THE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT NEW DELHI

THESIS ON PERCEPTUAL MAPPING OF HINDUSTAN TIMES READERS AT NEW DELHI SUBMITTED TO: PROF. SUMANTA SHARMA PROF. DIPTI SHARMA

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: MR. ______________ SUBMITTED BY: _____________ ALUMNI ID NUMBER: BATCH:

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management, New Delhi

ABSTRACT
Perceptual mapping is used to describe a set of techniques designed to represent perceptions about various mutual fund schemes and their similarities in a visual "space". It is useful for providing highly intuitive representations in order to position mutual fund schemes on dimensions critical to consumer perceptions in that visual space, a variety of simple to complex statistical methodologies can be used to create them. Some of the latter include multi-dimensional scaling, factor or cluster analytical methods, and conjoint analysis. Usually these techniques result in schemes being mapped on 2 to 3 dimensions. Two- dimensional maps are the most popular as they are most easily understood and interpreted by clients. There is also substantive agreement that consumers use only a limited number of separate (though sometimes complex and integrative) concepts to assess mutual fund schemes. To find out the perceptual mapping for Hindustan times by the customer. News paper provide various schemes to customers, where each scheme is targeted to different segments, this study helps us in identifying the actual targeted segments of each section of HT newspaper i.e. sports, business, Entertainment, General news from customer perceptive. Opinion will be collected from customers. Position of different schemes will be done by using Multidimensional Scaling technique for the selected variables. From this the customers can understand where there is a gap and where there is a cluster; accordingly they can use a new scheme for investment or restructure the existing scheme.

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The Indian Institute of Planning & Management, New Delhi

SIGNATORY PAGE
TO WHOMESOEVER IT MAY CONCERN This is to confirm that Prerna Chauhan, student of IIPM, NEW DELHI, is doing a live project(Thesis) on the topic “PERCEPTUAL MAPPING OF HINDUSTAN TIMES READERS AT NEW DELHI” under my guidance and that the work being done by the candidate is original and is of the standard expected by an MBA student. May god bless her with all success in her career. Warm regards ____________

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This is to inform that your thesis proposal on “Perceptual Mapping of Hindustan Times Readers in New Delhi”.Sumanta Sharma Dean (Projects) IIPM Sumanta. New Delhi TOPIC APPROVAL LETTER Dear Mohd. a thesis should aim at adding value to the existing knowledge base.sharma@iipm. Mohd.-0124-3350709 by sending at least six response sheets (attached along with this mail) at regular intervals before the last date for thesis submission. Azam. You are required to correspond with your internal guide Prof.edu Phone: +91 0124 3350701 (D) +91 0124 3350715 (Board) BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 iv ALUMNI ID NO. Prof . Regards. 2) The candidate needs to handwrite at least 1200 to 1500 words on the summary of thesis at the time of viva . Alpi Jain at alpi.jain@iipm.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.edu Ph. to be conducted under the guidance of Mr.: . Mobin Qaisar Siddique is hereby approved and the topic registration id number is DS/09/11-M-07 Make it a comprehensive thesis by ensuring that all the objectives as stated by you in your synopsis are met using appropriate research design. NB: 1) A thesis would be rejected if there is any variation in the topic/title from the one approved and registered with us.

New Delhi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is well-established fact that behind every achievement lays an unfathomable sea of gratitude to those who have extended their support and without whom the project would never have come into existence. New Delhi for providing me an opportunity to work on this thesis as a part of the curriculum. I express my gratitude to IIPM. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 v ALUMNI ID NO. Sumanta Sharma and Prof.: . Dipti Sharma on the completion of my project. I express my gratitude to Prof.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Also.

................. 5.........................................55 BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................The Indian Institute of Planning & Management............... 8....iii TOPIC APPROVAL LETTER.................................................................v APPROVED THESIS SYNOPSIS................ii SIGNATORY PAGE..............................................................5 LITERATURE REVIEW................................... New Delhi CONTENT ABSTRACT.57 BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 vi ALUMNI ID NO..............................36 FINDING AND ANALYSIS.15 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY......................................1 COMPANY PROFILE..............................54 RECOMMENDATION...............vii 1...................... 7.................................................. 6................ 2.......................................................................................................................................... 9.................................................. 4.. 3.........37 CONCLUSION....................56 ANNEXURE – QUESTIONNAIRE........................................................................: .............iv ACKNOWLEDGMENT........................................................................................................................................ INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................................................

business. General news from customer perceptive. Opinion will be collected from customers. Entertainment. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 vii ALUMNI ID NO. accordingly they can use a new scheme for investment or restructure the existing scheme. Position of different schemes will be done by using Multidimensional Scaling technique for the selected variables. this study helps us in identifying the actual targeted segments of each section of HT newspaper i. where each scheme is targeted to different segments. sports.e. New Delhi THESIS SYNOPSIS DETAILS OF THE STUDENT: Name Batch Specialization Section Phone No Email Id : : : : : : • DESIRED AREA: Marketing • TITLE OF THE THESIS: PERCEPTUAL MAPPING OF HINDUSTAN TIMES READERS AT NEW DELHI • PROBLEM DEFINITION /HYPOTHESIS /RESEARCH OBJECTIVES To find out the perceptual mapping for Hindustan times by the customer. News paper provide various schemes to customers. • LITERATURE RELATED TO THE RESEARCH (IN BRIEF) Perceptual mapping is used to describe a set of techniques designed to represent perceptions about various Marketing concept and their similarities in a visual "space".The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.: . From this the customers can understand where there is a gap and where there is a cluster.

4p’s Website/Internet – Hindustan times Book – Course book/ Philip Kotler Notes. New Delhi It is useful for providing highly intuitive representations in order to position the different marketing strategy schemes on dimensions critical to consumer perceptions in that visual space. and conjoint analysis. TOOL USEDExcel sheet.Professors Notes PRIMARY DATAI will collect the data through structure questionnaire. a variety of simple to complex statistical methodologies can be used to create them. Harvard Business Review.: . Two.dimensional maps are the most popular as they are most easily understood and interpreted by clients.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SECONDARY DATA – I will collect the Secondary data from following sources:• • • • • Newspaper – HT. • SCOPE OF THE THESIS WORK From the perceptual mapping the customers can understand where there is a gap and where there is a cluster. accordingly they can use a new scheme for investment or restructure the existing scheme.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.The Times. factor or cluster analytical methods. and histogram BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 viii ALUMNI ID NO. TOI Magazine . pie chart. There is also substantive agreement that consumers use only a limited number of separate (though sometimes complex and integrative) concepts to assess the perceptual mapping. Some of the latter include multi-dimensional scaling. Usually these techniques result in schemes being mapped on 2 to 3 dimensions.

housewife. Perceptual mapping is one of the few marketing research techniques that provides direct input into the strategic marketing planning process.  JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING A PARTICULAR RESEARCH PROPOSAL The type of research carried for the study is descriptive research and sampling taken is random sampling. New Delhi SAMPLING METHOD Random Sampling SAMPLE SIZEI will try to collect data from more than 50 customers Target AudienceStudents.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.My job also included comparative analysis of different financial product lines demanded by different consumers. if I need to target business segment probably I will take Banking customer in this account.: . working group i. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 ix ALUMNI ID NO.  SUMMER TRAINING REPORT (IN BRIEF) During my internship I worked as a sales trainee in Reliance Capital Services.My prime job was to regulate and increase the sales of financial products offered by the company.e. Businessman. It allows senior marketing planners to take a broad view of the strengths and weaknesses of their product or service offerings relative to the strengths and weaknesses of their competition.

