A reference book for the Industry

Promotion of Benchmarking Tools for Energy Conservation in Energy Intensive Industries in China

Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry

Contract: Promotion of Benchmarking Tools for Energy Conservation in Energy Intensive Industries in China

Contract No.: EuropeAid/123870/D/SER/CN Contractor: The Administrative Centre for China’s Agenda 21 (ACCA21) Room 609, No. 8 Yuyuantan South Road, Haidian District, Beijing, P.R. China, Postal Code: 100038


CENTRIC AUSTRIA INTERNATIONAL (CAI) Beijing Energy Conservation & Environment Protection Center (BEEC)

This publication has been produced within the frame of the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme project “Promotion of Benchmarking Tools for Energy Conservation in Energy Intensive Industries in China”. The EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) was established to correspond to the policies of the Chinese Government and the European Commission to strengthen the EU-China cooperation in the area of energy. The project was formally started on the 1. September 2008. The total duration is 12 months. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the project team and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. Beijing, 2009


Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry

Table of Contents
Summary and Acknowledgments.............................................................................. 5 1 2 3 Cement Production Worldwide with Particular Reference to China ........... 6 Cement Manufacturing - Overview ................................................................... 9 Processes and Techniques ................................................................................. 12 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.7 3.8 4 Main Technologies and Process Routes.................................................. 13 Technology Choice .................................................................................... 15 Winning of Raw Materials .......................................................................... 16 Kiln Feed Preparation ................................................................................. 16 Raw Material Storage ............................................................................ 17 Grinding of Raw Materials ..................................................................... 17 Fuel, storage and preparation ................................................................. 18 Storage of Fuels ....................................................................................... 19 Preparation of Fuels................................................................................ 20 Use of Waste as Fuel............................................................................... 20 Clinker burning (pyro-processing) ............................................................ 21 Rotary Kilns Equipped with Preheaters and Precalciner .................. 22 Kiln Exhaust Gases................................................................................... 24 Clinker Cooling ........................................................................................ 24 Cement grinding......................................................................................... 25 Packing and storage.................................................................................. 26

Consumption/Emission Levels and Benchmarks ............................................ 27 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 Consumption of raw materials ................................................................. 27 Use of energy............................................................................................... 28 Energy Consumption – Benchmarks (Average Ranges).................. 28 Energy Consumption – Benchmark (World Best)............................... 29 Consumption data overview................................................................ 29 2

Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry

4.2.4 4.2.5 4.3 5

Specific Characteristics of Kiln Processes ........................................... 30 Energy Consumption for Different Types of Cement........................ 30 Emissions........................................................................................................ 31

Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures .............................................. 33 5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 5.3.5 5.3.6 5.3.7 5.3.8 5.3.9 5.3.10 5.4 5.4.1 Overview of Measures................................................................................ 34 Raw materials preparation........................................................................ 36 Efficient Transport Systems (Dry Process)............................................. 36 Raw Meal Blending (Homogenizing) Systems (Dry Process) ........... 36 Slurry Blending and Homogenizing (Wet Process) ............................ 37 Wash Mills with Closed Circuit Classifier (Wet Process) .................... 37 Use of Roller Mills (Dry Process) ............................................................. 37 High-Efficiency Classifiers/Separators.................................................. 38 Fuel Preparation ...................................................................................... 38 Roller Press for Coal Grinding................................................................ 39 Clinker Production – All Kilns...................................................................... 39 Process Control & Management Systems for Kilns ............................ 39 Kiln Combustion System Improvements .............................................. 40 Indirect Firing............................................................................................ 41 Oxygen Enrichment................................................................................ 41 Seals .......................................................................................................... 42 Kiln Shell Heat Loss Reduction and Refractories................................ 42 Kiln Drives.................................................................................................. 42 Use of Waste-Derived Fuels ................................................................... 43 Conversion to Reciprocating Grate Cooler....................................... 44 Optimization of Heat Recovery/Upgrade Clinker Cooler ........... 44

Clinker Production - Wet Process Kilns..................................................... 45 Wet Process Conversion to Semi-Dry Process (Slurry Drier) .............. 45


Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry

5.4.2 5.4.3 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.5.5 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.7.4 5.7.5 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.9 6

Wet Process Conversion to Semi-Wet Process (Filter Press System) 45 Wet Process Conversion to Pre-Heater/Pre-calciner Kiln................. 46 Clinker production - dry process preheater kilns................................... 46 Low Pressure Drop Cyclones for Suspension Preheaters .................. 46 Heat Recovery for Cogeneration ........................................................ 46 Dry Process Conversion to Multi-Stage Preheater Kiln...................... 47 Upgrading to a Preheater/Precalciner Kiln........................................ 47 Conversion of Long Dry Kilns to Preheater/Precalciner Kiln ............ 48 Finish Grinding.............................................................................................. 48 Process Control and Management – Grinding Mills ......................... 48 Advanced Grinding Concepts ............................................................ 48 High-Efficiency Classifiers....................................................................... 49 Improved Grinding Media..................................................................... 50 Plant-Wide Measures.................................................................................. 50 Energy Management............................................................................. 50 Preventative Maintenance ................................................................... 51 Motor Systems.......................................................................................... 51 Compressed Air Systems........................................................................ 52 Lighting ..................................................................................................... 52 Product Changes........................................................................................ 53 Alkali Content .......................................................................................... 53 Blended Cements ................................................................................... 53 Limestone Portland Cement ................................................................. 54 Reducing the Fineness for Particular Applications............................ 54 Conclusion ................................................................................................... 55

References and Links .......................................................................................... 56


The third chapter describes the most relevant processes and technologies in detail. • The fifth chapter describes the options for energy efficiency improvements through the whole cement manufacturing processes. even within relatively modern and advanced plants. As part of the BMT-Tool set (BMT = Benchmarking – Monitoring – Targeting) this reference book provides sector specific information regarding the cement industry in general. • The fourth chapter reviews typical emission and energy consumption data with reference to related benchmarks. Energy benchmarks are discussed as typical ranges of energy consumption (MJ or kg standard coal) per production unit (ton of cement or clinker). 5 . energy consumption of key processes and other relevant aspects connected with the energy and environment performance of cement manufacturing. frequently used technologies. • • The second chapter summarizes the main features of cement manufacture. Particular reference is also made to the excellent study “Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making” by Ernst Worrell and Christina Galitsky (2008).Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry Summary and Acknowledgments This reference book for the cement production industry is a compilation of best available technologies methodologies and future development in the cement industry based on research carried out by CAI. The report is divided into a number of Chapters as follows: • The first chapter provides an overview of cement production worldwide and the predominant role of China in this context. A larger part of this reference book is dedicated to describing the ample options for energy improvements which exist for this industry. References are made to world best performances. A very useful source for this work was the “Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries (BREF)” published by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Board of the European Commission (2001).

New cement production statistics show China to be by far the largest cement producer in the world. Cement is mainly used to make concrete. producing over 1. an increase of 42% over a period of 5 years only.573 to 0. This is a reflection of the size and population of China. Output from the cement industry is directly related to the state of the construction business in general and therefore closely tracks the overall economic situation in a region or country. It has increased from 0. but these are only the most publicly aware projects the enormous infrastructure development and redevelopment that is currently occurring in China While the cement production in China increased by only 30% between 1960 and the late 90’s (a period of almost 40 years). China is the world's largest producer of cement. China’s cement production has grown about 10 percent per year over the past two decades and is expected to reach a saturation point of 1.5%). particularly in the Eastern Provinces.813 billion metric tons between 1999 and 2003 .Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 1 Cement Production Worldwide with Particular Reference to China Cement is a basic material for the building and civil engineering construction industries. The next highest producers are India and the US. 6 . This has further increased between 2005 to 2008 by another 37 %. some of this can no doubt be due to preparation for the Beijjing Olympics of 2008 and the Shanghai World Expo of 2010.it is combined with sand and gravel in roughly fixed proportions. So cement production can be considered a rough indicator for the total amount of construction going on in a region or country. Also interesting is the percentage of the world's production of cement that China took up in 2007 (50%) compared to 2004 (42.2 billion metric tons annually. and is sort of the "active ingredient" in concrete .3 million tons around 2010. but also the massive reconstruction programme that are being undertaken at the present time.

Percentage of yearly worldwide cement usage.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry Annual production of cement by country in billions of metric tons. Source: USGS 2006 report and the USGS 2008 report. These are 7 . There are basically two types of cement kilns used for the production of clinker (the first production stage of cement manufacture). Percentage growth in cement consumption 2005-2008. Source: USGS 2006 report and the USGS 2008 report. The Chinese cement industry is characterized by the use of many different technology types.

but many variations of each type exist in China. wet kilns comprised only 5% of production in 2003.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry vertical (or shaft) kilns and rotary kilns. Energy savings and GHG emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry can be realized through energy-efficiency retrofits. The remainder is produced by both wet and dry rotary kilns. Over half of China's cement production is still by vertical shaft kilns. increased use of blended cements. About 30% of China's cement production in 2004 was from advanced dry rotary kilns that have new suspension preheaters which include precalciners (NSP or precalciner kilns) or suspension preheaters (SP kilns). use of waste heat for power generation. 8 . and structural shifts (closing older shaft kilns and building modern rotary kilns). and substitution of coal with waste fuels.

iron oxide and alumina are found in various ores and minerals.Overview Cement is a finely ground. alumina. Silica. non-metallic. aggregates.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 2 Cement Manufacturing . Power station ash. In Europe the use of cement and concrete (a mixture of cement. The following figure shows a simplified flow chart of cement making. the first step in cement manufacture is calcination of calcium carbonate followed by burning the resulting calcium oxide together with silica. In the case of aluminous cements hydraulic hardening involves the formation of calcium aluminate hydrates. clay and iron ore. which when mixed with water forms a paste that sets and hardens. such as sand. and other process residues can also be used as partial replacements for the natural raw materials. sand and water) in large civic works can be traced back to antiquity. was patented in 1824. Portland cement. and ferrous oxide at high temperatures to form clinker. After quarrying. crushing. 9 . Naturally occurring calcareous deposits such as limestone... marl or chalk provide the source for calcium carbonate. blast furnace slag. inorganic powder. shale. the most widely used cement in concrete construction. The clinker is then ground or milled together with gypsum and other constituents to produce cement. This hydraulic hardening is primarily due to the formation of calcium silicate hydrates as a result of the reaction between mixing water and the constituents of the cement. grinding and homogenization of raw materials.

