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Part II: Nonuniform Flow
Changing conditions takes
place over a long distance
Gradually varied flow
Rapidly varied flow
Changing of conditions
takes place over a short
distance
Reference books
1. Hydraulics in Civil and Environmental Engineering, Andrew Chadwick and John Morfett,
2
nd
Ed, E & FN Spon, 1995.
2. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, Robert W. Fox, Alan T. McDonald, P. J. Pritchard, 6
th
Ed, John Willey & Sons, 2004.
2
•Occurs when there is a sudden change in geometry,
─Flow over a sharpcrested weirs,
─Flow through regions of rapidly varied crosssection,
e.g. venturi flumes and broadcrested weirs.
•A sudden change in flow regime
─Normally associated with hydraulic jump phenomena, i.e.
flow with high speed and low depth is rapidly changed to
low speed and high depth.
1. Rapidly varied flow:
length) stic characteri : ( / L gL V Fr =
(6.1)
In open channel flow, flow regime is defined by Froude number:
3
1.1 Characteristics of rapidly varied flows:
•The use of energy and momentum principles
•Main task: to determine of water depth
•Bernoulli equation and continuity equation
─ Specific energy E
─ Specific discharge q
─ Alternate depths
•Water surface profile changes suddenly and has curvature,
•Pressure distribution departs from hydrostatic distribution,
•The assumption of parallel streamline does not apply.
1.2 Methods of analysis for rapidly varied flows:
4
1.3 Energy considerations
Example: In a rectangular channel, fluid flows over a section in
which the bed gradually rises by ∆z. The upstream depth y
1
and
discharge Q are known. What is the depth of the flow at position 2?
Assuming no energy loss between (1) and (2), apply the energy Eq:
y
V
g
y
V
g
z
1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = + + ∆
(6.2)
datum
(1)
(2)
Figure 6.1
p
2
/γ=0
p
1
/γ=0
5
Apply the continuity equation between points (1) and (2):
q V y V y = =
1 1 2 2
(6.3)
where q (m
3
/s/m) is the specific discharge (discharge per unit width).
y
q
gy
y
q
gy
z
1
2
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = + + ∆
2 2 2 0
2
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
gy y g z gy
q
y
q + − − + = ( ) ∆
(6.4)
3 solutions for y
2
. Which one(s) is(are) correct?
Substitute (6.3) into (6.2):
Cubic equation
6
To answer the above question, we use the concept of specific energy
H z y
V
g
z y
Q
gA
z E = + + = + + = +
2 2
2
2 2
E y
V
g
y
Q
gA
= + = +
2 2
2
2 2
(6.5)
The energy at a location is given by:
Channel bed
where
E: specific energy=energy between energy line (EL) and channel bed.
For a rectangular channel: Q/A = bq/by = q/y
y
z
Water surface
datum
g V 2 /
2
EL
E y
q
gy
= +
2
2
2
(6.6)
Eq. (6.6) gives two asymptotes:
y E → ⇒ → ∞ 0
y E y → ∞ ⇒ →
(Please note the definition of E: E = local water depth + velocity head)
7
Using Eq (6.6), Eq. (6.4) can be written as E E z
1 2
= + ∆
(6.7)
• Point A is defined by E
1
corresponds to location 1,
• Location 2 in the channel have E
2
and is on the specific energy curve.
Possible B
1
and B
2
whose depths are known as alternate depths
• To arrive at B
2
from A requires that E
2
< E
1
 ∆z at some intermediate
points. This means energy loss in a frictionless system – impossible.
Therefore the flow depth at (2) must be B
1
on the specific energy curve.
alternate depths
Figure 6.2
Eq. (6.6)
8
Solution:
Q = 8 m
3
/s; b = 5 m;
q = Q/b = 8/5 = 1.6 m
2
/s
Example 6.1:
The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m
3
/s. The
normal depth is 1.25 m. Determine the depth of flow above a section
in which the bed gradually rises by 0.2 m. Use graphical methods to
find the solution.
z E E ∆ + =
2 1
2 2 2
/ 13 . 0 ) 2 /( y y gy q y E + = + =
Specific Energy
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
E (m)
y
(
m
)
m y y E 33 . 1 / 13 . 0
2
1 1 1
= + =
From energy Eq.,
m z E E 13 . 1
1 2
= ∆ − =
E
1
=1.33
∆z
y
2
E
2
=1.13
From the figure we get: y
2
=1m
9
Example 6.2
Discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m
3
/s. The normal
depth is 1.25 m. Determine the flow depth where the section contracts
by 1.0 m. Use graphical and numerical methods to find the solution.
s m A Q V / 28 . 1 ) 25 . 1 5 /( 8 /
1 1
= × = =
m g V y E 33 . 1 2 /
2
1 1 1
= + =
2 2 2 2
/ 2 ) 4 /( 8 / y y A Q V = × = =
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
/ 204 . 0 2 / y y g V y E + = + =
2 1
E E =
From energy Eq.
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
y
2
=1.18m
E
1
=1.33m=E
2
E (m)
y
(
m
)
we get y
2
=1.18m
10
Example 6.3
The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m
3
/s. The
normal depth is 1.25 m. Determine the depth of flow where the
section contracts by 1.0 m and the bed gradually rises by 0.2 m.
Use graphical methods to find the solution.
Plan view
s m A Q V / 28 . 1 ) 25 . 1 5 /( 8 /
1 1
= × = =
m g V y E 33 . 1 2 /
2
1 1 1
= + =
2 2 2 2
/ 2 ) 4 /( 8 / y y A Q V = × = =
2
2 2
2
2 2 2
/ 204 . 0 2 / y y g V y E + = + =
or
1 2 2 1
z E E z E E ∆ − = ∆ + = From energy equation, we have:
(1)
Plot the specific energy curve for E
2,
the water depth corresponding
to E
2
is y
2
.
∆z =
y
2
y
1
Elevation
11
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Eq (1)
E
2
∆z=0.2
y
2
=0.83 m
E
1
=1.33m
E (m)
y
(
m
)
12
1.4 Subcritical, critical and supercritical flow
E y
q
gy
= +
2
2
2
(6.6)
Eq (6.6) is plotted in (a) and Eq(6.8) is plotted in (b).
The specific volume flow rate q can be expressed as a function of y,
From Eq. (6.6),
) ( 2
2
y E gy q − =
(6.8)
(q is constant)
(E is constant)
subcritical
supercritical
(a)
(b)
Figure 6.3
Eq(6.6)
Eq(6.8)
Critical point
12
13
Derivation of the critical depth for a rectangular channel
The critical depth y
c
can be evaluated from Eq(6.6) by setting the
derivative of E with respect to y equal to zero:
0 1 /
3
2
= − =
gy
q
dy dE
2
2
2gy
q
y E + =
0 Fr 1 1
2
2
= − = −
gy
V
From , to let E have an extremum value,
Since q=Vy
For a rectangular channel, we have
3
gy
q
gy
V
Fr = =
1 Fr =
Thus, for critical depth, Fr = 1.
