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Frequency regulation

of centrifugal pumps

GB

Frequency regulation of centrifugal pumps

Frequency converter Frequency converters are used for the electronic regulation of the speed of motors. Using frequency converters, you can save a lot of energy and considerably reduce material wear. Frequency converters gently start and stop motors in an infinitely variable manner. In contrast with motors operated directly through the mains, no torque or power impulse occurs in the case of the frequency converter, which means that the entire drive train with motor, pump, and pipeline system, including the seals, is protected. In this way, speed regulation considerably reduces the wear and the lifetime of the plant is extended. Repair and maintenance costs decrease thanks to longer operating intervals and lower material wear.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Voltage and type of supply mains Actuation (e.g: PLC via external signals) Output data of the pump Ambient temperature Mounting height (if higher than 1000 m)

Regulation of asynchronous motors using a frequency converter Frequency regulation is optional and depends on the operating conditions. Frequency converters in direct (up to 30 kW), wall, or switch cabinet construction (all output sizes) are used. The decentralised, integrated or compact drive solution, in which the frequency converter is directly attached to the motor, provides better coordination between the motor and converter since the problem of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Directive EN 61800-3) is minimised.

Picture: Three-phase motor with squirrel cage and integrated frequency converter

Applications A wide range of applications available for frequency converters in pump technology: the advantage of frequency converters mainly lies in the adaptability of the duty point to plant requirements through pump speed regulation. Various duty points can also be operated in this manner, among other things, such as the night economy function in baths. Other situations, however, also make frequency converters absolutely necessary. If the selected pump size is too large, for example, the valve of the pipeline will close, which means that the duty point is not adapted in manner that makes no sense energetically, and the speed will be adapted using the frequency converter. Subsequent plant changes can also be regulated in this way. Additional applications include the regulation of pumps or the adaptation of pump duty points. This may be necessary in waste water or rain water systems. The energy savings potential arising through the use of frequency converters depends on the type of load to be driven, the optimisation of the efficiency of the pump or drive by the frequency converter, and the time in which the system runs in partial load operation.

Picture: Bath water circulating pump UNIBAD with integrated frequency converter

Regulation of PM motors (type series UNIBAD-PM/ UNIBLOCK-GF-PM/WATERblue-H-PM/UNIVERS-P/A/T-PM) With the introduction of the PM motors (permanent magnet motor), which already fulfils the requirements of the premium efficiency class (IE3), the pump system receives further impetus in regard to energetic optimisation. Permanent magnet motors cannot be connected directly to the mains, but rather run only by a frequency converter. The use of these energy-efficient motors is thus an additional factor in favour of a frequency converter. A special feature of the PM motor/frequency converter combination is the process-optimised regulation of the frequency converter and the resulting energy savings. In this case, the advantages of PM motors compared to conventional three-phase asynchronous motors can mainly be seen in the reduction of low outputs when speed is decreased.

Selection of the suitable frequency converter When you select a suitable frequency converter, you must take the following points into consideration:

Frequency regulation of centrifugal pumps

Operating point control via frequency converter The basic concept behind the frequency regulation of pumps is speed adjustment. The results will be: 1. energy savings if there is a change in duty points and / or 2. a reduction of ow rate and/or adjustment to the system requirements. Point 2 is an alternative to the possibility of adapting pumps to meet changing operating conditions. Choke regulation has mainly been used up until now for this, which exerts an influence on the resistance parabola of the system by means of slide valves or diaphragms. In this case, the resistance parabola 1, for example, changes into the altered resistance parabola 2 (see diagram). The energy loss associated with this is accepted. In comparison, when actuating the pumps by frequency converters, the duty point of the pump under frequency regulation migrates along the original resistance parabola 1. The resulting energy savings are shown in the performance diagram (Q-P set of performance curves) in the difference between point II and point III. Frequency regulation is used predominantly, however, for saving energy with changing duty points (generally two). By applying the example mentioned earlier, the power input for the pump is reduced from Point I to Point III in the Q-P- set of performance curves. If the speed falls below a value at which no acceptable establishment of the flow can take place, the laws can no longer be applied. While it is true that the values Q, H, P and Eta are in line with one another, turbulence and air in the medium lead to imprecise measurement. For this reason, there are limits imposed on frequency regulation. It is ultimately important when looking at system optimisation to take optimal efficiency into account also (Eta optimal). This also has an influence on matching the best possible pump to the system. The energy savings generated from frequency regulation can be calculated using the similarity rules for centrifugal pumps. Centrifugal pumps achieve the greatest energy savings potential. They are fluid kinetic machines with a square torque curve for which the following proportionality laws apply.

150

300

450

600

750

900

1050

[Imp.gpm]

150

300

450

600

750

900

1050

1200

1350

[US.gpm]

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Q [l/s]

H 24 [m]
22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

75

2
ma l

70

[ft]

Eta

II

opti

65 60

55 50 45 40 35

III

30 25 20

50

30
0 40 80 120 160

40

Hz
200

Hz

15 10 5

Hz

240

280

320

Q [m /h]
20 [hp]

P [kW]

16 12 8 4 0

II
III

50 Hz

16 12 8 4 0 100 80 60

30 Hz

40 Hz

Eta 100 [%] 80


60 40 20 0

[%]

40

Hz

50

30 H z

Hz

40 20 0

tion at full speed. Typical example of the use of the frequency converter in bath water technology: Night-time energy reduction Duty point: Q=215 m3/h H=14 m P=11.5 kW Q=170 m3/h H=11 m P=5.5 kW Q=107.5 m3/h H=6 m P=4.5 kW P=1.0 kW 3000 h

Night-time reduction by switching off one pump: Frequency regulation of two pumps:

The flow rate (Q) changes in a linear manner in relation to the speed:

Energy savings by night-time energy reduction: Operating hours per year in night-time reduction: Savings: 3000 kWh

The head (H) changes with the 2nd power of the speed:

The drive output (P) changes with the 3rd power of the speed: The decisive factor for the energy savings is the cubic relation between speed and energy consumption. A pump running at half speed requires an eighth of the output required for opera-

We reserve the right to make changes in line with technical further developments!

J.H. Hoffmann GmbH & Co. KG | Littau 3-5 | DE-35745 Herborn +49 (0) 27 72 / 933-0 | +49 (0) 27 72 / 933-100 info@herborner-pumpen.de | www.herborner-pumpen.de

M-FU 01 GB