: .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New Delhi DETAILS OF THE EXTERNAL GUIDE • • • Name of the Guide : MOHD MOBIN QAISAR SIDDIQUE Qualification Designation : MBA : ZONAL MANAGER (SALES&MARKETING) BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 DS/09/11-M-07 x ALUMNI ID NO.

etc. besides creating healthy business environment in the country. as well as provide justice to the needy. magazines. educate urban and rural masses. instill a sense of responsibility among the people. internet. democratic set up. it has acquired the status of an industry. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. private sectors as well as the public sectors. the media and entertainment industry is undergoing remarkable change and is one of the fastest growing sectors. The main factors responsible for this are rising per capita/ national income. as well as electronic media like radio. new formats for film production and distribution. New 1 Delhi INTRODUCTION 'Media' is the medium of carrying information. education and entertainment to the masses. small and large business and production houses. In India. presence of the strong and constructive media in a country is important for catering to the diverse needs of individuals. etc. society as a whole. political and cultural exchange. In an era where knowledge and facts are the tools for economic. Media is a conscience-keeper of the nation and has many tasks to perform in our day-to-day lives. It largely consists of print media like newspapers. journals and other publications. The media industry plays an important role in creating people's awareness about national policies and programmes by providing information and education. high economic growth and strong macro-economic fundamentals. television. it helps people to be active partners in the nation-building endeavor. It is an easier and efficient means of communication which plays a key role in the overall development of an economy. easier access to and for international companies as well as advent of digital communication and its technological innovations are the other attributes of the growth of the sector. various research organizations. good governance as well as law and order position in the country. Specifically.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. It helps the Government to achieve various socioeconomic and political goals. gradually liberalizing attitude of Government towards the sector.: DS/09/11- . privatization and growth of radio. spectacular growth of the television industry. Thus. With the changing scenario of the world.

The publications in the country are in Hindi.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. there were approximately 4000 newspapers being published in the country. Each week. English and all vernacular languages.: DS/09/11- . It was reported that in 1993. driven both by expanding literacy and improved living standards.525 newspapers. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. There is also a good range of weekly. the survey suggests. Now the figure has increased to approximately 5. with the numbers increasing periodically. New 2 Delhi Overview of newspaper scenario: In India newspaper publication began in Calcutta in the 1780's and by 1800 there were several dozen publications in English. National Readership Survey (NRS) says. represent a chain of growth. These enormous numbers. In India the print and the electronic media are both very active. the print news media reaches 242 million readers. Now. the progress has been so much that every major newspaper from India has an internet edition. fortnightly and monthly magazines in the country which cover a whole range of national as well as international issues in depth.

catalogs. Usually. printing with movabe lead types. printed products are categorized into commercial printing and periodicals. New 3 Delhi Top players: Newspapers: • The Hindustan Times Hindustan Times The Hindu Indian Express Malayalam Manorama. Telegraph. MAGAZINES: BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Commercial printing refers to print products that are produced occasionally (brochures. however printed information is and remains omnipresent. Mid Day Mumbai. The market for print products offers more variety than ever. in the middle of the fifteenth century triggered a revolution in the book production. Deccan Herald. • • • • • • • • • PRINT MEDIA: It is true that the age of electronic media has started. culture and information than had been possible with hand written books. Dainik Bhaskar. A much greater proportion of the population got the chance to acquire education. The Economic Times. journals. business cards).: DS/09/11- . BOOKS: Gutenberg’s work and his invention.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Another way of categorizing printed products is by splitting them into special groups. These individual groups are: 1. 2. leaflets. magazines). This classification differentiates printed matter with regard to its frequency of publication. Periodicals are printed matters that appear periodically (newspapers.

Most traditional papers also feature an editorial page containing columns which express the personal opinions of writers. product). there is a large market for leaflets and product descriptions. Such printed matter is referred to as brochures. coupons. society and sports. The two most important categories of newspapers are daily papers and weekly papers. General-interest newspapers often feature articles on political events.g. This is due to the content and it is the major characteristic of the periodicals. The newspaper is still one of the most significant mass media today. The print volume of brochures is low. Magazines usually have a shorter life span. NEWSPAPERS: A newspaper is a written publication containing news. crime. 4. including trade magazines. New 4 Delhi The range of magazines consists mainly of periodicals. business. Brochures are commercial print work. Supplementary sections may contain advertising. company. They are mainly used to describe something particular (e. and other printed media. BROCHURES: Apart from the advertising insert that comes in the newspapers and magazines. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. journals and illustrated magazines. comics. 3. Newspapers usually focus on one particular geographic area where most of their readers live.: DS/09/11- . information and advertising.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. art/entertainment. Most newspapers are produced daily and have a high circulation.

ever-increasing scope of operns and a consumer focused approach. The print location of Jaipur was discontinued from June 2006. shoemaker Christian Louboutin. And it has a significant online presence with HindustanTimes. The Mumbai edition was launched on 14 July 2005. Mumbai Lucknow Patna. Other sister publications of Hindustan Times are Mint (English business daily). plans to consolidate itself as vibrant and modern media powerhouse throuatiogh strategic partnerships. the political party presently leading the United Progressive Alliance (UPA).Hindustan Times (the flagship English daily) and Hindustan (Hindi newspaper). which is in power in India. Critics allege that the paper often toes the line of Congress (I). which has featured speakers like designer Diane von Fürstenberg. Indian Readership Survey (IRS) 2008-R2 revealed that it has readership of (6. the newspaper reported that with a (circulation of over 1.com.14 million) it was certified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations ranking them as the third largest circulatory daily English Newspaper in India It has a wide reach in northern India (barring Southern India). It is also printed from Bhopal and Chandigarh. HT has also launched a youth daily HT Next in 2004.: DS/09/11- . Ranchi and Kolkata.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. The media group also owns a radio channel Fever and organises an annual Luxury Conference. Hindustan (Hindi Daily). published since 1924 with roots in the independence movement. with simultaneous editions from New Delhi. The KK Birla branch of the Birla family owns Hindustan Times. New 5 Delhi COMPANY PROFILE India's foremost media conglomerate is home to the leading newspapers in the country . The Hindustan Times Ltd. Hindustan Times (HT) is India's leading newspaper.In 2008. Nandan (monthly children's magazine) and Kadambani (monthly literary magazine). Hindustan Times is the flagship publication of HT Media Ltd.6 million) raking them as the second most widely read English Newspaper after Hindustan Times. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Gucci CEO Robert Polet and Cartier MD Patrick Normand.

Fever 104 Radio Events Digital Hindustan UP Delhi Bihar Jharkhand Uttarakhand Chandigarh Mint Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Chennai Kolkata Pune Chandigarh Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Kolkatta Events.Com I Love Delhi Delhi Shopping Carnival Shine. The entire operation of Hindustan Times in Rajasthan is regulated from this office of Jaipur. Internet & Mobile Hindustan Times.Com Live Mint .com Live Hindustan . Editorial. ORAGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY OF THE AREA OFFICE BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Ad Operation and AD Billing. This office is located in Bani Park Area. New 6 Delhi HT Media Ltd Print Print Hindustan Times Delhi Mumbai Chandigarh Bhopal Lucknow Patna Ranchi & Kolkata Radio . The reporting done to the HO in New Delhi from Jaipur branch.com Desi martini. Jaipur. Sales and Circulation.: DS/09/11- .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.com HT mobile BRANCH OFFICE OF HINDUSTAN TIMES JAIPUR Hindustan Times being one of the growing company of Print Media having it’s Branch Office in Jaipur. Events And Solutions Leadership Summit Luxury Summit Youth Nexus Miss India world WIDE Digital. The Office has four divisions – Media Marketing.

: DS/09/11- . It is printed out of eleven centers including Bhopal. Lucknow. dominating the Northern. Eastern and Central regions of the country. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Patna and Kolkata. Chandigarh. Jaipur. Nagpur. Delhi. thus.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 7 Delhi PRODUCTS OF HINDUSTAN TIMES HINDUSTAN TIMES The flagship publication of the Group has editions from Delhi.