(6.9)
Solving for depth in Eq (6.9) we have:
( )
c
y g q y = =
3 / 1
2
/
(6.11);
and
2 / 3
c c
y E =
(6.12)
(6.10)
c c
V gy =
(6.11a)
14
A generalized derivation of the critical depth
For a generalized crosssection, the specific energy can be written
in terms of the total discharge Q and the crosssectional area A:
2
2 2
2 2 gA
Q
y
g
V
y E + = + =
0 1
3
2
= − =
dy
dA
gA
Q
dy
dE
(6.13)
The minimumenergy is obtained by differentiating (6.13) with
respect to y, i.e.
(6.14)
For incremental changes in depth. The change in area is
Bdy dA =
(6.15)
15
Substituting (6.15) to (6.14), we get:
2 3
1 / 0 Q B gA − =
(6.16)
The second term in Eq(6.16) is the Froude number squared,
2 3
/
Fr /
/ /
Q A V
Q B gA
gA B gA B
= = =
(6.18)
The ratio A/B is the hydraulic depth (B is the surface width).
For a rectangular channel, A/B=y, Eq (6.18) is simplified to (6.10).
Therefore, at the critical depth, we have:
2 3
max
/ 1
c c
Q B gA =
At the critical depth, Q is maximum and E is minimum.
(6.17)
16
1. For a given constant discharge (Figure 6.3a)
• The specific energy curve has a minimum value E
min
at y
c,
• For any other E, there are two possible depths called
alternate depths, one is called subcritical and the other is
supercritical.
For supercritical flow, y < y
c
(Fr > 1)
For subcritical flow, y > y
c
(Fr < 1)
2. For a given constant specific energy (Figure 6.3b)
• The discharge is maximum at depth y
c
;
• For all other discharges, there are two possible depths for
any particular value of E.
1.5 Some more discussion to Figure (6.3):
17
Summary of critical, subcritical and supercritical flows
• Critical Flow (requires )
– requires E
minimum
or q
maximum
;
– For rectangular channels:
2
3
/ ,
c
y q g =
min
3 / 2,
c
E y =
• Subcritical Flow:
Fr < 1,
Water velocity < wave velocity
Disturbances travel upstream and downstream
Upstream water levels are affected by downstream control
c c
V gy =
1 / = = gy V Fr
V: water velocity in channel
gy : celerity of long wave when there is a disturbance in channel
18
• Slope classification: mild, steep and critical slopes
A mild slope: on which uniform flow is subcritical:
A steep slop: on which uniform flow is supercritical:
A critical slope: on which uniform flow is critical:
where y
0
is the uniform depth.
0 0 c
(or Fr<1 or S <S )
c
y y >
0 0 c
(or Fr>1 or S >S )
c
y y <
0 0 c
(or Fr = 1 or S =S )
c
y y =
• Supercritical Flow:
Fr > 1,
Water velocity < Wave velocity
Disturbances travel downstream
Upstream water levels are unaffected by downstream control
19
Example 6.4
The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m
3
/s. The
normal depth is 1.25 m. Determine the depth of flow where the
section contracts by 1.0 m and the bed gradually rises by 0.3 m.
Use graphical methods to find the solution.
∆z =
y
2
y
1
∆z=0.3m
..
6 . 1 5 / 8 /
1 1
= = = b Q q
curve) (plot 33 . 1 / 1305 . 0 ) 2 /(
2
1 1
2
1
2
1 1 1
m y y gy q y E = + = + =
2 /
2 2
= = b Q q curve) (plot / 204 . 0 ) 2 /(
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2
y y gy q y E + = + =
1.03m 0.3  1.33 or
1 2 2 1
= = ∆ − = ∆ + = z E E z E E
From energy equation, we have:
(1)
20
Corresponding to E
2
=1.03m, there are no crossing points on the
specific energy curve. Therefore, there are no solutions. This result
suggests that the depth y
2
should be the critical depth.
From the specific energy curve, we get:
y
critical
= 0.741m and E
2
=E
min
= 1.112m. (refer to Figure a)
From E
1
=E
2
+∆z
E
1new
=1.412m (refer to Figure b)
From the specific energy curve at location (1), we get the new water
depth at location (1):
y
1new
=1.34m
Therefore, at the contraction, the water depth is y
2
= 0.74m
And the original water depth is increased to y
1new
= 1.34m.
21
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
(a)
E
2
=1.03
No crossing points
with the energy curve
No solution.
Therefore, y
2
should
be at critical depth
∆z=0.3
E
1
=1.33m
E (m)
y
(
m
)
E
2
~y
2
E
1
~y
1
22
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
(b)
E
1
=1.412m
E
2
=1.03m
E
1
=1.33m
y
1
=1.2m (original depth)
y
1
=1.34m (new depth)
q
1
=1.6m
2
/s
at location (1)
q
2
=2m
2
/s
at location (2)
∆z=0.3
Move by ∆h
Move by ∆h
E
min
=1.112m
E
min
=1.112m
∆z=0.3
y
critical
=0.735 m
E (m)
y
(
m
)
23
Example 6.5
The discharge in a trapezoidal channel is 30 m
3
/s. The channel has a
base width of 4 m and side slopes of 1:2. Determine the critical
water depth corresponding to the flow rate in the channel, n=0.022.
1
2
B
y
c
4m
Solution:
(1) At critical water depth,
1
3
2
= =
gA
B Q
Fr
c c c c
y y y B y s m Q ) 2 4 ( 2 / ) 4 ( A , 4 4 B , / 30 With
3
+ = + = + = =
1
) 2 4 ( 81 . 9
) 4 4 ( 30
3
3
2
=
+ ×
+
c c
c
y y
y
m y
c
4 . 1 =
24
(2) Critical slope:
2/ 3 1/ 2
h c
A
Q R S
n
=
Using Eq. (5.6),
At critical flow, y = y
c
2 / 1 3 / 2
30
c hc
c
S R
n
A
=
(1)
(2)
Using n = 0.022, , ) 2 4 (
c c c
y y A + =
c
c c
hc
y
y y
R
5 2 4
) 2 4 (
+
+
=
Substituting into (2) with y
c
= 1.4m
....... =
c
S
25
Example 6.6
The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m
3
/s. The
normal depth is 1.25 m. Determine the depth of flow immediately
prior to, above and after a section in which the bed gradually rises
by 0.5 m as shown.
Solution:
We define: y
0
= original depth
y
1
= immediately prior to the hump
y
2
= depth after the hump
y
3
= depth above the hump
y
3
y
0
=
y
1
y
2
(3)
∆z=
26
Write the energy Eq between (0) and (3):
z E E ∆ + =
3 0
m z m y s m B Q q 5 . 0 , 25 . 1 , / 6 . 1 5 / 8 / For
0
2
= ∆ = = = =
2 2
0 0 0
/(2 ) 1.33 E y q gy m = + =
(1)
(2) m E 83 . 0 5 . 0 33 . 1
3
= − =
From the figure, we can see that for hump higher that 0.37m, there
would be no crossing points (no solution) between E
3
and specific
energy curve, i.e. the fluid does not have enough energy to pass over
a hump higher than 0.37m.
