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Galatin Culture
I', GEOR(;IEVA
Sqfia Univrsirl, Dulgaria H

COKPAIUEHHE HA3BAHI4Ii PACTEH I4iI

A I'HCTOTPAMlIlAX

Galatin is the Bulgarian name of an archaeological

ofthe Krivodol - Salcuta culture which are bigger and
have
I

culiure spread on the terrirory of Ollenia. Northern Banat, N-W and Middle Northern Bulgaria, Southern
Avena 8p. Hordeum wlgarc Hordeum vulgarc var. coclcste Panicum miliaccum Pisum ratlvum
Serbia. Kosovo and the Scopie Valley during the period

a more massive construction (Georgieva

1988:

43-1 46).

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Pm

Hv

r5
I Sl

Triticum Triticum Triticum Triticum Triticum Triticum

acativum aestivum

t. l.

compactum diciccon

monocecum

lo IM

spclta Vicia ervilia Vicia sp.

ts

whjch in Bulgaria is called the transition period from the Eneolithic to the Bronze age (Todorova 1986: 221227; Georgieva I988: 143-146). In Romania the same culture is known under the name Salkura lll-lV (for its early stage) and Herculan II-lll (for its iate stage) and is placed eirher in the beginning of the transitionai oeriod or in the Eneolith (Berciu l96ll Roman 19791 Dumitrescu. Bolomey. Mogosanu 1983) In Yugoslavia it is called Bubanj Hum Ib and according to lhe periodization accepted there is placed in the Eneolith.

Its chronologica) position is clear despite

the

vrP

differences between the periodization dirgrams used in

these three modern countries. From the severul

stratigraphical situations documented during
excavrtions

il

is seen that

it developed after lhe errd of

the Krivodol

I-ll - Bubanj Hum la culture lnd before the Magura - Cotzofeni culture. lt js contemporary to the Cernavodr I. Bodrogkeresztur. Lasinja ll-lll, Rez, Vajska - Hunjadihalom, Tripoiie Salkuta \\'eisshaar | 989).

BII-C and Rahmani cultures. (Morintz, Roman 19681 Bogn6r-Kutzian I963; Prtry 1974; Dimitrijevic I979;

ln its development three different stages carl be idenrified: the first present in the settlemerlts Rebarkovo- Salkuta III and Ostrovul Corbului, the second present in the seltlements Salkuta lV artd Teljsh, and the third, seprrated on the basjs of the
formal - typoJogical analysis of the potlery from the llrst 1wo p:esent in the set'tlements Herculrn ll-lll and Cairtin. The territory over which this culture sprerlds coincides almost comp)etely with the terr;tory of lhe preceding Krivodol - Salcutit culture. There is also a continuity in the places chosen for the settlements. In the same way as the settlemenls of the Krivodol Salcuta culture. the settlements of the Calrtin culture irre situated on high, nrturrlly fortified hills or in caves with rivers nearby. As far as can be judged by the selllements documented so far (l I in Bu)garia. | | in

The potrery is of a speciai interest in conneclion with following through the process of the cultute formation. ln a technological sense it is divided into three groups according to the types of the admixture used in the preparation of the clay: l) pots made of clay mixed with nonorganic admixtures - sand, small stones;2) pots made of clay mixed with crushed shells and 3) pols mrde of clay mixed with organic material - most liLely chrif. The use of notrorganic admixtures is typical for rhe pot making of the early agricultural cultures on the Balkans. Pottery made of clay mixed with shells or with organic appears in the Balkans for the first time during this period. It is lypical for rhe pottery production of the steppe cultures of Ukraine from where at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth millennia this way of making pots spreads to the soulh-west up to the regiorr of the Lower Danube' obviously carried by the spreuding s!eppe caltle' breeding population. The pottery of the last two grouPs is not found in every settlemen! of the culture. lt is t;'pical only for the settlemetlts north of the Balkan mountains. Among the pottery from these setllements rhere is no noticerble conllectjon between the type anc function of the differe:rt pots and the three types of aclmixtures used - diflerent recipes were used for the mrking of pots with similar shapes -arrd sizes' and therefore similar functions. T1'picrl are the followirlg types of vessels, listed here according to their stereometric shape and the shape of lhe edge of ',he rim. Conical pots (l:l-9). According 10 the modeling of the edge of the rim, they are of three lypes: withoul thickening. with semicircular thickening of the inner side of the rim. and with a semicircular thickening of

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the outer side of the rim. The first type occurs in praclically all cultures. The second is typical only of the portery ol the cultures synchronous and preceding
rhe Calatin culture, spread in the Lower Danube valley

