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# STEPS 1

PROCEDURE Using IP: 158.220.41.148 /17 The prefix length (/17) identifies the number of bits, counting from the most significant bit (Left to Right) of the address. It is used to identify the Network (NW) Portion of the IP Address. Seventeen (17) bits will be used for this NW portion. The Subnetting (Working) Octet is where the prefix divides the Network portion from the Host portion. The third Octet is the " Subnetting Octet" for this IP address/prefix combination. The first two octets (8+8=16 bits) and one bit from the third octet is the Network Portion. Each octet has 8 bits and the prefix can divide any of the octets.

Using IP: 158.220.41.148 /17 we get : (Step 2a) below
First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet 255 111111111 8 ? 10000000 1 0 00000000 0

a b c 3

Skeleton Binary Representation of Network & Host Portions No. of Network Bits per Octet

255 11111111 8

NB. Network portion of address are all ones and Host portion are all zeros

## Convert Binary Representation of Subnet Mask (Step 2b ) to Decimal

255
4

255

128

Working from the third Octet PERFORM a logical "AND" operation on the Given IP Address [41] and the SNMask [128]. This step will yield the NWA(Network Address ) Binary value which will be converted to Decimal. The Network Address skeleton looks like: The ? represents the unknown value to be found.

## 00101001 10000000 00000000

NB. In this example the Host Portion is found in the third Octet. It is simple to tell where the Address is divided between Network and Host by referring to the Subnet Mask which is:

255.255.128.0

REPLACE the ? in Step 4 with the value from 4.c (0) This value represents the NETWORK Address.

## 158 . 220 . 0 . 0 /17

SUBTRACT the SubnetMask [ 128 ] from the Maximum available bits for that Octet (255). In doing this we will be removing all the Network portion bits from the maximum available bits. Only the bits that represent the Host portion will be left. Remember that this Octet includes both Network bits (1) and Host (0000000). Using IP: 255.255.128.0 and working from the third octet Maximum Bits available 255 Includes Host & Network bits Subnet Mask Difference 128 Network portion bits

## 127 Host bits only @ third octet

ADD the difference from Step 6 (above) to the Network Address value [0]. Using Network address IP: 158.220.0.0 /17 Value from 6b above 127 Host portion bits @ third octet Network Addr. Broadcast Value 0 127 Formula First Usable Address Network address + 1 IP Addresses add remainder of Host bits

8a

158.220.0.1 158.220.127.254