The enlarged operations and enhanced look have also paid off with a substantial increase in circulation across the country.: DS/09/11- . offering a daily supplement catering to specific target audiences. a news led media portal is today one of the most popular port of call for news and infotainment content seekers on the Web. which is Asia's first tabloid on the Web. Its New Delhi edition continues to be the single largest English daily edition in the country with a circulation of over 9.COM HindustanTimes. In its endeavor to provide its readers with greater value.com. Patna. new economy.5 lakhs. In another major achievement. reaching closer to the consumers. ranking above the likes of International Herald Tribune. Bhagalpur. HindustanTimes. Besides carrying stories from the newspaper. which ensures enhanced ease of reading and convenient handling. along with in-depth web exclusives on politics.com.com is the only Indian media site featured amongst the top 10 international newspaper sites by Forbes for the third time running. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Hindustan Times has entered into strategic alliances with The Indian Express. It has set many a standard for its competitors and will continue to do so in the years to come. Lucknow. and HTCricket. make it one of the most of the most formidable media players. a popular destination for cricketing bytes.2 lakhs. along with its strong presence in North India. Supplements like HT Estates (on real estate and interiors) are the first of their kind in their respective categories. the site has exclusive and in-depth coverage by its independent editorial staff. These alliances.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Ranchi and Raipur. The site also provides sections written by popular columnists. In a major incentive for the advertisers as well as the readers. sleeker and smarter. fashion and lifestyle. it has revamped its existing supplements and added new ones to its portfolio. Its exclusive properties include HTTabloid. New 8 Delhi Kolkata. entertainment. Mid-Day and Deccan Chronicle. while maintaining its leadership status in Delhi as the largest circulated English daily at 5. It is the first smart-age newspaper in India to evolve into a new international size. Business Standard. Hindustan Times believes in continuous improvement and providing greater value to its readers and advertisers.com. business. HINDUSTAN TIMES.

HT MINTWhile newspapers may be a suffering in most markets. The newspaper was not launched as a free newspaper because local distributors need a share of revenue.85 lakhs (NRS). with a cover price of less than a cup of tea.: DS/09/11- . Hindustan is the 9th largest read newspaper in the country. who recently launched what is now India’s newest and fastest-growing business newspaper. New 9 Delhi HINDUSTAN: The group's Hindi newspaper. potential business readers will not Media Marketing BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. according to RajuNarisetti. Mint. It remains the Number 1 daily in Bihar with a market share of more than 75% of the Hindi daily market. Among the reasons he cites for newspapers still succeeding in India and other developing countries are raising levels literacy and limited access to Internet. Hindustan has grown considerably from strength to strength and has gained significantly across markets. they remain a growth business in India. The popular Hindi daily has also featured innovative advertising campaigns tailored to meet the specific needs of advertisers. The publication's readership has grown by an impressive 11% to 63. Hindustan has grown by 34%. Lucknow has been a trailblazer. (Source: National Readership Survey 2002). In Uttar Pradesh and Delhi.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. That said. the former editor of the Wall Street Journal Europe. recording an unprecedented growth of 169%.

companies as well as government thus the scope of media marketing has also increased. along with its strong presence in North India. make it one of the most formidable media players. sleeker and smarter. · Hindustan Times has set many a standard for its competitors. Weakness: BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Business Standard. · Its New Delhi edition continues to be the single largest English daily edition in the country with a circulation of over 9.: DS/09/11- . It is the first smart-age newspaper in India to evolve into a new international size. Especially in case of business segment where print advertisement can be an effective tool for to promote their business. dominating the Northern. Lucknow. The revenue comes from the booking of advertisement under various categories. New 1 0 Delhi Media Marketing has become an important segment of advertisement in Print Media. The industry is booming and it has been also contributing in the GDP of the country. Media Marketing Scenario in RAJASTHAN: Rajasthan is a state of business class and there is a growing need for advertisement. The Print section has a considerable share of the entire pie and Hindustan Times being has a great opportunity to explore the entire market of Rajasthan. Eastern and Central regions of the country. · In a major incentive for the advertisers as well as the readers. it has revamped its existing supplements and added new ones to its portfolio. · In its endeavor to provide its readers with greater value. Hindustan Times has entered into strategic alliances with The Indian Express. As advertisement has become a effective tool of promotion for individuals.2 lakhs. These alliances. The overall revenue Print Media depends substantially on the revenue of the Media Marketing.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. SWOT Analysis of the organization Strength: · The flagship publication of the Group has editions from Delhi. thus. which ensures enhanced ease of reading and convenient handling. Mid-Day and Deccan Chronicle. Patna and Kolkata. Print advertising of various categories can tap the segments according to their needs. offering a daily supplement catering to specific target audiences.

other competitors entering the Mumbai market (DNA) will further extend HTM’s timeframe to make money. · The sheer number of publications has created fierce competition Which has kept prices low which in turn has caused publishers to depend more on advertising revenues. other competitors have entered the Mumbai market like DNA Advertisement And its classification BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. of which 65% is literate. In 2005. which also have greater financial resources. New 1 1 Delhi Mumbai edition of Hindustan Times will suck most of the company’s investments and profitability for the next two years will be adversely affected. Threats: In Mumbai. · Circulation could rise by a whopping 14% riding the back of the advertising boom. Opportunity: · Newspapers only reach 35% of the adult population. HTM faces immense competition from the established The Hindustan Times and Indian Express. there is significant room for growth. In Mumbai.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. · Advertising revenues in 2006 are predicted to see a 15 to 20% spike.7% more than went to television. The Mumbai edition is expected to incur losses for a couple of years. In addition. HTM faces immense competition from the established The Hindustan Times and Indian Express. 48% of India's total advertising market went to newspapers.: DS/09/11- . In addition.

Internet.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. magazine. broachers. and even unhealthy behaviors through food consumption. internet. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer. ideals. kiosks. Medias of advertisements Print Media: Under print media the different types are-Newspaper. news programs. radio. These brands are usually paid for or identified through sponsors and viewed via various media. Electronic media: Under Electronic media the different types are-Broadcast (Television[Entertainment. New 1 2 Delhi Advertisement and Medias of advertisement Advertising is a non-personal form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers. video game and television viewing promotion. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Cinemas Movies. trade house and Events. direct marketing. and a "lazy man" routine through a loss of exercise . Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company. Outdoor Marketing: This category comprises of Billboards. and published pictures and articles. News]&Radio). readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products. Several types of mass media are television. Communicating a change in the existing product line. Sports. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Introduction of a new product or service.: DS/09/11- . Advertisement does• • • • • Increasing the sales of the product/service Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image. Word of mouth publicity: Under this category –pioneer ship. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a mass amount of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action. such as encouraging 'environmentally friendly' behaviors. or services. to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. Categories Of Advertisement Of Hindustan Times BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. fliers etc.

They are printed yearly. which are printed in relation to condolences and remembrance of those who have passed away. This ia an agency which undertake media advertisement and publicity for various ministries and department of state level government of India. product and its features. For instance when a newspaper gives ads in which it shows its association with some kind a social cause Or when it print ads to promote a special segment of its newspaper such a matrimonial. DIPR:DIPR stands for department of information and public relation. As a service agency. Display ads basically are those ads which appears in a box .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.It shows the brand. AFR stand for audited financial report and UFR stands for un-audited financial report. half yearly or may be quarterly’s per the choice and policy of the company. FEATURES ADS: BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. AFR/UFR:These are special purpose advertisement printed on occasion like a festival or anniversary. it endeavors to communicate at grass roots level on behalf of various Central Government Ministries. And has a great influence on revenue of newspaper. stakeholders like shareholders suppliers and customers. These ads basically are the ads. New 1 3 Delhi DISPLAY:This is a very important category of advertisement. Display ads are measured in terms of SQCM DAVP:The Directorate of Advertising & Visual Publicity (DAVP) is the nodal agency to undertake multi-media advertising and publicity for various Ministries and Departments of Government of India. OBITUARY: This kind of category defines those ads. which display the financial report of any company who wants to reveal its financial position to its financers. Display ads show detailed information about the company and its outlets. This is generally having a separate and permanent space in newspapers SELF ADVERTISEMENT: This refers to that category which prints ads in connection to the promotion of the brand of newspaper itself. It can be of two types colour and black and white.: DS/09/11- . Some of the Autonomous Bodies also route their advertisements through DAVP.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 1 4 Delhi This kind of ads are printed rarely on special sary of a newspaper or other such occasion CLASSIFIEDS: Classified advertising is a form of advertising which is particularly common in newspapers online and other periodicals e. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.g. free ads papers or Penny savers. Classified advertising differs from standard advertising or business models in that it allows private individuals (not simple companies or corporate entities) to solicit sales for products and services.: DS/09/11- . A detailed description of classified is given in the pages to come.