To pass over a hump higher than 0.37m, water dams up (known as
damming action or backwater) before the hump until it acquires
sufficient energy to pass over, after which the hump acts as a control.
The minimum energy required is the E
min
(or E
c
) at the critical point.
(3)
curve) (plot / 1305 . 0 ) 2 /( Plot
2 2 2
y y gy q y E + = + =
27
The depth of water at a control for a known flow rate is given by (6.11):
( )
1/ 3
3
2 2
3
/ 1.6 / 9.81 0.64
c
y q g m y = = = =
The minimum energy for the flow to pass the hump is:
m y E
c
96 . 0 2 / 64 . 0 3 2 / 3
min
= × = =
(4)
(5)
Since , the flow prior to the hump is subcritical.
c
y y >
0
The E
1
prior to the hump is obtained by using
m z E E 46 . 1 5 . 0 96 . 0
min 1
= + = ∆ + =
From the figure, corresponding to E
1
=1.46m, we have y
1
= 1.39m
or 0.34m. However, because the flow prior to the hump is subcritical,
It can only increase its specific energy by increasing its depth since
there is no control point prior to the hump. Thus y
1
= 1.39m.
(Note: y
1
can also be obtained using )
46 . 1 ) 2 /(
2
1
2
1 1
= + = gy q y E
(6)
28
Assuming no energy loss from (1) to (2), i.e. E
1
= E
2
,
2
2 2
2
2
1.46
2
q
y E
gy
= + =
From the figure, we get y
2
= 1.39m or 0.34m.
Since a control usually causes the flow to change from subcritical to
supercritical or vice versa, thus the depth y
2
= 0.34m is expected
downstream of the hump as shown in the figure.
(7)
Damming action
29
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
0.34m
y
1
=1.39m
E
1
=1.46m = E
2
∆z=0.5m
q=1.6m
2
/s
y
0
=1.25m
y
c
=0.64m
E
3
=0.83m
(a)
E
min
=0.96m
No crossing points
No solution.
∆z
max
=0.37m
E
0
=1.33m
E (m)
y
(
m
)
30
1.6 Flow characteristics over humps and contractions
y
E
y
1
y
2
y
2
y
2
y
2
31
Example 6.7
The discharge in a 6 m wide rectangular concrete channel (n =
0.013) is 50 m
3
/s. Determine:
(a) The critical water depth and critical slope of the channel
(b) Types of flow if the flow at different sections of the channel has
water depths of 3.72, 1.92 and 1.55 m.
(c) The Froude Number of the flow corresponding to flow depths of
3.72, 1.92 and 1.55 m
(d) The normal water depths and the type of slopes if the channel
slopes are 0.001 and 0.04 respectively
Solution:
013 . 0 6 , / 50 : Given
3
= = = m, n b s m Q
(a)
2 2
3 3
/ (50/ 6) / 9.8 1.92 ,
c
y q g a m = = =
,
2 / 1 3 / 2
c h
S R
n
A
Q =
, b y A
c
=
) 2 /(
c c h
y b b y R + =
0258 . 0 =
c
S
From Eq. (5.6),
32
(b) At section of:
y=3.73m, since y > y
c
, ⇒ subcritical flow
y=1.92m, since y = y
c
, ⇒ critical flow
y=1.55m, since y < y
c
, ⇒ supercritical flow
(c) The Froude number: , V=Q/(yb) =50/(yb)
gy V Fr / =
At y=3.73m, V=2.24m/s, ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)
1/2
= 0.37
At y= 1.92m, V=4.34m/s, ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)
1/2
= 1
At y=1.55m, V=5.76m/s, ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)
1/2
= 1.38
(d) The normal water depths: Since
With A=by, , Q = 50m
3
/s, S
0
= 0.001 and 0.004, ⇒ ⇒⇒ ⇒
) 2 /( y b by R
h
+ =
> S
c
= 0.0258 Steep slope 0.76m < y
c
0.04
< S
c
= 0.0258 Mild slope 2.71m > y
c
0.001
Slope type Normal depth y S
0
5.6) (Eq ,
2 / 1
0
3 / 2
S R
n
A
Q
h
=
33
2. Hydraulic Jumps
A hydraulic jump is a steplike increase in fluid depth in an open
channel flow. Commonly seen below weirs and sluice gates.
Supercritical
flow (upstream)
Hydraulic
jump
Hydraulic jump
length
Subcritical
flow
34
Consideration of specific energy:
•Upstream:
Supercritical flow, y
1
< y
c
,
Specific energy: E
1
,
E
∆E
s
y
y
1
y
2
y
c
V
1
V
2
y
1
y
2
E
2
E
min
E
1
•Downstream:
Subcitical flow, y
2
> y
c
Specific energy: E
2
,
•Energy difference: ∆E
s
= E
1
− E
2
> 0
•So after a hydraulic jump, there is energy loss
35
− Formed when transit from supercritical flow to subcritical flow
2.1 Hydraulic jumpformation and characteristics
Formation:
− Transition from supercritical to subcritical flows is rapid,
− Length of hydraulic jump: about 7 times downstream depth,
− The transition involves large energy loss due to turbulence,
− Energy loss can be found in terms of y1, y2 and upstream Fr,
−Hydraulic jump can be used to dissipate water energy,
such as in a spillway of a dam to reduce damage to riverbed.
Characteristics:
36
2.2 Downstream or sequent depth for a rectangular channel
The basic equations involved are:
•Continuity equation
•Momentum equation
Assumptions:
• Ignore boundary friction (due to a short length of hydraulic jump),
• The channel bed slope is very small,
• Pressure distributions at (1) and (2): hydrostatic
37
•Momentum equation: F M
x
∑
= ∆
F F M M
1 2 2 1
− = −
(6.19)
F M F M
1 1 2 2
+ = + = Μ
(6.20)
where M, the pressure force plus momentum flux, is constant for
any given flow rate q.
y
y
1
y
2
p
2
p
1
F + M
Ignore friction
Initial depth
Sequent depth
(1)
(2)
38
Assuming hydrostatic pressure at (1) and (2), we have:
2
1 1
/ 2, F gy ρ =
F gy
2
2
2
2 = ρ /
1 1
, M qV ρ =
M qV
2 2
= ρ
q
gy
y q
gy
y
2
1
1
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
+ = +
(6.21)
Μ = +
q
gy
y
2 2
2
(for rectangular channel)
(6.22)
Momentum function
( )
1/ 2
2
2
1
1
1
1 8 1 ,
2
y
Fr
y
= + −
( )
[ ]
y
y
Fr
1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
1 8 1 = + −
/
(6.23)
(6.24)
39
2.3 Energy loss
h E E E y
q
gy
y
q
gy
L
= = − = + − + ∆
1 2 1
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
1 2
( ) ( )
Since Fr
V
gy
q
gy
2
2 2
3
= = And use Eqs. (6.23) and (6.24):
(6.25)
h E
y y
y y
L
= =
−
∆
( )
2 1
3
1 2
4
(6.26)
• Energy loss increases dramatically as the relative height of the jump
increases.
40
Example 6.8
Determine the depth y
4
immediately upstream of the hydraulic jump
that will form in the situation shown below if q = 1.6 m
2
/s.
