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SOS TARTARUGAS 2009 CAMPAIGN REPORT

PREPARED BY Jacquie Cozens
info@sostartarugas.org Tel : + 238 995 8324
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance and support of the following institutions, businesses and individuals Câmara Municipal do Sal, the National Police and the Maritime Police, Armed Forces and Procurador da Justiça. Câmara Municipal do Maio, DGA, INDP, WWF, Câmara Municipal do Tarrafal & CM do Ribeira Brava and all our colleagues from the Capeverdian Sea Turtle Network. RIU Hotels, Caboquad, ScubaCaribe, Noscasa, Garantia and Halcyonair. Our Patron, Matthias Schmelz for his continued contribution and encouragement. All our sponsors big and small including Project Aware, Zurich Tierschutze, the Marine Conservation Society UK and MTCA. Cape Verde Imports for the removal of all paperwork related headaches, Ao Caranguejo for all the delicious pizzas, Overboard for keeping our electronic equipment sand free and Manta Diving Centre for supporting our precious leisure time. The residents and businesses of Sal and every single person who made a donation, accompanied us on a turtle walk or adopted a turtle. Without your generosity and positive energy our work would be impossible and much less rewarding. The regular expatriate beach cleaners – we don’t know why you enjoy it so much but we’re glad you do! Francesco and Deborah Massa who allow us to invade their beautiful home each summer, Turtle House must surely be the best volunteer accommodation anywhere in the world! Finally, the project would not function without the hard-working full time and part time Rangers and volunteers who come from many countries and backgrounds but are united in their dedication to protect turtles in Cabo Verde.

CONTENTS
Highlights Summary Conclusions and Recommendations Project Goals and Activities Detailed Results Objective 1 Prevent turtles being killed on nesting beaches Objective 2 Protection of habitat 1. Degradation of beaches by vehicles 2. Light Pollution 3. Threats from tourism 4. Sand removal 5. Pollution and environmental hazards 6. Marine turtles in captivity 7. Other threats Objective 3 Recruitment to the Population (Increase number of turtles entering the sea) Objective 4 Contribute to the scientific understanding of turtles in Cabo Verde Objective 5 Increase awareness of turtle conservation amongst residents, visitors and businesses. Engage the local population in turtle conservation. 1. Cooperation with other groups 2. Media Campaign 3. Community involvement 4. Events 5. Workshops 6. Visits to turtle nesting beaches and the hatchery 7. Local business involvement 8. Other outreach 9. Schools visits 10. Business & Developer outreach 11. Tourism Objective 6 Increase capacity for turtle conservation on other islands. ! Sao Nicolau ! Maio ! Santo Antão Appendices Appendix One Map Of Patrolled Beaches Sal Island Appendix Two Map Of Unpatrolled Beaches Sal Island Appendix Three Businesses Visited Appendix Four Abstracts Of Scientific Studies • Relationship Among Tides, Beach Profile And Nest Success Of Loggerheads on Sal Island • Influence Of Incubation Temperature On Sex Ratio on Sal Island Page 3 5 9 10 11 11 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 19 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 30 30

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HIGHLIGHTS • • • • • Threefold increase in nesting turtles on Sal. 293 turtles tagged on Sal. 10% reduction in mortality of nesting turtles compared to 2008. Hatching success increased by 8% in hatcheries (up to 80%). 75,000 hatchlings born on Sal (10,000 in the hatcheries). 91 turtles killed on Sal, an estimated 20% of all nesting turtles. 60% of which were killed on unpatrolled beaches. Problem areas for killing of turtles identified as Serra Negra, Mont Leão and Cotton Bay. Presence of military and support of police clearly critical to success of campaign but insufficient resources, funding and transport available. First convictions on Sal for the killing of turtles. No more captive turtles on public display in Sal and the first conviction for keeping turtles in captivity. Second hatchery in Santa Maria opened by the President of the Câmara Municipal do Sal and broadcast on national television. Hatchery successful in raising awareness amongst residents. Increased number of volunteers from the community of all nationalities. Workshops held for policemen, soldiers, fishermen, tourism students and volunteers. Environmental education visits to kindergartens and school visits to hatcheries for children and teachers in conjunction with CMS & Peace Corps. Sponsorship of children’s drumming group ‘Raios Vermelhas’. Media campaign featuring SOS Tartarugas on national and local television and radio. VIP visits to nesting beaches for business owners, travel agents, tour operators, hotel owners and emigrants. Support given to turtle conservation programmes in Maio, Santo Antão and São Nicolau. Census of Maio completed including information on number of tracks and nests, topography, length of beaches. Threats include hunting, stealing of eggs (a bigger problem than on Sal) and beachfront development. Successful ecotourism programme encompassing turtle watching, public releases, hatchery visits and adoptions. 56% of visitors to turtle nesting beaches were British & Irish, but disturbance to turtles caused by untrained guides points to need for control and licensing. 26 developers, hotels and other businesses given information prepared by DGA on their obligation under the law regarding protection of turtles. Information and advice given on how to minimise disturbance. Leaflets produced in Portuguese and English about turtle friendly lighting. Lights on developments, residences and businesses caused disturbance to 38% of nests. Clarification and enforcement of laws protecting turtles needed.

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Lighting significantly reduced on Algodoeiro following cooperation obtained from Cabocan, Aquas Ponta Preta, Tortuga Beach, Paradise Beach and Cotton Bay. Lighting around Zona Antonio de Sousa reduced by the fitting of red filters on some residences. Driving on beaches reduced until September. Areas with very high vehicle use include the southern part of Costa Fragata (individuals on quads) and Algodoeiro in front of Tortuga Beach (construction traffic) and Paradise Beach (quad tours and construction traffic) where beaches are becoming very degraded. Other threats included heavy rains, sand removal, increasing numbers of dogs on Algodoeiro and pollution and rubbish on beach. Five beach cleans undertaken including participation in PADI International underwater clean up. Two scientific studies undertaken comparing sex ratio of hatchlings and factors affecting hatching success. Creation of Capeverdian Sea Turtle Network (CVSTN) incorporating government, research institutions, NGOs, armed forces, police and universities leading towards better coordination and a unified strategy.

