1 2005 Membership Paid

Registered at Companies House No 2715963

Registered Charity No 1027015

Website: www.mike.munro.cwc.net/mining/wmpt/wmpt_frm.htm

NEWSLETTER – DECEMBER 2005 Welcome to the December 2005 edition of the Trust Newsletter. How time flies, it seems only a few weeks ago that I composed the last one. Simon Hughes has written another excellent article, this time on The Germans in Cardiganshire, Roy Fellows reports on his amazing discoveries at Talybont, even an article on mines in Spain. Also there are reports on our Heritage Weekend staged over the August Bank Holiday weekend and the Working Weekends at Pen Y Clun. Unfortunately I have to ask you to get your chequebooks out again, 2006 subscriptions are now due. If you paid your 2005 subs you will see “2005 Membership Paid” at the top right hand corner of the newsletter, thank you. If however I have not received your 2005 subs you will see “2005 Membership Not Paid”. At the AGM in October it was agreed that subscriptions for 2006 would remain at £8.00. Nigel Chapman has kindly offered to help me with some of the growing amount of administration work involved with running the Trust and will now be the Membership Secretary, please send your subscription to him at the address on the Membership Renewal Form attached to the rear of this newsletter. Thank you all for your continued support of the Trust. NEWSLETTER ON CD The time has now arrived when it is as cheap to produce the newsletter on CD as it is to produce a paper version, the Trust will also benefit from the reduced cost of postage. If you would rather receive your newsletter on a CD (in Microsoft Word / Adobe Acrobat Format) instead of a paper version, please tick the box on your membership renewal form. You will also have the benefit of seeing the photographs in colour, rather than black & white. If you would like a CD copy of this edition, plus all the newsletters since 2002, please send me a SAE. NEW MEMBERS I am very pleased to welcome the following new members to the Trust: Peter Frampton from Bredenbury, Allison & Eleri Golledge from Llangeitho, and Dave Linton (the new editor of the Welsh Mines Society newsletter), from Llanaber. GOGINAN MINE Following the report in the last newsletter about our working party at Goginan, Peter Challis has sent me copies of two very interesting old postcards published by the Post Office in Goginan, unfortunately they are not dated.

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[Peter Challis Collection]

[Peter Challis Collection] DAVID BICK DONATION I have received an extremely generous donation of £500 to the Trust from David Bick. I am sure all members will join with me in thanking David. I am hoping a suitable and fitting project can be found to make use of this donation, if any one has any ideas please contact me. Also bear in mind that if this project is in Ceredigion, we can apply for grant funding from the “Spirit of the Miners” project, which will more than double the value of David’s donation. Thank you David.

3 SIMON HUGHES CD’s Simon Hughes continues to produce CD’s of his work that are being sold with all the income being donated to the Trust. In addition to the Cwmystwyth disc, he has now produced a disc of all his archive material on the Talybont Mines and a disc of his British Mining Publication the Darren Mines, this disc also contains all the research documents, many photos and plans that were not able to be included in the book. Sales of Simon’s discs have so far generated £315 for the Trust, for which we are very grateful, thank you Simon. For those of you living near Aberystwyth, the discs are available from Ystwyth Books at the top of the town. They are also available from me; Cwmystwyth disc £10 (in presentation case), Talybont disc and Darren Mines disc £5 (all post free).

IFOR RICHARD’S PHOTOGRAPH Further funds were raised for the Trust this year, Ifor Richards from Aberystwyth, donated 10 prints of the old mill building at Cwmystwyth to be sold at £2 each, this raised £20. Thank you very much Ifor. Unfortunately they have now all been sold, however if anyone would like to purchase one I will try to obtain a few more.

[photo Ifor Richards]

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HERITAGE WEEKEND – 2005 Over the August Bank Holiday Weekend we held the second of our Heritage Weekend’s in Mid Wales, this year in conjunction with Ceredigion County Council’s “Spirit of the Miners” project. The Heritage Weekend extended over three days, on the Saturday Simon Hughes led a walk around Cwmsymlog Mine, where we met members of the local Community Council who are embarking on a project to raise funds to restore the chimney, we look forward to assisting them with this project.

Simon Hughes describing the features at Skinner’s Shaft Cwmsymlog Mine Over the weekend of 7 & 8 April 2006, I am arranging a working weekend to carry out two projects at Cwmsymlog, the first is to clear the undergrowth and saplings from the village churchyard, it is starting to look neglected and before much longer some of the old gravestones will be damaged. You may ask why the WMPT should wish to carry out this project, there are three reasons, firstly the graveyard is the last resting place of some of the miners who worked in the mine, secondly Cwmsymlog is a complete mining community and the graveyard is as much a part of this community as the chimney and other mining remains and thirdly it will help to build links with the local residents who are very committed to their heritage. The second project is to clear the undergrowth from the wheelpit at Skinner’s Shaft, during the summer it was completely hidden, if allowed to continue growing this undergrowth will cause severe damage to the wheelpit. The Sunday of the Heritage Weekend began with a walk led by George Hall to Glogfach, Glogfawr and Logaulas mines, followed by an evening of talks and slide shows in the Miner’s Arms at Pontrhydygroes, during which Peter Frampton gave an excellent audio visual presentation on Cwmystwyth Mine, George Hall gave a talk

5 and slide show on Mining in the 1950’s and 1960’s, Meleri Richards and Peter Austin from Ceredigion County Council gave a talk on the “Spirit of the Miners” project and Simon Timberlake gave a talk and slide show on early mining at Cwmystwyth and other locations.

George Hall describes the workings at Glogfawr

The audience at Erglodd listen to Simon Hughes

6 On the Monday Simon Hughes led a walk to Erglodd and Talybont mines, followed by another evening of talks and slide shows in the Memorial Hall in Talybont. Robert Ireland presented his display on the Plynlimmon and Hafan Tramway, Peter Frampton again showed his audio/visual presentation on Cwmystwyth Mine, Simon Hughes gave a talk and slide show on mining around Talybont, Nigel Page from Cambria Archaeology gave a presentation on the excavations at Cors Fochno (Borth Bog) where an ancient trackway and smelting site have been discovered and Simon Timberlake gave a practical demonstration on stone hammers and tools. My thanks to all those who helped to make the weekend a success, George Hall and Simon Hughes for leading the walks, Meleri Richards and Peter Austin from Ceredigion County Council’s “Spirit of the Miners” project; George, Simon, Peter Frampton, David Bick, Robert Ireland, Simon Timberlake and Nigel Page for their presentations at the evening events. I am also most grateful to the Forestry Commission for permission granted to visit Blaen Cwmsymlog and Talybont Mines, Mr Owen for permission to visit Glogfach and Glogfawr, Mr John Thomas for permission to visit Erglodd Mine and Mrs Gwenda Page for making us welcome at the Miners Arms at Pontrhydygroes. The weekend was a great success, with around 30 - 40 people attending each days events. It was most pleasing to see the amount of interest shown by local people. TALYBONT DEEP ADIT Roy Fellows and his team have been involved in a project at Talybont that has resulted in a remarkable discovery. Roy is in the process of writing a book on the project and the history of Talybont/Alltycrib Mine and would be most grateful if any members can supply him with any information or let him have sight of any documents they may have relating to the mine. Ed Talybont Deep Adit The Talybont deep adit was driven about 1839 by Williamson, Eyton, and Co usually known as "The Flintshire Company". The object was to cut the lodes crossing the Altycrib hill above the village, these being described by Prof O. T. Jones in the BGS memoirs as north and south lodes. The portal of the adit was right in the middle of the village, being driven north under the main Machynleth to Aberystwyth road and much of the northern part of the village. There was the associated dressing floors around the portal with water wheel driven crusher, buddles etc and run of iron flat rods passing through the adit to pump the underground engine shaft. After the turn of the century the mine fell into disuse and eventually in 1948 the whole site was obliterated. The deep adit was at the end of a cutting or trench driven at river level, and this was filled in completely burying the portal. Eventually the site became a private garden and absolutely no sign of the adit or works can be seen today. In May 2004 I managed to put together a team consisting of Dave Seabourne, Paul Smyth, Brian Grimston and myself to commence a dig in the bottom of the air shaft

7 on south lode, a gunnis up on the hill. Eventually, we had sunk to a depth of 75 feet, the dig being initially made up steps and then a series of ladders when it becomes vertical. In July 2005 we eventually broke through and entered a branch on the south lode. This connected with the main level at about 40 metres in about 3 feet of water. Exploration was possible to near the portal where the water was chin deep, and also inbye to the north lode where the workings dry out. The underground engine shaft was found complete with the remains of the pumping angle bob, the rising main and many other artefacts. This is slightly further to the north, being sunk vertical to pick up north lode on the underlie. Adjacent to the engine shaft chamber was another chamber with the remains of a horse whim, virtually complete but lying on the floor to where it had fallen when the upper bearing failed due to rotting of mounting. To the best of my knowledge this is only the second one to be discovered with the remains of whim in situ in the whole of the UK. The first to be discovered being in the Scaleburn Mine, Nenthead, Cumbria. There are also workings to the east on north lode which are not shown on the old plans, a copy of which is in Simon Hughes possession. The workings on north lode to the west are blocked by a fall which I believe to emanate from the old whim shaft. This is currently being dug and may even be clear by the time this goes to press. There are issues related to the water entering the mine which at the moment can only escape through the material blocking the portal as the drainage from the mine had become blocked. At times of prolonged heavy rain the water level sumps out the access point at the bottom of our ladder shaft and exits from the mine over the top of the surface fill at the portal. The entrance section is in dry stone lining for the first 50 metres or so and was seen to be visibly sagging when it was possible to explore to near the portal during the summer dry spell. This is quite a serious issue as there is only about 20 feet of ground above the portal to the land above. I am currently writing a book detailing the story of the project and the development of the mine itself. I would like to express my sincere gratitude, not only to the people who helped, and are still helping, with the project, but also to George Hall and Simon Hughes who have provided me with material. If anyone else has material relating to this mine, letters, share certificates or what have you. I would be extremely grateful if I could be given sight of them. Roy Fellows - November 2005. OLD METAL MINES OF MID WALES – DAVID BICK David Bick is planning to re-publish his well known series of books, he is taking the opportunity to update the locations featured. If any one has any recent information or photographs David will be pleased to hear from you, at The Pound House, Market Square, Newent, Glos, GL18 1PS.