Clinker burning usually takes place in a rotary kiln which can be part of a wet or dry long kiln system. Whilst dust abatement has been widely applied for more than 50 years and SO2 abatement is a plant specific issue. because the major part of energy consumption in cement production concerns the clinker production with kilns. Where semi-dry. The associated average benchmark heat balance value is 3000 MJ/ton clinker. These measures usually improve clinker quality and lower production costs but they also reduce the energy use and air emissions. Many modern cement plants have adopted general primary measures. Carbon dioxide reduction strategies by the cement industry aim at lowering emissions per ton of cement product rather than by 10 . In recent years typical kiln size has come to be around 3000 tons clinker/day. a semi-wet or semi-dry grate preheater (Lepol) kiln system. optimized cooler connections and use of power management systems. The clinker burning is the most important part of the cement manufacturing process in terms of the key environmental issues of energy use and emissions to air. sulphur dioxide (SO2) and dust. use of gravimetric solid fuel feed systems. a dry suspension preheater kiln system or a preheater/precalciner kiln system. semi-wet. The best available technique for the production of cement clinker is considered to be a dry process kiln with multi-stage suspension preheating and precalcination. such as process control optimization. which are not considered further in this reference book. According to state of the art modern cement production uses dry process kilns.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry To produce 1 ton of clinker the typical average consumption of raw materials in the EU is 1. one ton of cement produced releases one ton of CO2. Further key environmental emissions are nitrogen oxides (NOx). Most of the balance is lost from the process as carbon dioxide (CO2) emission to air in the calcination reaction (CaCO3 → CaO + CO2). As a rule of the thumb. In addition there are further grinding plants (mills) without kilns. especially its large carbon dioxide emissions. potentially affect the cement industry. Vertical (or shaft) kilns are almost never used now in developed countries largely because of energy inefficiencies. A number of environmental issues. Clinker making accounts for up to 90% of the total energy consumption of cement manufacturing.57 tons. the abatement of NOx is a relatively new issue for the cement industry. and wet process kilns are still in use then they are generally expected to be converted to dry process kiln systems when renewed for similar reasons.

Fossil fuel cost are a main concern of the cement industry. such as pozzolans. their use therefore reduce the monetary and environmental costs of the cement component of concrete. partial substitution of noncarbonated sources of calcium oxide in the kiln raw materials. while separate emission related issues are being addressed more directly through the waste incineration industry. the industry has historically found it difficult to fully pass on the cost increases of fuels to the customers. These strategies include installation of more fuel-efficient kiln technologies. but can result in other emission related problems.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry plant. Cement kilns can be an effective way of destroying such wastes. Because SCM do not require the energy-intensive clinker manufacturing (kiln) phase of cement production. The viability of the practice and the type of waste burned hinge on current and future environmental regulations and their associated costs. and partial substitution of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) additives. Some cement plants burn waste materials in their kilns as a low-cost substitute for fossil fuels. 11 . for Portland Cement in the finished cement products and in concrete. The trend appears to be toward increased use of waste fuels. even in times of cement shortages.

alumina.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3 Processes and Techniques The basic chemistry of the cement manufacturing process begins with the decomposition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at about 900°C to leave calcium oxide (CaO. This is followed by the clinkering process in which the calcium oxide reacts at high temperature (typically 1400-1500°C) with silica. and ferrous oxide to form the silicates. This process is known as calcination. aluminates. and ferrites of calcium which comprise the clinker. The clinker is then ground or milled together with gypsum and other additives to produce cement. lime) and liberate gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2). 12 .

The filter cake is extruded into pellets and fed either to a grate preheater or directly to a filter cake drier for raw meal production. semi-wet and wet processes (see figures below: • In the dry process. to a long dry kiln. • In the semi-dry process.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3. dry raw meal is palletized with water and fed into a grate preheater before the kiln or to a long kiln equipped with crosses. 13 . • In the semi-wet process the slurry is first dewatered in filter presses.1 Main Technologies and Process Routes There are four main process routes for the manufacturing of cement. the dry. semidry. more rarely. The slurry is either fed directly into the kiln or first to slurry drier. the raw materials (often with high moisture content) are ground in water to form pumpable slurry. The dry raw meal is fed to the preheater or precalciner kiln or. • In the wet process. the raw materials are ground and dried to raw meal in the form of a flowable powder.

Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 14 .

2 Technology Choice The choice of process is to a large extent determined by the state of the raw materials (dry or wet). Plants using semidry processes are likely to change to dry technologies whenever expansion or major improvement is required. and thus more expensive. more than 75% of production has converted to the dry processes thanks to the availability of dry raw materials. A large part of world clinker production is still based on wet processes. However. Plants using wet or semi-wet processes normally only have access to moist raw materials. and to some extent in the UK and North America.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3. A similar tendency is observed in China. as is the situation in Denmark and Belgium. 15 . Plants using wet processes are going to be closed or changed to dry processes. in developed countries. too. Wet processes are more energy consuming.

3 Winning of Raw Materials The most common raw materials for cement production are limestone. crushed. aluminum and iron oxides required for the manufacturing of Portland cement.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry The following sub-processes are discussed in more detail in the next chapters: • • • • • • Winning of raw materials Kiln feed preparation Fuels storage and preparation Clinker burning Cement grinding and storage Packing and dispatch 3. while clay. blast furnace slag. The major component of the raw materials. the limestone or chalk. sometimes from underground mining.4 Kiln Feed Preparation Preparation of the raw material is of great importance to the subsequent kiln system both in getting the chemistry of the raw feed right and in ensuring that the feed is sufficiently fine. Power station ash. It is often necessary to raise the content of silicon oxides or iron oxides by adding quartz sand and iron ore. is usually extracted from a quarry adjacent to or very close to the plant. The limestone is most often extracted from openface quarries. chalk and clay. 3. and proportioned so that the resulting mixture has the desired fineness and chemical composition for the pyro-processing (clinker production) systems. and other process residues can also be used as partial replacements for the natural raw materials. 16 . ground. The raw materials are selected. Limestone provides the required calcium oxide and some of the other oxides. shale and other materials provide most of the silicon.

simpler stacking and reclaiming systems can be used. In dry processing. The grinding differs with the pyro-processing process used. 3. referred to as a rotary mill. After primary crushing the raw materials are transported to the cement plant for storage and further preparation. More than 1.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry depending on their chemical suitability. 17 . Any raw materials with potentially harmful properties.4.4.1 Raw Material Storage The mined and crushed or purchased and delivered raw materials may need to be stored in covered storages depending on climatic conditions and the amount of fines in the raw material. tube mills (air-swept). are brought in from elsewhere. initial pre-blending can be achieved by stacking the material in rows or layers along the length (or around the circumference) of the store and extracting it by taking cross-sections across the pile.2 Grinding of Raw Materials After primary size reduction (crushing). 3. The raw material fed to a kiln system needs to be as chemically homogeneous as practicable. Rollers on a round table fulfill this task of comminution in a roller mill. such as fly ash and phosphogypsum. vertical roller mills and horizontal roller mills (only a few installations in operation so far). mineral additives for example. When the material from the quarry varies in quality. steel-alloy balls (or tubes) are responsible for decreasing the size of the raw material pieces in a rotating cylinder. iron ore. such as bauxite. Typical dry grinding systems used are: tube mills (centre discharge). blast furnace slag or foundry sand. the raw materials are further reduced in size by grinding. must be stored and prepared according to individual controlled conditions. This is achieved by controlling the feed into the raw grinding plant. When the material from the quarry is fairly homogeneous. Other raw materials. the materials are ground into a flowable powder in mills. Raw materials used in relatively small quantities. In the case of a 3000 tons/day plant these buildings may hold between 20000 and 40000 tons of material.5 tons of raw materials are required to produce one ton of Portland cement. are usually stored in smaller silos or bunkers. In a ball (or tube) mill.

air separators are used. although it could require as little as 11 kWh/ton. 3. The newest generation. The main fuel input (65-85%) has to be of this easily combustible type. For pulverized solid fuels. good design of hoppers. For dry classification. conveyors and feeders is essential to meet these conditions. increased system throughput (efficiency of particle separation). an auxiliary furnace may be needed to provide additional heat. In order to keep heat losses at minimum. For raw materials with relatively high moisture content. storage and preparation Various fuels can be used to provide the heat required for the pyro-process (clinker burning). and for start up procedures. These conditions are fulfilled by all liquid and gaseous fuels. A more favorable particle size distribution and product uniformity. in decreasing order of importance these are: pulverized coal and petcoke. Further energy is required to dry the raw material.5 % (0 – 0. Raw material preparation is an electricity-intensive production step requiring generally about 25-35 kWh/ton raw material. Metering and proportioning is also an important factor in the energy efficiency of the grinding system. 18 .Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry The fineness and particle size distribution of the product leaving a raw grinding system is of great importance in the subsequent burning process. and natural gas. Three different types of fuels are mainly used in cement kiln firing. (heavy) fuel oil. This is essential for steady kiln operation and a high-quality product. cement kilns are operated at lowest reasonable excess oxygen levels.7 %). The moisture content in the kiln feed of the dry kiln is typically around 0. Accurate metering and proportioning of the mill feed components by weight is important for achieving a consistent chemical composition. have several advantages including: • • • lower specific energy consumption of the grinding system (less over-grinding). This requires highly uniform and reliable fuel metering and fuel presentation in a form allowing rapid and complete combustion. rotor cage type separators. waste heat from the kiln exhaust clinker cooler is commonly used for this purpose. The target given for these parameters is achieved by adjusting the separator used for classifying the product leaving the grinding mill.5 Fuel.