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SUMMARY
2009 was a surprising season, notably because of the sheer numbers of turtles and nests – a massive three and a half times more nests were recorded on Sal and other islands in 2009 compared to 2008. Only time will tell whether this was an anomaly or is an indication of a trend. In terms of the organisation’s primary objective, that of preventing the killing of nesting turtles, a major milestone was achieved when the courts convicted and passed sentence on three men for the crime of hunting and killing turtles. Overall the percentage of turtles killed on Sal was reduced by 10% but was still 20% of all turtles - this is obviously an unacceptable number. The vast majority of these (60%) were killed on unprotected beaches.
% of turtles killed on Sal 2008 % of turtles killed on Sal 2009 % of turtles killed on Sal 2009

Killed 30.23 %

Killed Killed 20.27% 20.27%

Not killed 69.77 %

Not Not killed killed 79.73% 79.73%

There are still one or two areas where a real problem exists. At Mont Leão, while an overall reduction was recorded (from 33% to 12% of all turtles killed) it is still a difficult area to control. In addition, the number of turtles killed at Serra Negra was a huge disappointment, rising from 0 in 2008 to 13 (14%) in 2009 and the northern part of Algodoeiro (Cotton Bay development) is also a particular concern. On the occasions when there was no military presence on the beaches the number of turtles killed rose, soldiers are a significant deterrent and critical to the short-term prevention of hunting, as can be seen by the graph below. Their absence is usually due to lack of transport or fuel. One of the challenges for 2010 is how to guarantee the presence of soldiers all season and also to find ways to motivate and involve them.

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Turtles killed on patrolled beaches
14 12 10
Number

Soldiers absent

Soldiers present

Soldiers absent

8 6 4 2 0 29- 6-Jul 13Jun Jul 20Jul 27- 3-Aug 10- 17- 24- 31- 7-Sep 14- 21Jul Aug Aug Aug Aug Sep Sep
Week commencing

Long term however, the solution lies in education and outreach, it is clear that a proportion of the population do not understand or do not care about the need to protect turtles and turtle habitat and changing this attitude is the only sustainable way forward. Without a doubt the next biggest threat on Sal is beachfront development, with many nests recording some degree of disturbance from lights from developments, hotels, bars or residences. This ranged from a few going inland to entire nests lost. In some areas such as Algodoeiro (in front of Tortuga Beach) and Surf Beach (Praia Antonio de Sousa) the only solution was to relocate ALL nests to the hatcheries, a situation that is less than ideal. A limited amount of success was achieved with some construction sites switching off some lights and residences allowing us to install red filters. Without a doubt this issue needs to be addressed further both in terms of outreach and legislation. During the season SOS also put in place a community outreach programme which reached a great many more people than in 2008 and encompassed radio and television interviews, fishermen’s workshops and school visits and resulted in many more volunteers of all nationalities joining patrols and working at the hatcheries. The second hatchery on Praia Antonio de Sousa (Surf Beach) made the work of the organisation much more accessible to residents. Hatching success was increased during this season, with an excellent 80% in the hatchery (compared to 72% in 2008) and several scientific studies were undertaken with the aim of increasing this trend.

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Once again the area with the most nests on Sal was in front of the Paradise Beach and Cotton Bay developments, beaches that are becoming more degraded through erosion and compaction from vehicle use and which suffer from light pollution.
Distribution of nests Sal 2009
Percentage of total nests
25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

BE AC H TO FR RT ID U G G E A BE PO AC N H TA PR ET M A O N SM T LE SU AO RF BE AC H

EG RA

U AR

SI N

LO N

O N

O TH

O

JE

TE

TA

Q

SM

TT

CF

TA

CF

CO

SE R

N

IS E/

CF

D

PA RA

CF

PO

Location

Tortuga Beach is nearing completion and work has started again on Paradise Beach, presenting a series of challenges for 2010. We anticipate issues arising from lighting and beach furniture that will necessitate the relocation of all nests in these areas. Serra Negra accounts for almost 20% of nests and has large areas that are completely washed over by high tides, consequently a high proportion of nests need to be relocated. If security was not an issue, this would be an ideal place for a hatchery. One solution for Serra Negra would be a semi-permanent camp for both soldiers and Rangers that would be suitable for schools, community groups and tourists to visit. Closer to Santa Maria, once again14% of nests were located in the southern section of Costa Fragata (Ponta Jelonga) a wide beach with minimal light disturbance. The main problem on this beach is vehicles, which not only compact the sand but also causes ruts which hatchlings follow instead of turning towards the sea. Although no quad tours use this route any more, current signposting is not sufficient to deter individuals. More work is also needed to make sure that tourists and residents are aware of the restrictions. Another area of note is Surf Beach (Praia Antonio de Sousa) on which 26 nests were recorded. For such a small beach to have this many nests is significant and it is the last area in Santa Maria still recording significant numbers. It is the most easily accessible for residents to view turtles nesting. Unfortunately this beach has many problems including vehicles and light disturbance and to lose this small haven totally would be a great shame. A simple solution would be to discourage driving close to the shore (there is already a road further back) and less light. The weather in 2009 also presented some difficulties, with many areas being washed away during the heavy rains, particularly in Serra Negra and on Algodoeiro. We were prevented from patrolling for two nights and lost the support of the soldiers for some time while they were redeployed on civil protection duties. It also meant that we were not able to access the beaches in the north as frequently as in 2008.

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A

In 2009 a new coalition was formed in the shape of the Capeverdian Sea Turtle Network (CVSTN) – a great step forward in the coordination of turtle conservation activities throughout the islands, incorporating government departments, NGOs, universities, law enforcement agencies and research institutes. Under the auspices of the Marine Turtle Conservation Fund from the US Fish & Wildlife Service, the first meeting of this group was held in May on the island of Sal. From this came several joint actions including support and training on Maio, Sao Nicolau and Santiago. Our tourism programme was once more a great success, helping to fund patrols and community work as well as being a platform for encouraging active participation in turtle conservation. Several other guides were present on the beach during the peak season, often causing considerable disturbance, through restraining the turtle, interrupting nesting, walking on tracks and nests and use of torches and flash photography. This kind of activity is likely to increase and there is a need for training, control and licensing in order to minimise disturbance to the turtles. Overall objectives for 2010 remain the same, with the priority of minimising mortality amongst nesting turtles, but we also plan more social and community programmes to engage the population, both Capeverdian and expatriate. In addition, we will also work with colleagues in CVSTN to assist with conservation programmes throughout the archipelago, providing advice and support where requested.