there still remain some very basic issues as to the procedure's applicability and usefulness. it is now as popular as ever. Defining and limiting the relevant space BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. and have been subjected to extensive validations. So. but I will try to minimize those. Perceptual mapping and preference mapping techniques have been basic tools of the applied marketing research profession for over twenty years now. Although I personally observed a minor waning of the use of the techniques in the early 1980's. and concentrate on the issues. I will approach these issues from the research manager's point of view. both in formal presentations and in informal discussions. I am taking this route in the hope that this introduction will encourage greater investigation. It is one of the few advanced multivariate techniques that have not suffered very much from alternating waves of popularity and disfavor.: DS/09/11- . and for a very wide variety of product and service categories.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. and provide fuel for additional conferences of this type. I see that my main task at this conference is to raise the issues. And although these techniques have been used extensively over a large number of applied research studies. It allows the marketing planner to view the customer and the competitor simultaneously in the same realm. That is. New 1 5 Delhi LITRATURE REVIEW Perceptual mapping is one of the few marketing research techniques that provides direct input into the strategic marketing planning process. I am taking a rather naive approach. It allows senior marketing planners to take a broad view of the strengths and weaknesses of their product or service offerings relative to the strengths and weaknesses of their competition. CURRENT ISSUES IN PERCEPTUAL MAPPING A. there remain many outstanding issues concerning the proper procedures and algorithms that should be used for perceptual mapping. and some biases. These issues represent the kinds of questions that my clients ask me and my staff. I have some answers. Obviously. I know that many of these issues will be addressed at this conference. as I see them. In addition. and not the statistician's. increase validation activities.

or brand. This seldom poses a serious problem because it tends to be self-defining in terms of users. However. B.: DS/09/11- . then what are the characteristics of those product categories or industries? C. except for those using the scaling methods based on overall product similarities. there are questions as to how familiar a respondent is with a product. or firms in question. In my opinion. New 1 6 Delhi How is the relevant space limited? There are three types of limitations that must be placed on the relevant multivariate space that will be analyzed and mapped. 2. Limits on the relevant set of variables that will be used to define the perceptual space. A balance is required. This will be discussed in a later section. Extracting the dimensions. Is "high involvement" in the respondent rating process a necessary prerequisite for multivariate mapping? What level of familiarity is necessary and sufficient to include a set of ratings into the definition of the relevant multivariate space? D. services. or firms that will be mapped into the multivariate space is also a major issue. this is the most critical area for setting limitations. There is a nearly unlimited set of variables available. Limits on the population that is to be surveyed. services. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. They are: 1.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. it is still a serious one. Are there particular product categories or merchandise lines or firm types where discriminant analysis-based mapping works better? If so. The major question to the applied researcher is what variables are to be used to orient the perceptual positioning of the various competitors. Limits on the relevant set of products. or purchasers of the products. Although I don't believe that this is as critical an issue as the selection of the relevant variable set. 3.

What actions should you take when the first extracted dimension explains much more variance then the second dimension? Is it appropriate to display those two dimensions as equal axes in the map? E.: DS/09/11- . How do you display more than two dimensions? What procedures and graphics algorithms are available? What graphics procedures best convey the information in the multivariate space to managers and creative professionals? 3. If so. How should we show which products or firms are significantly different from others on the map? 2. Does anyone attempt to draw confidence limits around the mapped points anymore? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Plotting the firms/products in the perceptual space 1. what should be used as the appropriate weights percent of variance explained by each axis. or something else? F. 1. If you do eliminate them. do you eliminate those from the display. but have three or more significant dimensions.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 1 7 Delhi 1. If you are forced to use a two-dimensional map. Should variable coordinate weighting be used to show differences in the amount of variance explained by each axis? 2. but test as significant? 2. What are some good rules of thumb for determining how many dimensions to use? How much variance needs to be explained to be comfortable? How should we handle dimensions with low variance explained. what criteria should you use? 4. Plotting the variables in the derived space raises some interesting questions. eigen values. how do you adequately show those attributes that are heavily loaded on the third dimension? Or.

: DS/09/11- Are scatter plots of grouped respondent locations the only thing . How can you incorporate volumetric data into multivariate mapping? In other words. how can you show the marketing manager where the greatest demand exists on the map or where the opportunities are? a. Use both of these methods in combination? 4. Re-generate the dimensions with each attribute from each time period representing a separate attribute.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 1 8 Delhi G. or some other measure? 2. Always use the original space. What other procedures are being used? H. and minimize the variance between their positions over successive time periods? 3. Is longitudinal mapping a valid concept? What are the critical issues in overlaying maps? What are the best methods for doing this? 1. and simply plug in the standardized means for each product from successive time periods into the linear dimensional equations and calculate the new coordinates? 6. Line up "index" points from successive time periods so as to minimize the variance between them? Should the index points be the vector of importance ratings. and each product from each time period representing a separate product? 5. Select a very stable vector that consistently discriminates between at least two of the products or firms. available? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Shanmugham (2000) conduct a survey of 201 individual investors to study the information sourcing by investors. Incidentally . share them with your peers.an investment in mutual funds would be entitled to indexation benefits in the computation of capital gains. Marketing Strategy: HT adopted a two-stage process. They concentrated specifically on households that subscribe to English newspapers. freely subject them to validations. I'm sure that there are others besides these. publicize solutions to them.argue that mean reversion in stock prices is an evidence of investor over reaction where investor over emphasize recent firm performance in forming future expectations. I would like to challenge the readers to address these issues. depict number of be done with "smoothing" Or. and seek to leverage the tax arbitrage. titled as serial plans. psychological and sociological factors dominated the economic factors dominated the economic factors in share investment decisions. there are still many outstanding issues and further development opportunities with multivariate mapping procedures. which involves negligible downward risk. They built quality circulation instead of just increasing sales numbers. can we develop a surface plot over the mapped space that will such things as dollars spent.their perception of various investment strategy dimention and the factors.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. or even times visited? What methods are being used now? What could the new graphics packages combined with multivariate routines to superimpose surface plots over the derived space? Needless to say.: DS/09/11- . They first focused on building the brand in a new market by targeting the discerning English reader. From press reports that mutual funds offer special plans. which would ortherwise be denied to a direct investment in debt securities .It is a common observation that large companies deploy their investible surplus in the fixed income schemes. and give us more specificity in executing this most powerful and useful marketing research procedure. or number of items bought. Then they focused on building the circulation. New 1 9 Delhi b. De bond and Thaler (1985) while investigating the possible psychological basis for investor behavior . which allow an investors to be the sole member of a scheme and the deployment of the money is effected in avenues choosen by the said investor.

Newspapers traditionally had `newsstand' sales from where a fairly large proportion of their readers picked up their daily fix. The TV commercial was made such that it showed HT readers were being distinguished from a crowd of blindfolded people. Pricing Strategy: The sales and delivery model that lasted for so many decades are undergoing a radical change. New 2 0 Delhi Promotional Strategy: HT used ‘Let there be light’ ad campaign to spread the message of its superior content. The remaining sales were made through `hawkers' who delivered the newspaper home and collected the money at the end of the month.: DS/09/11- . Subscription sales for daily newspapers were always a very small proportion of the total sales.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. The positioning is that HT as a brand is a thought-stimulating product.

New 2 1 Delhi The Hindustan Times has been touting a scheme where a newspaper has a cover price of Rs 2. Supplements like HT Estates (on real estate and interiors) are the first of their kind in their respective categories. while maintaining its leadership status in Delhi as the largest circulated English daily at 5.HT NEXT. A coupon is given at the end of every month to the `hawker' who delivers the newspaper home.2 lakhs. it has revamped its existing supplements and added new ones to its portfolio.5 lakhs. This gives a feeling of security to the reader who is skeptical about a one-time advance payment. In its endeavor to provide its readers with greater value. Eastern and Central regions of the country. A reader who goes in for the cash back scheme on an advance payment of an annual subscription gets a glossy booklet with twelve coupons affixed with a fancy hologram. It is the first ever BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Patna and Kolkata. Chandigarh. HT NEXT: Hindustan Times rolled out its youth edition . offering a daily supplement catering to specific target audiences. Kolkata. Present Status: The flagship publication of the Group has editions from Delhi. Bhagalpur. Patna. thus. dominating the Northern.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.: DS/09/11- . Jaipur.50 but actually costs just Re1 per day. Delhi. Its New Delhi edition continues to be the single largest English daily edition in the country with a circulation of over 9. It is printed out of eleven centers including Bhopal. reaching closer to the consumers. Nagpur. Lucknow. Ranchi and Raipur. Lucknow.