which has also process specific benefits: the main ash constituents of these fuels are silica and alumina compounds. This has to be considered in calculating the raw material composition. They may also be equipped with heatable suction points to maintain the oil at the correct temperature locally. The main fuels used in the cement industry are petcoke and coal (black coal and lignite). ash content. the high temperatures and long residence times in the kiln system implies considerable potential for destruction of organic substances.5. These can be triggered by smouldering fires and static electricity spark-overs) these silos have to be of the mass flow extraction type and have to be equipped with standard safety devices.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry whereas the remaining 15-35% may be fed in coarse crushed or lump form. but the selection of fuels depends on the local situation (such as availability of domestic coal). Specific logistics are employed in case of the use of waste as alternative fuel.1 Storage of Fuels Raw coal and petcoke are stored similarly to other raw materials. These combine with the raw materials to become part of the clinker. These are sometimes insulated to help keep the oil at pumpable temperature (50 to 60 °C). in many cases. Thus it is desirable to use fuel with a consistent. Natural gas is not stored at the cement plant. Pulverized coal and petcoke are potentially explosive and are stored exclusively in silos. This makes a wide variety of less expensive fuel options possible. National high pressure gas distribution network acts as the primary gas storage facility. Such stockpiles may be seeded with grass to prevent rainwater and wind erosion. Cost normally precludes the use of natural gas or oil. in particular different types of wastes. 3. Outside storage in large. 19 . Fuel oil is stored in vertical steel tanks. though not necessarily low. For safety reasons . Low rank lignitic and sub-bituminous coals are therefore sometimes favored for cement manufacture. However. compacted stockpiles is used for long-term stocks. in covered stores.

too coarse fuel can cause poor combustion.g. waste oils. grinding and drying) is usually carried out on site. Ground solid fuel may be fired directly into the kiln. Fuel oil and natural gas preparation has to be carried out in accordance with National safety standards for and allow for required metering and combustion. Since supplies of suitable waste for use as fuel tend to be variable whilst waste material markets are rapidly developing. Coal and petcoke are pulverized to about raw meal fineness in grinding plants using equipment similar to the raw-material grinding plants. 20 . 3.2 Preparation of Fuels Solid fuel preparation (crushing. but in most modern installations it is usually stored in silos to allow the use of more thermally efficient burners (indirect firing) using low primary air. Preparation of different types of waste for use as fuel is usually performed outside the cement plant by the supplier or by waste-treatment specialists. Low volatility solid fuel will need finer grinding.5. sewage sludge. paper waste. plastics. spent solvents. in Europe): used tyres.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3. If sufficient hot air for drying is not available from the kiln or from the cooler.5. This means they only need to be stored at the cement plant and then proportioned for feeding to the cement kiln.3 Use of Waste as Fuel The following types of waste are most frequently used as fuels today (e. rubber. it is advisable to design storage/preparation plants to be multi-purpose. The fineness of the pulverized fuel is important: too fine fuel can cause excessively high flame temperatures. an auxiliary furnace may be needed. paper sludge. waste woods.

the combustion gas reaches a temperature of 1800-2000°C. calcined and sintered to produce cement clinker. In a dry rotary kiln. Pre-calciner technology was developed more recently A second combustion chamber has been added between the kiln and a conventional pre-heater that allows for further reduction of kiln fuel requirements. In these rotary kilns a tube with a diameter up to 8 meters is installed at a 3-4o angle that rotates 1-3 times per minute. The first development of the dry process took place in the U. These kilns were developed as an upgrade of the original long dry kiln to improve the chemical uniformity in the raw meal. with lengths up to 230 meters. The length to diameter ratio may be up to 38. and was a long dry kiln without preheating. The ground raw material. fed into the top of the kiln. In the clinker burning process it is essential to maintain kiln charge temperatures of between 1400 to 1500°C and gas temperatures of about 1800 to 2000°C under oxidizing conditions. The evaporation step makes a long kiln necessary.e. In the sintering (or clinkering) zone. the raw meal is fed to the kiln system where it is dried. calcined. Clinker is produced by pyro-processing in large kilns.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3. pre-heated. product quality. The first rotary kilns were long wet kilns.6 Clinker burning (pyro-processing) This part of the process is the most critical in terms of energy efficiency. accounting for over 90% of total industry energy use. moves down the tube countercurrent to the flow of gases and toward the flame-end of the rotary kiln. Therefore an excess of air is required in the sintering zone of a cement clinker kiln. and enters into the sintering zone. Coal is still the fuel mainly used worldwide and of course in China. Later developments have added multi-stage suspension preheaters (i. The main pyro-processing kiln type used today in developed countries is the rotary kiln. atmospheric emission. Clinker production is the most energy-intensive stage in cement production. The typical fuel 21 . and virtually all of the fuel use.5%) is used. In clinker burning. where the raw meal is dried. feed material with much lower moisture content (0. and cost. The water (due to the high moisture content of the raw meal) is first evaporated in the kiln in the low temperature zone. a cyclone) or shaft preheater. thereby reducing the need for evaporation and reducing kiln length.S. where the raw meal typically contains approximately 36% moisture. The clinker is cooled with air and then stored.

sulfates.9-3. which frequently cause 22 . is normally used for raw material drying. But such systems lead to additional energy losses since sensible heat is removed with the bypass gas and dust. precalciner kilns use approximately 2.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry consumption of a dry kiln with 4 or 5-stage preheating can vary between 3. Right: Four stage cyclone preheater plus precalciner The exhaust gas. The most efficient pre-heater.1 Rotary Kilns Equipped with Preheaters and Precalciner The four-stage cyclone preheater kiln system (see left figure below) was standard technology in the 1970s when many plants were built in the 1000 to 3000 tons/day range. electricity use increases slightly due to the increased pressure drop across the system. which has a temperature of around 330 °C. Left: Four stage cyclone preheater. and alkalis) from the feed and/or fuel were excessive.9 GJ/ton clinker (97kgce/t). sulphur. When the meal enters the rotary kiln. Alkali or kiln dust (KD) bypass systems may be required in kilns to remove alkalis. Severe problems have been encountered in the past with four stage preheaters in cases where inputs of circulating elements (chlorides.0 GJ/ton clinker (98-102kgce/t). and/or chlorides.6. A six stage preheater kiln can theoretically use as low as 2. Highly enriched cycles of these elements lead to build-ups in cyclone and duct walls.2 and 3. 3.5 GJ/ton clinker (109-120kgce/t). calcination is already about 30% completed.

In spite of the fact that the meal enters the kiln 75 to 95% calcined. This bypass gas is cooled to condense the alkalis and then passed through a dust collector before discharge. Primary fuel combustion occurs in the kiln burning zone. Kiln systems with five cyclone preheater stages and precalciner are considered standard technology for new dry process plants. The size of a new plant is primarily determined by predicted market developments. in all other cases it is fed back into the production process. Hot air for combustion in the calciner is ducted from the cooler. six-stage preheaters can be the preferred choice. Kilns with diameters from 3. extraction of part of the particulate laden gas stream leaving the kiln so that it bypasses the cyclone system. for the control of clinker alkali levels. but also by economy of scale. Where excessive inputs of circulating elements are present. This energy is basically used to calcine the raw meal. Secondary burning takes place in a special combustion chamber between the rotary kiln and the preheater. i. Where natural raw material moisture is low. a bypass in a precalciner kiln is much more efficient than in a straight preheater kiln. In this procedure the heat input is divided between two points. a kiln gas bypass is required to maintain continuous kiln operation. most precalciner kilns are still equipped with a rotary kiln with a calcining zone. This has been the standard design since around 1970. For a given rotary kiln size precalcining increases the clinker capacity. i.5 to 6 m have been built with length to diameter ratios in the range 13:1 to 16:1. Whilst in some regions it is necessary. 23 .e. Mechanically simpler than the long wet and dry kilns. it is probably the most widely used kiln type today.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry blockages and kiln stops lasting several days. which is almost completely calcined when it enters the kiln. larger units with up to 15000 tons/day are possible. However. Technically. In this chamber up to 60% of the total fuel can be burned in a typical precalciner kiln.e. Typical unit capacity for new plants in Europe today is from 3000 to 5000 tons/day. is a frequently used solution to the problem. due to the different gas flow characteristics. The precalcination technique (see right figure above) has been available to the cement industry since about 1970. to send the bypass dust and part of the kiln dust to landfills. and three 10000 tons/day kilns are currently in operation in Asian markets. Almost all four-stage suspension preheaters operate with rotary kilns with three supports. particularly in combination with bag-filter de-dusting. Kiln gas bypass. Material leaves the calciner at about 870 ºC. Earlier precalciner systems had only four preheater stages with accordingly higher exhaust gas temperature and fuel consumption.

2 Kiln Exhaust Gases In all kiln systems the exhaust gases are finally passed through an air pollution control device (electrostatic precipitator or bag filter) for separation of the dust before going to the main stack. The cooling air is used as secondary combustion air for the kiln. and to reduce the clinker temperature to a level suitable for the downstream equipment. In the grate cooler. the clinker is transported over a reciprocating grate through which air flows across the passage of clinker. 24 . it is cooled rapidly to minimize the formation of a glass phase and ensure the maximum yield of alite (tricalcium silicate) formation.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry with an L/D ratio of 13:1 to 16:1 as in the case of the straight preheater kilns. which is returned to the process. 3.3 Clinker Cooling Once the clinker is formed in the rotary kiln. In the dry processes the exhaust gases can be at a relatively high temperature and may provide heat for the raw mill when it is running (compound operation).6.6. In the planetary cooler (a series of tubes surrounding the discharge end of the rotary kiln). 3. The cooler has two tasks: to recover as much heat as possible from the hot (1450°C) clinker. The clinker cooler is an integral part of the kiln system and has a decisive influence on performance and economy of the pyro-processing plant. The main cooling technologies are either the grate cooler or the tube or planetary cooler. an important component for the hardening properties of cement. the clinker is cooled in a counter-current air stream.