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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS During 2010 our focus will remain the reduction of mortality of nesting turtles by hunters and we will strengthen and refine our patrols in order to achieve this. As it has been shown that soldiers are critical to this success we believe it is necessary to find a way to guarantee their presence on the beach. In addition, we believe that stronger penalties including custodial sentences for those convicted of killing turtles will act as a deterrent and demonstrate the seriousness with which the authorities view this crime. We also recommend turtle community service for offenders, for example, assisting with beach clean ups, attending school visits, undertaking night patrols. We believe that clarification of laws relating to turtles and turtle habitat is needed as well as a better understanding of who is able to enforce the law. We will also continue outreach and educational activities, a strategy that achieves results more slowly, but is critical for the long-term cessation of hunting of turtles. This will include a community programme for Sal developed in conjunction with INDP. The programme will be designed to find ways in which to motivate and engage the population in turtle conservation and environmental awareness. In order to protect nesting habitat and minimise beachfront lighting, more outreach including clarification and implementation of the laws covering driving on beaches, removal of sand and lighting disturbances is required. At present there are rarely any consequences for infringements. Increased signposting and information boards on beaches with the authority of the DGA and Camara Municipal would be a great help. In depth discussions with developers on Algodoeiro regarding lighting specification and other ways in which they and their clients can participate in turtle conservation prior to final specifications could help to minimise disturbance during 2010. We will continue to fine tune strategies regarding relocation and hatching success through continuing scientific studies but it is likely as construction continues, that more nests, rather than less, will require relocation. Ideally we would expand the Surf Beach hatchery in order to relocate more nests from Costa Fragata and to establish a hatchery at Serra Negra to transfer nests threatened by rain and erosion. We strongly recommend limiting the number of tours permitted on nesting beaches at night in order to minimise disruption of nesting. We will continue to support campaigns on other islands with our colleagues from CVSTN, supplying training and equipment as necessary. We recommend full time support based on Maio and on other islands, the creation of ‘local experts’ who are able to train and support others in their communities. All the islands need more equipment as some lack even the most basic items such as pens and notepads.

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Project Goals 2009 • • Establish sustainable turtle conservation programme Stimulate and facilitate turtle conservation activities within Cabo Verde

Project Activities • Recruitment, training and employment of Wildlife Rangers. Wildlife Rangers were involved in the project for varying periods from June 1st until December 18th. Rangers were responsible for patrolling beaches at night and during the day, relocating nests to the hatchery and conducting guided walks on nesting beaches as well as being involved in outreach activities. Many more parttime Rangers and volunteers from the community also participated. Protection of nesting turtles Beach patrols every night from 9pm – 5am by pairs of Rangers or volunteers in conjunction with the armed forces. Protection of habitat Including education, outreach and signage regarding light disturbance and driving on beaches as well as monthly beach cleaning activities. Protection of nests Daily morning patrols by quad bike were undertaken and 168 doomed nests were relocated to two hatcheries. In addition 172 nests were relocated to other parts of the beach. Ecotourism Visitors and residents were offered night-time guided walks on nesting beaches and participation in morning patrols. Daily talks were given on turtle conservation and other environmental issues at the hatcheries. We operated an adoption programme for both hatchlings and adult turtles. Research and scientific studies A daily census of main nesting beaches and bi-weekly census of northern beaches on Sal was undertaken. In addition, research projects were conducted on temperature, sex ratio, beach suitability for nesting and factors influencing hatching success. A full four day census of Ilha do Maio’s beaches was conducted. Outreach and community activity Including schools visits, radio and television interviews and visits to nesting beaches and hatcheries by children, business owners, police officers and emigrants. (Full programme on page x). Support for other projects Provision of equipment, training and support for local government programmes in Maio and Sao Nicolau in conjunction with CVSTN. Support for project in Cruzinha, Santo Antão.

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Objective 1 - Prevent turtles being killed on nesting beaches Target: Reduction in mortality compared with 2008 (measured by counting carapaces) Method: Full-time and part-time Rangers were employed to patrol beaches throughout the night from June 1 to October 30. The Rangers were supported on the beach by soldiers. Results: Although the overall figure of turtles killed on Sal was higher (91 vs 39) there was reduction in mortality of 10% compared to 2008.
% of turtles killed on Sal 2008
% of turtles killed on Sal 2009

Killed 30.23%

Killed 20.27%

Not killed 69.77%

Not killed 79.73%

Of the 3,628 emergences, 91 turtles were killed. A significant reduction in the percentage of emergences resulting in mortality on protected beaches was achieved (0.48% compared to 1.71% in 2008) but the percentage on unprotected beaches rose (14.26% compared to 11.48% in 2008). Turtles killed as a percentage of emergences 09 Total tracks 3095 533 Killed 15 76 % 2009 0.48% 14.26% % 2008 1.71% 11.48%

Patrolled beaches Non patrolled beaches

Areas of greatest concern are Serra Negra (14.29% of all turtles killed compared to 0 in 2008) and the northern part of Algodoiero near Cotton Bay development (18.68%). Access to this part of Algodoeiro is simple and the remains of many of the turtles were found in the oasis to the east. Hunters were able to elude detection whilst patrollers were at the southern end of the beach and the soldier’s camp was often closer to Tortuga Beach than Cotton Bay. On Serra Negra, even though access is more difficult, hunters were successful due to Ranger’s patrols being shorter and less regular, due to difficulties with transportation.

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Location of turtles killed on Sal 09 vs 08

30%

25%

Percentage of total

20% 2009 2008

15%

10%

5%

0%

BB

SB

PL

Q

MAD

FON

CFUND

M2

SN

AD

CAL

KB

PAR

ML

CADJ

Location

As developments such as Paradise Beach and Tortuga Bay open we anticipate less opportunity for hunters in these areas, although, of course, habitation will bring other challenges. Once again, the majority of turtles were either collected by car or dragged away from the beach, sometimes very great distances. In some instances Rangers and soldiers were able to directly intervene to save a turtle, however there was still reluctance amongst many of the soldiers to confront hunters. It is absolutely apparent that the presence of soldiers is a key factor for successful patrols but sometimes the military were prevented from coming to the beach through lack of transport or fuel. The significance of this can be seen in the earlier graph where soldiers were absent w/c 14 September and the number of turtles killed rose accordingly. It is also apparent that hunters are aware of whether soldiers are likely to be on the beach and in which areas they are camped. Almost every time Rangers reported hunters on the beach or found hunters with a turtle, the National Police responded positively. They were, however, hampered many times by not having transport available to come to our assistance. A successful prosecution was made of three men who had killed several turtles at Serra Negra. The prosecution resulted from a tip off received by SOS Tartarugas from a restaurant owner that men were offering turtle meat for sale on the streets of Santa Maria. This was successfully followed up by police in Santa Maria and the men were convicted and given a fine and suspended sentence. It is possible that some of the population are still not aware that it is illegal to kill turtles. In some instances hunters have argued with Rangers that the turtles are theirs as they are part of ‘their land’. Whether this is true ignorance of the law or a