From Example 6.6, we have:
y
1
= 1.39m, y
2
= 0.34m, y
c
= y
3
= 0.64m
y
0
= 1.25m
Damming action
y
5
=y
0
y
4
y
3
=y
c
41
37 . 0
25 . 1 81 . 9
25 . 1 / 6 . 1 /
2
5
5
5
2
=
×
= = =
gy
y q
gy
V
Fr
( )
1/ 2
2
4
2
5
1
1 8 1 ........
2
y
Fr
y
= + − =
y
4
can be calculated As y
5
= 1.25m,
Energy loss:
.......
4
) (
5 4
3
4 5
=
−
=
y y
y y
h
L
Assuming y
5
= y
0
= 1.25m,
42
2.4 Classification of hydraulic jumps:
The actual structure of a hydraulic jump depends on Fr
43
2.5 Some further discussion on hydraulic jumps
•The relations for hydraulic jumps developed in the present
unit are based on a rectangular and horizontal channel,
•Hydraulic jumps in other channel configurations are similar
to those for rectangular channels,
•The expression of sequent depth and energy loss in other
channel configurations are somewhat different from jumps
in rectangular channels.
44
3. Analysis of Gradually Varied Flows
• Tasks
– Deduce the trend of water surface change (classification of
surface profiles)
– Calculate water levels and velocity along the course of the
channel (quantitative evaluation)
• Analysis method
– Energy equation
– Continuity (mass conservation) equation
•Characteristics of gradually varied flow
─ Water depth and velocity change gradually,
─ Flow is nonuniform,
─ Water surface changes smoothly and continuously,
─ Friction loss along the channel is not negligible.
45
3.1 The equations for gradually varied flow
Assuming the change in the total energy is due to frictional losses
over some distance ∆x, the energy grade line (EGL) and hydraulic
grade line (HGL) can be drawn as shown below.
datum
Friction slope S
f
46
Conservation of the energy gives:
S x y
V
g
S x y
V
g
f 0 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
∆ ∆ + + = + +
S x S x y y
V
g
V
g
f 0 2 1
2
2
1
2
2 2
∆ ∆ = + − + −
(7.1)
(7.2)
The differential form by choosing ∆x small →dx:
S dx S dx dy d
V
g
f 0
2
2
= + + ( )
(7.3)
d
dy
V
g
d
dy
Q
gA
Q
gA
dA
dy
Q B
gA
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
3
2
3
2 2
= = − = −
(7.4)
Since ,
A: the crosssectional area; Q: discharge (m
3
/s).
(7.5)
3 2
0
/ 1 gA B Q
S S
dx
dy
f
−
−
=
Substitute (7.4) into (7.3) and rearrange:
47
(7.6)
• Eq. (7.5) allows the water surface profiles of gradually varied flow
to be deduced,
• y is measured vertically from the channel bottom,
• the slope of the water surface dy/dx is relative to channel bottom.
For a rectangular channel, since Froude number is defined as
Fr
V
gy
=
Eq. (7.5) can then be rearranged as
Eq. (7.5) is valid for any cross section shapes
2
0
2
0
1 / 1
r
f f
F
S S
gy V
S S
dx
dy
−
−
=
−
−
=
48
Strictly speaking, the slope term in Manning’s Eq (5.6) is the friction
slope S
f
, since for steady uniform flow, S
0
= S
f
.
Rearranging Manning’s equation to find S
f
gives:
S
n Q P
A
f
=
2 2 4 3
10 3
/
/
(7.8)
Eq. (7.8) implies that S
f
decreases as the water depth y increases,
which in combination with (7.6) means that
y y S S
f
< ⇒ >
0 0
y y S S
f
> ⇒ <
0 0
(7.9)
3.1.1 A note on the friction slope
0
S S
f
<
0
S S
f
>
49
Task: calculate the distance between two cross sections
• Resources: channel slope S
0
, channel properties, water depth y
1
at
section 1 and water depth y
2
at section 2 are known
S x y
V
g
S x y
V
g
f 0 1
1
2
2
2
2
2 2
∆ ∆ + + = + +
S x E S x E
f 0 1 2
∆ ∆ + = + ∆
∆
∆
x
E E
S S
E
S
f
=
−
−
=
1 2
0
(7.11)
S
f
can be calculated using Manning’s equation:
S
n Q P
A
f
=
2 2 4 3
10 3
/
/
(7.12)
From Eq. (7.1)
3.2 Calculation of Gradually Varied Flow Profile
3.2.1 Direct step method:
• How?
50
Example 7.1
The water depth of a gradually varying flow ( q = 1.6 m
2
/s) in a
wide rectangular channel (n = 0.015) is 0.34 m right behind a hump
and 0.38 m at a location further downstream. What would be the
distance between the two locations?
(7.11)
S
f
: Slope of water surface (Eq. (7.12)
S
0
: Slope of channel bed (Eq. (5.6)
51
q
2
52
53
54
•Task: calculate y
i
(i=1 to n)
• Resources: channel properties;
• Method: An iterative procedure
3
2
2
3 / 2
0
2
0
1
1
'
gA
b Q
AR
Qn
S
F
S S
dx
dy
y
h
r
f
−


¹

\

−
=
−
−
= =
(7.13)
Using Taylor’s expansion:
x y y x
dx
dy
y y
i i i
∆ + = ∆ + =
+
'
1
(7.14)
From Eq.(7.5), we can get
y
0
y
1
y
2
y
i
y
i+1
∆x
∆x
. . .
where and
) ' ' (
2
1
'
1 +
+ =
i i
y y y


¹

\

−
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦


¹

\

− =
3
2
2
3 / 2
0
1 / '
i hi i
i
gA
b Q
R A
Qn
S y
3.2.2 Numerical methods:
55
The Iterative Procedure:
1. Use Eq. (7.13) to calculate y'
i
where y
i
is known either as initial
point or from a previous cycle of this calculation
2. Set y '
i+1
= y '
i
as a first estimate
3. Use current values of y '
i
and y '
i+1
to calculate y
i+1
from Eq.
(7.14) for a selected ∆x
4. Find a revised estimate of y '
i+1
from Eq. (7.13) using the y
i+1
value from step 3
5. If the new y '
i+1
value is not close enough to the previously
calculated value, repeat step 3, 4 and 5 using the latest estimate
of y’
i+1
found in step 4
6. Once the iteration procedure has yielded successive estimates of
y '
i+1
and y
i+1
within acceptable limits of accuracy, proceed to
the next section of channel and repeat the process
7. Terminate the process when the desired reach has been covered
56
3.3 Water surface profiles and their classifications
Take a channel with mild slope as an example. The surface profile may
occupy the three regions shown below and the sign of dy/dx can be
found for each region:
y
0
y
c
57
(a) Region 1 for the mild slope:
• Since y>y
0
> y
c
, we have S
f
< S
0
from Eq. (7.8)
• Since y > y
c
, we have Fr
2
< 1 from Eq. (7.10)
⇒ From Eq. (3.2.6) we get dy/dx is positive.