These will be inter-ground with the clinker or may need to be dried and ground separately. The accuracy and reliability of metering and proportioning of the mill feed components by weight is of great importance for maintaining high energy efficiency of the grinding system. latest-generation grinding systems equipped with a dynamic air separator predominate. To produce powdered cement. While vertical roller mills are feasible. ball mills in combination with roller presses. natural or artificial pozzolanas. The predominant metering and proportioning equipment for the material feed to mills is the belt weigh feeder. (Grinding plants may be at separate locations from clinker production plants.) The kind of cement grinding process and the plant concept chosen at a specific site depend on the cement type to be produced. the humidity and the abrasive behavior of the compounds of the cement type produced. Power consumption for grinding depends on the specific surface area required for the final product and the additives used. roller mills. and bins or in open air. together with additions (3-5% gypsum to control the setting properties of the cement) can be done in ball mills. and bucket elevators). belt conveyors. Portland Cement is produced by inter-grinding cement clinker and sulphates such as gypsum and anhydrite. Most mills work in a closed circuit. Electricity use for raw meal and finish grinding 25 . Larger stocks can be stored in the open if the necessary precautions against dust formation are taken. or inert fillers. Due to the variety of cement types required by the market. In blended cements (composite cements) there are other constituents.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 3. the nodules of cement clinker are ground to the consistency of face powder. such as granulated blast furnace slag.7 Cement grinding After cooling. Coarse material is separated in a classifier that is re-circulated and returned to the mill for additional grinding to ensure a uniform specific surface area of the final product. deep bucket conveyors. Grinding of cement clinker. silos. Of special importance are the grindability. they have not found wide acceptance. or roller presses. the clinker can be stored either in the clinker dome. that is.g. The material handling equipment used to transport clinker from the clinker coolers to storage and then to the finish mill is similar to that used to transport raw materials (e. they can separate cement with the required fineness from the material being ground and return coarse material to the mill. limestone.

barges or ships.500 Blaine1 (expressed in cm2/g). 26 .Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry depends strongly on the hardness of the material and the desired fineness of the cement as well as the amount of additives.500 Blaine cement. or an indicator of the fineness of cement. and is more common in Europe than in North America. railcars. 1 Blaine is a measure of the total surface of the particles in a given quantity of cement.8 Packing and storage Finished cement is stored in silos. Both pneumatic and mechanical conveying systems can be used for cement transport to storage silos. Modern state-of-the-art concepts utilize a high-pressure roller mill and the horizontal roller mill that are claimed to use 20-50% less energy than a ball mill. between 50 and 70 kWh/ton for a 3. Mechanical systems normally have a higher investment cost but a much lower operating cost than pneumatic transport. The total consumption for these purposes is generally low and not more than 5% of total power use. It is defined in terms of square centimeters per gram. tested and filled into bags. Various new grinding mill concepts are under development or have been demonstrated 3. A combination of airslide or screw/chain conveyors with a chain bucket elevator is presently the most commonly used system. the more energy required to grind the clinker and additive. In ball or tube mills. the clinker and gypsum are fed into one end of a horizontal cylinder and partially ground cement exits from the other end. Traditionally. or shipped in bulk on bulk cement trucks. Modern ball mills may use between 32 and 37 kWh/ton for 3. while many plants use vertical roller mills. The higher the Blaine. ball mills are used in finish grinding. Blast furnace slags are harder to grind and hence use more grinding power. Additional power is consumed for conveyor belts and packing of cement. The roller press is a relatively new technology.

Waste water discharge is usually limited to surface run off and cooling water only and causes no substantial contribution to water pollution. corresponding to 1. The figures in the final column are for a plant with a clinker production of 3000 tons/day or 1 million tons/year. The following figure (based on data from Austria) shows a mass balance for the production of 1 kg of cement with the dry process. 4. 27 .23 million tons cement per year based on the average clinker content in European cement. The storage and handling of fuels is a potential source of contamination of soil and groundwater. using heavy fuel oil as fuel. The figures in the following table indicate typical average consumptions of raw materials for the production of cement in the European Union.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 4 Consumption/Emission Levels and Benchmarks The main environmental issues associated with cement production are emissions to air and energy use.1 Consumption of raw materials Cement manufacture is a high volume process.

On average.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 4.in the form of fuel and electricity – represent about 50% of the total production cost involved in producing a ton of cement.2.2 Use of energy The dominant use of energy in cement manufacture is fuel for the kiln. 4. Electrical energy represents approximately 20 % of this overall energy requirement. energy costs . and for shaft kilns (max. The main users of electricity are the mills (finish grinding and raw grinding) and the exhaust fans (kiln/raw mill and cement mill) which together account for more than 80 % of electrical energy usage. multi-stage cyclone preheater and precalciner kilns • • • • • 3100-4200 3300-4500 up to 5000 5000-6000 3100-4200 for dry process rotary kilns equipped with cyclone preheaters for semi-dry/semi-wet processes (Lepol-kiln) for dry process long kilns for wet process long kilns. The theoretical energy use for the burning process (chemical reactions) is about 1700 to 1800 MJ/ton clinker.1 Energy Consumption – Benchmarks (Average Ranges) The actual fuel energy use (primary energy = final energy) for different kiln systems is in the following ranges (MJ/ton clinker): • about 3000 for dry process. capacity 200t/day) 28 .

3 5.8 112.500 5.200 170.6 105.3 153.2.200 29 .for raw material.300 up to 3.is about 90-130 kWh/ton (~320-430 MJ/ton) cement.000 3.100 3.850 3.6 105. transmission and distribution losses.6 up to 102.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry The final energy electricity demand .3 5. solid fuel and additives preparation and grinding .6 up to 102.6 170.000 4.2 105.6 204. This number is equivalent to 270-400 kWh/ton (~990-1420 MJ/ton) cement of primary energy electricity.is 70 kWh/ton (~250 MJ/ton) cement.4 143.7 143.000 6. which includes electricity generation.500 5. multi-stage cyclone preheater and precalciner kilns dry process rotary kilns equipped with cyclone preheaters semi-dry/semi-wet processes (Lepolkiln) dry process long kilns wet process long kilns shaft kilns (100 t/day) Final energy intensity kgce/t clinker from 97.2 Energy Consumption – Benchmark (World Best) The world best practice value reported in the literature is a fuel energy use (primary energy = final energy) of 2850 MJ/ton clinker.2 105.000 6. this number is equivalent to 210 kWh/ton (~760 MJ/ton) cement of primary energy electricity.100 MJ/t clinker from 2. transmission and distribution losses.200 4.8 204. 4.000 4. which includes electricity generation.100 3.300 up to 3.000 3.850 3.000 4.3 153.8 Primary energy intensity kgce/t clinker from 97.for raw material. 4.5 170. solid fuel and additives preparation and grinding .5 170.8 112.100 MJ/t clinker from 2.7 143.000 4.4 143. The final energy electricity demand .2.200 4.3 Consumption data overview Energy consumption clinker burning International benchmarks dry process.

7 3.2 9.0 kWh/t cement from 24 22 25 71 up to 35 25 70 130 Primary energy intensity kgce/t cement from 8. Best practice values for additive use are based on the European ENV 197-2 standards: • Typical Portland Cements (CEM I) have only up to 5 % additives and 95 % 30 .9 2.2.4 Specific Characteristics of Kiln Processes 4.4 up to 13.9 8.1 8.1 48.3 26.0 9. blasters.5 Energy Consumption for Different Types of Cement Because clinker making accounts for the most energy consumed in the cement making process (about 90%). fans Finish grinding Total electricity consumtion Final energy intensity kgce/t cement from 2.7 up to 4.2.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry Energy consumption electricity International benchmarks Raw material preparation Kiln frives.3 3. reducing the ratio of clinker to final cement produced by mixing clinker with additives can greatly reduce the energy used for manufacturing of cement.1 8.3 26.6 16.4 kWh/t cement from 73 67 76 215 up to 106 76 212 394 4.

up to 35% can be fly ash and 65% clinker. water vapor from the combustion process and from the raw materials. The main polutants from the production of cement are releases to air from the kiln system. solid fuel and product.3 Emissions This topic was included because the Chinese cement industry. such releases can lead to local nuisance problems. These derive from the physical and chemical reactions involving the raw materials and the combustion of fuels. which are also used for fixing emission limit values: • • oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other nitrogen compounds sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other sulphur compounds 31 . • For composite Portland Cements (CEM II). The above reported energy consumption figures relate to these types of cement. The main constituents of the exit gases from a cement kiln are nitrogen from the combustion air. CO2 from calcination of CaCO3 and combustion of fuel. up to 65% can be blast furnace slag and only 35% clinker. and excess oxygen. like its international counterparts. is under increasingly pressure to adopt stricter environmental protection standards. 4. Even at low levels. There is potential for the release of particulates from any outside storage of raw materials and solid fuels as well as from any materials transport systems. There are also releases of particulates from all milling operations including raw materials. The total energy consumption for the production of these types of cement can be up to about 45 % less. The magnitude of these releases can be significant if they are not well engineered or maintained. • For blast furnace slag cements (CEM III/A). Cement plant operation and literature on air pollution and abatement techniques generally focus on three pollutants.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry clinker. including cement product loading. Total energy consumption for the production of these types of cements can up to about 20% less.

Other emissions the effect of which is normally slight and/or local. noise and odor. but considered to be relevant for cement production is carbon dioxide (CO2). 32 .Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry • dust The following pollutants are also considered to be of concern for the production of cement: • • carbon monoxide (CO) volatile organic compounds (VOC) Other pollutants to be considered in relation to the production of cement in case of waste fuels are: • • • • polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) metals and their compounds hydrogen fluoride (HF) – or hyroflouric acid hydrogen chloride (HCl) – or hydrochloric acid Not mentioned in the list. are waste.