Loaded with new. the all-color edition of Hindustan Times will is available at a price of Rs. comprehensive and holistic daily with substance and style. The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). was held on 2006 in Mumbai.: DS/09/11- . 1. co-sponsored by the Ministry of Commerce & Industry. HT Next promises to be a reader friendly.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Hindustan Times. New 2 2 Delhi Newspaper launched especially for the youth. one of India’s leading and most respected English dailies.50 at stands across Delhi and NCR. has always prided itself in spotting emerging trends and the Hindustan Times Luxury Conference had been initiated to aid the development of the luxury industry in India. Government of India. India’s premier trade body. views and interesting trivia from around the world. Overview: BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. The first Hindustan Times Luxury Conference. was a partner in this endeavour. Targeted purely at young readers.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Relevance: The Hindustan Times Leadership Summit is a platform for eminent leaders to interact.: DS/09/11- . BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. The Hindustan Leadership Summit invites international business leaders. New 2 3 Delhi In November 2003.an annual conference that seeks to enhance the level of discussion on pressing issues. share their opinions and views on important issues of concern and arrive at solutions. economic and political issues. The conference aims to understand the world's views on social. strategists along with renowned personalities from India and abroad. encourage interaction among leaders in various areas and present international quality thought platforms. It allows senior marketing planners to take a broad view of the strengths and weaknesses of their product or service offerings relative to the strengths and weaknesses of their competition. In addition. as part of its mission to contribute to thought leadership and evolve action plans for a secure and better future. there remain many outstanding issues concerning the proper procedures and algorithms that should be used for perceptual mapping. It tries to gain insights on India's role in the world and its importance in the global growth scenario. Hindustan Times launched the Leadership Summit . Perceptual mapping is one of the few marketing research techniques that provides direct input into the strategic marketing planning process. and for a very wide variety of product and service categories. It allows the marketing planner to view the customer and the competitor simultaneously in the same realm. Perceptual mapping and preference mapping techniques have been a basic tool of the applied marketing research profession for over twenty years now. there still remain some very basic issues as to the procedure's applicability and usefulness. and have been subjected to extensive validations. Although I personally observed a minor waning of the use of the techniques in the early 1980's. And although these techniques have been used extensively over a large number of applied research studies. It is one of the few advanced multivariate techniques that has not suffered very much from alternating waves of popularity and disfavor. it is now as popular as ever.

Brand Mapping . both in formal presentations and in informal discussions. then an appropriate suffix like multivariate mapping of consumer product preferences would be more appropriate. That is. if one wishes to distinguish the types of attributes used. if the only difference .Semantic Mapping between these various names is the selection of a particular attribute set. If one wishes to distinguish algorithms.Image Mapping .Product Mapping . practitioner? oriented publishing activities. I am taking a rather naive approach.Perceptual Mapping . Or. then the proper descriptive prefix can be used. then we are obligated to make those distinctions and perpetuate that nomenclature throughout the profession. or both are far more descriptive and certainly reduces confusion. I know that many of these issues will be addressed at this conference. As it stands now. These issues represent the kinds of questions that my clients ask me and my staff. I see that my main task at this conference is to raise the issues. let's start with the first issue. I will approach these issues from the research manager's point of view. encourage additional.Goal Mapping . the name perceptual mapping is confusing to both marketing managers and many research BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Obviously.Structural Segmentation . and provide fuel for additional conferences of this type.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Either.Market Mapping . but I will try to minimize those. New 2 4 Delhi So. increase validation activities. such as discriminant analysis?based multivariate mapping. WHAT'S IN A NAME? So. as I see them.Strategic Product Positioning Well. I am taking this route in the hopes that this introduction will encourage greater investigation.: DS/09/11- . then I suggest that we rename the technique to just plain old Multivariate Mapping. is it structural segmentation? Or what? Here is a list of some of the names that I have seen this procedure called: . and not the statistician's.MDS Mapping . and concentrate on the issues. If there are true differences between these various names and the and the idea of generic multivariate mapping. Just what is perceptual mapping? Or. is it preference mapping? Or. and some biases.Preference Mapping .Behavioral Mapping . I have some answers.

Thus. so if a respondent rated five products. The procedure is widely available. Discriminant analysis is much like regression analysis in that it uses a least?squares approach in an attempt to fit linear models to the data. and so on until you reach a limit of one less than the number of products being rated. the dependent variable is the product being rated. The inputs to discriminant analysis consist of individual respondent ratings of products across attributes. that generates five input records. Or. and some outstanding questions. most marketing managers assume that there is a fundamental difference between perceptual mapping and. for mapping purposes. and the data distributions can be relaxed to a considerable extent. each product rated by each respondent is an input record. That is. whichever is less. A. However. The formation of the linear equations follows an order. Is there really? ISSUES AND PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT ALGORITHMS IN GENERAL USE Following are the three major classes of algorithms that are generally in use for perceptual mapping in the applied marketing research arena. said a different way. Discriminant analysis is still the most popular algorithm in use today for applied multivariate mapping. preference mapping. such that the first equation explains the most variance.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. The basic assumptions are that the rating scales are continuous and normally distributed. say. the dependent variable is nominal. called discriminant equations. the second explains the most variance remaining after accounting for the variance explained by the first. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Currently. The algorithm is robust in that the assumptions concerning the continuity of the data. or one less than the number of variables. Included is a brief discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. these assumptions can be relaxed to the point that products simply rank? ordered on attributes will provide sufficient information for mapping purposes. explains the variance between product ratings. in using the technique for mapping purposes. from a users viewpoint. Discriminant analysis then calculates the coefficients to a set of standardized linear equations. However.: DS/09/11- . that explain the differences between the product ratings. New 2 5 Delhi professionals.

New 2 6 Delhi These linear equations are further constrained so that each one is uncorrelated to the other. multivariate F statistics to show the significance of the group differences. In most cases. forms the basis for mapping. they are orthogonal. or firms) on each of a selected set of attributes. the calculated coefficients of each variable in each equation define the X and Y coordinates of the attribute on the map. and are the only significant dimensions. which defines the X axis of a map. such as eigen values to show you the variance explained by each equation. The procedure also has a few drawbacks. These equations also allow the researcher to explore the distributions of specific customer groups in the derived space. the successive optimization of the variance explained. The linear discriminant equations allow the researcher to easily plot additional products. there seems to be no consensus short of case? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. because one is assured that the first linear equation. or concepts into the derived space. or Y axis. Assuming for the moment that there are only two significant dimensions. tests of significance for each equation. The X and Y coordinates of each product are calculated by substituting the mean attribute ratings of each product into the two discriminant equations. Obviously it requires individual ratings of individual products (or services. These two properties. Most widely available discriminant analysis algorithms provide a variety of useful statistics to the researcher. Later.: DS/09/11- . Although I have read a dozen papers on handling missing data in discriminant analysis. we will discuss significant dimensions beyond two. explains the most variation between products. after accounting for the variance explained by the X axis (given the limitations of the least?squares procedure). and correlations between the discriminant functions and each attribute variable. And the X and Y axes are orthogonal. explains the most variance between products. there is a perpetual problem with what to do with missing data points.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. and calculating the results. That is. and the second linear equation. and the orthogonality of the equations. the first two equations define the majority of the variance between product ratings. Consequently.