The asymptotic behaviour of the free surface M
1
:
0
0 Fr and , As S dy/dx S y
f
→ ⇒ → ∞ →
⇒hence the water surface is asymptotic to a horizontal line.
0 , As
0 0
→ ⇒ → → dy/dx S S y y
f
⇒hence the water surface is asymptotic to the line y = y
n
.
58
(b) Region 2 on a mild slope:
For the M
2
profile,
∞ → → dx dy y y
c
/ , as
This is physically impossible. This is because as the fluid enters
a region of rapidly varying flow and Eq. (7.6) is no longer valid.
y y S S
f
→ ⇒ →
0 0
dy dx / → 0
1
2
< ⇒ >
r c
F y y
(c) Region 3 on a mild slope:
positive. is / 1 Fr and ,
2
0
0
dx dy S S y y y
f c
⇒ > > > >
For the M
3
profile, ∞ → → dx dy y y
c
/ , as
This is physically impossible. In practice, an hydraulic jump will
form before y = y
c
.
Note: above discussion is for mild slope. For steep, critical, horizontal
and adverse slopes, the surface profiles are given in next page.
59
60
1. Rapidly varied flow:
•Occurs when there is a sudden change in geometry,
─Flow over a sharpcrested weirs, ─Flow through regions of rapidly varied crosssection, e.g. venturi flumes and broadcrested weirs.
•A sudden change in flow regime
─Normally associated with hydraulic jump phenomena, i.e. flow with high speed and low depth is rapidly changed to low speed and high depth. In open channel flow, flow regime is defined by Froude number:
Fr = V / gL ( L : characteristic length)
(6.1)
2
1.1 Characteristics of rapidly varied flows:
•Water surface profile changes suddenly and has curvature, •Pressure distribution departs from hydrostatic distribution, •The assumption of parallel streamline does not apply. 1.2 Methods of analysis for rapidly varied flows: •The use of energy and momentum principles •Main task: to determine of water depth •Bernoulli equation and continuity equation ─ Specific energy E ─ Specific discharge q ─ Alternate depths
3
1 datum Assuming no energy loss between (1) and (2).3 Energy considerations which the bed gradually rises by ∆z.1.2) 4 . The upstream depth y1 and discharge Q are known. What is the depth of the flow at position 2? p1/γ=0 (1) (2) p2/γ=0 Example: In a rectangular channel. fluid flows over a section in Figure 6. apply the energy Eq: V12 V22 y1 + = y2 + + ∆z 2g 2g (6.
3) into (6.2): q2 q2 y1 + 2 = y2 + 2 + ∆z 2 gy1 2 gy2 (6.3) where q (m3/s/m) is the specific discharge (discharge per unit width). Which one(s) is(are) correct? 5 .Apply the continuity equation between points (1) and (2): q = V1 y1 = V2 y2 (6. Substitute (6.4) q2 3 2 2 gy2 + y2 (2 g∆ z − 2 gy1 − 2 ) + q 2 = 0 y1 Cubic equation 3 solutions for y2.
we use the concept of specific energy The energy at a location is given by: V2 Q2 H = z+ y+ = z+ y+ 2 = z+ E 2g 2 gA V 2 / 2g EL Water surface y Channel bed where V2 Q2 E = y+ = y+ 2g 2 gA2 (6. (Please note the definition of E: E = local water depth + velocity head) For a rectangular channel: Q/A = bq/by = q/y q2 E = y+ 2 gy 2 (6.6) Eq.6) gives two asymptotes: y→ 0⇒ E → ∞ y→ ∞ ⇒ E→ y 6 .5) z datum E: specific energy=energy between energy line (EL) and channel bed. (6.To answer the above question.
Possible B1 and B2 whose depths are known as alternate depths • To arrive at B2 from A requires that E2 < E1.2 (6.6) alternate depths • Point A is defined by E1 corresponds to location 1.4) can be written as E1 = E2 + ∆ z Figure 6. • Location 2 in the channel have E2 and is on the specific energy curve. 7 . (6. Eq.Using Eq (6. (6.6).7) Eq. Therefore the flow depth at (2) must be B1 on the specific energy curve.∆z at some intermediate points. This means energy loss in a frictionless system – impossible.
2 1 0.4 0. E1 = E2 + ∆z E2=1.4 1.13 / y12 = 1.13 y2 ∆z E1=1.33 E2 = E1 − ∆z = 1.13m From the figure we get: y2=1m 0.6 0.2 m. b = 5 m..8 0.1: The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m3/s. The normal depth is 1.6 1.Example 6.13 / y 2 y (m) Specific Energy 1.25 m.2 1.6 m2/s E = y + q 2 /( 2 gy 2 ) = y + 0.33m From energy Eq. Use graphical methods to find the solution.4 1.8 1.2 0. Determine the depth of flow above a section in which the bed gradually rises by 0.2 0 0 E1 = y1 + 0.6 1. q = Q/b = 8/5 = 1.6 0.8 2 8 .8 1 E (m) 1. Solution: Q = 8 m3/s.4 0.
V1 = Q / A1 = 8 /(5 ×1.5 2.5 E1=1.2 Discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m3/s.Example 6. The normal depth is 1.18m V2 = Q / A2 = 8 /(4 × y2 ) = 2 / y2 2 E2 = y2 + V22 / 2 g = y2 + 0.25) = 1.0 m. Use graphical and numerical methods to find the solution.0 E (m) 1.5 y2=1.0 E1 = y1 + V12 / 2 g = 1.25 m.204 / y2 1.0 0.33m=E2 From energy Eq.18m 0 0 0. Determine the flow depth where the section contracts by 1.28m / s 2.5 1.0 9 . E1 = E2 we get y2=1.33m y (m) 1.
y2 y1 Plan view Elevation ∆z = V1 = Q / A1 = 8 /(5 ×1.3 The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m3/s. The normal depth is 1.33m 2 E2 = y2 + V22 / 2 g = y2 + 0. . Use graphical methods to find the solution.2 m.25 m.204 / y2 (1) From energy equation.25) = 1. the water depth corresponding 10 to E2 is y2.0 m and the bed gradually rises by 0.Example 6.28m / s V2 = Q / A2 = 8 /(4 × y2 ) = 2 / y2 E1 = y1 + V12 / 2 g = 1. we have: E1 = E2 + ∆z or E2 = E1 − ∆z Plot the specific energy curve for E2. Determine the depth of flow where the section contracts by 1.
2 1.83 m 0.5 E2 E1=1.5 1.2.5 y (m) ∆z=0.0 Eq (1) 1.0 E (m) 1.0 11 .33m 0 0 0.5 2.0 y2=0.
(a) Figure 6.8) Eq (6.6) (b) Critical point subcritical Eq(6.4 Subcritical.6) is plotted in (a) and Eq(6.1.6) The specific volume flow rate q can be expressed as a function of y. E = y + 2 gy 2 (q is constant) (6.8) is plotted in (b).3 Eq(6. critical and supercritical flow q2 From Eq.8) supercritical 12 12 . q = 2 gy 2 ( E − y ) (E is constant) (6. (6.6).