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FJ

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convenient argument is hard to judge. It is fair to say however that the majority of the population are not aware of the global significance of Cabo Verde’s nesting turtles and the worldwide threat of extinction that turtles in general are under. In addition, there were several worrying instances of Rangers being threatened with sticks and knives. Recommendations 1. Stronger penalties including custodial sentences for those convicted of killing turtles may act as a deterrent. Community service spent working with turtles may also held in the re-education process. 2. Semi-permanent camps at Serra Negra and Mont Leão that allow the possibility of overnight camping for Rangers and occasional tourists. 3. Soldiers always positioned at the northern end of Algodoeiro. 4. Rangers to patrol only the northern part of Algodoeiro at night. 5. Increased support for the armed forces in order to ensure their presence on the beaches throughout the entire season. 6. More training and support for soldiers to engage them further in turtle conservation. 7. Diagnostic study to understand ways in which to motivate and engage the population in turtle conservation and environmental awareness. 8. Further outreach amongst schools, youth and other groups, fishermen, outlying communities and the population in general.

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Objective 2 – Protection of habitat 1. Degradation of beaches by vehicles Targets: Increase signposting on beaches in conjunction with Camara Municipal do Sal. Increase awareness amongst residents and visitors that driving on beaches is prohibited. Method: Construction of notice boards and distribution of posters, maps and stickers. Results: • SOS were able to place new notice boards on Costa Fragata, Ponta Preta and close to the RIU hotel, however, a way of making the notice boards more durable is needed. In all cases, the notice boards were subject to vandalism at various times. Materials were distributed to all hotels and car and quad rental companies • On the whole the campaign was very successful with the majority of tour companies complying, particularly on Costa Fragata, where there was limited driving on beaches up until September. After September however, there was a significant increase in the number of quad bikes seen, due to the common belief that driving is allowed from this time onwards. In addition due to only limited signposting there is confusion regarding where it is permitted to drive. Ruts caused by quads through the middle of the beach caused considerable problems for hatchlings which are prone to following the track parallel to the beach for great distances. • On Algodoeiro there was much more vehicle use, particularly of construction traffic. Signposts and rock barriers placed by SOS were removed several times by construction workers and both taxis and quad/buggy tours used the area in front of the Paradise Beach fence. A great deal of this part of the beach is now unusable for turtles as it is too hard to dig nests. In front of Tortuga and slightly to the north massive disruption was caused by heavy lorries, the laying of pipes and other work, resulting, once again, in hatchlings dying in ditches and following deep ruts until they dehydrated. 2. Light Pollution Targets: Reduce the amount of lighting on beaches, particularly on construction sites and other businesses on Algodoeiro and the residential area of Praia Antonio de Sousa. Method: Inform beachfront developers, residents and businesses of the disturbance to turtles caused by over-lighting. Facilitate the installation of filters, red bulbs, redirection or removal of problematic lights. Results: • A bilingual (Portuguese/English) leaflet was produced and distributed amongst businesses, residences and hotels highlighting the problem and suggesting a few simple changes to help reduce disturbance. • A letter from the Department of Environment outlining the law and the obligation for compliance and how SOS could assist with implementing necessary changes was distributed to developers and businesses with problematic lights. (See Appendix for details) • In the area of Praia Antonio de Sousa red filters made from recycled spray painted water bottles were fitted to beach-front properties on in co-operation with lettings agency AquiSal. Filters were fitted to problematic lights at Orca dive centre and Angulo’s surf centre (subsequently removed by the owner). Unfortunately we did not gain the co-operation of all businesses or residents

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and the large number of bright lights necessitated removal of the majority of the 26 nests laid on this beach. Three nests were left in situ with protection to prevent people stepping on them. The hatchlings from all three nests headed towards the floodlight at Angulo’s surf centre and the majority perished. Other problematic lights in this area include Hotel Sab Sab, Grijnha bar and the Ancora building. We anticipate more problems in this area once Porto Antigo 3 and Leme Bedje open.

All hotels and other businesses with beachfront locations around Santa Maria were visited and advised of how to minimise lighting. Decision-makers were invited to visit the nesting beaches with a Ranger in order to demonstrate problems caused by lights. However, while the majority were sympathetic, the general feeling is that turtles do not nest around Santa Maria and we were not successful in reducing any impact. Of particular note are the floodlights at Odjo D’Aqua and lights from the Morabeza hotel. Developers, businesses and hotels in the Algodoeiro area were visited in order to discuss removal or repositioning of lights. A degree of success was achieved later in the season with lights from Paradise Beach, Cotton Bay, Tortuga Beach and Cabocan being switched off or repositioned. However, we were not successful in minimising the impact of lights from Vila Verde or the RIU hotel signage and tennis courts. An unexpected problem arose with the lights on the Cotton Bay greenhouse on the west coast when it was found that the lights were strong enough to affect nests on the east coast.

3. Threats from tourism As the popularity of turtle walks increases so does the number of taxi and pick up drivers willing to take visitors on the beaches at night. Unfortunately problems frequently arose resulting in disturbance to nesting turtles and destruction of nests and tracks. This topic is covered in more depth later on. 4. Sand removal Sand removal continued to be a problem particularly on the southern part of Costa Fragata where the same lorry was seen removing sand from the dunes on an almost daily basis. A large section of the beach was removed at Ponta Jelonga, the most significant nesting area on the east coast (start of Costa Fragata). Sand was also removed from Ponto Sino close to the RIU hotel. On the northern beaches the problem is even more noticeable in particular just north of Mont Leao. This beach, Joaquim Pentinha which was known for being a good nesting beach only a few years ago now has next to no sand at all. The relevant department of

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the Camara Municipal followed up reports that were made of sand removal but we are not aware of any outcome. 5. Pollution and environmental hazards Once again debris on beaches, particularly on Costa Fragata and Serra Negra caused problems for the turtles. The biggest issue is the amount of discarded fishing net and line which caused entanglement and death for hatchlings. There is also a significant amount of plastic and glass creating a hazardous environment for Rangers. Several beach clean ups were undertaken throughout the season.