It is often difficult to convey this situation to research managers and senior marketing management. even dominating product choice. Alternatively. A radically changing product space detracts from the confidence that senior marketing managers have in the procedure. enter the discriminant solution and define the relevant space. New 2 7 Delhi wise deletion. the realities of today's marketing research industry often makes this an unacceptable solution. are often required. but is not important in product choice. although in the 1970's it was the preferred mapping procedure among many applied researchers. And. The omission of important discriminating attributes may lead to false conclusions concerning the dimensionality of consumer ratings of product differences. Although you have the same problems with what to do about missing data and selecting the relevant set of variables as you have with discriminant analysis. Yet. the selected set of attribute variables is highly correlated. there is no control over the number of attribute variables.: DS/09/11- . multiple passes. All BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. especially when the set of firms or products under consideration is small or radically different from other products. but do not differentiate between products. and will not display on the map attributes that may be extremely important. Often. This can be costly. R-Type Factor Analysis is seldom used as a mapping procedure in today's applied marketing research field. there are a few empirical studies that show it is superior to discriminant analysis. To overcome this situation. Is mean substitution an appropriate solution? How does mean substitution effect the calculation of the discriminant functions? The procedure is dependent on the selection of the appropriate attribute set. this procedure overcomes two of the problems with discriminant analysis. Also. The inclusion or exclusion of one of the products or firms being rated often changes the dimensionality of the space. forcing in variables in which there is a high interest.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. the procedure highlights those variables that discriminate between products. short of adding more products simply to stabilize the space? That solution is often not viable in researching industrial products. B. situations often develop where a particular variable discriminates between products. Is there some way of overcoming this. consequently. or which attribute variables.

where the variance between product ratings is addressed. The basic assumptions concerning the distribution and continuity of the rating scales should not be relaxed. Or alternatively. The addition or deletion of an attribute may dramatically alter the dimensionality of the derived space. thus the various differences in product ratings is ignored until after the factor equations are derived. until 100% of the correlation is explained with a number of factors equal to one less than the number of variables. At this point the two procedures part ways. The output of factor analysis does meet the basic criteria for developing a map.: DS/09/11- . and so on. factor analysis attempts to explain the correlation between importance ratings of the variables. product ratings across attributes. Product locations in the derived space are calculated by averaging the first two factor scores of that product's ratings to define the X and Y coordinates. New 2 8 Delhi variables are shown on the map. Unlike discriminant analysis. extraction of factors is dependent on the intercorrelations BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. The extraction of factors is highly sensitive to the number of correlated attributes. and the inclusion or exclusion of products has no effect on the extracted dimensions. to define a variable location on the map is a simple case of using that variable's loading on the first factor as the X coordinate. These importance ratings are the basis for developing the mapping space. The first two dimensions explain the maximum amount of variance (i. The inputs to factor analysis are very similar to those for discriminant analysis. and the second extracted equation explains the most of the remaining correlation. plugging the average product scores on each attribute into the two factor scores and calculating the X and Y coordinates. and its loading on the second factor as the Y coordinate. Thus. Factor analysis is an interdependence procedure. The extracted factors are linear equations which have a coefficient for each variable. That is.e. These coefficients are commonly referred to as factor loadings. and they are orthogonal. However. the first factor equation is that linear equation that explains the maximum amount of correlation between the variables.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. correlation) between the importance ratings of the variables (not the ratings of the products). In addition. an additional ingredient is required. You must also collect an importance rating from each respondent for each attribute.

The procedure puts no significant demands on the distribution of the data. Furthermore. AMA. Correspondence Analysis or Dual Scaling techniques are gaining in popularity. 1. A matrix of products?by?attributes works just as well.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. may not show up as a dimension on a map. because of its ability to use summary distributions of nominal data. the point?point maps produced from correspondence analysis are directly generated by most of the programs and they are much easier for general marketing managers and creative promotional personal to understand. and briefly describe the others. and used to provide inputs to correspondence analysis. like discriminant analysis. and will produce an identical map. In addition. Respondents can be asked to name a single brand most BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. C. it has simple data collection requirements. New 2 9 Delhi between variables. But this has proved to be a bulky and difficult procedure to implement. simply because it is not correlated to any of the other measures. I am only going to concentrate on one of those. Almost any data collection procedure imaginable can be transformed. mainly because there has been a considerable amount written on the technique over the last few years. In addition. the procedure does not require the standard attributes?by?products data format required by other procedures. like safety. it is an extremely robust technique. and does not necessarily optimize the separation between products. and the algorithms are becoming widely available.: DS/09/11- . Inputs to correspondence analysis can be as simple as a summary table of respondent checks as to whether a product has a certain characteristic or not. 1977) recommended overcoming this problem through the use of a "weighted covariance approach". weighted by regression scores derived from regressing the importance ratings against product choice. However. Correspondence analysis is often used as a post?hoc mapping procedure for studies that did not originally contemplate multivariate mapping. Myers and Tauber (Market Structure Analysis. a single variable that may be considered extremely important and dominating the selection of products. and there has been little empirical validation. where the input to the factoring program is a matrix of product covariances. Non-metric scaling procedures are still used quite often for multivariate mapping.

This has considerable appeal in light of the industry's intense interest in "respondent abuse" and declining response rates. Interestingly. MINITRI. SSA?1 thru SSA?4. Correspondence analysis has a unique ability to integrate a large amount of data from divergent perspectives on a single map. And metric data distributions must be "nominalized" to be used in the procedure. TORSCA. (to name a few) all fall into a class of BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. For example. the data collection process is highly simplified. or whatever. or store. INDSCAL. We need a solution to this situation. New 3 0 Delhi associated with an attribute. or whatever. MINISSA. and guidelines on proper procedures for nominalizing metric data. SPAD allows you to input either the individual observations. service. need. Even open ended questions can be used by asking respondents to name the qualities most associated with a brand.: DS/09/11- . Thus. is associated with an attribute. and/or different product and attribute locations on the map. PROFIT. or personality. There are no restrictions as to how many. or occasion. and MDSCALE. or ratings. PROXIMITY. brands. the selection of the appropriate break?points is critical. product attributes. or whatever. Consequently. 2. PARAFAC. and has a considerable effect on the amount of explained variance and the extracted dimensions of the correspondence map. a considerable amount of the variance associated with a database of individual responses is sacrificed. depending whether you use the individual observations or the summarized data. The two main drawbacks of the technique are that it uses only summarized distributions of nominal data for most of the algorithms that are currently available. The exception is Benzacri's SPAD program that few researchers have access to. If there are a number of metric distributions that must be converted to nominal variables. needs fulfillment. you will often get differing amounts of explained variance. or the summarized data.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. KYST. Frankly. or store. ALSCAL. PREFMAP. usage occasion. or how few items a respondent associates with a product. I'm not sure why this happens. The data input to the program is a matrix of counts of how many times a product. and usage occasions can all be shown on the same map. firm. MRSCAL.

These methods release the researcher from having to specify the appropriate attribute set. and often conceptually difficult. However. or simply rank order products based on their similarity. services. (see "Multidimensional Scaling". Defining and limiting the relevant space How is the relevant space limited? There are three types of limitations that must be placed on the relevant multivariate space that will be analyzed and mapped. The nature of the dimensions are determined by inspecting the manner in which each product is aligned with each dimension.) CURRENT ISSUES IN PERCEPTUAL MAPPING A. or purchasers of the products. or usage occasion. their respondents are asked to sort products into piles that are similar. Sage University Press. and instead rely on how consumers judge the products in question to be similar. The derivations are based on minimizing stress in the fewest dimensions possible. by Kruskal and Wish. This seldom poses a serious problem because it tends to be self?defining in terms of users.: DS/09/11- . Limits on the population that is to be surveyed. for the most part they have been replaced with correspondence analysis because the data collection procedure is as easy for one as the other. 1978. to the products. several of these algorithms require complicated. The data collection process is often an unstructured sorting task. will often change the dimensionality of the space. New 3 1 Delhi mapping procedures called non?metric multidimensional scaling procedures. or dissimilar. data transformations to work correctly and they are quite sensitive to the types of transformations undertaken. in actuality. or firms in question.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Explanatory variables can be depicted on the map by asking consumers to correlate the similarity of a given attribute. However. some of these algorithms are more metric in nature than non?metric. while preserving respondents' order of similarity. Although conceptually different from correspondence analysis. They are: 1. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. The addition or deletion of one product. Orthogonal scales are then derived to explain the consumers' perceived differences between the complete set of products. The procedures for the most part are quite sensitive to the number of products in the data set. In addition.