This section provides more detailed estimates on the technologies and measures. The same is expected to happen in China. their costs. reduce) the consumption of raw materials and the use of energy.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5 Energy Efficiency Technologies and Measures In this chapter techniques are discussed that may have a positive effect on (i. this is usually not feasible unless done as part of a major upgrade with an increase in production. such a configuration will use between 2900-3200 MJ/ton clinker (98-109kgce/t). To optimize the input of energy in other kiln systems it is possible to change the configuration of the kiln to a short dry process kiln with multi stage preheating and precalcination. and so are semi-dry and semi-wet processes. For new plants and major upgrades a dry process kiln with multi-stage preheating and precalcination is considered to be the most energy efficient. Kiln systems with 5 cyclone preheater stages and precalciner are considered standard technology for ordinary new plants. However. Improving energy efficiency at a cement plant could be approached from several directions.e. Several technologies and measures exist that can reduce the energy intensity (i. short term options for energy efficiency improvements in Chinese cement plants are discussed mainly for dry process plants. with some reference to wet processes. 33 . The wet process kilns operating in Europe and other developed countries are generally expected to convert to the dry process when renewed. many options exist for cement plants to improve energy efficiency while maintaining or enhancing productivity. the electricity or fuel consumption per unit of output) of the various process stages of cement production. and potential for implementation. too. Given these constraints.e.

Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. pre-calciner kilns Conversion to semi-dry kiln (slurry drier) Conversion to semi-wet kiln Efficient kiln drives Oxygen enrichment X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 34 .1 Overview of Measures Raw materials preparation Dry process Wet process • • • • • • • Efficient transport systems Slurry blending and homogenization Raw meal blending systems Conversion to closed circuit wash mill High-efficiency roller mills High-efficiency classifiers Fuel Preparation: Roller mills X X X X X X X X Clinker production Dry process Wet process X X X X X X X X • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Energy management and process control Seal replacement Kiln combustion system improvements Kiln shell heat loss reduction Use of waste fuels Conversion to modern grate cooler Refractories Optimize grate coolers Addition of pre-calciner to pre-heater kiln Low pressure drop cyclones suspension pre-heaters Heat recovery for power generation Long dry kiln conversion to multi-stage pre-heater kiln Conversion to pre-heater.

35 . Application will depend on the current and future situation in individual plants. expansion and large capital projects are likely to be implemented only if the company has about 50 years of remaining limestone reserves onsite.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry Finish grinding Dry process Wet process X X X X X • • • • • Energy management and process control Improved grinding media (ball mills) Kiln combustion system improvements High-pressure roller press High efficiency classifiers X X X X X General measures Dry process Wet process X X X X X • • • • • Preventative maintenance High efficiency motors Efficient fans with variable speed drives High-pressure roller press Efficient lighting X X X X X Product & Feedstock Changes Dry process Wet process X X X X X • • • • • Blended Cements Limestone cement Low Alkali cement Use of steel slag in kiln Reducing fineness of cement for selected uses X X X X X Not all measures mentioned above will apply to all plants. and would rather focus on minor upgrades and energy management measures. For example. Plants that have a shorter remaining supply are unlikely to implement large capital projects.

Older dry process plants use mechanical systems. Careful selection and control of substances entering the kiln can reduce emissions.3 kWh/ton raw meal. Although older plants use mechanical or air-fluidized bed systems. The average energy savings are estimated at 2.9-2. more and more new plants seem to have gravity-type silos. Silo retrofit options are cost-effective when the silo can be partitioned with air slides and divided into compartments which are sequentially agitated. where it is mixed in an inverted cone. Gravity-type silos may not give the same blending efficiency as air-fluidized systems. In these silos.2.2.4 kWh/ton raw meal. it is crucial that the raw meal is completely homogenized. 5. kiln dust. These materials are usually transported by means of either pneumatic or mechanical conveyors. as opposed to the construction of a whole new silo system. For example. limiting the sulphur content of both raw materials and fuels can reduce releases of SO2. The same is valid for raw materials and fuels containing other 36 . because of the significant reduction in power consumption.1 Efficient Transport Systems (Dry Process) Transport systems are required to convey powdered materials such as kiln feed. Quality control starts in the quarry and continues to the blending silo.4 kWh/ton raw meal. which simultaneously withdraws material from 6-8 different silos at variable rates. using 2-2. material funnels down one of many discharge points. Modern plants use gravity-type homogenizing silos (or continuous blending and storage silos) reducing power consumption. and finished cement through the plant. On-line analyzers for raw mix control are an integral part of the quality control system. Most plants use compressed air to agitate the powdered meal in so-called airfluidized homogenizing silos using 1-1. Mechanical conveyors use less power than pneumatic systems.2 Raw materials preparation 5. Conversion to mechanical conveyors is cost-effective when replacement of conveyor systems is needed to increase reliability and reduce downtime. The energy savings are estimated at 0.0 kWh/ton by switching to mechanical conveyor systems.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5.2 Raw Meal Blending (Homogenizing) Systems (Dry Process) To produce a good quality product and to maintain optimal and efficient combustion conditions in the kiln.

The main energy efficiency improvement measures for slurry blending systems are to be found in the finding of improvements to the compressed air system. There are. 5. For example. An efficiently run mixing system may use 0. An efficient tube mill system consumes about 13 kWh/ton of raw material. The use of these advanced mills saves energy without compromising product quality. The mixing is done using compressed air and rotating stirrers. metals and organic compounds. or by horizontal roller mills.2. or 40-60%.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry substances. fuel sulphur is not a problem for dry preheater and precalciner kiln systems.3 – 0. however. 5. The use of compressed air may lead to relatively high energy losses because of its poor efficiency. tube mills are used in combination with closed or open circuit classifiers.5 Use of Roller Mills (Dry Process) Traditional ball mills used for grinding certain raw materials (mainly hard limestone) can be replaced by high-efficiency roller mills combined with high-pressure roller presses.5 kWh/ton raw material.3 Slurry Blending and Homogenizing (Wet Process) In the wet process the slurry is blended and homogenized in a batch process.2. and all organic compounds in fuels fed through the main burner will be completely destroyed. When replacing a tube mill a wash mill should be considered as an alternative. for example nitrogen. A further advantage of the inline vertical roller mills is that they can combine raw material drying with the grinding process by using the large quantities of low grade waste heat available from the kilns or clinker coolers. 5. some differences between different kiln systems and feeding points. Energy savings of 6-7 kWh/t of raw material are assumed through the installation of a vertical or horizontal roller mill. Various roller mill designs are marketed.2.4 Wash Mills with Closed Circuit Classifier (Wet Process) In most wet process kilns. 37 . Replacing the tube mill by a wash mill would reduce electricity consumption to between 5-7 kWh/ton of raw material at comparable investment and operation costs as a tube mill system. reducing electricity consumption for raw grinding by 5-7 kWh/ton of raw material.

and can manage larger variations in throughput. the material stays longer in the separator. Most commonly a ball mill or a roller mill is used for coal grinding. Standard classifiers may have a low separation efficiency. In highefficiency classifiers. tube mills are preferred for more abrasive coal types.6 High-Efficiency Classifiers/Separators A recent development in efficient grinding technologies is the use of high-efficiency classifiers or separators. Classifiers separate the finely ground particles from the coarse particles. Germany. 38 . Currently. Canada. roller mills are the most common coal mills in the cement industry. including: US. 5. An impact mill would consume around 45-60 kWh/ton and a tube mill around 25-26 kWh/ton (total system requirements). Japan and Thailand. thus reducing over-grinding. leading to sharper separation. Various concepts of high-efficiency classifiers have been developed. All major suppliers of cement technology offer roller mills for coal grinding. which leads to the recycling of fine particles.2. Coal is normally shipped “wet” to prevent dust formation and fire during transport.2. the clinker cooler) can be used to dry the coal if needed. which results in extra power use in the grinding mill. grinding and drying of coal. Electricity savings through implementing high-efficiency classifiers are estimated at 8 % of the specific electricity use. Coal grinding roller mills can be found in many countries around the world.g.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. Fuels preparation is most often performed on-site and may include crushing. However. both in raw meal and cement.7 Fuel Preparation Coal is the most widely used fuel in the cement industry. Brazil. Replacing a conventional classifier by a high-efficiency classifier can lead to 15 % increases in the grinding mill capacity and improved product quality due to a more uniform particle size. High efficiency classifiers can be used in both the raw materials mill and in the finish grinding mill. The large particles are then recycled back to the mill. The better size distribution of the raw meal may lead to fuel savings in the kiln and improved clinker quality. China. Coal roller mills are available for throughputs of 5 to 200 tons/hour. Advantages of a roller mill are that it is able to handle larger sizes of coal (no precrushing needed) and coal types with a higher moisture content. Waste heat of the kiln system (e. Denmark.

is beneficial for all kiln emissions as well as the energy use. 5. for example) by stabilizing process parameters. 5. homogenization silos. are generally more efficient than conventional grinding mills. Kiln optimization is applicable to all kilns and can include many elements ranging from instruction/training of the kiln operators up to installation of new equipment such as dosing systems. between 7-10 kWh/ton of coal.2. Reduction of emissions. SO2 and dust. although coal-grinding equipment needs special protection against explosions. Roller presses can be used to grind raw materials and coal interchangeably. operating close to the process parameter set points. to improve the clinker quality and to increase the lifetime of the equipment (the refractory lining. including computer-based automatic control systems and the use of modern. but the operating costs are also lower. Smooth and stable kiln operation close to design values for process parameters is beneficial for all kiln emissions.3. gravimetric solid fuel feed systems.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry Electricity consumption for a vertical roller mill is estimated at 16-18 kWh/ton coal. But penetration of roller presses into the cement industry is still at a relatively low level.3 Clinker Production – All Kilns A smooth and stable kiln process. This can be achieved by applying Process control optimization. Energy savings are estimated 5. pre-blending beds and new clinker coolers.1 Process Control & Management Systems for Kilns Optimization of the clinker burning process is usually done to reduce the heat consumption. Optimization includes measures like 39 .8 Roller Press for Coal Grinding Roller presses. are secondary effects of this optimization. The investment costs for a roller mill are typically higher than that of a tube mill or an impact mill. such as NOx. like those used for cement and raw material grinding. roughly 20% compared to a tube mill and over 50% compared to an impact mill.

