# Velocity Diagrams

A new technique
Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion

When we are dealing with a RIGID member, the velocity of one point on that member relative to another point on that member is very special, because:

The distance between the points cannot change
Steel girders – much more rigid

Elastic bands – deform easily

Velocity Diagrams
Motion of a Rigid Body
Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion

The velocity of B relative to A must be perpendicular to the line AB

B

A
Velocity of B relative to A If this were not so, there would be a component of the velocity of B relative to A along AB – the length would thus change

B A Direction of relative velocity The member AB is still of constant length .Velocity Diagrams Motion of a Rigid Body Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The velocity of A relative to B must also be perpendicular to the line AB.

Velocity Diagrams Motion of a Rigid Body Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The key point is: There can be no component of relative velocity (of one end with respect to the other end) in the direction of the line joining any two points on a rigid member .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion Question: Find the velocity of the piston for the position shown We usually draw velocities relative to ground and relative to other points on the mechanism B A O Z = 300 rpm .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion First step: The velocity of B relative to ground is known (Make sure you convert Z to radians per second before you calculate this velocity) B A O Z = 300 rpm .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of the velocity of A relative to ground is known .It must be horizontal Its magnitude is unknown at present… B A O Z = 300 rpm .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion We will now consider a simple velocity diagram based on the slider crank mechanism The velocity diagram proceeds as follows .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The velocity of B relative to ground is drawn B A O Z = 300 rpm Remember: Start with what you know We know the velocity at the point B from the question o b .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm o We refer to this line as the “a” line b .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm o b .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm o Because the velocity at A is with respect to ground. it starts at ground (the point “O” in the diagram) b .

Its length cannot change! What do we know therefore about the direction of the velocity of A relative to B? The velocity of A relative to B must also be perpendicular to the line AB. B A Direction of relative velocity .Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion To complete the diagram we require the Velocity of A relative to B AB is a rigid member.

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm a The direction of the velocity of A relative to B is known The magnitude is unknown o b .

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm a Note that it connects to the point b Why is this? b o .

(we can measure its length with a ruler) o b .Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm a Graphically. we can now determine the velocity of a relative to the ground.

Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm a We now have the required velocity diagram! o b .

VA = VB+VA rel.Note the following Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion VELOCITY DIAGRAMS GRAPHICALLY REPRESENT THE VECTOR SUMS OF VELOCITIES: ie. to B Capital letters are used in the mechanism. Lower case letters are used in the velocity diagram. The mechanism must be drawn to scale. A suitable scale must also be used for the velocity diagram. .

They are totally different diagrams – although they are related. .Note Also: Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The velocity diagram is NOT the mechanism diagram. and a diagram of a reasonable size – (postage stamp size is too small). Note again that: An APPROPRIATE scale must be chosen for the velocity diagram – simple to calculate. You can select the scale.

In an exam.Velocity Diagrams An Example: The slider crank mechanism Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion The direction of A relative to the ground is known B A O Z = 300 rpm Therefore we can have a larger velocity diagram. this would be easier to work with! b a o .

Some features of the velocity diagram. Lecture Outline An Example Mechanism Velocity Diagrams – why learn them? Velocity Diagrams – A new technique An Example Analysis of a velocity diagram Conclusion A complete understanding of this is essential before attempting more complicated examples .