8 SOME RELICS OF MIGRATION INTO CARDIGANSHIRE, OR WHAT THE GERMANS DID FOR US! –SIMON HUGHES

The movement of personnel between Cumbria and Cardiganshire is of particular
interest as some long established Cardiganshire families suddenly “appear“ in the mid 17th century. It strikes me as possible that they were amongst Bushell’s miners recruited from the second and third generation of German miners who had moved to Cumbria to provide technical expertise. The names Klocker, Baltizer and Fisher have now disappeared but Bonner, Burell and Mason, long associated with the mines, have survived up to the present in Cardiganshire. To start this piece of the history, we must begin with Henry VIII who had considered letting the little worked British mines, to the Hechstetter’s of Augsberg, but they were reluctant to proceed with the venture. “Peter Allemayne or Peter the German" was instructed by the King’s Mining Commissioners to undertake a survey of mines of iron, copper and lead in 1530 but nothing appears to have been resolved at that time. Elizabeth the First succeeded to the throne upon the death of her father in 1558. His excesses had depleted the treasury and there was widespread unrest in Europe. At this time, copper and calamine were in great demand as cannon were cast in brass. There was an associated demand for graphite. Copper and graphite were both found in Cumbria and “Lapis Calaminaris“ as calamine was known, was found abundantly in Somerset. The development of the British mines was not considered possible without the introduction of fresh finance and embracing the new technology now spreading across Europe as shown in Agricola’s “De Re Metallica“. The pumps, and other devices contained in Ramelli’s work of 1588, are far more ingenious and detailed, than those illustrated by Agricola twenty years earlier, and it is perfectly obvious that these people had developed their mining skills over many centuries, whilst the British concentrated on their feudal agrarian system. We simply did not have the technology to get any deeper than “ the Old Man “, and at this time, the only real improvement in 3000 years of British mining was the introduction of iron tools. There are many lengthy accounts of the formation of the Mines Royal Society and this may be considered largely as business done in London without any immediate effect on the Cardiganshire Mines. Initially Daniel Hechstetter, representing the German financial interests, Thomas Thurland & Family of Nottingham, hugely wealthy wool merchants and European traders, Piers Edgecumbe of Cornwall – long experienced in mining, and later Thomas Smythe of London were jointly awarded a state monopoly on mining. The works of M.B. Donald, Gordon Hammersley, William Rees and Eric Holland all give in depth histories of the foundation of the venture from different perspectives. In order to carry the scheme forwards, some Austrian miners were recruited from Gastein in the Tyrol Mountains, now squeezed in between Italy Switzerland and Germany, with offers of high salaries, and tax exemption, to develop the copper mines in the Lake District. Another great enticement, which is rarely noted, is that following the discovery of Potosi, in Peru by Diego Hualca and the Spanish conquistadors in 1545 or 46, all the European silver mines were endangered by cheap overseas imports and started closing down shortly thereafter. To further complicate matters, much of Europe was in conflict over whether to follow Rome or Luther. In 1560 Britain had no silver mines of any consequence whilst the Spanish held increasingly vast stocks. This caused grave concern to the new government of Queen Elizabeth the First.

9 These “ German “ immigrants were probably amongst the best miners in the world and had, for centuries been pumping water out of narrow vein mines which were often over 100 fathoms below the adit. The Saxon system of mining by driving adits from the lowest possible point had already been conducted for several hundred years and there are records of German drainage adits having being driven for over 15 miles before these men ever set foot in Cumbria. More miners followed from Joachimsthal, in the Erzebirge Mountains of Czechoslovakia, Frieburg, Radstadt and Schwaz and by 1568 there seem to have been about 150 immigrants drawn to the works around Keswick. The silver mines at Joachimstal, now known as Jachymov, were where Agricola made his initial observations on mines and mining whilst working as the town physician between 1527 and 1531, after this he moved to Chemnitz, another silver mining town, then in Saxony, where he also served as Burgomaster until his death in 1555, aged 62. Note that the Schwaz miners had originally been largely recruited from the already long established silver and lead mines around Goslar in Saxony, and also from Bohemia, in the 1420s, to exploit a rich discovery but had been in decline since 1550 due to Potosi rapidly becoming the World’s greatest producer of silver. The fabulously rich silver mines of Chemnitz and Kremnitz, now in Hungary also fell into a similar decline at this time and work as a miner was becoming scarce. Amongst the first to arrive in Britain was Ulrich Frosse, probably from Augsberg in Bavaria, a curious mixture of metallurgist with alchemist, and a contemporary of Dr John Dee, a man who appears to have been happier amongst furnaces and mills rather than down the mines. He must have been of some standing, when he arrived in Britain, as he very shortly afterwards married a daughter of Lord Radcliffe. However, there was considerable local resentment and very great hostility towards the “Allemaynes“, as they were referred to. These Germans referred to themselves as “Deutchmen” which quickly became incorporated into the English language, mistakenly, as Dutchmen. For the sake of simplicity in this account, it is therefore easier to refer to these immigrants collectively as Germans, rather than Saxons, Austrians, Bavarians, Czechs or Hungarians, as the boundaries have changed beyond recognition since Tudor times. Shortly after the Germans arrived, in the summer of 1566, the Fisher brothers were the leaders of a mob who attacked the German workers and killed Leonard Stoltz. However, they were reprieved from the gallows by the intervention of Lady Radcliffe - Ulrich Frosse's mother in law. Shortly after this racially motivated murder, we find that Hans Mair married Agnes Fisher, Simon Buchberger married Janet Fisher, and Andreas Ringeisen married Elizabeth Fisher. I have long wondered if this act somehow precipitated the exemption for criminals if they worked in the mines ?, a practice that survived until the early 18th century. This in turn raises the question of did in fact the Fishers renew their previous employment as miners for some form of bonded contract to the company ? Daniel Hechstetter the elder died early in 1581 and his interests passed to his children. Daniel, clarified by being referred to as – the younger, and Emanuel, who died in 1614. In 1607, Daniel the younger and his brother Emanuel, independently of the Company of Mines Royal, took the lease of the highly valued graphite mines in

10 Borrowdale until 1613. Joseph, the son of Emanuel was also associated with the copper works at Keswick and also the wad mines at Borrowdale since he had married Joyce Banks, sister of Sir John Banks who was granted the manorial rights at Borrowdale in 1613. Referring to a bundle of money as a “ wad “ is a survivor of the illicit graphite trade that flourished at this time, as apparently is the term “ Black money “. The copper ores raised around the Lakes were originally smelted in Keswick, and those from Cornwall were smelted at Neath. After the failure of the Cumbrian Mines in the 1630s, most of their ore was smelted at Neath and Ulrich Frosse spent many years here as the faithful servant of the Smythe family. At about the same time Matthias Ryley, described as “ a conninge Dutchman “ was despatched to Talybont, in 1585, to repair and improve the furnaces that, at this time, appear to have simply produced pig lead from Talybont. Nothing further is known of Ryley and it is presumed that he eventually returned to Aberdulais where the vestiges of the Germans appear to have congregated. It was either Ryley or Frosse who, in the 1590s, discovered that the Cwmsymlog, Goginan and Darren ores were argentiferous and thus precipitated a period of intense activity leading up to the Civil War. Most accounts of this period cite 4d as the usual agricultural day-rate, the Cumbrian labourers were to be paid 5d or 6d per day for hauling ore out of the mine, and Wolff Prugger was paid 8d per day as a mines carpenter. I failed to discover the contemporary day-rate for skilled pickmen, who would have been paid at the highest rate. Amongst the early 17th century indigenous Cumbrian miners were noted 13 Fishers, 5 Bonners, 2 Masons and a Burall. As far as I am able to tell, the Germans that appear in the accounts are named as :Baitshe – Bauch – Belseck - Broghberger x4 – Bratshe – Brutsh – Buchberger - Bulfell – Clocker x5 Ercker – Erhardt – Hanckricke – Hechy – Hogler – Hering – Hidshin – Jafet – Janger – Junger – Kalcker – Klocker x3 - Kolseisen – Kornman – Mair - Merer – Moser – Mosser – Mossier – Pheffer – Prugger Relff – Rembrun – Ringeisen - Roslen – Shaclock – Stammler – Steinberger – Steiner – Stoltz Warin – Wieland – Zackeyssen - Zuckmantel

Both Gordon Hammersley and Eric Holland note Cristopher Clocker, born in Keswick in 1570, and is then listed as a bargain taker in the Coniston Mines in 1599. Part of the Coniston copper mine was later known as Clockerswork. Within these accounts it will be noted that there are five persons named Clocker and another three named as Klocker. But more of this family later. David Bridge, in “ Beneath the Lakeland Fells “ further notes that Thomas Kalcher moved from Coniston to Seathwaite around 1611, probably the son of Steffan Kalcker of the Goldscope Mine who was buried at Newlands Church in 1594.