6) by setting the derivative of E with respect to y equal to zero: From E = y + q2 2gy 2 . for critical depth.12) .9) we have: y = q 2 / g 1 / 3 = yc ( ) Vc = gyc (6.9) Fr = 1 Since q=Vy V2 1− = 1 − Fr 2 = 0 gy Fr = Thus.11a) and Ec = 3 yc / 2 (6. to let E have an extremum value. we have V q = gy gy 3 (6.11). 13 Solving for depth in Eq (6. Fr = 1. For a rectangular channel.Derivation of the critical depth for a rectangular channel The critical depth yc can be evaluated from Eq(6. q2 gy 3 dE / dy = 1 − =0 (6.10) (6.
14) For incremental changes in depth. The change in area is dA = Bdy (6. the specific energy can be written in terms of the total discharge Q and the crosssectional area A: V2 Q2 E = y+ = y+ 2g 2 gA2 (6. i.13) The minimumenergy is obtained by differentiating (6.13) with respect to y.e.15) 14 .A generalized derivation of the critical depth For a generalized crosssection. dE Q 2 dA = 1− 3 =0 dy gA dy (6.
Eq (6. we have: 2 3 Qmax Bc / gAc = 1 (6.17) At the critical depth. Q is maximum and E is minimum.10).15) to (6.18) The ratio A/B is the hydraulic depth (B is the surface width). 15 . we get: 1 − Q 2 B / gA3 = 0 (6.18) is simplified to (6. Fr = Q 2 B / gA3 = Q/ A = gA / B V gA / B (6.16) Therefore. at the critical depth. For a rectangular channel. A/B=y.16) is the Froude number squared.14).Substituting (6. The second term in Eq(6.
1. y > yc (Fr < 1) 2.5 Some more discussion to Figure (6. For a given constant discharge (Figure 6. For all other discharges. 16 . there are two possible depths called alternate depths. there are two possible depths for any particular value of E.3): 1.3b) • • The discharge is maximum at depth yc.3a) • • The specific energy curve has a minimum value Emin at yc. For a given constant specific energy (Figure 6. For supercritical flow. For any other E. y < yc (Fr > 1) For subcritical flow. one is called subcritical and the other is supercritical.
Summary of critical, subcritical and supercritical flows
• Critical Flow (requires Fr = V / gy = 1 ) V: water velocity in channel
gy : celerity of long wave when there is a disturbance in channel
– requires Eminimum or qmaximum; – For rectangular channels:
yc =
3
q2 / g ,
E min = 3 y c / 2,
Vc = gyc
• Subcritical Flow:
Fr < 1, Water velocity < wave velocity Disturbances travel upstream and downstream Upstream water levels are affected by downstream control
17
• Supercritical Flow:
Fr > 1, Water velocity < Wave velocity Disturbances travel downstream Upstream water levels are unaffected by downstream control
• Slope classification: mild, steep and critical slopes
A mild slope: on which uniform flow is subcritical: y 0 > y c (or Fr<1 or S 0 <S c ) A steep slop: on which uniform flow is supercritical:
y 0 < y c (or Fr>1 or S 0 >S c )
A critical slope: on which uniform flow is critical: y 0 = y c (or Fr = 1 or S 0 =S c ) where y0 is the uniform depth.
18
Example 6.4 The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m3/s. The normal depth is 1.25 m. Determine the depth of flow where the section contracts by 1.0 m and the bed gradually rises by 0.3 m. Use graphical methods to find the solution.
y2 y1
.. ∆z =
q1 = Q / b1 = 8 / 5 = 1.6
∆z=0.3m
E1 = y1 + q12 /( 2 gy12 ) = y1 + 0.1305 / y12 = 1.33m (plot curve)
q2 = Q / b2 = 2
2 2 2 E2 = y2 + q2 /( 2 gy2 ) = y2 + 0.204 / y2 (plot curve)
From energy equation, we have:
E1 = E2 + ∆z or E2 = E1 − ∆z = 1.33  0.3 = 1.03m
19
(1)
112m.74m And the original water depth is increased to y1new = 1.34m Therefore. This result suggests that the depth y2 should be the critical depth. Therefore.03m. there are no crossing points on the specific energy curve.412m (refer to Figure b) From the specific energy curve at location (1). the water depth is y2 = 0.Corresponding to E2=1. 20 .741m and E2=Emin = 1. at the contraction. there are no solutions.34m. we get the new water depth at location (1): y1new=1. From the specific energy curve. we get: ycritical = 0. (refer to Figure a) From E1=E2+∆z E1new=1.
0 E (m) 1.2.33m 0 0 0.5 y (m) No crossing points with the energy curve No solution.0 (a) 1.5 2. Therefore.03 ∆z=0. y2 should be at critical depth E2=1.0 0.3 E1~y1 1.0 21 .5 1.5 E2~y2 E1=1.
33m E1=1.0 E1=1.5 2.5 1.412m q2=2m /s at location (2) 2 2 ycritical=0.0 (b) Move by ∆h Move by ∆h 1.112m 0.3 y (m) 1.5 y1=1.34m (new depth) y1=1.2m (original depth) ∆z=0.0 22 0 0.112m 0 q1=1.6m /s at location (1) 1.735 m Emin=1.0 E (m) .03m Emin=1.3 ∆z=0.5 E2=1.2.
n=0. A = ( 4 + B ) yc / 2 = ( 4 + 2 yc ) yc 30 2 (4 + 4 yc ) =1 3 3 9. Solution: (1) At critical water depth.Example 6. The channel has a base width of 4 m and side slopes of 1:2. B = 4 + 4 yc .4m 23 .022. Determine the critical water depth corresponding to the flow rate in the channel. Q2B Fr = =1 3 gA 1 2 B yc 4m With Q = 30m 3 / s.81× (4 + 2 yc ) yc yc = 1.5 The discharge in a trapezoidal channel is 30 m3/s.
.4m (2) S c = ... Rhc = 4 + 2 5 yc Substituting into (2) with yc = 1.022..(2) Critical slope: Using Eq. Ac = ( 4 + 2 yc ) yc . 24 ... (5. y = yc A 2 / 3 1/ 2 Rh Sc n (1) Ac 2 / 3 1/ 2 30 = Rhc S c n ( 4 + 2 yc ) yc Using n = 0. Q = At critical flow.6).
(3) y0= y1 ∆z= y3 y2 Solution: We define: y0 = original depth y1 = immediately prior to the hump y2 = depth after the hump y3 = depth above the hump 25 . The normal depth is 1.5 m as shown.Example 6.6 The discharge in a rectangular channel of width 5m is 8 m3/s. above and after a section in which the bed gradually rises by 0.25 m. Determine the depth of flow immediately prior to.