: DS/09/11- . Yet. In my opinion. 2. or brand. This will be discussed in a later section. brand images. Although I don't believe that this is as critical an issue as the selection of the relevant variable set. or firms that will be mapped into the multivariate space is also a major issue. consumer goals. The major question to the applied researcher is what variables are to be used to orient the perceptual positioning of the various competitors. The selection of the relevant variable set determines the type of map that will be produced. organizational images. Determination of the relevant set requires the professional marketing researcher to critically examine previous research in the category. consumer needs. 3. this is the most critical area for setting limitations. That is. it is still a serious one. will the map be based on such things as purchase behavior. Limits on the relevant set of products. convenience issues.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. The problem is that we all have seen empirical evidence that the relevant set of attributes changes dramatically from product category to product category. product attribute characteristics. services. New 3 2 Delhi there are questions as to how familiar a respondent is with a product. There is a nearly unlimited set of variables available. Limits on the relevant set of variables that will be used to define the perceptual space. conduct qualitative research. there is no substantial body of knowledge to tell us what is the relevant set of variables that should be used in any one category. A balance is required. product usage behaviors. and creatively select those variables that will provide senior marketing managers with the insight necessary to form marketing strategy. We are left to re?inventing the wheel every time we approach a new product category with multivariate mapping. or some combination of these. except for those using the scaling methods based on overall product similarities. and even among sub?categories. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. This severely detracts from the general adaptation of multivariate mapping procedures at the strategic marketing planning level. and requires the agreement of senior marketing management to concur with the appropriate attribute set. This is a critical decision.

some non?competitive products may so skew the spatial dimensions of the map that differences between the true set of competitors may be hidden or overlooked. As an example. C. B. brought on by an acceleration of differentiated products flooding the market place. 1. ignoring the single merchandise line specialty stores and the deep discounters until the department stores' bottom lines started gushing red ink. since that is what most of us are using. What are some good rules of thumb for determining how many dimensions to use? How much variance needs to be explained to be BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. services or firms is too broad. and the rapid emergence of new product categories. Extracting the dimensions. and sub?categories. we may fail to uncover those truly discriminating variables that may reveal an opportunity for a competitive advantage. we could not rely on a body of literature to solve this problem. That is.: DS/09/11- . the selection of the relevant competitive set of products or services is ever?changing. What is needed is a set of generally accepted procedures for determining the relevant competitive set at any point in time. Is "high?involvement" in the respondent rating process a necessary prerequisite for multivariate mapping? What level of familiarity is necessary and sufficient to include a set of ratings into the definition of the relevant multivariate space? D. New 3 3 Delhi In this era of market fragmentation. If the relevant set of products. the selection of too narrow of a competitive set may destine the marketing planner to focus on the wrong competitors and wrong dimensions. then what are the characteristics of those product categories or industries. I will limit my remarks from here on to discriminant analysis? based multivariate mapping. Are there particular product categories or merchandise lines or firm?types where discriminant analysis?based mapping works better? If so. Permit me to continue the discussion of issues in multivariate mapping in a more abbreviated manner.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Given the rapid nature of change in the competitive set for most product and service lines. department stores for years focused on competing department stores as the relevant set. On the other hand.

Should "ideal" points be used at all? 2. If you are forced to use a two?dimensional map. Plotting the firms/products in the perceptual space 1.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. do you eliminate those from the display.: DS/09/11- . How do you display more than two dimensions? What procedures and graphics algorithms are available? What graphics procedures best convey the information in the multivariate space to managers and creative professionals? 3. Does anyone attempt to draw confidence limits around the mapped points anymore? G. what is the best way of doing that? a. what should be used as the appropriate weights ? percent of variance explained by each axis. do we permit importance ratings to assist in the definition of the relevant space? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. What actions should you take when the first extracted dimension explains much more variance then the second dimension. Use importance ratings and treat these as another product rating? In other words. If you do eliminate them. Plotting the variables in the derived space raises some interesting questions. eigenvalues. Should variable coordinate weighting be used to show differences in the amount of variance explained by each axis? 2. If so. 1. or something else? F. but have three or more significant dimensions. New 3 4 Delhi comfortable? How should we handle dimensions with low variance explained. Is it appropriate to display those two dimensions as equal axes in the map? E. What about "ideal" points? 1. but test as significant? 2. How should we show which products or firms are significantly different from others on the map? 2. If so. how do you adequately show those attributes that are heavily loaded on the third dimension? Or. what criteria should you use? 4.

Is it appropriate to map a "generalized" space. should we calculate standardized mean importance ratings and plug those values into the previously extracted dimensional linear equations to calculate the coordinates of the ideal point? c. New 3 5 Delhi b. or some other measure? 2. Use both of these methods in combination? 4. Should we use respondents' highest rating of any firm/product on each attribute and use that as a set of ratings for the "ideal" product? d.: DS/09/11- .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. What do you do when any one of these procedures dramatically skews the map? H. Is longitudinal mapping a valid concept? What are the critical issues in overlaying maps? What are the best methods for doing this? 1. Re-generate the dimensions with each attribute from each time period representing a separate attribute. What other methodologies are there for generating "ideal points"? g. then impose the mean ratings of those segments as multiple "ideal" points on the map? f. Or. What about using respondents' preferred firm/product and simply duplicate that rating as the set of "ideal" ratings under the assumption that the respondent will purchase or use that product closest to their ideal ? e. and minimize the variance between their positions over successive time periods? 3. and each product from each time period representing a separate product? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Line up "index" points from successive time periods so as to minimize the variance between them? Should the index points be the vector of importance ratings. then segment the sample on importance ratings or product preferences. Select a very stable vector that consistently discriminates between at least two of the products or firms.

or number of items bought. New 3 6 Delhi 5. Always use the original space. b. What other procedures are being used? I.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Are scatter plots of grouped respondent locations the only thing available? Or. can we develop a surface?plot over the mapped space that will depict such things as dollars spent. where the opportunities are. a. and simply plug in the standardized means for each product from successive time periods into the linear dimensional equations and calculate the new coordinates? 6. how can you show the marketing manager where the greatest demand exists on the map? Or. or even number of times visited? What methods are being used now? What could be done with the new graphics packages combined with multivariate "smoothing" routines to super?impose surface plots over the derived space? BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11- . How can you incorporate volumetric data into multivariate mapping? In other words.

: DS/09/11- . It allows senior marketing planners to take a broad view of the strengths and weaknesses of their product or service offerings relative to the strengths and weaknesses of their competition. and histogram SAMPLING METHOD Random Sampling SAMPLE SIZEI will try to collect data from more than 50 customers Target AudienceStudents. New 3 7 Delhi RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY SECONDARY DATA – I will collect the Secondary data from following sources:• • • • • Newspaper – HT. housewife.  JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING A PARTICULAR RESEARCH PROPOSAL The type of research carried for the study is descriptive research and sampling taken is random sampling. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Harvard Business Review. TOI Magazine . TOOL USEDExcel sheet. 4p’s Website/Internet – Hindustan times Book – Course book/ Philip Kotler Notes. working group i. pie chart. Businessman.The Times.Professors Notes PRIMARY DATAI will collect the data through structure questionnaire.e. Perceptual mapping is one of the few marketing research techniques that provides direct input into the strategic marketing planning process. if I need to target business segment probably I will take Banking customer in this account.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 3 8 Delhi FINDING AND ANALYSIS Q. which kind of institution is this? Inference: Institutes select a media to give an adv respect to the courses they deal in and this response gave us the real picture that which kind of a institute it is. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11- .

And strength of institutes give a pave to advertisement for the same BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. How many students are there in your institute? 4500 and above 3500 7% 10% 2500 17% RES PONS E 500 46% 1500 20% Inference: Above response showed the strength of the institute through the intake of students.: DS/09/11- .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 3 9 Delhi Q.