Expert control systems do not use a modeled process to control process conditions.5-5%. 40 .2 Kiln Combustion System Improvements Fuel combustion systems in kilns can be contributors to kiln inefficiencies with such problems such as poorly adjusted firing. using information from various stages in the process. which may lead to more efficient clinker grinding. ensuring uniform coal dosing and improving the cooler’s operation. transport conveyor and feeder systems and gravimetric solid fuel feed systems to achieve this objective.3.5% and 10%. The economics of advanced process control systems are very good and payback periods can be as short as 3 months. A uniform feed allows for steadier kiln operation. 5. Heat from the kiln may be lost through non-optimal process conditions or process management. Improved combustion systems aim to optimize the shape of the flame. with few peaks. and combustion with excess air. is of great importance and requires good designs of hopper. the mixing of combustion air and fuel and the reduction of the use of excess air. Improved process control will also help to improve the product quality and grindability. Energy savings from process control systems may vary between 2. such as reactivity and hardness of the produced clinker. This enables rapid changes to be made to the blend of raw materials. Automated computer control systems may help to optimize the combustion process and conditions. thereby saving fuel.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry homogenizing the raw material. the maintenance of a steady fuel feed rate. Additional process control systems include the use of on-line analyzers that permit operators to keep track of the chemical composition of raw materials being processed in the plant. high CO formation. but try to simulate the best human operator. Most modern systems use so-called ‘expert control’ (also known as 'fuzzy logic' or rule-based control strategies). and the typical savings are estimated at 2. An alternative to expert systems or fuzzy logic is model-predictive control using dynamic models of the processes in the kiln. incomplete fuel burn-out. A number of management systems are marketed through the cement industry manufacturers and available and in use throughout the world.

normally between 5 and 10%.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. Production my increase by around 3-7% on the basis of annual production. This technology is standard for modern plants. The multi-channel arrangement also allows for a degree of flame optimization. Input conditions to the multi-channel burner must be optimized to secondary air and kiln aerodynamics for optimum operation. The majority of modern plants in Europe and US have indirect firing systems. The disadvantage of an indirect firing system is the additional capital cost. These high levels of primary air limit the amount of secondary air that can be introduced to the kiln from the clinker cooler.3 Indirect Firing Historically the most common firing system is known as the direct-fired system. This can lead to high levels of primary air (up to 40 % of stoichiometric). The advantages of improved combustion conditions will lead to a longer lifetime of the kiln refractories and reduced NOx emissions. refractory wear and reduced efficiency due to having to run at high excess air levels to ensure effective burnout of the fuel within the kiln. As the primary air supply is decoupled from the coal mill in multi-channel designs. All moisture from coal drying is vented to the atmosphere and the pulverized coal is transported to storage via cyclone or bag filters. and non-optimized matching can cause severe operational problems including the creation of reducing products on the kiln wall and clinker. indirect fired systems are becoming increasingly common. Experiences exist with wet and dry process kilns.4 Oxygen Enrichment Several plants use oxygen enrichment to increase production if the local market demand for cement can justify the additional costs for oxygen purchase or production. pulverized and classified in a continuous stream. better operation with varying fuel mixtures. and reduced energy losses. The optimization of the combustion conditions will lead to reduced NOx emissions. lower primary air percentages are used. because additional electricity is consumed for oxygen 41 . In these systems. Primary air percentages vary widely. These co-benefits may result in larger cost savings than the energy savings alone. Coal is dried. Pulverized coal is then densely conveyed to the burner with a small amount of primary transport air. but oxygen enrichment is unlikely to result in net energy savings.3. In modern cement plants.3. and fed directly to the kiln. 5. This is an important feature if a range of fuels is fired. neither primary air nor coal is fed directly to the kiln.

reducing production costs considerably. The payback period for improved maintenance of kiln seals is estimated at 6 months or less.g.6 Kiln Shell Heat Loss Reduction and Refractories There can be considerable heat losses through the shell of a cement kiln. Mostly synchronous motors are used up to 1. These energy savings are difficult to quantify. chemical and mechanical stress. It may also lead to additional energy savings due to the reduction in start-up time energy costs.5 Seals Seals are used at the kiln inlet and outlet to reduce false air penetration. regular inspection may be needed to reduce leaks. Refractory choice is the function of insulating qualities of the brick and the ability to develop and maintain a coating. as well as heat losses.3. Refractories protect the steel kiln shell against heat. The coating helps to reduce heat losses and to protect the burning zone refractory bricks. hence increasing the heat requirement of the kiln. Energy losses resulting from leaking seals may vary. spring-type). The choice of refractory material depends on the combination of raw materials. and reducing high energy demands during start-ups.3. The use of improved kiln-refractories may also lead to improved reliability of the kiln and reduced downtime. Structural considerations may limit the use of new insulation materials. These savings may offset the higher costs of better quality refractories. 5. Extended lifetime of the refractories will lead to longer operating periods and reduced lost production time between relining of the kiln. 5. Although seals can last up to 10. as they will depend on the existing lining choice and management.000 to 20.7 Kiln Drives A substantial amount of power is used to rotate the kiln. but are generally relatively small. although other designs are available (e.000 hours.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry generation. 5. The use of better insulating refractories can reduce heat losses.3.000 hp. Seals may start leaking. fuels and operating conditions. The highest efficiencies are achieved using a single pinion 42 . especially in the burning zone. Most often pneumatic and lamella-type seals are used.

Volatile components in materials that are fed at the upper end of the kiln or as lump fuel can evaporate. The high temperatures and long residence times in the kiln destroy virtually all organic compounds. The system would reduce power use for kiln drives by a few percent. as well as the alternative use of the waste and efficiency of use (e.g. A cement kiln is an efficient way to recover energy from waste.8 Use of Waste-Derived Fuels Waste fuels can be substituted for traditional commercial fuels in the kiln. The carbon dioxide emission reduction depends on the carbon content of the waste-derived fuel. Cement kilns also use hazardous wastes. 43 . Adjustable or variable speed drives (ASDs) for the kiln fan result in reduced power use and reduced maintenance costs. which are not always is enough to decompose halogenated organic substances. the use of AC motors is advocated to replace the traditionally used DC drive.5 kWh/ton of clinker at slightly higher capital costs (+6%). or roughly 0. while efficient dust filters may reduce any potential emissions to safe levels. thallium or VOCs when improperly used. Waste-derived fuels may replace the use of commercial fuels. at temperatures up to 2000°C. 5. incineration with or without energy recovery). New waste streams include carpet and plastic wastes. However.3. depending on the alternative use of the wastes (e. These components do not pass the primary burning zone and may not be decomposed or bound in the cement clinker. incineration with or without heat recovery). Using high-efficiency motors to replace older motors or instead of re-winding old motors may reduce power costs by 2 to 8%. The revenues from waste intake have helped to reduce the production costs of all waste-burning cement kilns. The AC motor system may result in slightly higher efficiencies (0. paint residue and (dewatered) sewage sludge. filter cake. and especially of wet process kilns.g.5 – 1% reduction in electricity use of the kiln drive) and has lower investment costs. The use of waste containing volatile metals (mercury. More recently. The cement industry is increasingly using waste fuels. Wastes that are fed through the main burner will be decomposed in the primary burning zone. waste fed to a secondary burner. preheater or precalciner will be burnt at lower temperatures. thallium) or volatile organic compounds can result in an increase of the emissions of mercury. and may result in net energy savings and reduced CO2 emissions.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry drive with an air clutch and a synchronous motor.

while reducing fluctuations in recuperation efficiency (i. 5. The grate cooler is the modern variant and is used in almost all modern kilns.3. the most popular coolers in use in developed countries are grate coolers. Grate coolers recover more heat than the other types of coolers.7 kWh/ton clinker. which is necessary to produce the tertiary air (see above). Reciprocating grate coolers are the modern variant and are suitable for large-scale kilns. The savings are estimated to be up to 8% of the fuel consumption in the kiln. Cooler conversion is generally economically attractive only when installing a precalciner. the cost of a grate cooler may be too great. but planetary and grate coolers are the coolers of choice. increasing heat recovery efficiency to 65% or higher. grate coolers are the preferred equipment.3. traveling and reciprocating grate type. The highest temperature portion of the 44 . Some travelling grate coolers may still be in operation. The most common cooler designs are of the planetary (or satellite). Grate coolers are standard technology for modern large-scale kilns.10 Optimization of Heat Recovery/Upgrade Clinker Cooler The aim of the clinker cooler is to drop the clinker temperature from around 1200°C down to below 100°C. All coolers heat the secondary air for the kiln combustion process and sometimes also tertiary air for the precalciner. increasing productivity of the kiln). limiting heat recovery efficiency. which is the norm from planetary coolers). or when expanding production capacity. Replacement of planetary coolers by grate coolers is not uncommon. rotary. Grate coolers use electric fans and excess air. For large capacity plants. planetary and travelling and reciprocating grate coolers. When compared to a planetary cooler. The advantages of the grate cooler are its large capacity (allowing large kiln capacities) and efficient heat recovery (the temperature of the clinker leaving the cooler can be as low as 83°C. instead of 120-200°C. additional heat recovery is possible with grate coolers at an extra power consumption of approximately 2. There are no longer any rotary or shaft coolers in operation in Europe and North America.e. Modern reciprocating coolers have a higher capacity of heat recovery than older variants. For plants producing less than 500 ton of clinker per day.9 Conversion to Reciprocating Grate Cooler Four main types of coolers are used in the cooling of clinker: shaft.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. Tertiary heat recovery (needed for pre-calciners) is impossible with planetary coolers.