5 = 0. 26 The minimum energy required is the Emin (or Ec) at the critical point. .33m (1) E3 = 1.37m. 25 m .83m (2) (3) Plot E = y + q 2 /( 2 gy 2 ) = y + 0. there would be no crossing points (no solution) between E3 and specific energy curve.33 − 0.37m. we can see that for hump higher that 0. i. after which the hump acts as a control. To pass over a hump higher than 0. y 0 = 1 . 6 m 2 / s . water dams up (known as damming action or backwater) before the hump until it acquires sufficient energy to pass over. the fluid does not have enough energy to pass over a hump higher than 0. ∆ z = 0 .1305 / y 2 (plot curve) From the figure.37m. 5 m 2 E0 = y0 + q 2 /(2 gy0 ) = 1.Write the energy Eq between (0) and (3): E0 = E3 + ∆z For q = Q / B = 8 / 5 = 1 .e.
corresponding to E1=1.96m Since y0 > yc .81 = 0. The E1 prior to the hump is obtained by using (5) E1 = Emin + ∆z = 0.5 = 1.64m = y3 (4) The minimum energy for the flow to pass the hump is: Emin = 3 yc / 2 = 3 × 0.62 / 9.34m. we have y1 = 1.39m or 0. However.96 + 0. It can only increase its specific energy by increasing its depth since there is no control point prior to the hump.46m (6) From the figure. the flow prior to the hump is subcritical.46m. Thus y1 = 1. because the flow prior to the hump is subcritical.39m. (Note: y1 can also be obtained using E1 = y1 + q 2 /( 2 gy12 ) = 1.46 )27 .The depth of water at a control for a known flow rate is given by (6.64 / 2 = 0.11): yc = q / g 2 ( ) 1/ 3 = 3 1.
we get y2 = 1. i. Since a control usually causes the flow to change from subcritical to supercritical or vice versa. q2 1.39m or 0. Damming action 28 .46 = y2 + = E2 2 2 gy2 (7) From the figure.Assuming no energy loss from (1) to (2).e. E1 = E2. thus the depth y2 = 0.34m.34m is expected downstream of the hump as shown in the figure.
25m y (m) 1.96m ∆zmax=0.5 0.0 (a) 1.0 29 0 0 0.5 2.6m /s 2 E1=1.83m y1=1.5 E3=0.39m y0=1.34m ∆z=0.0 E (m) .46m = E2 E0=1. yc=0.33m 1.0 No crossing points No solution.5 1.2.37m q=1.64m 0.5m Emin=0.
6 Flow characteristics over humps and contractions y1 y2 y2 y y2 y2 E 30 .1.
55 m.001 and 0.92 and 1. (c) The Froude Number of the flow corresponding to flow depths of 3.013) is 50 m3/s.72.55 m (d) The normal water depths and the type of slopes if the channel slopes are 0. Rh = yc b /(b + 2 yc ) n S c = 0. A = yc b. b = 6m. n = 0.Example 6. Determine: (a) The critical water depth and critical slope of the channel (b) Types of flow if the flow at different sections of the channel has water depths of 3. From Eq.04 respectively Solution: Given : Q = 50m3 / s.7 The discharge in a 6 m wide rectangular concrete channel (n = 0. 1.8a = 1.0258 31 .013 (a) yc = 3 q 2 / g = 3 (50 / 6) 2 / 9.72. (5. Q= A 2 / 3 1/ 2 Rh Sc .92 and 1.92m.6). 1.
76m < yc Slope type Mild slope Steep slope < Sc = 0. Rh = by /(b + 2 y ).(b) At section of: y=3. n 3/s. Q = 50m 0 S0 0. V=2. At y=1. ⇒ subcritical flow y=1.001 and 0.24m/s.6) (d) The normal water depths: Since Q = Rh S0 . V=Q/(yb) =50/(yb) ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)1/2 = 0. ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)1/2 = 1. At y= 1. since y = yc. S = 0.001 0. V=4.04 Normal depth y 2. since y > yc.37 ⇒ Fr = V/(gy)1/2 = 1 (c) The Froude number: Fr = V / gy At y=3.92m.76m/s.34m/s.0258 > Sc = 0. ⇒ With A=by.38 A 2 / 3 1/ 2 (Eq 5.71m > yc 0. ⇒ supercritical flow . y=1.55m. V=5. ⇒ critical flow since y < yc.0258 32 .55m.92m.73m.73m.004.
Hydraulic Jumps A hydraulic jump is a steplike increase in fluid depth in an open channel flow. Commonly seen below weirs and sluice gates. Hydraulic jump length Supercritical flow (upstream) Hydraulic jump Subcritical flow 33 .2.
Consideration of specific energy: •Upstream: Supercritical flow. •Downstream: Subcitical flow. y2 > yc Specific energy: E2. •Energy difference: ∆Es = E1 − E2 > 0 •So after a hydraulic jump. y1 < yc. Specific energy: E1. there is energy loss y y2 V2 E2 E1 yc y1 y2 V1 y1 Emin ∆Es 34 E .
− Energy loss can be found in terms of y1. −Hydraulic jump can be used to dissipate water energy. − Length of hydraulic jump: about 7 times downstream depth. 35 . − The transition involves large energy loss due to turbulence. such as in a spillway of a dam to reduce damage to riverbed.2. y2 and upstream Fr.1 Hydraulic jumpformation and characteristics Formation: − Formed when transit from supercritical flow to subcritical flow Characteristics: − Transition from supercritical to subcritical flows is rapid.
2.2 Downstream or sequent depth for a rectangular channel The basic equations involved are: •Continuity equation •Momentum equation Assumptions: • Ignore boundary friction (due to a short length of hydraulic jump). • Pressure distributions at (1) and (2): hydrostatic 36 . • The channel bed slope is very small.
the pressure force plus momentum flux. y (2) y2 Sequent depth (1) p2 Ignore friction y1 Initial depth p1 F+M 37 .•Momentum equation: F1 − F2 = M 2 − M1 ∑F x = ∆M (6.20) F1 + M1 = F2 + M 2 = Μ where M. is constant for any given flow rate q.19) (6.
24) 38 . 2 M 2 = ρ qV2 M 1 = ρ qV1 . 2 2 q2 y1 q2 y2 + = + 2 2 gy1 gy2 (6.21) Momentum function q2 y2 Μ = + (for rectangular channel) 2 gy (6.Assuming hydrostatic pressure at (1) and (2). (6. we have: F1 = ρ gy12 F2 = ρ gy 2 / 2 / 2.22) y2 1 = 1 + 8 Fr12 y1 2 ( ) 1/ 2 − 1 .23) y1 1 2 1/ 2 = (1 + 8Fr2 ) − 1 y2 2 [ ] (6.
2. 39 .26) • Energy loss increases dramatically as the relative height of the jump increases.3 Energy loss q2 q2 hL = ∆ E = E1 − E2 = ( y1 + 2 ) − ( y2 + 2) 2 gy 1 2 gy 2 V2 q2 = Since Fr 2 = gy gy 3 (6.23) and (6.25) And use Eqs. (6.24): ( y2 − y1 ) 3 hL = ∆ E = 4 y1 y2 (6.
8 Determine the depth y4 immediately upstream of the hydraulic jump that will form in the situation shown below if q = 1.34m. From Example 6.6.Example 6. y2 = 0. we have: y1 = 1.25m y3=yc y4 y5=y0 40 .64m Damming action y0 = 1. yc = y3 = 0.6 m2/s.39m.
