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Vertical two-phase liquid - gas and/or steam separator

These separators (see Fig. 4.2.2.b) are characterized by the fact that the gas current
occupies all the entire cross-sectional area.

Typical applications:
Blow down K.O. Drum
K.O. Drum compressor suction/expander
Flash Drum
Surge Drum

Calculation procedure:

The dimensions of the separator are defined via an iterative process, which
contemplates the preliminary calculation of sizing parameters and their subsequent
The diameter of the separator to be looked for will be that which gives:
- the minimum section necessary for separation
- the required minimum height for satisfying the control and/or lockout residency times
the calculations is carried out according to the below-indicated sequence .

(a) values of quantities to be utilized:

Flow of continuous light gas phase Wlg = 138.0449 (kg/h)
Flow of continuous heavy liquid phase Wpl = 49186.5519 (kg/h)
Density of continuous light gas phase Vlg = 0.8961 (kg/m3)
Density of continuous heavy liquid phase Vpl = 742.2 (kg/m3)
Viscosity of continuous light gas phase Qlg = 1.001e-002 (cP)
Diameter of drop dp = 150 Qm
Normal residence time X
= 3 min (180 Sec) (0.05 hr)
Design temperature DT =
Design pressure DP =
Operating pressure OPP =
Demister yes

(b) Calculation of critical velocity :
In a vertical separator, the separation efficiency fundamentally depends on the
macroscopic velocity of the gas in the vessel. The greater this velocity is, and
therefore the greater the flow of the gas and/or steam for a given vessel diameter,
the greater shall be the diameter of the drops liquid that the reach the continuous
liquid phase.

Since the diameter of the particle of liquid is not known, an empirical method can be
used that expresses the critical velocity with the following relation:

the value of K is given by the diagram in Figure ( ) in function of the parameter

Outside the range of the abscissa in Fig ( ) a value of 0.032 m/s for K must be used
for vertical vessels when the abscissa value is less than 0.001 and a value of 0.0436
m/s for K when the abscissa value is greater than 1.

So :

As this result is greater than 1, take K = 0.0436 m/s

= 1.254026 m/s

(c) Calculation of minimum diameter (Dmin):

The minimum vapor section area, which corresponds to the section of the vessel, will be


In consequence, the minimum diameter will:

(d) Calculation of internal diameter (D) :
The unified diameter immediately above the minimum diameter is chosen as the internal diameter of the
vessel, D, as indicated in Table ( )

Minimum diameter 900 mm

The standard nominal diameters are (in mm): 305,minals
406, 457, 508, 610, 762 and 914.

Minimum diameter> 900 mm

Currently, standards do not exist as the elliptical end can be made with
any diameter.
However, starting from 900 mm, diameters are chosen with increments of
50 mm

B of vessel mm


(e) Calculation of internal diameter of inlet nozzle (Din):f inlet
As a rule, process nozzles have the same diameter as the piping to which they are connected. For vessels in which it
process nozzles are planned with diameter greater than the piping, it is assumed that the piping will have the
diameter of the nozzle for a section equal to five diameters in length.
From this rule , the existing pipeline in Shukeir plant is 8 inch , (from the manual book)

The nozzle inlet uiametei Bin inch mm

(f) Calculation of difference in normal level height (Hrl) and selection of standard level range

The difference in height between high liquid level (HLL) and low liquid level (LLL) is called the difference
in normal level height and is calculated as a function of the normal residence time:

tin = 300 sec =5 min

In Table, locate the standard Hrl row immediately greater than the calculated Hrl.
Standard level
range (in inches)
Hrl standard
14 356 800 150
32 813 1 000 100
48 1 219 1 200 120
60 1 524 1 500 250
72 1 829 1 500 100
84 2 134 1 700 150
96 2 438 1 900 150
120 3 048 2 100 100

Bil stanuaiu mm

(g) Calculation of differences in height of NLL and lower TL (H1):

The difference in height between NLL and the lower TL is indicated by H1. If Hrl is known H1dknown, can be
determined using the values in Table, in function of the chosen standard level range.
From the Table ( ) in Standard level range (72 inches), on the same row:
B mm

(h) Calculation of possible differences in height of HLS (and/or HHLS) with respect to HLL (and HLS)
and o LLL (and/or LLS) with respect to LLS (and LLLS) (Hll, Hlll, Hlh,Hlhh):

(i) Calculation of distance between axis of inlet nozzle and HLL or HLS or HHLS (H2):
This distance is calculated with respect to the highest level and will be equal to a minimum of 450 mm in the case
where (450 - Din/2) is greater or equal to 300 mm. Instead, in the case where (450 - Din/2) is less than 300 mm, it will
be equal to a minimum of (300 + Din/2) (in mm), (see Fig. ).

iom e The nozzle inlet uiametei Bin mm

mm since mm mm


(j) Calculation of distance between axis of inlet nozzle and the upper tangency line (H3):
When the vessel is equipped with demister, H3 is used to indicate the distance between the axis of the feed
nozzle and the lower base of the demister. . Then the minimum value of this distance is calculated with the following
relations (all quantities are expressed in mm):

Thus, to calculate H3, the size of the demister, or rather the distance from the lower base of the mesh to the upper TL
(450 mm minimum), is added to H3. (See Fig. ).

Fig. Height of inlet nozzle above the high liquid level inlet

(k) Calculation of demister diameter (Ddm):

First determine the optimal velocity of the continuous gas phase through the demister as indicated in the following

Where Kr is given in the following diagram:

Since the following operating pressure is atmospheric pressure ; OPP =1
Vertically at Opp=1 , KR = 0.105


3.020016 m/sec
The minimum cross-section area of the demister will be:



From which the following is obtained :


To obtain the diameter being sought Ddm, the minimum diameter is approximated to the next highest 50 mm (for
example, if Ddmmin = 430 mm, then Ddm = 450 mm).

Bum mm

(l) Calculation of total height (H):

The total height of the vessel, or rather the distance between the upper TL and the lower TL, should be equal to the
sum of the following components:

Blh Blhh B B

(m) Data sheet details :
Figure ( ) shows a typical vertical vessel. The dimensions indicated with (mm) (here as in the subsequent
figures) represent the result of the calculation procedure.
A brief description of the various connections is given below :

N1 Fluid inlet. Provide entrance with curve (STD.CR.GEN.7038) o position the nozzle(STD.CR.GEN.7038) or
below the NLL in the case of just a liquid phase.
- N1 Fluid inlet.
- N2 Liquid outlet
- N3 Gas outlet
- N4 Ventilation
- M1 Manhole

Fig. ( ) Vertical vessel