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6. Marine turtles in captivity Following repeated attempts at education and financial incentives, during 2009 the owner of the Fontona oasis still had turtles in captivity (two to our knowledge) and was offering tourists the opportunity to be photographed with them for !1. In July the police confiscated a loggerhead (approximately one year old). The second, a juvenile green that was also being held was not recovered and the fate of this turtle is unknown. The small loggerhead was in such bad condition that it unfortunately did not survive. The police also recovered several turtles from a small restaurant in Calheta Funda, all of which were immediately released and the turtle on display at the hotel Porto do Vento was released voluntarily by the owner. To our knowledge no other turtles are on public display on Sal. 7. Other threats • Removal of eggs from nests was insignificant on Sal. • A new problem arose with the increase of construction workers living on site on Algodoeiro, that of dogs. Dogs were seen on several occasions digging up eggs, particularly in the area in front of Tortuga Beach. This will be a very difficult problem to solve without placing nets around all nests. • Rain caused significant problems this year, with an unknown number of nests washed away particularly in Serra Negra and in areas of Algodoeiro. Channels dug by constructors to drain away water from site also destroyed several nests. • Natural erosion and wave action combined with the rain also caused nests to be partially uncovered or washed away on both sides of the RIU hotel. Eggs from some of these nests were recovered by tourists, staff from ScubaCaribe and Rangers and were successfully incubated in the hatchery. A map with GPS co-ordinates has been devised in order to determine which areas are particularly prone to this threat and nests in these areas will be relocated in the future. • In addition there is noticeable man-made erosion of sand and lack of renewal from the east coast in the area in front of Paradise Beach and Tortuga. This has resulted in more rocky areas appearing on the shoreline and the disappearance of the small dunes favoured by turtles for nesting. Recommendations • Clarification and implementation of the laws covering driving on beaches, removal of sand and lighting disturbances and their communication to persistent offenders. At the moment these laws are not taken seriously as there are rarely any consequences. • Increase signposting, preferably in conjunction with the Camara Municipal and other authorities in order to increase credibility. • Find ways in which to engage the Capeverdian population in activities such as beach cleaning and raise awareness of problems with litter and pollution. • Improvements could be made in follow up and outreach with hotels and quad companies during the season. • Further distribution of information about lights is necessary and information needs to be produced in Italian. • Further negotiation with businesses and residents around Praia Antonio de Sousa and other areas of Santa Maria. • In depth discussions with developers on Algodoeiro regarding lighting specification and other ways in which they and their clients can participate in turtle conservation is necessary.

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Objective 3 – Recruitment to the population (increase number of turtles entering the sea) Target: Relocate doomed nests and match hatching success rates achieved in the hatchery in 2008. Monitoring of in situ nests to improve chances of emergence and entry to the sea. Method: Relocation of endangered nests from beaches to two hatcheries and more suitable areas on the beach during morning and night time patrols. Monitoring and excavation of nests both in the hatchery and in situ. Undertake a study to determine factors affecting hatching success. Results: • Two hatcheries were operated, one on the RIU beach (150 nests) and the other on Praia Antonio de Sousa “Surf Beach” (18 nests). • 168 nests in the hatchery and 508 in situ nests (49% of total) were excavated for analysis of incubation period, hatching success and other data. • Hatching success in the main hatchery was improved by 8% compared with 2008 and matched the overall in situ success rate. Trans situ (nests relocated to other parts of the beach) was also improved significantly but is still 13% lower compared with hatchery and in situ.
Hatching success 2009 vs 2008
90% 80% 80% 74% 67% 55% 2009 2008 80% 72% 79%

Percentage hatching success

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% In situ

Trans situ Location

Main hatchery

Surf Beach hatchery

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If at all possible, nests were left in the original location and overall the number of nests that required relocation was 29%, however in some areas the rate was much higher due to specific problems. Location and location code % nests moved Reason Praia Antonio de Sousa (SB) 85% Ponta Preta in front of restaurant (RE) 80% RIU Hotel beach (RIU) Ponta Sino (PS) Ponta Preta Dune (RD) 67% Instability of dune Algodoeiro Tortuga Beach

79%

73%

63% Disturbance from lights

Disturbance Flooding from lights

Human Flooding disturbance

At the opposite end of the scale, the beaches with the most favourable conditions are Serra Negra Bay 1 and Serra Negra Red Rock where only 7% and 2% of nests required relocation. Both of these areas are free from light pollution and are subject to minimal erosion and other threats. They also both recorded high hatching success rates. • A study of factors affecting hatching success was undertaken in conjunction with Masters degree students from the University of Pisa in Italy. In particular the study considered beach dynamics and tidal cycles. (More information on the study can be found in the Appendices). Almost 10,000 hatchlings were recruited to the population on Sal island from the hatcheries, all from nests that would not have otherwise survived. An estimated 75,000 in total were born. Hatchlings born on Sal 2009 In situ (known) 30,724 In situ (estimated) 33,216 Main hatchery 9,920 Surf Beach hatchery 1,170 Total 75,030

Recommendations • Analysis of results from inundation study to fine tune strategies regarding relocation. • Expansion of surf beach hatchery in order to relocate more nests from Costa Fragata • Establishment of hatchery at Serra Negra, particularly in order to save nests threatened by rain and erosion. • Further study and analysis is necessary to determine factors affecting success of trans situ nests and why these relocated nests have a lower success than those moved to the hatchery.

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Objective 4 – Contribute to the scientific understanding of loggerheads in Cabo Verde Target: Collect data from main nesting beaches daily and analyse for information including size of turtles, inter-nesting period, clutch size, incubation time and hatching success. Tag as many turtles as possible without disturbing nesting. Excavate and analyse hatchery and in situ nests. Share information with interested parties. Method: Patrols were undertaken from 9pm-5am and from 6am-10am from June 1st to October 15th 2009. From 15th August until 14th December afternoon patrols were also undertaken to monitor hatching in situ nests. Bi-weekly surveys of northern beaches were undertaken, weather and transport permitting. Results: • A three-fold increase of nests and tracks was recorded compared to 2008. Only time will tell if this is a trend. • Tagging protocol was changed from 2008 and only turtles that had just finished nesting were tagged, turtles that made a false crawl or nesting attempt were not tagged in order to minimise disturbance. 293 turtles were tagged. • A temperature study was undertaken to compare nests in the hatchery with those left in situ. The purpose was to see if moving nests affecting sex ratio. (see Appendices for abstract). • An inundation study was undertaken. The purpose was to determine the relationship between the tidal excursion and the slope of the beach and to understand how this relation can influence hatching success (see Appendices for abstract). • Data was sent to the Camara Municipal do Sal on a bi-weekly basis and information was shared with other partners from CVSTN.
Number of tracks on Sal 2009 vs 2008
450 400 350 300