^o^o.o..u. Ho.aa'^

Romania and I2 in Yugoslavia) the density of
seltlement in the whole regiott over whjch the culture is spread is rather low. The majority of the settlements that have been studied consjsts of one level with very th;n stratification. From lhe little evidence that we have lor their architeclure we say !hJ! the houses were on the ground wilh light construcliorrs of the walis and roofs or partly dug into the ground with smrll sizes and a:r irregular slrape. In this rhey differ from the houses

PHc. 4. AccopxrMeut kyaurypl+ur pecrexufi, Hcnor!3yerux Ha noceneHuffx 3xeorHruqeckoro rpxnoruckoft kylrryl>u: 1. Xopvaur 2. Jlyka-Bpy6reseukas 3. Okoru 4. Eepuaueaka 5. faqBopoH 6. Ca6arnora ?. ipenonka 8. lp66exH 9. Becerbdr Xyr 10. 9eqearxxk 11. Xo:apozwtl L2. XoceHogka 13. I'lrpononbe.

and south of it, and the third is typical for the carly stages of the development of the Galarin culture. Hemisphericrl bowls (l:10'i5). The same wals of maleling the edge of the rim are present but rhe shapes of the thickening of the inner side are more varied. They do not have exact parallels in the other cultures' Besides them we find rims wirh zigzag notches made with a finger. a way of modeling typical for the pottery of the steppe cattle-breeding cultures contemporary 1'o and preceding the Galatin culture.