Response gave us the picture that institutes target which region.: DS/09/11- . New 4 0 Delhi Q3.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.What is the target audience RES PONS E North India 4% Rajsthan 23% All India 73% Inference: Institutes have to target a segment for the further plans of adv. PAN India is at pinnacle.

: DS/09/11- .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. If Nationally. And the result jot down says Jharkhand is at highest BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Which are those region students come from? Please specify RES PONS E bihar 0% Madhyapradesh 14% Other Utter pradesh 3% 1% Jharkhand 82% Inference: Advertisement gives a platform for an institute to attract prospect customers from different region. New 4 1 Delhi Q4.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.What is the percentage of student in take in rajsthan? RES PONS E 20% -40% 3% 80% -100% 32% 60% -80% 38% 40% -60% 27% Inference: Within the native region how a city edition will work this response gives us the exact blue print to be followed. New 4 2 Delhi Q5.: DS/09/11- . Here 38% of institutes said that they intake 60%-80% within rajasthan.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.

: DS/09/11- .Who is your Target audience? Inference: Institute has to make a segment to focus upon.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. And via response we can observe that graduates is at supreme by 48% BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. New 4 3 Delhi Q6.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 4 4 Delhi Q7.: DS/09/11- .When does your admission process starts? Inference: Every institute has a particular time period when the admission process is at boom. Response tells that its mainly in May-June with a percentage of 69 when the advertisement is at hike.

New 4 5 Delhi Q8. So by this response institutes come to know their nearest competitors and accordingly they can advertise. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.Who are your nearest competitors? Inference: Competition creates opportunity to increase potential.: DS/09/11- . So here colleges with different universities are highest.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.

: DS/09/11- . New 4 6 Delhi Q9. In this response 46% institutes say that their budget range is 25-50lakhs BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.What is your annual budget of advertising? Inference: Annual budget for advertising has to plan out according to the availability of resources.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. so here in this response it has been seen that the supreme purpose for advertising is marketing and brand-activity with a percentage of 67. New 4 7 Delhi Q10.What is the purpose of your advertising? RES PONS E Adm ission Notice 15% Marketing and brandingActivity 67% Appointm ents 18% Inference: Ultimately motive is what matters.: DS/09/11- . BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management, New 4 8 Delhi

Q11. Which media do you prefer to advertise?

RES PONS E

Exhibition and events 23%

BTL 4%

Outdoor m edia 8% Electronic m edia 4%

print media 61%

Inference: Medium is of great importance while advertising. This response shows that 61% of institutes prefer print media as their promotional tool.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07

ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11-

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management, New 4 9 Delhi

Q12.Which publication you prefer the most for local advertising in news paper?

RES PONS E
Hindustan Tim es 30%

Dainik Bhaskar 37%

Rajasthan patrika 15%

D.N.A 6%

Tim of India es 12%

Inference: Above analysis says that for local advertising in newspaper Dainik Bhaskar is the most preferred publication with a peak percentage of 37.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07

ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11-

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management, New 5 0 Delhi

Q13. What criteria do you consider while selecting a media for advertising?

top of the mind recall 17% catering to target audience 19%

reach/cirpercepti coct response culation on 18% 11% 8% availibilit y 27%

Inference: There are many criteria through which media are chosen. Above response states that 27% of institutes keep availability as the utmost criteria followed by catering to target audience.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07

ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11-

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. New 5 1 Delhi OVERALL PRESENTATION OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES CUSTOMER RATING Excellent Good Average Poor Very poor RESPONDENT 83 125 42 10 0 INTERPRETATION: From the above chart it is clearly seen that the overall presentation of TOI is good majority of the people are satisfied with the overall presentation of the paper.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. So the company can maintain the same way of presenting the news.: DS/09/11- .

: DS/09/11- . New 5 2 Delhi EDITORIAL CONTENT OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES CUSTOMER RATING Excellent Good Average Poor Very poor RESPONDENT 24 64 98 68 6 INTERPRETATION: The customers fells that the editorial column in the paper is average and needs improvement.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. some customers felt that the overall editorial content need to increase as there is only one side in the newspaper with editorial content.

The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. THINGS WHICH CUSTOMERS LIKE IN HINDUSTAN TIMES THINGS Pricing BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 RESPONDENT (in %) 27 ALUMNI ID NO. Majority of the customers fell that the overall content in the newspaper is good does not require any improvement while some felt that some column in the paper needs improvisation. New 5 3 Delhi OVERALL CONTENT OF THE HINDUSTAN TIMES CUSTOMER RATING Excellent Good Average Poor Very poor RESPONDENT 35 150 65 10 0 INTERPRETATION.: DS/09/11- .

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11- .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 5 4 Delhi Content Front page presentation local news Sports Supplements 6 16 16 8 16 8 INTERPRETATION: When customers were asked about the two thing they like the first response from them was the pricing and then the next option was the front page news coverage. thus the above chart explains the customers likings in Hindustan Times.

BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. and for a very wide variety of product and service categories. It allows the marketing planner to view the customer and the competitor simultaneously in the same realm. It allows senior marketing planners to take a broad view of the strengths and weaknesses of their product or service offerings relative to the strengths and weaknesses of their competition.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. New 5 5 Delhi CONCLUSION Perceptual mapping is one of the few marketing research techniques that provides direct input into the strategic marketing planning process. In addition. And although these techniques have been used extensively over a large number of applied research studies. and have been subjected to extensive validations. Perceptual mapping and preference mapping techniques have been a basic tool of the applied marketing research profession for over twenty years now. It is one of the few advanced multivariate techniques that has not suffered very much from alternating waves of popularity and disfavor.: DS/09/11- . there remain many outstanding issues concerning the proper procedures and algorithms that should be used for perceptual mapping. it is now as popular as ever. Although I personally observed a minor waning of the use of the techniques in the early 1980's. there still remain some very basic issues as to the procedure's applicability and usefulness.

If man wants food for his belly. justice and law. Business Standard . They remove the barriers separating man from man. They are the critics of administration. Business Line. equality and fraternity. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO. Hindustan Times etc. They play the part of social reformers. The newspapers have a very important position and place in a democratic country. New 5 6 Delhi RECOMMENDATION  The major players of English Newspapers are The Times Of India . They enforce the right and redress the wrong. he also needs news for his mind to keep pace with the world. The Economic Times . The latter he gets from newspapers.A large number of people (41%) stated that The Times Of India was most easily available English Newspaper.: DS/09/11- .  The survey states that among Non Business dailies The Times Of India is the most preferred English daily while among Business dailies The Business Standard was most Preferred by the people  Major age groups Reading English Newspaper was 25 to 35 years group  Most of the people agreed that English Newspaper was easily available in the city . They refresh his knowledge and ideas. Newspapers are a source of news and information. They are the advocates of liberty. The Hindu .The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.

mcorpconsulting.com/glossary/brand-mapping. 1. www. Donald R.com/brand-mapping.mm4xl. Tata McGraw Hill Publishers. Research Methodology . New 5 7 Delhi BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.html www.com/software/tools/brand.asp www.asiamarketresearch. Cooper and Pamela S.Methods and Techniques (2006). Business Research Methods.htm www.php 2. Schindler (2001). New Delhi. eighth Edition.: DS/09/11- . 2. 3. 23rd revised Edition. C R kothari.blackcoffee.com/services/tools/brandMapping.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. 4.

What is the percentage of student in take in Rajasthan? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q6.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management. Which are those region students come from? Please specify -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q5. If Nationally.What is the target audience -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q4.Who is your Target audience? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.: DS/09/11- . which kind of institution is this? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q2. How many students are there in your institute? -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q3. New 5 8 Delhi ANNEXURE Q1.

New 5 9 Delhi Q7.Which publication you prefer the most for local advertising in news paper? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q13. What criteria do you consider while selecting a media for advertising? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BATCH: PGP/FW/2007-09 M-07 ALUMNI ID NO.The Indian Institute of Planning & Management.When does your admission process starts? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q8.Who are your nearest competitors? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q9.What is the purpose of your advertising? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q11.: DS/09/11- .What is your annual budget of advertising? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q10. Which media do you prefer to advertise? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q12.

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