Tracks

250 200 150 100 50 0

2008 2009

9

09

9

9

9

/0 9

9

09

9

9

9

09

/0 9

/0 9 16

9

09

09

09

/0

/0

/0

/0

/0

/0

/6 /

/8 /

/0

/0

/0

/9 /

7/

8/

9/

/6

/7

/7

/7

/7

/8

/6

/9

/9

10

3/

7/

4/

10 9/

/8

19

12

10

17

31

24

21

26

14

11

18

28

25

Week commencing

2/

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/1

0/

09

SOS Tartarugas Nests on Sal 2009 vs 2008
140
130

120
Number of nests

100 80
69

103 93

105 97 76

60 40 20 0
3 9 14 10 19 11

66

55 33 38 34 15

62 51 31 31 21 11

2008 2009
56

17

21

27

28 14 11 14 3 2 1

Percentage of total nests

10 -J 17 un -J 23 un -J 30 un -J un 7J 14 ul -J 21 ul -J 28 ul -J 4- ul A 11 ug -A 18 ug -A 25 ug -A u 1- g Se 8- p S 15 ep -S 22 ep -S 29 ep -S e 6- p O 13 ct -O 20 ct -O ct

Week commencing

Distribution of nests Sal 2009
25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

EG

PR

BE

BE

BE

N

O

O

TH ER

AR

LE

SI N

ID

JE L

TA

A

N

SU RF

TE

TA

Q

SM

TT

CF

TA

M O

RR

CF

N

CO

SE

CF

E/

RT

N

PO

PO

D IS

PA

RA

CF

TO

Location

Comparison of average incubation times on Sal 2009

Dec

57

61

Nov
Month

55

56 Surf Beach Hatchery

Oct

SM

SM

55 55 51

Sept

54 54

Aug

51 53 45 50

55

55 Number of Days

60

65

PO

KI

U

Main hatchery In situ

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M U

A

G

N

RD

FR

U

N

O

T

N

O

EI RA

RY

RA

A

E

BA

ET

AO

G

G

AC

N

AC

AC

RT

IB

Y

H

O

H

A

H

H

Objective 5 – Increase awareness of turtle conservation amongst residents, visitors and businesses. Engage the local population in turtle conservation. Method: Working in conjunction with the Camara Muncipal do Sal and WWF, disseminate information about turtles and the environment via press and radio, events, visits to the hatchery and nesting beaches and meetings with groups and schools. 1. Cooperation with other groups Meetings to discuss cooperation and joint activities were held with Anjos Association (Santa Maria), ValorizarSal (Espargos), ENAPOR (Palmeira) Policia Maritima do Sal (Palmeira), INDP (Palmeira) 2. Media Campaign Relationships with Carciana Lima (TCV) and Moises Évora (RTC) were formed resulting in • Participation in Radio National program “Quarta à noite” • Discussion on the radio regarding the CMS/SOS Campaign requesting volunteers from the community. • Television interview following the inauguration of the new hatchery on Praia Antonio de Sousa • Television interview following hatching of the first nest from the new hatchery (sponsored by Camara Municipal do Sal) and the release of the hatchlings by the President. • Participation in television programme about marine turtles on national television station, TCV • Interview on national radio explaining what to do if lost hatchlings are found and discussing the work of SOS Tartarugas. 3. Community involvement • A new hatchery was opened on Praia Antonio de Sousa (eastern part of Santa Maria) whi gave much greater visibility to our work and enabled more residents to become involved or witness the hatching and release of turtles. • Sponsorship of the children’s drumming group “Raios Vermelhos” (supply of equipment and uniforms “Raios Vermelhos” performed at all SOS public events and promoted the theme ‘Turtles belong in the sea and not in houses’ • Free English classes were offered for Capeverdians and other nationalities involved with turtle protection campaign. The classes were held once a week and attendees ranged from the head of the Armed Forces in Sal to part-time Rangers. • Many more members of the community participated as volunteers on patrols, including off duty police, business owners, staff from INDP and residents of all nationalities. Volunteers also participated in outreach activities, morning patrols and hatchery duties. • Public release of 15 hatchlings found in Murdeira by residents and kept in a bucket of fresh water inside a house. A discussion of how to help to protect both nesting turtles and hatchlings followed and was attended by 20 residents. • SOS received many calls from residents and businesses during the hatching season and were able to rescue hundreds of hatchlings that went the wrong way because of disorientation from lights.

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4. Events • International Day of the Turtle”- 23 of May: children’s activities with games and workshops about how to use recycled materials at the pier in Santa Maria. • Inauguration of the new hatchery at Praia Antonio de Sousa, including ribbon cutting by the President CMS and entertainment by Raios Vermelhas. • Release of adult turtles, including Ana (recovered by police from a home in the northern part of the island), Deborah and Herbert (caught in net on Costa Fragata and freed by Rangers) • Release of juvenile turtles including three recovered by Policia Maritima from a restaurant in Calheta Funda • Numerous public releases of hatchlings. • Participation in PADI International Clean Up Day in Santa Maria beach. Underwater clean up in conjunction with ScubaCaribe and other dive centres and beach clean up in conjunction with ENAPOR. (Rangers participated as jury members). • Participation in prize giving for ENAPOR/CMS beach clean up which was attended by fishermen and others. SOS gave a talk about the need to stop hunting turtles and to dispose of rubbish properly. 5. Workshops • Two workshops were organised for the military in conjunction with the Camara Municipal do Sal. The first gave basic information about turtles, how to minimise disturbance during patrols as well as an explanation of the law and how to apply it. The second presented mid-season results of data collected by SOS and encouraged feedback from the soldiers. The soldiers also displayed an array of weapons collected by them from hunters (to the delight of the Rangers). • SOS participated in a workshop for the police about environmental laws, in order to talk about the Rangers’ experiences of crimes against marine turtles • Two workshops were held for ScubaCaribe and RIU staff regarding marine turtles and particularly the need for and purpose of the hatchery • In conjunction with WWF and CMS an informal meeting with fisherman from the Palmeira Fishermen’s Association was held and included a competition about marine turtles • Workshop for the police in Sal about marine turtles • Workshop about marine turtles and code of conduct for the guiding of groups on nesting beaches was held at the School of Tourism in Espargos. • Several workshops were held for volunteers to learn about turtle biology and patrolling protocol and objectives. 6. Visits to turtle nesting beaches and the hatchery • VIP turtle walk for the owners of Odjo D’Agua hotel in particular to discuss the problems caused by bright lights. • VIP walks were also arranged for directors of development companies, real estate companies, hotels, car rental agencies, tourism agencies and local authorities. • As part of events organised for returning emigrants by CMS, SOS gave a presentation about marine turtles and guided emigrants on walks to the nesting beaches • A group of children accompanied by teachers from “Loduteca” visited the main hatchery and witnessed the release of hatchlings.