11 Furthermore, Bartholomew Clocker along with Hew Mason, William Bonner, Richard Bonner, Hansz Klocker Chustl Klocker and many others are noted in the Alnwick Castle Records, as being involved with the Cumbrian Mines in 1637 but these petered out in 1638 and many of the men were transferred to Cardiganshire. The winter of 1637 – ’38 was particularly bad in Wales and cannot have improved a failing enterprise high on the Cumbrian Fells. I suspect that it may even have reinforced their decision to finally quit and concentrate their efforts on Cornwall and Wales. Five years after these Cumbrian accounts, Thomas Bushell conveniently includes a list of key staff in his “Just & True Remonstrance “ published in Shrewsbury in 1642. Those with Germanic surnames are printed in bold type and there are others of which I am unsure, such as Basby, Blewys and Elissa, whilst the Fisher’s are definitely Cumbrians despite the name being similar to Fischer. Note that some of these names are identical, or remarkably similar to those listed as being involved with the Cumbrian mines.
Acherson, Joseph - Adams, Thomas - Arnold, Richard Baltiser, Peter - Basby, William - Bebb, David - Bebb, Edward - Benn, Hugh - Benn, Phillip Blewys, Edward - Blewys, Thomas - Botham, Thomas - Brickhead, Thomas Clocker, Bartholomew - Clocker, Thomas - Cockler, Henry - Corbet, John Davids, William - Dixon, George Edriser, Peter - Elissa, Arthur - Emblin, Henry - Emblin, John - Emblin, Rob - Epssie, John Estopp, David - Estopp, John - Evans, David - Evans, Griffith - Evans, John Ficharett, William - Fisher, Francis - Fisher, John - Fletcher, Thomas - Fowles, David Gibbon, Edward - Green, Thomas - Griffith, William Harris, John - Huson, John James, Hugh – James, Thomas - Jeffries, Joseph - John, Davy - John, Griffith - John, Morgan Griffith Johnson, Samuel - Jinkins, David - Jinkins, John Lewes, John - Lewis, Maurice - Lewis, Morgan John - Lloyd, David - Lowning, Robert Mason, Hugh - Mason, John Senior - Mason, John - Mason, John - Meredith, James - Morgan, Reece Owen, Jinkin Parker, Thomas - Pierce, Francis - Prichet, Morgan - Poole, Edmund Reece, Edward - Reece, Hugh - Reece, Watkin - Reece, William - Richard, David ap Sanders, Michael - Scotsmer, George - Smith, John - Such, Henry - Symons, Edmund Tailor, Rob - Taylor, Maurice - Thomas, Evan - Tickle, George - Tuddar, John - Turner, George Tyson, Will Watkin, John - Williams, Charles - Williams, David - Williams, Morgan - Wringe, John “ with two hundred more, whom for brevity we omit to name. “

At this point, it must be asked if the list was only of his best miners, the pickmen rather than the barrow wheelers, or simply those that had been accounted for, and why so many others were omitted ? Maybe they never existed and this was an often used ruse to cover various failings and shortfalls in the accounts. It is noticeable that Bonner and Burell are found in the Lakes but are not recorded by Bushell but both names are to be found in Bonsall’s Daybook, of 1785. Bonner is a name usually associated with Grogwynion Mine, whilst the Burell’s worked at Cwmystwyth in the late 18th century until the Great War. If they were not amongst Bushell’s recruits, then there is always the possibility that they followed Waller from Kirby Stephen, around 1700. Hugh Mason may very well be from the Lake District where “ Hew “ Mason and many others are recorded. Within the Cardiganshire branch of the Mason family, there is still a tradition that they came to Wales from Scotland, or the North Country and that their name was originally McMason.

12 There are also many German names in Bushell’s list who are not accounted for in Cumbria. Within the above list, it appears that there are several instances of possible father & son or brother & brother partnerships within the German, Cumbrian and local miners. It is a great shame that he excluded two hundred names for the sake of brevity. After Cardiganshire, and the Civil War, Bushell’s interests moved to the Mendip Hills of Somerset and according to the Breage parish records, the art of blasting rock was taken from Somerset to Cornwall by Thomas Epsley in 1681, could he have been a descendent of the John Epssie who is listed by Bushell.? The names are sufficiently close to cause suspicion. [Further details in Gough’s Mines of Mendip] Within the Alnwick Castle manuscripts is an entry for 1637 noting Simon Booghberger son of Baltazer (264) . At the Cwmystwyth mines, older reports refer to the Comet Lode as the Belshazzar or Baltisar’s Lode and Roger Bird informs me that that a stope on Copper Hill, Cwmystwyth, was known to William Waller as Belltazar or Beltazor’s Worke. Captain Howell Evans of Cwmystwyth is said to have whispered Baltisar, repeatedly, in a delirium prior to his death. Could this be a relic of “ Simon, Son of Baltizer “ from Cumbria, by way of Peter Baltiser who once worked for Bushell in Cardiganshire ? Curiously, the names Caspar Klocher, later, Clocker and many Fishers occur in the lists of miners employed at the Keswick mines over half a century earlier. George Hammersley, in his study of Daniel Hechstetter the Younger (1600 – 1639), also notes the Clocker connection with Cardiganshire and suspects Bartholomew of being the grandson of Caspar, possibly the son of Christopher. Furthermore, Bartholomew Clocker is noted in the Alnwick Castle Records, as being involved with the Cumbrian Mines in 1637 but these petered out in 1638 and many of the men were transferred to Cardiganshire. “ Old “ Bartholomew Clocker and Fisher, either Francis or John, are recorded as being present at the holing through at Talybont in 1641. Thomas Clocker is also listed as being at Talybont in 1641 and presumed to be Bartrholomew’s son, though of course it is quite possible that he was his nephew, I have little doubt that they were kith or kin, as it is such an uncommon name in these parts. A century later, Lewis Morris refers to an aged Nancy Clocker as being a neighbour in 1756. [Y Llew a’i deulu p49.] and his nephew, John Owen, refers twice to Richard Clocker as the gentleman son of Nancy, in 1752. [Addit. Letters] I am of the opinion that these Clockers are the descendants of Batholomew and probably ancestors of the many Clockers who lived in Goginan and at Cwm Darren during the late 18th and most of the 19th century before moving to the USA in 1870. According to a family tale, their lineage commences with David Clocker, a London Jew, who must have been born sometime before 1750, little is known of him. However, it must be said that the Clocker / Klocker Family did come to Britain under terms organised by a Jewish finance house though it cannot be ascertained if any of their miners were of the same faith. He apparently moved to Aberystwyth to improve his health whereupon he fell in love with, and married, a local girl. This date is a little early for Aberystwyth to have been a health resort; However, this is a family tale and the truth may be quite different.

13 In the 1620s at the Newlands Mine in Cumbria, the drainage adits were still being referred to as “ Stoln “ or “ Stollen “, a relic of their original language which appears not to have been carried to Cardiganshire and we find that adit, level and drift are common in the earliest accounts but never “ Stollen “. One of the new drainage adits at Newlands is named in contemporary records as the Emanuel Stoln in honour of the son of Daniel Hechstetter the elder, previously referred to. Possibly the nearest equivalent of stollen in Britain is the Derbyshire word “ sough “, pronounced suff. The Lachter, which is 1.92 metres / 75.6” was a widely used unit of measurement in the Harz, at Schwaz, and elsewhere but does not appear to have caught on in Britain, possibly because it was not dissimilar to the fathom ( +5% or +3.6 “ ). The lachter is further considered in my monograph on The Darren Mines. One of the Newlands Mines is still known as Goldscope, which was apparently derived from “ Gottes Gabe “ or God’s Gift, the name by which it was originally known. Agricola refers to the fabulous Gottes Gabe Mine near Joachimstal and again, I can only hypothesise that the name was brought to the Lake District rather than it being originally created afresh in that part of the country. A further relic of the Germans in Britain, though now long gone, can be seen in William Pryse’s “ Mineralogia Cornubiensis “ where he depicts conical covers over the “ whyms “ at Bullen Garden, adjoining Dolcoath, in 1778. There are also underground waterwheels employed for pumping and if it were not for the newly erected Newcomen Engines it could be a scene from Germany, or Czechoslovakia, two centuries earlier.

1680 Gaipels & Kehraads at Zellerfeld

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1778 Bullen Garden Mine by Pryce These strange “ wig-wam “ constructions are “ gaipels or gapels “ and are to be seen on old woodcuts of mines, not only from the Harz but from as far afield as Konigsberg, in Norway, to Chemnitz in Hungary. These do not appear to have persisted into the 19th century in Wales. Pryse simply refers to them as “ whyms “. I do not know if these ever existed in Cumbria. In 1655, there is interesting correspondence between Sir Owen Wynn and John Estrope, who was formerly Bushell's head refiner, still resident in the area, who states that no German workmen were available nor any money made in Mr Bushell's time. Talybont ore was £ 4/10/- and Goginan ore £ 12 per ton. There was no ore was to be had from Cwmsymlog but when there was any, it commanded £ 17 per ton, thus suggesting that it yielded about 50 Ozs. of silver.[Wynne:2071] It is also worth noting that John and David Estopp are included in Bushell's list of refiners. There is no mistake about this fact and it serves well to illustrate the variation in spelling within a short period. The Harz mines had a reputation of producing incredibly devout miners, both Catholic and Lutherian, who built chapels underground so that they could meet, and pray, before commencing their daily labours. One would imagine that all of the immigrants into the Lake District were staunch Protestants, or at least not Catholic, due to the prevailing political situation. Wieliczka Miner's Chapel

15 There are several 19th century instances of colliers constructing underground chapels in South Wales and many of the quarry “ cabans “ of North Wales produced miners who could recite “ Chapter & Verse “ all day. David Evans, father of Captain Howell Evans of Cwmystwyth, was not alone in keeping a “ work Bible “ on a shelf in the dressing mill but I never managed to ascertain if the miners observed this practice underground. The Lisburne Mines Co. built a Methodist chapel for their miners at New Row near Frongoch and the Italian immigrants who worked for Societe Anonyme Liege, now Union Minere, later used it as a Catholic chapel. Similarly, the immigrant miners who worked at Ystumtuen before the Great War apparently used the chapel at Cwm Rheidol. I remember this as a partial ruin in the 1960s when there were still the remnants of murals on the walls, definitely not non-conformists but possibly a relic of the hundreds of Irishmen who worked on the hydro-tunnel in the 1950s. The only instance of which I am aware, of an underground chapel in Mid Wales, was at the Esgair Mwyn Mine, apparently on the #12, or 145 fathom level, probably in a man-hole or cross cut, that was particularly popular amongst the men during the 1904 – ’05 non-conformist revival. Underground shrines are still commonplace in Catholic countries usually with Santa Barbara, or occasionally San Andreas, being called upon to protect the miners. Possibly the most famous of these being at the Wieliczska salt mine in Poland, that has several chapels, and a cathedral, to cater for a devoutly Catholic workforce, this is now a World Heritage Site. San Andreas is the same character after whom the great Californian fault is named and I am also informed that he is the same Andrew who is the patron Saint of Scotland.