Additional heat recovery results in reduced energy use in the kiln and precalciner.4 Clinker Production . Rotary coolers (used for approximately 5% of the world clinker capacity for plants up to 2200-5000 tons/day of clinker) and planetary coolers (used for 10% of the world capacity for plants up to 3300-4400 tons/day of clinker do not need combustion air fans and use little excess air. 5. but may also influence product quality and emission levels. Modification of the cooler would result in improved heat recovery rates of 2-5% over a conventional grate cooler. This reduces energy consumption considerably and increases productivity. A filter press can be installed in a wet process kiln in order to reduce the moisture content of the slurry to about 20% and obtain a paste ready for extrusion into pellets. Heat recovery can be improved through reduction of excess air volume. Additional electricity consumption is 3-5 kWh/ton of clinker. 5.4. This has resulted in improved heat recovery and reduced maintenance of the cooler. control of clinker bed depth and new grates such as ring grates. Improving heat recovery efficiency in the cooler results in fuel savings. compounds can be added to dry the slurry before entering the kiln using waste heat from the kiln.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry remaining air can be used as tertiary air for the precalciner. due to higher combustion air temperatures. Control of cooling air distribution over the grate may result in lower clinker temperatures and high air temperatures.4. A recent innovation in clinker coolers is the installation of a static grate section at the hot end of the clinker cooler. 45 .2 Wet Process Conversion to Semi-Wet Process (Filter Press System) In the wet process the slurry typically contains 36% water (range of 24-48%). resulting in lower heat losses.1 Wet Process Conversion to Semi-Dry Process (Slurry Drier) In modernized wet kilns.Wet Process Kilns 5.

2 Heat Recovery for Cogeneration Waste gas discharged from the kiln exit gases. the clinker cooler system. or a pre-heater/pre-calciner. For older kilns this amounts to savings of 0. as the heat in the kiln exhaust is used for raw material drying. Depending on the efficiency of the fan.5. and economic feasibility is an issue. The costs are very site specific. the dust carryover problem becomes less of an issue. 0. 5. The cost of converting a wet plant to a dry process plant may be high. New cyclone systems may also increase overall dust loading and increase dust carryover from the preheater tower. 5. if followed by an inline raw mill.3 Wet Process Conversion to Pre-Heater/Pre-calciner Kiln A wet process kiln can be converted to a state-of-the art dry process production facility that includes either a multi-stage preheater. or the installation of a waste heat boiler system that runs a steam turbine (bottom cycle). Cogeneration systems can either be direct gas turbines that utilize the waste heat (top cycle). Installation of the cyclones can be expensive. since it may often entail the rebuilding or the substantial modification of the preheater tower. as it involves the full reconstruction of an existing facility.5. based on several case studies power generation may vary between 10 46 .7 kWh/ton of clinker can be saved for each 50 mm water column (W. Heat recovery has limited application for plants with in-line raw mills.5 Clinker production .Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. Only in long-dry kilns is the temperature of the exhaust gas sufficiently high to cost-effectively recover the heat through power generation. Steam turbine systems have been installed in many plants worldwide and have proven to be economic. The installation of newer cyclones in a plant with lower pressure losses will reduce the power consumption of the kiln exhaust gas fan system. While electrical efficiencies are still relatively low (18%).dry process preheater kilns 5.4.0 kWh/ton of clinker.C) of pressure reduction. However.6-0.1 Low Pressure Drop Cyclones for Suspension Preheaters Cyclones are a basic component of plants with pre-heating systems.6-1. and the kiln pre-heater system all contain useful energy that can be utilised. however.

Cooler replacement may be necessary in order to increase the cooling capacity for larger production volumes. Generally. The conversion of older kilns is attractive economically when the old kiln needs replacement and a new kiln would be too expensive. long dry kilns may not have any preheater vessels installed at all. Especially. the clinker cooler may have to be adapted to be able to cool the larger amounts of clinker. fuel savings will depend strongly on the 47 . when possible an extra preheater. The addition of a precalciner will generally increase the capacity of the plant. using the existing rotary kiln.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry and 23 kWh/ton of clinker.or two-stage preheater vessels. As the capacity increases. four. led to a capacity increase of 80-100%. due to a higher degree of pre-calcination (up to 30-40%) as the feed enters the kiln. foundation and towers are used in the new plant. Also. Modern cyclone or suspension preheaters also have a reduced pressure drop. Installing multi-stage suspension preheating (i. 5. This leads to a low efficiency in heat transfer and higher energy consumption. Energy savings depend strongly on the specific energy consumption of the dry process kiln to be converted as well as the number of preheaters to be installed. or may have single. assuming that limestone reserves are adequate. Electricity savings of 20 kWh/ton of clinker are assumed.5. the kiln. Generally.e. while lowering the specific fuel consumption and reducing thermal NOx emissions (due to lower combustion temperatures in the pre-calciner).or five-stage) may reduce the heat losses and thus increase efficiency. while cooler and preheaters are replaced. leading to increased heat recovery efficiency and reduced power use in fans (see low pressure drop cyclones above).4 Upgrading to a Preheater/Precalciner Kiln An existing preheater kiln may be converted to a multi-stage preheater precalciner kiln by adding a precalciner and. Using as many features of the existing plant and infrastructure as possible special precalciners have been developed by various manufacturers to up grade existing plants. By installing new preheaters.3 Dry Process Conversion to Multi-Stage Preheater Kiln Older dry kilns may only preheat in the chain section of the long kiln. the productivity of the kiln will increase. The conversion of a plant in Italy.5. the kiln length may be shortened by 20-30% thereby reducing radiation losses. 5. while reducing specific fuel consumption with resulting savings of 11-14%.

The systems control the flow in the mill and classifiers.5. Energy savings reflect the difference between the average dry kiln specific fuel consumption and that of a modern preheater. after installing control systems in finishing mills 5. degree of precalcination and cooler efficiency). 5. However.g. consuming up to 30-42 kWh/ton of clinker depending on the fineness of the cement.6 Finish Grinding 5. Expert systems have been commercially available since the early 1990’s. producing a stable and high quality product.5 Conversion of Long Dry Kilns to Preheater/Precalciner Kiln A long dry kiln can be upgraded to the current state of the art multi-stage preheater/precalciner kiln.5 and 10 %. and roller presses used for pre-grinding in combination with ball mills.5 –10 %. Several systems are marketed by a number of manufacturers.6.2 Advanced Grinding Concepts The energy efficiency of ball mills for use in finish grinding is relatively low.1 Process Control and Management – Grinding Mills Control systems for grinding operations are developed using the same approaches as for kilns (see above).Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry efficiency of the existing kiln and on the new process parameters (e. 5. roller mills. Roller mills employ a mix of compression and shearing. Older calciners can also be retrofitted for energy efficiency improvement and NOx emission reduction. The payback is estimated to be between 1 and 2 years. with increased product quality (lower deviation) and production increases of 2. Energy savings range between 2. using 2-4 grinding rollers carried on hinged arms 48 . including roller presses.6. Several new mill concepts exist that can significantly reduce power consumption in the finish mill to 20-30 kWh/ton of clinker. pre-calciner kiln. economic feasibility may be an issue.

The large particles are then recycled back to the mill. In high-efficiency classifiers. The addition of a pregrinding system to a ball mill will result in savings of 6-22 kWh/ton cement. improving the grinding efficiency dramatically. The centrifugal forces resulting from the movement of the cylinder cause a uniformly distributed layer to be carried on the inside of the cylinder. it is a horizontal roller within a cylinder. the material is more cleanly separated. which has been shown to achieve an electricity consumption of 23 kWh/ton of cement with a Blaine of 3000. power use may be as low as 25 kWh/ton of cement. In a high-pressure roller press. Today. Some new mill concepts may lead to a reduction in operation costs of as much as 30-40%. The Horomill is a compact mill that can produce a finished product in one step and hence has relatively low capital costs.3 High-Efficiency Classifiers A recent development in efficient grinding technologies is the use of high-efficiency classifiers or separators. while optimizing the design. 5. New designs of the roller mills allow for longer operation times (> 20. High efficiency classifiers or separators have had the greatest impact on improved product quality and reducing electricity consumption. The layer passes the roller (with a pressure of 700-1000 bar. Classifiers separate the finely ground particles from the coarse particles.6. Another mill concept is the Horomill. and are found especially in countries with high electricity costs or with poor power supply. which leads to the recycling of fine particles. Grinding Portland Cement with a Blaine of 3200 cm2/g consumes approximately 21 kWh/ton and even for pozzolanic cement with a Blaine of 4000. thus reducing over-grinding. high-pressure roller presses are most often used to expand the capacity of existing grinding mills.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry riding on a horizontal grinding table. The electricity savings of a new finish grinding mill when replacing a ball mill are estimated at 25 kWh/ton cement. Standard classifiers may have a low separation efficiency. The finished product is collected in a dust filter. resulting in extra power use in the grinding mill. A variation of the roller mill is the air swept ring roller mill. 49 . two rollers pressurize the material up to 3.500 bar.000 hours). Newer designs of high-efficiency separators aim to improve the separation efficiency further and reduce the required volume of air (hence reducing power use).

is also the ideal framework to establish a benchmarking system.4 Improved Grinding Media Improved wear resistant materials can be installed for grinding media. but rather are continuously identified and implemented in an ongoing process of continuous improvement.7 Plant-Wide Measures 5. as it is described in the BMT instruction manual. Such a strong energy management program. Grinding media are usually selected according to their wear characteristics. These have the potential to reduce grinding energy use by 5-10% in some mills. Improved balls and liners made of high chromium steel is one such material but other materials are also being developed. A strong energy management program is required to create a foundation for positive change and to provide guidance for managing energy throughout an organization.6.7. 5. changes in staff 50 . which has the management commitment from top to down. Energy efficiency does not happen on its own. such as grooved classifying liners. Increases in the ball charge distribution and surface hardness of grinding media and wear resistant mill linings have shown a potential for reducing wear as well as energy consumption. which is equivalent to an estimated savings of 1. Vice versa a pilot benchmarking project should lead to the establishment of such an energy management program. Furthermore. Energy management programs also help to ensure that energy efficiency improvements do not just happen on a one-time basis. energy efficiency improvements might not reach their full potential due to lack of a systems perspective and/or proper maintenance and follow-up.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. without the backing of a sound energy management program.8 kWh/ton cement.1 Energy Management Prior to all technological changes and modifications an energy management program is the most powerful approach and the most successful and cost-effective way to bring about energy efficiency improvements. Other improvements include the use of improved liner designs. especially in ball mills. Right from the beginning the plant management must be aware that although technological changes in equipment can help to reduce energy use.