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7. Local business involvement SOS was able to foster partnerships with several businesses resulting in cooperation, support and donations (or donations in kind) • Halcyonair (nest sponsorhip and reduced air travel between islands) • Noscasa (donation of rent-free office/shop space) • Garantia (cooperation in the production of a diary featuring marine turtles) 8. Other outreach • All “local guides” who organise turtle watch tours were contacted and given information about turtle conservation, the CMS/SOS campaign and how to minimise disturbance to turtles when guiding groups on the beach. • Stickers and posters were distributed extensively around Sal. More detailed information was distributed in folders to hotels, dive centres, restaurants, shops and tour operators. 9. Schools visits In conjunction with CMS and Peace Corps, SOS visited the following schools and kindergartens where children received information about turtles and the environment and participated in games and painting sessions. Borboletas, Arco-íris, Ludoteca, Biberão de Ouro, Paroquial, Disney, Pedra de Lume, Os Patinhos, Murdeira, OMCV 10. Business & Developer outreach All developers and businesses with lights causing disturbance to turtles were visited and given information regarding minimising disturbance (see Appendices for list of businesses). The information from the Minister for the Environment was, on the whole, well received, but very few acted on this information. In many instances, there is confusion over environmental laws, obligations under these laws and a belief that there is unlikely to be any penalties for breaking the law. Eventual cooperation was obtained from several major developers, although not before many nests were lost. 11. Tourism SOS raised awareness and received donations from visitors to Sal in the following ways • Night time visits to turtle nesting beaches from 28th June to 29th Sept • Symbolic adoptions of turtle hatchlings & nests • Public excavations of nests • Public releases of hatchlings By far the greatest participation in turtle walks was amongst British tourists.
% 56% 14% 12% 8% 5% 5% 1% Nationality British German Italian Benelux Portuguese French Other

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Turtle watching tours were on the whole very successful, with the majority of guests seeing a nesting turtle, a nest, tracks or hatchlings. As these tours become seen as a lucrative venture, more and more pick-up drivers are bringing guests to the beaches at night. The vast majority lack even the basic knowledge about turtles and do not know how to minimise disturbance to turtles on the beach. The problems range from allowing guests to use flash photography and torches to walking on nests and preventing turtles from returning to the sea. Unfortunately with operators such as these, turtle watching is seen purely as a business venture, rather than a key element in protection and conservation. The worst example of this seen was an excursion provider abandoned a turtle to hunters, walking away with his guests as the turtle was about to be butchered, without even calling SOS or the police. Fortunately Rangers were able to save the turtle after encountering the group a few minutes later. Problems such as these will continue to grow if no control is put in place by either the local or national government bodies. A small number of tourists also participated in the programme as volunteers for part of their holiday, taking part in every aspect from night patrols to working in the hatchery. This was a great success and was the prelude to SOS Tartarugas offering this kind of programme as part of a pre-booked holiday package in conjunction with tour operators in key markets. Tours were conducted on both Algodoeiro (west coast) and Costa Fragata (east) and occasionally at Serra Negra. Animation teams in all hotels were visited. All hotel receptions were given information about services offered by SOS, who to call for tours and what to do if tracks, turtles or hatchlings were seen. We developed good relationships with travel agencies and tour operators, in particular Barracuda and Vista Verde, both of whom promoted our tours commission-free. Taxi drivers and excursion providers were invited to bring their guests to the hatchery as part of their tours of the island. Recommendations • In terms of outreach, much more of the same is required, particularly in relation to a media campaign. More workshops should be held for community groups and for law enforcement officers and the military. • More explanation of the environmental laws relating to turtle and habitat protection is required, as well as the enforcement of these laws and penalties. • Limiting number of turtle tours to minimise disturbance.

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Objective 6 – Increase capacity for turtle conservation on other islands. Method: Working in conjunction with various Camara Muncipais, INDP and colleagues from the Capeverdian Sea Turtle Network (CVSTN) assist with training, outreach and distribution of equipment. Results: The creation of the CVSTN played a key role in our ability to assist other islands and is a big step forward in the coordination and best use of resources in turtle conservation efforts throughout the islands. SOS Tartarugas participated in the following efforts on behalf of the CVSTN. • Sao Nicolau (26th – 30th July) At the invitation of INDP and on behalf of the CVSTN, SOS Tartarugas participated in workshops on Sao Nicolau. The workshops were attended by staff from the Camara Municipais as well as fishermen and community volunteers. The workshops were held during camp outs on two beaches (one in each municipality) and included practical demonstrations of tagging and nest relocation, protocols for data collection, how to organise beach patrols and how to minimise disturbance on the beach. A number of head torches were donated to the Camara Municipal do Tarrafal. Maio (17th –20th June) A workshop was held in Maio in the middle of May on behalf of CVSTN and in conjunction with the Camara Muncipal do Maio. The objective of the workshop was to gather all interested parties and determine a strategy for how best to support the Camara Municipal’s existing programme. The workshop was attended by representatives from the Camara Municipal, the national police, INDP, Pesca Maio, Natura 2000 and SOS Tartarugas. During the second day a workshop was held for beach guards employed by the Camara Muncipal and included information on turtle biology, behaviour on the beach, data collection and practical demonstrations of track recognition and counting. Tents, waterproof boots, tape measures and head torches were distributed to the beach guards. Maio (17th July – 5th August) On behalf of the CVSTN, a Ranger from SOS Tartarugas was stationed on Maio in July & August to continue the work started during the workshop in June. During the three weeks the following was achieved: o A full census of the island over three days o A report on nesting beaches including topography, GPS location, length and nesting suitability o A report on the effectiveness of current patrols o A report on further training required o Recommendations for data collection o Field visits and other outreach activities involving the general public, community groups and businesses. (Full report available on request)

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Santo Antão (22nd – 29th September) During this week, SOS Tartarugas hosted the visit of Rufina Delgado, the representative of the community turtle protection and conservation programme in the rural community of Cruzinha in Santo Antão. The visit was organised by INDP who currently support the Cruzinha programme. During her stay, Rufina participated in all of the activities of a Ranger, learned many new techniques and returned to her village with increased knowledge and an overview of a larger project.