We know that the pastoral care of Bushell’s men was entrusted to Thomas Brodway, whilst at Talybont, and recall that some years earlier, Sir Hugh Myddelton erected a chapel for his miners at Cwmsymlog circa 1617, at which the vicar of Llanfihangel Genau’r Glyn would have met their needs. It is not known if Thomas Brodway was the minister to all the miners, or just those at Talybont. Myddelton’s chapel at Cwmsymlog is depicted by Pettus as a ruin in 1670 and its position is verified by Lewis Morris in the 18th century who also shows it as a ruin. It appears to have been rebuilt as “ Ty Newydd “ and then used as a lodging shop until it became unfit for habitation in the 1870s. Until the late 1960s most large construction sites employed a non-denominational padre or chaplain, very much in the same manner as the armed services. [The Railway Industry today still has a Chaplin. Ed] Amongst the 1586 inventories of the Newlands, Caldbeck and Grasmere Mines are listed “ berg trowghs and rowle wagons bound with Iron to bring Ewers and sparre forth out of the mynes “. Nearly a century later ,Sir John Pettus, lists amongst the items at the Talybont mines, “ one great Trewerne with Ironwheels to carry out deads belonging to the Addits“. This is a remarkably similar description and MTJ Lewis

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Siberian Graphite Mine postulates that trewerne is a derivation of “ berg truchen “ or truck of the type that was popular in the Harz and Hungary and I am inclined to agree with his convincing account. These wagons ran not on rails, but on stout boards with a gap between them. In the frame of the wagon was an iron spike that engaged in the slot, thus ensuring that the wheels ran on the boards. Think of a Scalectrix racing car and you get the idea. This is the type of truck, illustrated and described by Agricola, is understood to have remained in use until about 1825 in parts of Germany and Hungary. Note that in several of the attached engravings that the trucks appear to run on a single rail, this is actually the gap between the boards.

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Do not confuse these wagon-ways with true wooden rails, used with flanged wheels, usually as a temporary resort. Board-ways use a single plank with a flimsy sleeper and are used specifically by barrows. Bonsall notes the copious consumption of barrow boards at the Cwmystwyth and Grogwynion Mines on a regular basis.

The salutation ”Gluckauf“ is still popular in Europe and means a great deal more than good luck, it is almost a blessing. It must have been used in the Lake District but fell into disuse. Keystones on adits in the Harz Mountains frequently bear this word with a crossed picks device and a date of commencement. It was not uncommon for German miners to have a token bearing this salutation affixed to their traditional frog lamp, and later on their acetylene lamps. Five or six generations after several Masons are listed by name in Bushell’s account, James and Joseph Mason of Cwmsymlog are noted in the Bonsall daybook, as is Elizabeth Bonner at the Grogwynion Mine, apparently the last female bargain taker in Cardiganshire. On the 26 November 1785, Bonsall's Daybook lists Joseph Mason and Pare at Cwmsymlog. and on 15 November mentions James Mason's house at Cwmsymlog. Joseph later sold half of his quarter share in the Clawdd Melin and Coed Griffith Mines for five guineas. The Richard Mason who lived at Nantgwyn, Cwmystwyth, born in 1762 and died in 1812, may have been a son, nephew or cousin of the above. The Kinnaird Commission of 1864 shows that petitions were presented for the non payment of wages. These included; John Mason owed 10/- by the Willow Bank Mine. David Mason for labouring at Darren Mine, owed £ 2/5/-, and to Isaac Mason & Partners, £ 15 for an unpaid bargain, also at Darren. According to “ Calon Blwm “, a history of the Dylife Mines by Cyril Jones, the Masons living at Rhanc y mynydd around 1865, originally hailed from Cardiganshire. A William Mason who died on the 23rd of January 1873, aged 41 of the New Inn, Cwmerfyn, and is interred at Cwmsymlog Baptist Chapel, may well be related to William Mason who Captain James Reid reported upon in 1842 “ William Mason at Cwmsymlog, stoping on the back of the 50 fm level at 65/- per fathom “. He may have been the father, or uncle, of Thomas Mason who is listed as a bargain taker in the 1860 cost books for Cwmsymlog Mine. In the 1870s there were many of the Mason family working in the Glogfach Mine, one of whom objected about the low rates of pay and when the management observed the makings of a union, they were dismissed, failed to find other mining work locally and emigrated to the Michigan copper mines.

18 Elias Jones’s uncle left in 1881 and went to America with his eldest son and three others from the district, they found work in Michigan after failing to make a living here due to the wages in the Lisburne Mines becoming very low. In the May of 1884, the rest of his family followed him to Michigan, that is, his wife, three more sons and two daughters. Also, Elias Richards of Glannant, Pontrhydygroes, who with his wife and eight children went out to Michigan in 1881. His last month’s pay in the Lisburne Mines only amounted to £ 2/4/10d. Sometime prior to 1840 Thomas Spedding of Workington, Cumbria walked to Cwmsymlog to find work and lodged with Captain James Reid of Penryn, Cornwall. Joseph Nuttall started working at Cwmsymlog in the late 1850s, also having walked from Cumbria, with his family, but worked in the Flintshire Mines for a while, whilst on route. These are but a few examples from the thousands of men who, over three centuries, poured into and out of Wales, from Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall & Devon, and further afield. The origin of the Benjamins and Ishmaels, who worked at Logaulas and Glogfach in the 1830s, has not yet been established, nor that of the Olivers of Gwnnws who appear to have arrived in Cardiganshire in the late 16th century. In one of the accounts of mining in the Lake District it is noted that around 1907 two men moved from Talybont to the Lake District to work on Warsop’s Cross Cut and the sinking of Smith’s Shaft at the Greenside Mine if my memory serves me correctly. Whilst the British Mines fell into recession, alternative employment was often secured by working overseas and many Talybont men ended up in the Columbian mines, one man even went to Mexico and Russia with his father to install big jaw crushers made by Green’s Foundry in Aberystwyth. Captain John James of Talybont ( 1859 – 1947 ) named his daughter Juanita ( 1910 – 2002 ) in memory of their time at the Frias Mines in Columbia. A bright and spirited man from Cwmystwyth by the name of John Lloyd, had been out to Montana and Colorado to work and was commonly known thereafter as “John Lloyd Colorado“. The schoolmaster at Cwmystwyth, around 1900, was affectionately known as “Jones Patagonia“ on account of his parents having spent some years in that place. What is left today to represent this great technological input by the Germans, seventy years in Cumbria and ten in Wales ? Sphalerite is commonly known as Blende which is the German for blind, or to deceive one into thinking that it was ore, which it was not, until Champion discovered his new process in Bristol the mid 18th century and the zinc industry was no longer dependant on the calamine largely produced in the Mendip Hills. The strategic metal, Cobalt, was first isolated in 1735 though its salts had been used as vigorous blue pigments long before the metal was identified. Its name is derived from the German for the spirits of the mine, Kobals or Cobels. Agricola describes Kobals as being gnomes and goblins about two foot high. These sprites appear to be no different to the “Knockers“ who are mentioned by Lewis Morris in 1754, and also by William Hooson a few years later. I will expand upon this topic in my next contribution, as the subject deserves greater coverage and study. Similarly, Nickel is supposed to be “ Old Nick’s Metal “ and its name is supposedly derived from the German but I have been unable to find much information to substantiate this claim. Other mining words, in our strange vocabulary, that are derived from German are as follows :-

19 The domed Cupel, used in the separation of silver from lead in a cupellation furnace is an anglicisation of the German word Kuppel. Ore is raised in an egg shaped bucket or Kibble, which appears to be derived from Kuble, which is the German word for a tub. Leat or leet, used to describe a watercourse, appears to be derived from Laut, which is the term used for a watercourse in the Harz. The original rotating sieve classifier, used for centuries, is known as a Trommel, this being the German word for a drum. Another connection worth mentioning comes from the silver mines of Jackimov, formerly Joachimstal, where their produce was stamped into “Thaller“ coins and it is from this word that the American word Dollar came into being. Sir Robert Hunt, in British Mining, tells us (214 et. seq.) that Killas, otherwise Clay-Slate, used to define the soft, fine, sedimentary rocks that host a lode, was a word brought into Cornwall by the Germans. Halliwell’s Dictionary however places the origin of the word Killas as coming from Derbyshire, whilst Kielandstein is given as the German for a silicious sandstone and appears to support Hunt’s statement. Grauwacke, later Greywacke, is commonly used to describe the coarser sediments, whilst Schist is yet another word carried into international usage. The soft “ Toadstone“ or Cauk of Derbyshire is apparently derived from the German word Tadstein. No one has ever offered me a satisfactory explanation of the origin of Stope. I have heard that it is derived from stoop, or to bend over, which is how the old boys worked – but I am far from convinced by this suggestion and think that the OED definition as being “ obscure - probably derived from step “ is far more acceptable. It’s first useage is noted as being in Hooson’s Dictionary of 1767. Beware of thinking that the Germans gave us all the strange sounding names used in the mining trade, for example, in Cornwall the Kieve is a 50 gallon tub used for dressing fine tin ore. The OED notes its first usage in 1407, as a term for an obscure vessel, possibly for brewing, whilst Pryse mentions it in a mining context in 1778 and its use in mineral dressing than persisted through into the 20th century. Whilst it sounds German, the studies that I consulted do not substantiate this. Croust, stint, buddle, core and winze also have similar obscure origins. Cumberland sausage is apparently another relic of this German immigration and I am sure that there are further examples that I have missed in this relatively short account. We mining folk have a very special vocabulary, as can be witnessed in the mandatory gazetteer appended to virtually every new mining book, and I hope that this account goes some way to explaining a part of it. If a word doesn’t appear to be English, then there is a good chance that it is either derived from the Latin, German or is attributed to the “ Craven & Northern Dialect “ and probably originates from the Norse invaders. My friend, the late Alwyn Owen of Odyn Fach, himself a good miner, always praised the great skill of the German miners with whom he worked on the Rheidol Hydro – Electric project in the late 1950s. My personal experience comes from Cynheidre, near Llanelli, where I lodged in the barracks with the German shaft sinkers employed by Thyssen’s. The local colliers held them all in very high regard.

20 Previously, in the late 19th and early 20th century, much of the shaft sinking in the South Wales coalfield was done by former Cardiganshire miners but I feel that it would be stretching the point to suggest that some of the German skills had rubbed off on them and persisted for several centuries. I suspect that their ability was acquired through working alongside Cornishmen during the 19th century.
SJSH. 27 October 2005.

