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Assignment 1

1. For each of the following functions f : R2 R i) Sketch the domain of f and state the range of f . ii) Sketch level curves and cross sections. iii) Sketch the surface z = f (x, y). a) f (x, y) = x2 . Solution: The domain is R2 and the range is z 0. Level Curves: k = x2 Cross sections: z = c2 z = x2

b) f (x, y) =

|1 x2 y 2 |.

Solution: The domain is R2 and the range is z 0. Level Curves: k = |1 x2 y 2| x2 + y 2 = 1 k 2 , k 0 Cross sections: z = |1 c2 y 2 | y 2 z 2 = 1 c2 , z 0 z = |1 x2 d2 | x2 z 2 = 1 d2 , z 0

2. Find the limit, if it exists, or show that the limit does not exist. a)

x2 y 2 . x2 +y 2 (x,y)(0,0)

lim

Solution: Approaching the limit along lines y = mx we get x2 m2 x2 1 m2 1 m2 lim = lim = . x0 1 + m2 (x,y)(0,0) x2 + m2 x2 1 + m2 Hence, since we get a dierent limit for each value of m the limit does not exist.

b)

lim

Solution: Approaching the limit along lines y = mx we get y 2 4|y| 2|x| m2 x2 4|mx| 2|x| lim = lim x0 (x,y)(0,0) |x| + 2|y| |x| + 2|mx| m2 |x| 4|m| 2 2(2|m| + 1) = lim = = 2 x0 1 + 2|m| 2|m| + 1 We have y 2 4|y| 2|x| + 2|x| + 4|y| y 2 4|y| 2|x| (2) = |x| + 2|y| |x| + 2|y| 2 y = |x| + 2|y| 1 y2 = |y| 2|y| 2 Since lim 1 |y| (x,y)(0,0) 2 = 0 we have by the squeeze theorem that y 2 4|y| 2|x| = 2. (x,y)(0,0) |x| + 2|y| lim c)

x2 y 3 . x4 +y 6 (x,y)(0,0)

lim

Solution: Approaching the limit along y = mx2/3 we get x2 y 3 m3 x2 (mx2/3 )3 m3 x4 lim = lim 4 = lim 4 = x0 x + (mx2/3 )6 x0 x + m6 x4 (x,y)(0,0) x4 + y 6 1 + m6 Since this is dierent for each value of m, the limit does not exist.

d)

x4 y 5 . x8 +y 6 (x,y)(0,0)

lim

Approaching along y = mx gives x4 (mx)5 m5 x9 m5 x3 = lim 8 = lim 2 = 0. lim x0 x + m6 x6 x0 x + m6 (x,y)(0,0) x8 + (m6 y 6 ) Consider

x4 y 5 x8 +y 6

Hence, x4 y 5 (x8 + y 6 )1/2 (x8 + y 6)5/6 0 = (x8 + y 6 )1/3 . x8 + y 6 x8 + y 6 (x8 + y 6)1/3 = 0, we get x4 y 5 = 0, (x,y)(0,0) x8 + y 6 lim by the squeeze theorem.

Since

(x,y)(0,0)

lim

|x| |y| 3. Let f (x, y) = |x|c +|y|d where a, b, c, and d are positive numbers. Prove that if then lim f (x, y) exists and equals zero. (x,y)(0,0)

a c

b + d > 1,

Solution: We have |x|a = (|x|c )a/c (|x|c + |y|d)a/c |y|b = (|y|d)b/d (|x|c + |y|d)b/d Hence, |x|a |y|b (|x|c + |y|d)a/c (|x|c + |y|d)b/d 0 |x|c + |y|d |x|c + |y|d (|x|c + |y|d) c + d = |x|c + |y|d = (|x|c + |y|d) c + d 1 Since

a c

a b a b

b d

> 1, we have

(x,y)(0,0)

lim

(|x|c + |y|d) c + d 1 = 0,