Recommendations • More support in Maio is needed in order to increase the effectiveness of the programme • Creation of ‘local experts’ on each island, who will work with turtles based within their own communities and train others • Workshop for representatives of community turtle conservation projects in order to further give further training and support but also to create a network within the country. The workshop would also give information about ways to fund programmes. • Supply of basic equipment is needed for other islands.

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APPENDIX ONE MAP OF PATROLLED BEACHES SAL ISLAND

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APPENDIX TWO MAP OF UNPATROLLED BEACHES SAL ISLAND (Survey bi-weekly)

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APPENDIX THREE BUSINESSES VISITED AND GIVEN INFORMATION FROM DGA REGARDING LIGHT DISTURBANCE AND OTHER OBLIGATIONS TO PROTECT TURTLES. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Cabo Golfe SA Oceanoazul Investisal Resort Group Gesturim Porto Antigo Residence Aquisal Imobrisa Odjo D´Agua Hotel Meo Home Construcan Farol Hotel Djadsal Hotel Crioula Hotel Morabeza Hotel Belorizonte Hotel Grupo Oasis T Tecnicil Construções (Vila Verde) Opway/Sgl Águas De Ponta Preta Cabocan Imagine Cape Verde Grijinha Beach Bar Sãojose Construtora Cape Verde Development Paradise Beach

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APPENDIX FOUR ABSTRACTS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDIES
1. RELATIONSHIP AMONG TIDES, BEACH PROFILE AND NEST SUCCESS OF LOGGERHEADS IN SAL ISLAND (CAPE VERDE) During the incubation period, loggerhead sea turtle eggs are potentially subjected to sand erosion, progress of the beach and tidal excursion. Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that not only can these natural phenomena directly destroy a large amount of nests but also can lead to flooding, another important threat to the safety of the nests. Studies show that the hatching success depends on the duration of the flooding: the hatching percentage progressively declines if the eggs are submerged for a few days as the physiological process are permanently damaged during the immersion in the water; during long flooding the development of the embryos stop with consequence increase of unhatched eggs. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the tidal incursion and the slope of the beach and to understand how this relationship can influence the hatching success in loggerhead (Caretta caretta) nests. In order to create a beach profile, 29 transects were used to study an area of Ponta Preta beach and a georeferenced 3D map has been created with altitude iso-lines from the zero sea level. Three typologies of nests were study: in situ nests without any kind of manipulation, trans situ nests moved to a new position in the same area farther from the tide influence and nests which have been moved into a hatchery located in another beach. For each nest the GPS position was marked and introduced in the map to study its location regarding the beach profile and percentages of hatching success and emerged success were calculated. These percentages were compared between nest to understand the relationship between the beach slope and the tides reported to the study period. The results permitted division of the beach in several areas according to the flooding danger, valuable information for the management of sea turtle conservation programs for SOS Tartarugas project in Sal island. SOS Tartarugas rangers that patrol the beach next year will have a new tool to help them better evaluate the risk of leaving a nest in situ or to move it based on its position on the beach and the relation between the beach profile and the tidal cycles. INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE ON SEX RATIO IN SAL ISLAND (CAPE VERDE) Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) exhibit sexual differentiation determined by temperature. In particular, temperature defines sex ratio in the thermosensitive period, identified as the middle third of the incubation duration. Theoretically, a constant pivotal temperature produces 50% females, cooler temperatures produce higher percentages of males and warmer temperatures higher number of females. According to previous studies, for Caretta caretta the pivotal temperature differs among populations, ranging between 28.6°C and 30.0°C. The aim of this study is to observe how the temperature change among different nesting beaches in Sal Island, and for the first time, to verify the sex ratios of the nests laid in the northeastern island of the Cape Verde archipelago. Six temperature sensors, pre programmed to record data every hour of the day, were distributed along the island, at a fixed depth of 35cm. Three were installed to record temperatures in three different nesting beaches (east coast in Serra Negra, and Costa da Fragata; west coast in Algodoeiro) and other were placed in two hatcheries located one in the west coast (Algodoeiro) and other south of the island, in Santa Maria. After acquiring the temperature data from the sensors, the mean temperature was calculated during the sex-determining period. Sex ratios were predicted for each nest, by comparing the mean temperatures obtained with published data that relates the incubation temperature with the percentage of females. Preliminary results indicate that mean temperatures from the nests in the hatcheries were considerably different from the mean temperatures observed in the original beaches, for the same thermosensitive period. These results indicate that good knowledge of beach temperatures are crucial to maintain the natural balance of the population. Understanding the natural sex ratios for sea turtle populations in Sal island will lead to better conservation practices during the nest relocation to hatcheries.

2.

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FINANCIAL STATEMENT SOS TARTARUGAS 2009
Total donations & grants Salaries & expenses Salaries Rangers Salary director Cost of patrols & conservation programme Driver for Rangers Equipment Hatchery Petrol Phone Rent of Turtle House for Rangers Rent & cleaning Water & electricity ECV 8,468,174 ! 76,983

1,943,480 258,610 2,202,090

17,668 2,351 20,019

95,000 256,563 139,433 152,422 178,565 821,983 730,852 396,842 1,127,694 39,620

864 2,332 1,268 1,386 1,623 7,473 6,644 3,608 10,252 360

Training & workshops Cost of tourism programmes Adoptions Merchandise Shipping Taxis Turtle Walk transport costs Vehicle purchase and maintenance Quad maintenance Vehicle insurance Vehicle purchase

35,630 814,267 82,603 213,475 347,300 1,493,275 220,146 23,759 942,135 1,186,040 483,195 23,930

324 7,402 751 1,941 3,157 13,575 2,001 216 8,565 10,782 4,393 218

Support for other islands Donations to community projects Marketing Internet connection Marketing Printing Stationery

47,640 107,956 17,740 14,633 187,969 68,060 8,038

433 981 161 133 1,709 619 73

Miscellaneous Bank, legal, customs Bank Charges

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Legal & Customs

170,698 178,736

1,552 1,625

Grand total donations Grand total expenses Balance

8,468,174 7,812,592 655,582

76,983 71,024 5,960

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