BBC WALES WEBSITE– CEREDIGION MINES With help from Meleri Richards and Peter Austin at Ceredigion County Council, the BBC have featured Ceredigion’s Mining Heritage on their website. It includes a piece by Trust Director Peter Claughton and a slide show of photographs supplied by me. The WMPT also gets a mention. The site can be found at:www.bbc.co.uk/wales/mid/sites/history/pages/ceredigionmines_slideshow.shtml You can avoid typing all this in by going to www.bbc.co.uk, and entering Ceredigion Mines into the search box. MINE EXPLORER WEBSITES There are now two websites using the name “Mine Explorer” Roy Fellows’ original one at www.mineexplorer.com This excellent site details Roy’s explorations over the years, it contains pages on Roy’s explorations and projects at Talybont and Nenthead, an interesting page on Bryneglwys Slate Quarry, there are some very good photographs and you can also read Roy’s opinions on various things that are happening. Another site using almost the same name has been created by Miles Moulding from Cwm Penmachno, www.mine-explorer.co.uk Miles has done an excellent job of building this site, it is hopefully going to become a database of Mines in Wales and the rest of the UK. At the moment it has a bias towards Welsh Slate Mines, but is gradually developing to include other mines and locations. The beauty of this site is that everyone can have an input into its content. Miles would be pleased to receive information and photographs from members of the Trust. The site is designed to run on two levels of access, the first level of access is open to the general public. There is a further level with access only available to registered members, this contains more sensitive information and photographs not available to the general public. There is no charge for registration, just complete the registration form on the site. To quote Miles’ introduction to the site “About Mine-Explorer: This website provides photographs and information on many of the disused mines found across the U.K. It is intended as a comprehensive resource for not only Mine-Explorers, but cavers, historians, industrial archaeologists and professional bodies. It relies on content provided from Mine-Explorers out in the field who continually update the database. Mine-Explorers Wanted! I'd very much like to hear from Mine Explorers who have material (photos etc) from their own adventures and would be willing to contribute them to the website.”

21 PROBLEMS AT ABERLLEFENNI QUARRY I have been asked by Miles Moulding to publish this request about visiting Aberllefenni Slate Quarry. “PLEASE DON'T GO IN ABERLLEFENNI! Aberllefenni has just ceased to work as an underground quarry and the owners are suffering enormous problems at the hands of reckless explorers forcing entry and causing damage. The owners are extremely upset and concerned for the safety of their machinery and other property in the mine. In an attempt to stop people they've had to bulldoze-in the main entrance and are on the verge of removing their kit and bulldozing the other entrance if the situation isn't brought rapidly under control. This would seal off this mine possibly forever. Talks are in progress with the owners about a long term access arrangement for sensible explorers, to who they are sympathetic. Any attempted visit until this is arranged will seriously hamper this discussion, so it is vitally important that nobody attempts to enter the mine for the time being. Besides endangering future access for everyone, anybody caught trying to enter the mine (it is being watched) is likely to face heavy legal proceedings. Thanks for your understanding in this matter and your help in bringing a volatile situation under control. Please email me with any questions or comments”. Miles [Miles can be contacted on miles@mine-explorer.co.uk Ed] CATHERINE & JANE CONSOLS Unfortunately the working weekend planned for October at Catherine & Jane had to be cancelled. This was due to having to organise two weekends at Pen Y Clun (see separate report), to clear the site before the builder started work in November. We will be holding our next working weekend there, over the May Day Bank Holiday weekend Sat 29/Sun 30 April 2006. As usual please bring “gardening tools” etc., meet at the Forestry Gate at 1030am. PEN Y CLUN ENGINE HOUSE Since the last newsletter meetings have taken place at Pen Y Clun between CADW, the landowner Andrew Evans and the building contractor, with Steve Oliver and Christine Smith representing the Trust. The result was that CADW have agreed to accept the builders estimate and have awarded the Trust a 100% grant of £38,000 to carry out restoration work on Pen Y Clun Engine House. Whist the builder is on site CADW will arrange for a Structural Engineer to examine the chimney, there is the possibility of further funds to restore the chimney if required. The Trust is grateful to the landowner, Mr Andrew Evans for his co-operation with this project. The Trust appreciates all the hard work put into this project by Steve Oliver and Christine Smith. WORKING WEEKENDS AT PENYCLUN ENGINE HOUSE, LLANIDLOES - CHRISTINE SMITH We thought this day would never arrive but at last it did, Saturday 15th October was the first day of our two working weekends to clear the site, ready for the contractor to

22 begin the work of stabilising this hidden treasure. CADW had asked the Trust if it was willing to oversee this project and Steve and I had been given the job of organising the work. We were full of excitement and anticipation and had received a good response to our pleas for help and were looking forward to seeing many of our friends again and some new faces (to us at least). The morning mist enveloped the surrounding hills but at least it was dry as we set off for Bwlch y Gle car park where we were to meet at 11.00 o’clock. Nigel Chapman was already there, Harold arrived shortly after us followed by George and Nheng Hall, Tony King and then Jenny Gowing, it was a good turnout. We made our way in convoy to Penyclun, parked our vehicles in the appropriate place and unloaded the tools and equipment, loading what we could into the two wheelbarrows. Harold plus one wheelbarrow was first through the gate and he made a speedy diagonal decent down the steep slope to the site, the rest of us followed and eventually we all landed safely after much joviality en route. We had a brief site meeting to discuss the aim of the project and then we were let loose inside the fenced compound. The site was quite overgrown and the first task was to cut down the longer grass and weeds. Each of us took a separate area and clipped, chopped and raked to our hearts content until all that was left was stubble. Later we were joined by Dave Seabourne and Sally who both pitched in to help.

Our next plan of action was to remove the build up of soil which had accumulated around the building and to hopefully get it down to what we thought was original ground level.

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Whilst some of us were busy digging and barrowing soil others were carefully uncovering fallen stone work and bricks making sure all the re-usable material was carefully stacked for the contractor to re-use. The ground to the south of the engine house had become quite boggy over the years from the adit outflow and George began to cut a channel to encourage the water to flow straight through instead of meandering over the site, quite an easy task George assured me! We stopped for lunch, all gathering outside the fence to enjoy the sunshine now that the mist had lifted and to enjoy a few discussions on what we had found and hoped to find. Then it was back to work and once again the site was alive with activity the like of which I am sure it had not seen for many years and the air was filled with the sound of our voices as we happily chatted whilst we worked.

Whilst having a break and a look around the site a culvert was found and once the vegetation had been cleared away and photographs taken it was clear that it was constructed of stone and bricks. We are still speculating as to what it

24 might have been for, obviously we will be investigating this further next year. The first day passed all too quickly and about 5.00 o’clock, we gathered our things together and made our way back up the steep bank to our vehicles, I remember looking back as we climbed the hill and commenting on what an impact we had made in one day.

We said our thanks and goodbyes to those who were not returning on Sunday hoping to see them the following weekend Sunday 16th October The following day Sue and John Hopkinson joined Steve, myself, Tony, Nigel and Jenny another good turnout. Geoff Newton also turned up in his Landrover and we soon set to work. Some time during the morning it was decided that the stream from the adit would be better redirected outside the fenced area to what was thought to be its original course and so alas George’s channel was back-filled. We cleared the perimeter of the site down to original level and then began peeling back the thick carpet of grass that had encroached over many years, covering the stone walls of the boiler house. By lunch time the outer walls of the boiler house were visible and the task of clearing the flue of the chimney began. One of the features to appear on the outside of the north wall of the boiler house was what seemed to be a buttress type structure showing signs of burning on it– this caused quite a lot of speculation as to what it might have been and there was much discussion over what it was, though no conclusion was reached! We have since noted that this feature is clearly shown on the First Edition OS Map dated 1886 so the mystery continues. Again we made good headway but the day soon disappeared and we packed up to leave the site knowing we would be back the following weekend to do it all again.

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Buttress type feature found halfway along outside face of North wall. Area of burning in centre of picture. Saturday 22nd October The first to turn up (at our door actually) was a smiling face from over the border – Mr Levins. A few cups of tea later and with the promise of a healthy fried breakfast we left home to meet up with Barry Clarke and faithful Sam in the market town of Llanidloes. Whilst loitering, as you do, on the street corner we came across two well known faces armed to the hilt with all sorts of implements sticking out of their rucksacks – it was Barry and Mary Dupree, Mary was even carrying a pick axe handle (perhaps she thought she was still in Cheltenham instead of mid-Wales!). Barry and Mary declined our offer of breakfast as they had already dined in style at the guest house and were determined to walk to the site, so we pointed them in the direction of Penyclun and we headed off for breakfast in a local café. Barry said later that the walk was well worth it if only for the strange looks they had received. After breakfast we set off in convoy ready for our meet at Bwlch y Gle passing Barry and Mary on the road. Harold arrived with Bryan soon followed by Jenny, David & Joan James and George and Nheng Hall, we said our hellos, compared notes on the journey etc and set off for the site. After the usual safety briefing on site everyone was despatched to their work stations and work began. Those working at the flue end of the boiler house began to reveal laid red bricks that formed a bull nosed end to the structure. As with all the other features that were beginning to emerge this caused discussion as to what type of boiler was actually housed there.

26 On the outside of the bob wall of the engine house there was a grassed over heap which seemed out of place and which, we thought, could be hiding beneath it some clues as to the type of engine that had been used there. Whilst discussing this “heap” George came over and with a big smile told us it was only spoil from when he and some friends had cleared the adit entrance many years before. It was then agreed that this heap should be removed so George & David James set about this task. The rest of the group concentrated on digging down to find the original floor level inside the boiler house, although this proved to be more difficult than expected due to the mass of demolition rubble that was being uncovered. Exposing the outside of the boiler house walls was a little easier and we soon had several layers of good stonework exposed. Steve by this time had gained entry into the flue and was now determined to uncover it completely and clean it out. We made great headway and by the evening we had clearly defined the outside of the structure though we were still somewhat confused by demolition debris inside the boiler house, which we can only assume, were wall collapses. Once again the day passed and tired but happy we made our way back up the hill and arranged to meet later for a bite to eat in the pub. Sunday 23rd October On Sunday the group was joined by new members Andrew Morris (Moggie) and Dave Garside who took on the task of clearing the remainder of “George’s heap” by the bob wall to the original ground level, we are hoping we will be able to investigate this area further next year. As this was the final day of the working weekends every effort was made to expose wall tops, remove loose stone and bricks and generally make the site ready for the contractor. It was decided to leave the inside of the boiler house at the level we had reached despite this not being the original floor level – this work will be continued next year after the contractor has completed his work.