Bjsrrnia. . the drawings done with colored paints and grrphite can be accepted as a continuation of the locul tradition.bowls and pots (Fig. /:sqrissc rl une prihisroire de lo Routnanic.I 8). the way of modeling the rims and the point were lhe lwo prrts of the vessel meet. and for the changes in the in Eastern and Middle squeezed and slightly bent towards the outside. as well as the presence of numerous parallels wjth irs contemporary cultures sjtuated to the south of it. l)rcir. and (2) the cu)tures formed probably on the basis . l3?-4ft2 Sarairo zetnolja lll. round. The handles of the Scheiben-henkel type. I 0. and some of the variunts where the link betweerr the upper and the lower part of the ressel is modeled without ertra rhiclening (Fig. 5.tr)R(. I' ra iiorij o J u qo:la re n sk i h d.strongly pulled out (Fig. l|(XjNbR KtjIRil.\'A. lrt-. 3. l%1. katnenna -22?. Conica)-cylindricai vessels (2:l-6).Srllula . S.lirhiku!ils iD tlrtrru Karparcn Raunr. and pots. Lncolitslio l)l-'Mr IRL\('ri.l for the C:rlrrtin culture. l)^t^\'.. in accordance with which these vessels are divided into: bowls. among i!s contemporary cultures from the Middle Drnube region.5-6. 3.Sulkuta culture. 3).im ll)rf (... I9x3.\'. Srrukrurriltlcrur!. They do not hrve parallels among the pottery of the Krivodol . Typical for the Galatin culture and its contemporary cultures are rbe d. Typicai for the culture ar€ the cups with a rounded bottom (Fig. l: I | .dAri BucuGjli. S5 culture are the different types of handles and the varixnts vessel handles (Fig. 2:19-26).. In accordance with the proportions. M(xxxANtJ. l9l{9. 2:l l). 146. llulgarian): Wli!\\lMR. This model is typical for the cultures contemporary to and preceding the Calatin culture and spreading north of it. /)aria. I)ir 1./rR(if. They are typical for the cultures coDtemporary to the Calatin culture and situated to the West of it. XII:. P.i[rrcolirilurns un. Vessels wjrh a spherical lower prrt and a cylindricrl Europe.'ba. N. The obserued technologies for the preparation of !he clry for pottery making (with organic and shells) new to the region.nalia.Salkuta culture and its wjde spreading in the potrery of the Calatin culture crn be rssumed to be a conlinurt. :14-17). Typical for lhem are the ribbon-like handles going higher than the edge of the rim and also the Scheibenhenkel hrndles (Fig.l'. t'. Vessels with a rectrngulJr cross-section. /)as sfuP 221 ntdnota elnha t ltulSaria- (tn ilali!hikilm und . Biconical vessels with sloping towurds arrd also according among the poltery of the Krivodol . there are different variants. This shape is typical for rhe pottery of rhe Krivodol . X\':31-170.with zigzag notches made with a finger.alarin bci vma. do not have parallels among the potlery of the thickening is chrracteristic of a modeling technique that does not occur in pottery making ol rhe cullures of the Lower and Middle Darrube and is typical of the pottery of the steppe cattle-breediug cultures. lluercr.les .r!rf I RU ivtc. 2. RoMAN. I asinjsla ltltuft . GIIOR(. l7-19). tlpicr. tk)l. Only the bowls with considerably shortened proportions of the lower part.n dcs ADc. 4:6) which is probably an influence from the pottery of lhe sleppe catrle-breedinB tri bes.\'. the high ribbon-like handles (Fig. lnrfi a. l'X'8. 4: I 3). t) 143 f S.Salcuta culture.s only the cups with eJongated upper and shortened lower part (Fig. I 979. ll. According to the proportions and the way of the forming of the point where the upper and rhe lower prrt of the vessel meet. I) l9(tl. 'finnRovA. Differences u'ith the preceding culture are also seen in one of rhe variants of the shaping of the rim .)lia. The sbape is typical for prrcrically all cultures. wirh inside varinnts l. 6). Ilubarrji .. cups.on in the of the same territories and settlements and the obvious continurtion in many pottery making use Krivodol . From the point of view of the proportions among the presenled varianl. . l.Salcuta culture. 4:2-3. (.Salcuta culture. Vessels with arr S-shaped profile .holkdilhirlm- Pakakio Maynla l\ot. t'.I I IO P. 191\6. Of essential significance are obviously the climatic changes that took place at the end of the fil"th and the beginning of the fourth millennia B. 1971.2:7) and in sorre of the types of the handles ribbon-like ring-shrped and ritrbon-like arch-shaped. lll. I 4.. Studia I'rorhiilo. the same regularity as with the upper wall (Fig. That which sepurates the vessels typical for rhe Galatin BIBLIOCRAPIIY lJt'R.est of it. 3:2.oMtiY. Thc C{rnttr Afc Ccilrcrcrl dl lisaPollir :12. The characteristics of the Crlatin cullure listed up to here allow the following conclusrons: the to their jn the KrivodolSalkuta culture. .. The decorations consisting of scratched rectangulrr (Fig. Among the decoration found on the pottery of the Galatin culture. In this sense the study of the Calarin culture is of particular interest because it is situated in the zone of contact between (l) the cuhures in whose formation ethnically foreign to the local populrtion sleppe crttlebreeding people trke prrt (an rrrchaeologically proved fact).r. restify for the participation in the forming of this culture of a population originating directiy or indirectly from the Norlhern Black Sea steppe regions.on of the same tradition.2:4) do not have paralle)s in the Krivodol .\l^. I l) and the small hundles with buds attached to the edge of the rim or right benerth it (Fig. Lncolits\o doha:87-l l4. and they are typicul for all cultures conlemporary to the Crlrtin culture. The limited geographical spread of this produclion traditjon in the territory of the Calrtin culture.II:VA N'l()RrNl7^ O/1l.s:raj(ao. which brought this new technologicrl trad ition.I 2l{. According to their anrlogs preceding lype can be observed among this type of vessels. attached to the mjddle prrt and the edge of the rjm and higher than it (Fig..-J. /'rzumiz Jugosloren*ih 2c. 2:9-18).o./t Il^' CULI'URl: Bjconjcal vessels with opening upper part (l:16'2:). S r.u. l)ic prahlsrori3-he SicdluDS in dcr (icgcnrJ (-uka13 l-f. I98E. Conrrihulii to prolltmele nalit.rrr. Here there are dilferent variants of the correlntious between the heights and lhe diameters.i.Krivodol \onrpltks. show that the observed spreading of steppe cattle-breeding tribes is not the only reason development of the cultures semicircular thickening on the outer side. triangular or spiral-shaped fields surrounded by pricked holes or deeply engraved lines are a new phenomenon for the region arrd have para)lels only with its contemporary cullures from the region of the Middle Danube and q. l'.tlut in R*tnnio in lrmlna noilt rcr. 2:2.N. t-. Vessels with an arch-shaped profile (Fig.rkcrcsrrnt Kulrur. 4:5. 8. The presence of a very clear continurt. The hck of extra traditions testifies to the participation of a significant part of the local population in its formation. have prrrrllel onl.i dcr lJbcrSsrr-gssrurc zur l]ronzcit in Raum dcr NicLlcrrlonru. there are different varirnts but none of them has a parallel with the ponery of the Krivodol culture. . - of the plrces where they are altached to the typical for the culture are the Scheiben-henkel )rMr f RoM\N. Aspcllc dcs AtN8lnS5 dG . ll. vt-.15. 'lAslc. C. 1974. l9?9.fferent varian!s of the modeling of the edge of the rim .

/ 15 il.*/ 7 f-l 8 w \'.'qv (w.e f.*(-s {yq \7t7 t: : \l 20 ffird 2s Y\ffi zo ( Fig. l'i*. I ..ln \\ *f.

i I 14 P.4Pmg ii L| i-?'l\/'r--T \ 20 lr:jj:j [W'n't 2l .. GEORGIIi/A re1}rN_ \ tt:F$ 6\ K. . .