Preventative maintenance (e. to increase energy savings.” A systems approach strives to optimize the energy efficiency of entire motor systems (i.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry behavior and attitude may have a greater impact. Though changes in staff behavior. have had the good results. taken continuously over longer periods they may have a much greater effect than more costly technological improvements. A systems approach analyzes both the energy supply and energy demand sides of motor systems as well as how these sides interact to optimize total system performance These include not only energy use but also system uptime and productivity.2 Preventative Maintenance Preventative maintenance includes training personnel to be attentive to energy consumption and efficiency. not just the energy efficiency of motors as individual components. 51 . it is important to take a “systems approach. there are still opportunities. requiring minimal training of employees. companies need to institute strong energy management programs that oversee energy efficiency improvement across the corporation. Often this information is acquired by lower level managers but not passed to upper management or down to staff. fans. often save only small amounts of energy at one time. An energy management program will see to it that all employees actively contribute to energy efficiency improvements.7. While many processes in cement production are primarily automated. and compressors. For example the reduction of false air input into the kiln at the kiln hood has the potential to save energy..g. such as switching off lights or closing windows and doors. motors. Staff should be trained in both skills and the company’s general approach to energy efficiency in their day-to-day practices. 5. drives. Personnel at all levels should be aware of energy use and objectives for energy efficiency improvement. 5. for the kiln refractory) can also increase a plant’s utilization ratio through reduced downtime over the long term. and controls).7. Programs with regular feedback on staff behavior.3 Motor Systems When considering energy efficiency improvements to a facility’s motor systems. such as reward schemes. Successful programs have been launched in a variety of industries. Most importantly. driven equipment such as pumps.e.

information on potential repairs and upgrades to the motor systems should be collected. the performance of the upgraded motor systems should be monitored to determine the actual costs savings. 52 .7. if upgrades are pursued. • Third. high-pressure sodium and mercury vapor lamps. However. Total energy consumption by compressed air systems is relatively small in cement plants. compact fluorescent (CFL) and incandescent lights are typically used for task lighting in offices. Highintensity discharge (HID) sources are used for the former. Lighting is used either to provide overall ambient lighting throughout the manufacturing. Compressed air is probably the most expensive form of energy available in a plant because of its poor efficiency. storage and office spaces or to provide low-bay and task lighting to specific areas.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry A systems approach typically involves the following steps: • • First. typically around 10%. 5. including metal halide. it should be of minimum quantity for the shortest possible time. all applications of motors in a facility should be located and identified. the conditions and specifications of each motor should be documented to provide a current systems inventory. energy efficiency opportunities may be found that can reduce energy use cost-effectively. constantly monitored and weighed against alternatives. Second. including the economic costs and benefits of implementing repairs and upgrades to enable the energy efficiency improvement decision-making process.4 Compressed Air Systems Compressed air systems are used in different parts of the plants. • Finally. if compressed air is used. Because of this inefficiency.5 Lighting Energy use for lighting in the cement industry is very small.7. • Fourth. it can amount to a considerable expense if the systems run continuously and end-uses are offline. Still. the needs and the actual use of the motor systems should be assessed to determine whether or not motors are properly sized and also how well each motor meets the needs of its driven equipment. Fluorescent. 5.

This becomes cement kiln dust (CKD) which has to be disposed. granulated blast furnace slag. and to reduce emissions from the kiln. There are no investments involved in this product change. loaded with alkali metals. In Europe a common 53 . Blended cements are very common in Europe.8.g. Some customers demand a lower alkali content. Low alkali cement production leads to higher energy consumption. as well as the following (see below). as it allows greater freedom in the choice of aggregates.8. The use of blended cements is a particularly attractive efficiency option since the inter-grinding of clinker with other additives not only allows for a reduction in the energy used (and carbon emissions) in clinker production.1 Alkali Content Sometimes low-alkali cements are required by the cement company’s customers. Blended cement has been used for many decades and longer around the world. 5.8 Product Changes 5. and blast furnace and pozzolanic cements account for about 12% of total cement production with Portland composite cement accounting for an additional 44%. pozzolans. Reducing the alkali content is achieved by venting (called the by-pass) hot gases and particulates from the plant. but also corresponds to a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in calcination. Hence. The use of fly-ash or blast-furnace slags as aggregates (or in the production of blended cement. Blended cement was introduced to reduce production costs for cement (especially energy costs).2 Blended Cements The production of blended cements involves the inter-grinding of clinker with one or more additives (fly ash.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 5. and volcanic ash) in various proportions. is most successfully implemented in coordination with ready-mix producers and other large cement users. expand capacity without extensive capital costs. ready-mix producers) may need to change the type of aggregates used (which may result in costs). see below) may reduce the need for low-alkali cement. this measure. although cement users (e. silica fume.

Many other countries around the world use blended cement. using exhaust from the kiln. reducing the needs for clinker-making and calcination. These costs will vary by location. This can be done in the grinding mill. although cement containing less than 30% additives will generally have setting times comparable to concrete based on Portland cement.4 Reducing the Fineness for Particular Applications Cement is normally ground to a uniform fineness. Additional costs would be minimal. Shortterm strength (measured after less than 7 days) may be lower. and would need to be assessed on the basis of individual plants. Adding 5% limestone would reduce fuel consumption by 5%. However. limited to material storage and distribution.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry standard has been developed for 25 types of cement (using different compositions for different applications). or supplemental firing. 5. and so does the optimal fineness. either from a gas turbine used to generate power or a supplemental air heater. However. The grinding of the cement to 54 . limestone is inter-ground with clinker to produce cement. the reduced fuel costs for clinker production and electricity costs for raw material grinding and kiln drives. and CO2 emissions by almost 5%. The European standard allows wider applications of additives. Addition of up to 5% limestone has shown to have no negative impacts on the performance of Portland cement.8. power consumption for grinding by 3. as well as the reduced handling and mining costs. 5. as well as improved resistance to acids and sulfates. The costs of applying additives in cement production may vary. while using waste materials for high-value applications. Blended cements demonstrate a higher long-term strength.0 kWh/ton of cement. The operational cost savings will depend on the purchase (including transport) costs of the additives. the applications of cement vary widely. while reducing kiln operation costs by 5%. while optimized limestone cement would improve the workability slightly. blast furnace slag may need to be dried before use in cement production.8. the increased electricity costs for (finer) grinding. Capital costs are limited to extra storage capacity for the additives. This reduces energy use in the kiln and clinker grinding and CO2 emissions from calcination and energy use.3 Limestone Portland Cement Similar to blended cement.

The British Cement Association has formulated a target to reduce fossil fuels consumption until 2010 by up to 30% compared to the baseline of 1998. there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels. without a detailed assessment of the market and applications of cement. E. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector. The exact savings will depend on the grindability of the clinker.g. for each 100 additional Blaine points. 5. but expensive compared to coal as fuel. Still. Attention to improve energy efficiency is high thus. It is hard to estimate the total savings due to the many factors affecting strength of concrete and grinding energy requirements. natural gas is an option to mitigate CO2 emissions. Also. More recently. although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry the desired fineness could reduce the energy demand for grinding. Despite the historic progress. it is difficult to estimate the total potential contribution of this measure to potential energy savings in the cement industry. primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1%/year. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. mainly between 1970 and 1999. due to the higher strength. Note that finer cement may reduce the amount of concrete needed for a structure. there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement.9 Conclusion The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant. grinding power requirements increase by 5 %. 55 . as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. energy intensity has declined. addressing both the cost factor and CO2 mitigation by partly replacing fossil fuels with waste as fuel. Historically. The relatively high share of other than state of the art dry process preheater and precalciner plants suggests the existence of a considerable potential. a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists. As a rule of thumb.

be/Documents/Publications/CEMBUREAU_BAT_Reference_ Document_2000-03.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry 6 References and Links BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES FOR THE CEMENT INDUSTRY.pdf BREF in the Cement and Lime Manufacturing Industries – EU Environmental Protection Agency 2001 . Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.linea7.http://oee. Geological Survey .epa.ca/publications/industrial/BenchmCement_e.lbl.cement.be/Documents/Press%20Release/Sustainable%20cement%2 0production%20Brochure.pdf Energy Consumption Benchmark Guide: Cement Clinker Production .cembureau.CENTRIC AUSTRIA INTERNATIONAL 1998 http://kundencenter.iea.pdf World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for Selected Industrial Sectors . Christina Galitsky and Lynn Price .http://minerals.pdf Portland Cement Association (PCA) .pdf Sustainable cement production: Co-processing of Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials in the Cement Industry.org/Textbase/work/2006/cement/proceedings.Environmental Energy Technologies Division.cementindustry.CIPEC.pdf Alternative Fuels in Cement Manufacture .http://www.lbl.be/Documents/Publications/Alternative_Fuels_in_Cement_Ma nufacture_CEMBUREAU_Brochure_EN. CEMBUREAU 2000 http://www.pdf Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials and Policies in the Cement Industry: Towards a plan of action . Canada 2001 .Environmental Energy Technologies Division.co. CEMBUREAU 2009 http://www. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.ie/downloads/advice/brefs/cement.S. 2007 . Maarten Neelis .ca/ 56 .http://www.uk Canadian Cement Association .nrcan.pdf U.pdf Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry .Ernst Worrell.gc.cement.usgs.cembureau.gov/iespubs/Cement_EEMs_English.org/ British Cement Association (BCA) .gov/iespubs/62806.at/download_area/impel1998ceme nt.http://www.cembureau. CEMBUREAU 1997 http://www.com/files/users/centric.http://ies.British Cement Association 2006 http://www.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/cement/ Final report: IMPEL Workshop on Licensing and Enforcement Practices in a Cement Plant using Alternative Fuel .Ernst Worrell.Technical and Environmental Review. 2008 http://ies.http://www.

html German Cement Works' Association .or.net.jp/cement/2eng/ea.http://www.html?&lang=en Austrian Cement Industry Association .vdz-online.http://www. 57 .http://www.concrete.http://www.zement.au/ Japan Cement Association .http://www.cmaindia.org/ Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia .http://www.cembureau.Cement Production – A Reference Book for the Industry The European Cement Association (CEMBUREAU) .be/ Indian Cement Manufacturers Association .at/ More information can be found by searching the cited links.jcassoc.de/314.

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