction to IPTV Testing Jitter Discards. 75 Packet Jitter. 25. 65-66. 53. 89 Network Probe. 60. 77 Motion Judder. 72 Rebuffering. 60 Lightweight Calculations. 84 Perceived Quality. 81. 48. 66-67. 14 Premises Distribution Network (PDN). 10 Out of Order Packets. 45. 50-51. 12-13 Loss of Signal (LOS). 15 Loopback Testing. 74 Laboratory Testing (Lab Tests). 80 Packet Reception. 79 Multilayer Testing. 37 Moving Picture Quality Metrics (MPQM). 90 Network Utilization. 84 Perceptual Evaluation of Video Quality (PEVQ). 74 Quality Metrics. 65. 91 Packet Loss Rate (PLR). 63-64. ALTHOS. 8. 57 Media Delivery Index (MDI). 91 Reliability. 83 Quality of Experience (QoE). 13. 72 Packetization. 88 Multicast Join Time. 27. 40-41 Rebuffer Events. 23.

49. 86 Video Quality Measurement Full Reference. 62-63 Copyright ©. 27. 1-2 Synchronization Loss. 11. 60. 30. 74. 60. 73-74 Stress Tests. 27. 87 Slice Losses. 40. 71. 84 Viewing Device. 37 Video Distortion. 1-94 Testing Models (Test Model). 87-88 Test System. 80-82. 2008. 20 Zero Reference Testing. 59 Stream Integrity. 76 Transport Stream Rate. 70. 79 Video Factor (V-Factor). 73 Transport Stream Synchronization (TSSync). 15 Subjective Quality. 84. 79 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). 79. 69. 75-76 Variable Bit Rate (VBR). Inc -101- . 78 Transport Error. 36. 53. 80 Testing. 15 Service Level Agreement (SLA). 84 Video Service Transmission Quality (VSTQ).Index Remote network MONitoring (RMON). 49 Switched Video Service (SVS). 53-54 Video Encoder. 91-92 Test Equipment. 60 Video Service Audio Quality (VSAQ). 91-92 Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation (SSCQE). ALTHOS. 60 Transmission Rate. 12. 87 Video Compression. 84 Video service picture quality (VSPQ). 73 Stream Rate. 8 Video Analyzer. 89 Service Capacity. 65. 82-83 Video Quality. 5-6 Set Top Box Initialization Time. 92 Route Flapping. 32-33. 8. 75-76 Transport Stream Synchronization Loss (TS-Sync Loss). 75-76 Test Client.

ALTHOS.Introduction to IPTV Testing Copyright ©. 2008. Inc -102- .

.

.

audio. For Updates and Resources Visit www. and artifacts are explained. aliasing effects. partial reference. Learn about audio. which can make testing and diagnostics more difficult. interaction (control).IPTV Service Quality explains how to identify. what they can do. NC 27526 USA . The different types of testing including laboratory. The types of content measurements such as frame loss rate (FLR). Key video quality characteristics such as error blocks. and audiovisual synchronization offset are explained. performance and quality of IPTV systems and services. test. synchronization loss. V-Factor Quality Rating • IPTV Test Equipment T This book explains how to monitor. and other measurable values are explained. and signal to noise ratio are described. Discover the different types of network measurements such as packet loss. Covered are the quantitative (packet loss. and jitter and how they influence quality of service (QoS). and MPEG Formats • Audio Quality • Video Quality • Network Measurements • Content Quality Measurements • Command and Control Metrics • MDI. and MPEG formats and what parts of them can be measured in IPTV systems. and analyze the operation. and connect time are described. Other types of quality measures including video. object retention. If you need to understand how to monitor.AlthosBooks. encoder initialization time. and diagnose IPTV systems and services. Discover how quality of experience (QoE) can be very different than traditional quality of service (QoS) measurements. and V-Factor are explained. Command and control measurements such as channel change time. video. gap loss. This Book Covers: • IPTV Testing Challenges • Testing Methods • Audio. You will learn about the different types of network monitoring devices and probes that are used in IPTV systems. Audio quality characteristics including fidelity. The fundamentals of full reference. this book is for you. error rate) and qualitative (perceptual) quality measurement and control processes.com Althos Publishing 404 Wake Chapel Road Fuquay-Varina. measure. Discover how different layers in an IPTV system can interact and why multilayer testing may be used to evaluate and diagnose operation and performance issues. IPTV systems are complex multimedia communication systems and communicating through them involves the use of multiple layers. test. and how to understand and analyze the information they provide. synchronization. and diagnose IPTV systems and services. MPQM. acceptance. Video. MPQM. conformance. and diagnostic testing are described along with some of the common types of IPTV test equipment that are used. frequency response. field. and zero reference quality processes such as MDI.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.