27 Geoff had thoughtfully brought a ladder on his Landrover and he and David James removed some of the overhanging branches of the Ash tree which were damaging the stonework of the engine house walls. Never one to miss an opportunity David was keen to open the adit or at least clear the entrance and with Bryan’s help began removing the undergrowth from the entrance and to clear the stream bed. Once Moggie & Dave had completed their task on the “heap” they too were keen to get in and clear the adit along with Bryan and David and gradually the run-in soil was cleared away from the adit entrance. David James and Geoff got down to the job of recording the measurements of the engine house to enable drawings to be prepared that we hope will help determine the type of engine used. Throughout both weekends various rusty objects were uncovered which may help to unravel the story of the site and along with some glass, pottery and clay pipe stems these items were kept safely for future investigation. Once again, all too soon it was dusk and everyone reluctantly began tidying up being careful to bag up all of the rubbish which had washed out from the adit. The group set off back up the hill one last time to head for home satisfied with the work accomplished. We would like to say a big thank you to all those who gave up their time to come and help - these successful working weekends were really only the beginning for Penyclun. Once the contractor has completed his work, we look forward to many return visits – we’ll keep you posted! Article: Christine Smith Photos: Christine Smith & Steve Oliver [In recognition of his work with this project, at this years Trust AGM, Steve Oliver was elected as a Director of the Trust. Ed] FUTURE WORKING WEEKENDS AT PEN Y CLUN Once the building work at Pen Y Clun has been completed, the Trust will be holding regular working weekends at the mine. We hope to start these next Spring. If you are interested in attending please contact Steve or Christine 01686-440358 or email christine_steve@tiscali.co.uk We will holding two open days at the mine on June 16/19, this is the Friday and Monday of the WMS summer meet weekend in the nearby Elan Valley. This will give Trust and WMS members attending the Elan Valley weekend the opportunity to visit Pen Y Clun and see the results of our work there.

28 SURVEY OF THOMAS BONSALL’s WET-STAMPING MILL SITE, COPA HILL, CWMYSTWYTH (Early Mines Research Group - October 2005) Over a period of 3-4 days during the first week of October all the surviving stone structures, rock-cut wheelpit and floor-levels etc. relating to this building were archaeologically surveyed, drawn and levelled inside of a grid laid out some 20m x 20 m square. The work was carried out on behalf of WMPT following receipt of permissions for limited recording work granted by the Crown Mineral Agent, Ken Bate. Provisional Scheduled Monument Consent was granted by CADW for a further stage of archaeological excavation work and stabilisation of the existing structures, although any further progress on this project is still dependent upon the additional agreement of the Mineral Agent and a site meeting with Wardell Armstrong. The survey work carried out to date is in effect just the preparation for a much more detailed investigation of the site, and thus we cannot hope at this stage to properly answer the question as to whether or not this was the site of an earlier dry-stamping and possibly stone-walled mill built by William Waller and Sir Humphrey Mackworth circa. 1701 – as has been recently queried by Roger Bird in correspondence following his discovery of papers relating to the construction of the stamp-mill and mining at Belshazzars Work within the West Glamorgan Archives (Neath Antiquarian Society).

[photo Simon Timberlake] The plan/survey as drawn (below) does however support the notion that most of the surviving features we now see above ground fit well with the description left to us of the mill worked by Thomas Bonsall, and visited by the engineer Francis Thompson on 12th March 1788. In particular we should note the size of the earlier phase wheelpit which held a 12 foot diameter overshot wheel, the area of the stamps floor to the south of the wheelpit wall which he refers to as housing the four 112 lb stamps, the position of the 4 foot high hopper behind this, and finally a floor recess (consisting of a stonelined collecting trough and drain culvert beneath the stamps) consistent with the

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[Part of survey by Simon Timberlake] presence of a iron grate or griddle. The same floor-level continues some 7-8 metres southwards with a retaining wall/bank to the rear, with a further dry-stone walled structure/alcove at the end. Its possible therefore that this whole area was open at the sides but still covered over (roofed). The lay-out does suggest – as has already been implied by Roger Bird – that Bonsall’s Mill was at least in part open to the elements, and was probably a part-timbered structure.

30 Despite partial infill of scree from the slumping of mine tips behind and above the mill that might well obscure the traces of earlier walls, there is at least some evidence for an earlier stone structure (or at least one with stone footings). Some 5 metres to the north of the wheelpit wall can be seen the traces of a parallel wall (approx. 1m+ wide), with possibly another one at right angles to this. The route of the original (wooden?) launders from a waterfall/weir upstream of the mill, and parts of the retaining wall for these, were traced across the slope above the site. Other features noticed included what may be the remains of small dry-stone wall supports or plinths for a high-level wooden bridge or gantry across the Nant yr onnen from the platform area in front of Herbert’s Stope – presumably the source of much of the ore to be stamped. It seemed clear to us as surveyors that a good deal of the necessary evidence on which to build a much fuller history of the use of the site currently remains hidden beneath what in all probability only a shallow level of spoil, slumped scree and accumulated floor deposit.This site certainly would have been the most logical place for Waller to construct his mill (almost a century earlier than Bonsall) if working within the area now referred to as Herbert’s Stope on the Kingside, and so far nothing which we have seen downstream of this (opposite Bonsall’s Adit) looks at all convincing for the site of an earlier stamp mill, wheelpit and tail-race. Planned archaeological excavation at the site of Bonsall’s mill may yet provide an answer to this on-going debate. Acknowledgement: Brenda Craddock and Phil Andrews for all survey work and drawing. WMPT provided a small but necessary grant towards the cost of accommodation at Cwmystwyth. Simon Timberlake Early Mines Research Group November 2005 ABOVE AND BENEATH THE COSTA CALIDA – BOB BARNES I am sure some of you will have met Bob Barnes from Birmingham, he is a regular at Trust working weekends and WMS weekends. Bob and his wife have moved to Spain. Bob wishes to be remembered to his many friends in the mining world, and would be pleased to hear from any of you, especially if you are planning a trip to his part of Spain. His address is:- Casa Barnes, Urb. Residencial Cabosol, B-2, 44, La Regia 03189, Orihuela (Alicante), Espana Bob has written the following account of mining in the area of Spain where he now resides. Ed. With Casa Barnes now established in Cabo Roig, on the Spanish Costa Blanca, it was time to investigate the mining area of the Sierra Gorda. The old Roman city of Cartagena sits between the Sierra de los Garabitos and the Sierra Gorda. It was the 3rd century when the Phoenicians, who were bitter enemies of the Romans, moved into the Mediterranean and started looking with interest at what might be beneath the ground in the area of los Garabitos and Gorda.

31 The Romans got to hear of their activities, came over to the area and started the Punic Wars, to take control of the westgern Mediterranean. The result was Romans one, Phoenicians nil. With as many slaves as they required, the Romans started mining. Much of the silvewr extracted by the Romans was found in it’s natural state, in galenium, which also contains a high proportion of lead. The Romans built smelting works all over the area, with a vast number of chimneys still standing, most on top of hills, with linking flues, in some cases over a quarter of a mile long! I’ve crawled along a couple, and they are in excellent condition. The main mineral deposits are silver, lead, iron and zinc. After walking around the opencast area for a few minutes, the taste in the mouth is one of lead/iron and sulphur, with a general haze in the air of sulphuric acid. This surface working area of the Sierra Gorda is a cross between a lunar landscape and a set for Dr Who! There are over 1500 shafts, sunk, I am told for ventilation, accros the area, and a good number of headframe/winding shafts in poor to fair standing condition. I tested the depth of one sahft. It sounded deep with the “look out below” boulder test! I lowered a lantern on bailing twine, gave a depth of 310 feet. Over the hill towatds the costal side is all underground mining. Again, lots of shafts and assorted headframe/winding plant. Spent some time looking for a way down which would not require ropework down a shaft! It was our forth visit to site before we stumbled on our quest. I was busy taking some headframe shots for Descent Magazine (Feature to follow some time I hope), when Mrs Barnes, pushing her way through some low bushes, to reach yet another shaft, located steps, cut into the floor of a gap between some rocks. Torch in hand and hardhat secured, down I go. The steps take a right hand turn after about 20 feet, at a slope of perhaps 45 degrees, and continues 12 feet or so to a drop off, at a guess no more than 6 feet. From here as far as my lamp could make out, the way down continues another 30 feet or so, when the passage takes a right hand turn. I now require a single ladder, and better lighting, both of which are in hand. Any assistance gentlemen !! I have learned from locals in a small bar in the costal village of Portman, of the existance of a two mile rail tunnel, complete with trucks (Narrow guage), located just above the village. Again any support would be welcome. On the “Tourism” side, the powers to be should be congratulated on a project they call “Las Matildes” Mine. Built in 1871, this mine has been restored and is now open to the public (If they can find their way there!). It’s shaft is 225 meters in depth and the buildings are well worth a visit. Paco, who seems to manage the site, was most interested in hearing about the Welsh Mines Society, and the Black Country. Thanks to the “Brummies” (John and Daveleen Alder), I presented a WMS tee shirt to Paco on my second visit, and made him an Unofficial Hon. Member of the WMS! He is well pleased and looks forward to meeting any mining members from the UK.