.Assuming y5 = y0 = 1..25 y4 1 = 1 + 8 Fr22 y5 2 As y5 = 1... Energy loss: ( ) 1/ 2 = .81× 1.37 gy5 gy2 9.6 / 1...25m. − 1 y4 can be calculated 3 ( y5 − y 4 ) hL = = .25m... 4 y 4 y5 41 ... V5 q / y5 1.25 Fr2 = = = = 0....
4 Classification of hydraulic jumps: The actual structure of a hydraulic jump depends on Fr 42 .2.
•Hydraulic jumps in other channel configurations are similar to those for rectangular channels. •The expression of sequent depth and energy loss in other channel configurations are somewhat different from jumps in rectangular channels. 43 .2.5 Some further discussion on hydraulic jumps •The relations for hydraulic jumps developed in the present unit are based on a rectangular and horizontal channel.
─ Water surface changes smoothly and continuously.3. • Tasks – Deduce the trend of water surface change (classification of surface profiles) – Calculate water levels and velocity along the course of the channel (quantitative evaluation) • Analysis method – Energy equation – Continuity (mass conservation) equation 44 . ─ Flow is nonuniform. Analysis of Gradually Varied Flows •Characteristics of gradually varied flow ─ Water depth and velocity change gradually. ─ Friction loss along the channel is not negligible.
Friction slope Sf datum 45 . the energy grade line (EGL) and hydraulic grade line (HGL) can be drawn as shown below.1 The equations for gradually varied flow Assuming the change in the total energy is due to frictional losses over some distance ∆x.3.
5) 46 .4) A: the crosssectional area.1) (7.2) V22 V12 S0 ∆ x = S f ∆ x + y2 − y1 + − 2g 2g The differential form by choosing ∆x small → dx: V2 S0dx = S f dx + dy + d ( ) 2g d V2 d Q2 Q 2 dA Q2 B Since dy ( 2 g ) = dy ( 2 gA2 ) = − gA3 dy = − gA3 . Substitute (7.3) and rearrange: S0 − S f dy = dx 1 − Q 2 B / gA3 (7.Conservation of the energy gives: V12 V22 S0 ∆ x + y1 + = S f ∆ x + y2 + 2g 2g (7. Q: discharge (m3/s).4) into (7. (7.3) (7.
5) can then be rearranged as S0 − S f S0 − S f dy = = 2 dx 1 − V / gy 1 − Fr2 (7.Eq. (7.5) is valid for any cross section shapes For a rectangular channel. 47 . (7.5) allows the water surface profiles of gradually varied flow to be deduced. (7. • the slope of the water surface dy/dx is relative to channel bottom.6) • Eq. • y is measured vertically from the channel bottom. since Froude number is defined as Fr = V gy Eq.
the slope term in Manning’s Eq (5.8) implies that Sf decreases as the water depth y increases. since for steady uniform flow.6) is the friction slope Sf. (7.8) Eq.9) S f < S0 48 .1.3. which in combination with (7. S0 = Sf.6) means that S f > S0 y < y0 ⇒ S f > S 0 y > y0 ⇒ S f < S 0 (7.1 A note on the friction slope Strictly speaking. Rearranging Manning’s equation to find Sf gives: n2Q2 P 4/3 Sf = A10/ 3 (7.
3. (7.1 Direct step method: Task: calculate the distance between two cross sections • Resources: channel slope S0.12) 49 .2 Calculation of Gradually Varied Flow Profile 3.1) V12 V22 S0 ∆ x + y1 + = S f ∆ x + y2 + 2g 2g ∆x = E1 − E2 ∆ E = ∆S S f − S0 S0 ∆ x + E1 = S f ∆ x + E2 (7. channel properties.2. water depth y1 at section 1 and water depth y2 at section 2 are known • How? From Eq.11) Sf can be calculated using Manning’s equation: n2Q2 P 4/3 Sf = A10/ 3 (7.
6 m2/s) in a wide rectangular channel (n = 0.1 The water depth of a gradually varying flow ( q = 1. (7.12) S0: Slope of channel bed (Eq. What would be the distance between the two locations? (7.6) 50 .38 m at a location further downstream. (5.11) Sf: Slope of water surface (Eq.Example 7.015) is 0.34 m right behind a hump and 0.
q2 51 .
52 .
53 .
.5).2 Numerical methods: •Task: calculate yi (i=1 to n) • Resources: channel properties. • Method: An iterative procedure From Eq.3.13) y i +1 dy = yi + ∆ x = yi + y ' ∆ x dx 2 (7.(7. we can get S0 − S f dy y' = = dx 1 − F r2 y0 y1 ∆x y2 ∆x .2.. yi yi+1 Using Taylor’s expansion: Qn S0 − AR 2 / 3 h = Q 2b 1− gA 3 2 (7.14) Q 2b /1 − 3 gA i 54 Qn 1 where y ' = ( y ' i + y ' i + 1 ) and y ' i = S 0 − A R 2 / 3 2 i hi .
Find a revised estimate of y ' i+1 from Eq. proceed to the next section of channel and repeat the process 7. Use Eq. 4 and 5 using the latest estimate of y’i+1 found in step 4 6. Set y 'i+1 = y ' i as a first estimate 3.14) for a selected ∆x 4.The Iterative Procedure: 1. Terminate the process when the desired reach has been covered 55 . If the new y ' i+1 value is not close enough to the previously calculated value.13) using the yi+1 value from step 3 5. (7. repeat step 3. Once the iteration procedure has yielded successive estimates of y ' i+1 and yi+1 within acceptable limits of accuracy. (7.13) to calculate y'i where yi is known either as initial point or from a previous cycle of this calculation 2. (7. Use current values of y ' i and y ' i+1 to calculate yi+1 from Eq.
The surface profile may occupy the three regions shown below and the sign of dy/dx can be found for each region: y0 y c 56 .3.3 Water surface profiles and their classifications Take a channel with mild slope as an example.
57 . (3.6) we get dy/dx is positive. As y → y0 . we have Fr2 < 1 from Eq.2. we have Sf < S0 from Eq. (7. S f → S 0 ⇒ dy/dx → 0 ⇒ hence the water surface is asymptotic to the line y = yn. S f and Fr → 0 ⇒ dy/dx → S 0 ⇒ hence the water surface is asymptotic to a horizontal line. (7.8) • Since y > yc.(a) Region 1 for the mild slope: • Since y>y0 > yc. The asymptotic behaviour of the free surface M1: As y → ∞.10) ⇒ From Eq.
For the M3 profile. (c) Region 3 on a mild slope: y 0 > yc > y. horizontal and adverse slopes. the surface profiles are given in next page. critical. as y → yc . dy / dx → ∞ This is physically impossible. In practice. an hydraulic jump will form before y = yc. (7.(b) Region 2 on a mild slope: y → y0 ⇒ S f → S0 y > yc ⇒ F < 1 2 r dy / dx → 0 For the M2 profile. Note: above discussion is for mild slope. as y → yc . dy / dx → ∞ This is physically impossible. 58 . This is because as the fluid enters a region of rapidly varying flow and Eq.6) is no longer valid. S f > S0 and Fr 2 > 1 ⇒ dy / dx is positive. For steep.
59 .
60 .
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