32 The next project at “Los Matildes” is to restore a Cornish Engine and Buildings, just around the bend in the next field – he has my phone number. Best regards from all of us here in sunny Spain. Bob Barnes (Sept 2005) GLYN PITS, PONTYPOOL – NEW BOOK:THE SURVIVING ENGINES OF GLYN PITS, PONTYPOOL (LANDMARK COLLECTOR'S LIBRARY) –Gwyn Tilley Members will be aware of the Trust’s involvement at the Glyn Pits over recent years. You will be pleased to hear that a book has been published about the mine. It is written by Gwyn Tilley, who has known the mine all of his life. Gwyn is passionate that the mine’s history is recorded, to this end he has produced this book, he has also produced a video in conjunction with Clive Davies. I have been fortunate that Gwyn agreed to write a short piece for the newsletter about the book and his interest in the Glyn Pits. “I am glad the book was well received, I have sold many copies from home, and everyone seems to like it! I have also donated copies to the County Archives; Sir Richard Hanbury Tenison (without whom the book would not have been half as good) Torfaen Museum Trust; and Torfaen Libraries, Cwmbran. I first visited the Old Glyn Pits in about 1940, and was always fascinated by the engineering involved in it. I also started my working life near there, at the Blaendare Company’s wagon repair shed, at Quarry Level, in 1944. The Glyn, with it’s Lancashire boiler still in steam; all the rail links [which were still working] and the Quarry Level - were all still complete then. When I married in 1952, I found that my wife’s grand father had been under -manager at the Glyn for some years. However, little happened at the Glyn in the way of restoration until I took a friend there one day, Mr. Clive Davies. Clive, having been born nearby at the Old Furnace, knew of the Old Glyn, but not much of what was there, and it was Clive who then suggested we make a video of the mine in order to awaken people’s awareness as to what it represented, and it was this video that was the real start of restoration work there. As far as my book is concerned, all the text is mine - and, with a few exceptions, such as the photographs of Pontnewynnyd steelworks, which were used with the permission of Torfaen Museum Trust, also some of Mr. John Cornwell’s, again with his permission - all the photographs. I thought it important that the mine be recorded for posterity in a proper manner, as videotape does not last long. I too look forward to complete restoration, although, at 76 years, I doubt I will see that! Gwyn Tilley Nov 2005” [Copies of the book are available from Gwyn, please write to him at Ivy Dene Bungalow, Old Penygarn, Pontypool, Gwent. NP4 8JS Ed] GLYN PITS VIDEO The video that is mentioned in Gwyn’s article above, is available from Clive Davies at 3 High Houses, Twyn Y Ffrwd, Abersychan, Pontpool, Gwent, NP4 8PJ. Price £10 (& £2 post and packing).

33 I can recommend this video, it is very well produced. It shows in detail the remains at the Glyn Pits and also contains animations on how the engines worked. Clive has told me that any proceeds from the sales of the video, will be used for the Glyn Pits project. Clive has also updated me on the latest news from the Glyn Pits. “As far as the Glyn pits are concerned we now have quite a few people involved and are in the process of having a new fence to surround the parameter of the site, which will be partly funded by the mine owner and CADW. Also we have just secured a grant from Torfaen for £25000.00 for a feasibility study which will be underway shortly. The royal society for ancient monuments has just finished a site survey and with some good hands-on members of the Glyn pits last summer we cleared the site of trees, brambles and unwanted matter etc. I have a web site www.pontypoolglynpits which in the updates section shows a photograph of some of the working members and photograph's of what the group have achieved so far, so as you see apart from my video and my web site we have a lot of good people working towards this projects future. “ THE SURVIVING ENGINES OF GLYN PITS, PONTYPOOL BY GWYN TILLEY, REVIEWED BY SIMON HUGHES ISBN 1 84306 203 8. Hardbound 7”x10” (not quite A4), 158 pages, 148 plates, with several figures & maps, plus index. Published by Landmark Publishing Ltd of Ashbourne in November 2005. £ 15.99 A most stunning, in depth, description of “what it says on the cover “. Gwyn Tilley has obviously spent very many years gathering material for this book and is completely familiar with the working of steam engines. The result is highly inspiring to anyone with an historical interest in mining engineering, regardless of the mineral being worked.. There is so much detail that I suspect that it will become a standard work for anyone involved with any form of engine remains, but its main purpose appears to be to publicise the extent of the surviving remains in the hope that they may be better preserved & conserved for the nation. There can be no doubt that they currently represent one of the finest industrial clusters still surviving in Wales. Whilst I have been aware of the site for about twenty five years and seen numerous photographs and reports, none have done the site adequate justice until now. According to the text, demolition work was rapidly stopped before too much damage was done and preservation work has been ongoing since 2002. This has lead to the formation of Glyn Pits Preservation & Community Heritage Group, of which Glyn Tilley is naturally a member. Further details may be found at pontypoolglynpits.co.uk and climo25@aol.com is also cited as a contact point. I must now confess that I am quite embarrassed at never having visited the site, despite the WMPT involvement. As my mobility decreases, it had somehow been pushed down my list of places to visit, partly on account of it being a colliery, which is hardly fair. (I did a fortnight’s induction course at Wyndham – Western in 1970 and it became quite obvious that coal was not where my interests lay). It is universally acknowledged that the importance of coal in the industrial development of Wales was, without doubt, far greater than that of the metal mines. Through this excellent study, I now fully appreciate the significance, and magnificence, of these remains and will, accordingly, arrange to get taken there next spring.

34 The two finest pieces on the site, and the main reason for the book, are the 30” x 72” beam pumping engine manufactured by Neath Abbey Ironworks in 1845, and the 36” x 66” vertical winding engine by an unknown manufacturer ( pre 1865 ). Both of these engines are considered in some detail with photographs and appended text being adopted for the greater part of this section. This works remarkably well and results in a highly technical book that is also easy to read, a rare combination. Condensers, boilers, fans, balances and lamps are also given such attention as is necessary without overwhelming the descriptions of the prime pieces. I really am quite lost for words without running to a string of superlatives, and find that the publisher’s blurb is pretty well spot on. “ The nationally important engines at Glyn Pits await restoration. This book describes what remains and puts the engines into their historical context. It will be of interest to local people in terms of the remaining industrial archaeology connected with mining and metal working. Written by one of the last of the area’s steam engineers.” Be warned, this is the sort of book that gets blokes into trouble, you will become totally absorbed to the exclusion of all else, and will then want to read it all over again. Attractively presented and priced, and uniform with the rest of their mining titles. I would thoroughly urge all mining enthusiasts to buy this book as it will form a most useful addition to your library and improve your understanding of many things, it will also go some way to supporting the project. Even better, buy two and give one to a friend for Christmas !
SJSH. 17th Nov 2005

ENVIRONMENT AGENCY – METAL MINES STRATEGY Meetings have recently taken place at Dylife and Frongoch/Wemyss, between the Environment Agency, their Agents Parson Brinkerhof and Stakeholders in the sites. The Trust was represented at these meetings by Steve Oliver and Simon Hughes. Thank you both for giving your time to attend. The EA are planning a very low impact approach at each of the sites, which will not affect any of the Industrial Archaeology. The main focus of the work will be prevention of water entering the mines by diversion of streams and treatment of water coming from the mines by building filter beds. EAGLEBROOK MINE, CEREDIGION I have received reports that damage is being caused at Eaglebrook Mine by 4x4 vehicles. As this site is a SSSI, I have written to Countryside Commission for Wales, as a result a meeting has been arranged for 14 December to discuss with CCW, the Forestry Commission and other interested parties how the site can be secured, the Mid Wales Group of the Trust is willing to work with CCW on repairing the damage caused and to preserve the remains on the site. DATES FOR 2006 Working weekends at Penyclun – Spring 2006 Once the building work at Pen Y Clun has been completed, the Trust will be holding regular working weekends at the mine. We hope to start these next Spring. If you are

35 interested in attending please contact Steve Oliver or Christine Smith 440358 or email christine_steve@tiscali.co.uk 01686-

Working Weekend at Cwmsymlog - 7/8 April 2006 Clearance of saplings and undergrowth in churchyard, clearance of undergrowth in and around the wheelpit at Skinner’s Shaft, bring usual “gardening tools”. Meet at the Chimney at Cwmsymlog at 1030 each day. Details from Graham Levins 01293510567 or WMPTsecretary@welshmines.org Working Weekend at Catherine & Jane Consols – 29/30 April 2006 Bring usual “gardening tools”, meet at Forestry Gate at 1030 each day. Details from Graham Levins 01293-510567 or WMPTsecretary@welshmines.org Heritage Weekend Myheryn Forest – 3 & 4 June 2006 I am in the process of planning another Heritage Weekend in association with Ceredigion County Council’s “Spirit of the Miners” project. If this appeals to you, pencil in the date, full details will be in the next newsletter. It is hoped to visit some of the interesting mines in the forest, such as Bodcoll, Mynach Vale/Dolwen, Nant Y Creiau etc, I am also hoping to arrange an evening event on the Saturday at the Miner’s Arms in Pontrhydygroes. Open Days at Pen Y Clun – 16 & 19 June 2006 We will holding two open days at the mine on June 16/19, this is the Friday and Monday of the WMS summer meet weekend in the nearby Elan Valley. This will give Trust and WMS members attending the Elan Valley weekend the opportunity to visit Pen Y Clun and see the results of our work there. Again details from Steve or Christine 01686-440358 or email christine_steve@tiscali.co.uk RESEARCHERS CORNER Steve Oliver has been carrying out research into the Wynnstay Estate at the NLW Papers held at N.LW, Aberystwyth Ref. Wynnstay Deeds No.2 Box 29, Items 68 – 73 and 579 to 586 68 Llanidloes to Llangurig road via Glynbrochan and Bwlch Garreg – 21yr lease dated 1/8/1780. Granted to Maurice(?) Stephens of Oxford; (?) Evans and William Evett(?) of Sheffield. Nant Iago - 21yr lease dated 25/6/1754. Granted to Chauncey Townsend Hafod Feddgar area – 21yr lease dated 1/11/1787. Granted to 21yr lease granted to Hugh Meares of Pennez(?), County Pembroke; Wythen Jones of Llanidloes and Maurice Stephens of Llandinam(?) Rhos Bara Peillied in Darrowen, Brynyvedwen in Darrowen, Brynyrwyn in Trefeglwys and Siglenlas in Llangurig - 21yr lease dated 1/1/1776. Granted to Hugh Meares Wythen Jones Joan Tilsley and Maurice Stephens

69 70 71b 71a

36 72 73 579 (?) Ystradynod and Glynhafren Iscoed - 21yr lease dated 5/8/1777. Granted to Edward Glynne of Glynne. Esgairmwyn – 31yr lease dated 21/10/1784. Granted to Edward Deveraux and others Craig y Goyfron – 21yr lease dated 30/4/1739. Granted to William Chooseborough of Bridgewater Street, London and Caleb Wyndo of Philpot Lane, London. Royalty 1/10th. on East of the lands of John Edwards of Glyn and Brynpostig Common – 21yr lease dated 25/3/1778. Granted to Isaac Smith of Wrexham Ceylon Issa and Ceylon Ucha, Llanbrynmair – 21yr lease dated 1/8/1775. Granted to Thomas Jones of Esgair Evan (Ofau?). Bryntail, Llanidloes – 21yr lease dated 1/8/1775. Granted to Richard Owen, Glandulas, Llanidloes. (copy of 582) Dylife area – 21yr lease dated 1/1/1776. Granted to Bagot Read of Chester; William Wynne of Penniarth, Merioneth; John Twigge of Holme, Derby; Henry Thornhill of Derby and Horatio Oldfield of Mold. Royalty 15s/ton of lead. (copy of 584) 21yr lease dated 26/1/1786. Granted to Josiah Horn of Mold.

580 581 582 583 584

585 586

CEREDIGION COUNTY COUNCIL – SPIRIT OF THE MINERS PROJECT The project now has its own website www.spirit-of-the-miners.org.uk This explains what the project is, how to apply for grants and also contains a report on the Heritage Weekend I organised in conjunction with the project. SPIRIT OF THE MINERS EVENT AT TALYBONT – 2nd NOVEMBER An open evening was held on the 2nd of November by Ysbryd Y Mwywnyr – Spirit of the Miners, at Talybont School. The evening was hailed a success with a good turnout of local people, highlighting the obvious interest there lies within the community with regard to its history. The evening provided not only an opportunity for local people to find out more about Ysbryd y Mwynwyr – Spirit of the Miners and how the scheme is developing, but also to learn about the heritage that has shaped the northern area of Ceredigion. Simon Hughes gave a fascinating talk along with slides on the wealth of mining activity that went on in the area, with workings at Alltycrib dating back to the Bronze age. The three community council wards in the Talybont area are putting together a bid for funding from Spirit of the Miners to prepare interpretative boards and pamphlets outlining the history of the area and drawing attention to the public footpaths in the area, many of them originally used by the old miners. It is a potentially exciting

37 project not only for the area in attracting more tourists but also to raise awareness of the heritage of northern Ceredigion generally. The evening provided an opportunity for the local people to reminisce on the various aspects of mining life - the people, the stories, the memories and the effects of the mines on the development of the community. For further information about Ysbryd y Mwynwyr – Spirit of the Miners, please contact Meleri Richards on 01545 574162 or by e-mail on melerir@ceredigion.gov.uk. Further evenings and walks and talks events will be organised next year. Visit the website on www.spirit-of-the-miners.org.uk for further information on these events. We would also like to take this opportunity to wish all WMPT members a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Meleri Richards, Ysbryd y Mwynwyr – Spirit of the Miners Project Officer.

SIMON HUGHES ARTICLE IN LAST NEWSLETTER - CORRECTION In the last newsletter, whilst reciting the history of the Talybont Mines I stated that “ Myddelton is recorded as having sent some 26,300 Ozs ( 818 Kg.) of fine silver to the Mint in 1625 - '26. Upon Sir Hugh's death in December 1631, Lady Myddelton – a daughter of the Pryses of Gogerddan, appointed a manager, but she later assigned the lease to Bushell in the October of 1636. It was later alleged that just as Bushell was being assigned this lease of the Talybont mines, the pumps were withdrawn, and waste thrown down the shafts.“ Lady Myddelton was not a daughter of the Pryses but was, previously, Elizabeth Olmstead of Essex, and the confusion has arisen through Sir Richard Pryse of Gogerddan marrying Hester, the daughter of Sir Hugh Myddelton. Sir Richard survived her and secondly married Mary Vandycke, a widow.
SJSH. 18th Nov 2005

PORTHGAIN HARBOUR AND QUARRIES The Pembrokeshire Coast National Park have just issued an excellent little brochure on the quarries and stone export harbour at Porthgain in north-west Pembrokeshire (UK) - quite free. It provides some useful information on the features - quarries, tunnels, tramways, stone hoppers, etc. - on two walks around the site, and is superbly illustrated by a local artist Graham Brace. This is the sort of leaflet which visitors will want to take away with them. To my mind this type of leaflet is preferable to intrusive interpretation boards. Peter Claughton
I hope that you enjoy this latest edition of the Newsletter, my thanks to all the contributors who have added items and articles.. I look forward to seeing some of you somewhere in Wales next year. We look forward to the restoration work at Pen Y Clun being completed, and don’t forget you can come and have a look either the Friday before or the Monday after the Welsh Mines Society June meeting in the Elan Valley.

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Please remember to send your membership renewal to Nigel Chapman. All that remains is for me to wish you and yours all the very best for the festive season and a happy and healthy New Year. Nadolig Llawen Graham

MINUTES OF 2005 AGM Minutes of 13th Annual General Meeting Held on 30 October 2005 at 14 Dorset Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham.
th

Present:T W Evans (TE) (Chairman), G C Levins (GL) (Secretary), S Timberlake (ST), G W Hall (GH), A P King (AK), N A Chapman (NC) (Directors). Nheng Hall, Christine Smith and Steve Oliver (Members). Meeting Opened at 1200 1. Chairman’s Opening Address The Chairman welcomed everyone to the AGM and thanked Nigel and Megan Chapman for making their home available for the meeting. He noted that the attendees at each AGM tended to be the same every time and would like to see more Members attending and contributing at the meetings. He also noted the varied and differing abilities of the Directors and how this contributed to making the Trust the organisation that it is. TE also wished to thank GL for his sterling work over the past year considering the family health issues that have occupied a lot of his time and was pleased to note that this situation now seems to have improved. 2. Apologies for Absence Peter Claughton due to commitments that were keeping him in France. David Bick due to ill health. The Chairman and all present wanted to give David their best wishes. 3. Minutes of Last AGM It was proposed by NC and Seconded by GH that the Minutes of the 12th AGM of the Trust held at The Pound House, Newent, on 3rd October 2004, were a true and accurate record. Rest of meeting in favour. There were no matters arising from these minutes. 4. Secretary’s Financial Report and Presentation of Accounts The Secretary’s Financial (and Membership) Report was read and discussed. A copy of this report is attached to these minutes. The bank balances as of 30th October 2005 are Current A/c £1692.87, Reserve A/c £1269.69, giving a grand total of £2122.81. It was proposed by TK and Seconded by ST that we accept the Financial Report and Accounts as a true and accurate record of the Trust’s Financial Status.

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GL wished to record that this years report reflected that the Subscriptions and payment of the Insurance Premium had taken place in the same financial year giving a more accurate picture of the financial status of the Trust. Special mention was made of the generous donations of three of the trust members, firstly, David Bick’s donation of £500 which he hopes could be put to use on some worthy cause, secondly Simon Hughes proceeds from the sale of his CD’s had now reached £290 and finally funds raised from the sale of the Cwmystwyth mill photo’s donated by Ifor Richards had contributed a further £20 to the Trust’s funds. The Director’s expressed their thanks to all contributors. 5. Nomination and Election of Director’s due to retire by rotation: D. Bick, T. King, S. Timberlake, P. Claughton It was proposed by NC and Seconded by GH that DB, TK, ST and PC be elected for a further 3 year period of office, it was agreed by all in attendance. GH queried the maximum number of Directors permitted in the Trust and offered to resign his own position in favour of SO. GH proposed and NC Seconded to increase the number of Director’s of the Trust from 8 to 10, this was approved by all present. GL to inform Companies House of the changes. TE proposed SO as an additional Director, this was Seconded by GL and was approved by all present. 6. Insurance 2006 TE noted that the level of cover currently offered by the CBA was acceptable for the Trust members. GL further adding that this cover also provided for the Trust’s Employer’s Liability needs at no additional cost unlike the cover offered by the BCA which would cost more. It was proposed by TK and Seconded by NC that we continue to insure the Trust and it’s activities with the Council for British Archaeology for 2006. 7. Membership Subscriptions 2006 Having reviewed the Trust’s finances it was proposed by GL and Seconded by GH that we maintain the subscription at the current level of £8.00 for 2006. 8. Appointment of Auditor It was proposed by GL and Seconded by NC that we appoint N Bennett as the Trust’s auditor for the forthcoming year. All in agreement. 9. Dates of Director’s Meetings 2006 Sunday 12th February 2006 at West Winds, Penydaren Park, Merthyr Tydfil at 1300hrs. This meeting will be preceded by an informal visit to Glyn Pits at 10:30 the same day for interested parties. AGM to be held on Sunday 12th November 2006 at 14 Dorset Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham at 12 noon. The meeting discussed the merits of trying to hold the AGM at the same venue as one of the field meetings or Heritage weekends in the hope that it may encourage more members to attend and contribute. However, after much debate it was decided against for various reasons. The Chairman though, did wish to stress to members that it was THEIR Trust and their involvement, input and any contributions at the AGM would be keenly received.

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10. Activities for next year Activities at Glyn Pits to continue. Activities at Catherine and Jayne Consols to continue. GL would be happy to assist in organising further working weekends but noted that his other commitments may preclude him from being able to attend. After discussions during the very successful working weekends held in October at Penyclun GL had contacted Mike Munro of the WMS to include in their next newsletter that we intend to hold ‘Open Days’ at the site on the Friday and Monday of the WMS weekend at Elan Valley in the June. This was to allow people who were staying in the area to visit the site and if they want to do some work whilst there. Red Dragon – GH felt continued concern for the stability of areas previously worked on at this site and that it urgently need a further 2 days work carrying out to prevent further decay. GH to contact Simon Harris to discuss and make necessary arrangements. Waller’s Stamp Mill – GL to raise the matter with the Crown Mineral Agents now that the fencing work has been completed at the site, to be reported on. 12. Any Other Business As there was no other business, the Chairman proposed a vote of thanks again to the hosts of this years AGM for their hospitality and refreshments, this was echoed by all present. AGM closed 1330hrs. My thanks to Steve Oliver and Christine Smith for taking and typing these minutes [Ed]

41 APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP 2006 Name: __________________________________________

Address:

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

Postcode: Telephone: Email:

____________________ ____________________ __________________________________________

I wish to renew my membership/become a member, of the Welsh Mines Preservation Trust for 2006, cost including (surface only) insurance £8. Please note that the insurance is for surface activities only, and does not provide cover for any activities underground. If you would like to receive future editions on CD (Microsoft Word / Adobe Acrobat Format), rather than a paper edition, please tick the box. Your support of the Trust is greatly appreciated.

Signed:

_____________________________________

Please return form and cheque to: Nigel Chapman, Membership Secretary, 14 Dorset Road, Ehbaston, Birmingham, B17 8EN. 0121-429-3930 email: guibal40@hotmail.com