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Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting II Alexander et al (eds) 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-46850-3

Adhesion A challenge for concrete repair


L. Czarnecki
Building Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

ABSTRACT: Repair of concrete structure results in formation of at least two-component system, i.e. concrete overlay/concrete substrate and repair material/repaired concrete. The adhesion between overlays and concrete substrate is one of the most important factors that affects the reliability and durability of repair. Achievement of maximum bond strength is basic recommendation for various types of repair joints. The requirement for high adhesion arises from the higher tolerance on non-compatibility of properties of the bonded materials. In this paper, the necessity of the above recommendation has been discussed with regards to: repair material type, strength of concrete substrate and environmental conditions of bond service. The criteria for creation of the desired bond strength in relation to tensile strength of the concrete substrate have been formulated. The possibilities of creation higher level of adhesion as well as economical and technical limitations of the adhesion improvement have been stressed. The need for new generation materialsHigh Adhesion Repair Materials, HARM for repair of the High Strength Concrete, HSC is formulated.

INTRODUCTION

Physics

The European Standard EN 1504-10 defined the bond as the adhesion of the applied product or system to the concrete substrate. Adhesion is defined as adherence of two materials in contact or in a more colloquial way of being stuck together. It is not surprising that adhesion is a fundamental issue in construction engineering. It is of particular significance for concrete repair, as in this case, repair materials have to be combined with an existing substrate. From a scientific point of view, fundamentals of adhesion belong to the nano-technology and surface physic and chemistry in particular (hydrogen bonds, Van der Waals forces, and chemisorption). The corresponding engineering research area will include mechanical interlocking on the rough surface of a substrate on the micro-scale. This opens up a new research area, which might be called concrete surface science or shorter concrete surfology (Garbacz et al., 2005). Recently, E.M. Petrie pointed out that the huge variety of applications and the multifunctional nature of the technology make it very difficult for engineers to fully understand the present state of knowledge. There is probably no other industry, where there is such a need for a basic interdisciplinary understanding (Fig. 1). Repair of concrete structure results in formation of at least two-component system, i.e. concrete overlay/

Surface Science Science & Engineering of Adhesion Polymeric Materials

Joint design

Chemistry

Mechanics

1 m

macrolevel

N B

N B

N B

10

-6

microlevel

10

-9 m

nanolevel

Figure 1. Adhesion science and engineering as the multiple sciences (acc. to E.M. Petrie) considered on multiscale levels.

concrete substrate and repair material/repaired concrete. The adhesion between overlays and concrete substrate is one of the most important factors that affects the reliability and durability of repair.

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Achievement of maximum bond strength is basic recommendation for various types of repair joints. The question arises how high bond strength is high enough? Some consideration on that has been presented in the paper with regards to: repair material type, strength of concrete substrate and environmental conditions of bond service. 2 REPAIR BOND AS STANDARD REQUIREMENT

property of repair product or system when bonded onto prepared concrete substrate, to accommodate cyclic changes in temperature. It gives us the signal on well-known fact, that a high adhesion increases a tolerance on non-compatibility of properties of the bonded materials (Czarnecki & Runkiewicz, 2005).

3 ADHESION AS A MEASURE OF REPAIR EFFECTIVENESS (CZARNECKI, 2007) Adhesion between the repair material and the concrete substrate is a very important technical property towards structural and non-structural repair as well. Proper level of adhesion assures utmost load capacity of the repaired system (Fig. 2). The adhesion of repair joint is effective if it enables the load transfer and ensures even distribution of stresses. It can be reached if bonding materials satisfy the conditions of physico-chemical compatibility and guarantee tightness of the joint. Module of elasticity, setting shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion and creep are the properties of particular significance. Stressed induced by setting shrinkage concern the systems in which setting causes changes in volume. Stress concentration is located mainly at the interfacial zone that forms between the mineral surface and the setting material. Similar stressed result from differentiation in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the covering layer. They arise both during the setting, when it occurs with thermal effects and during an exploitation when temperature changes (Fig. 3). Differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion of bonding materials and setting shrinkage are of significance when polymers are used for repair and protection of the cement concrete. Shrinkage of polymer composites depends mainly on the type of polymer and composite composition. Even when

Adhesion strength is one (if not the first one) of the most important technical characteristics of the repair materials (Czarnecki & Chmielewska, 2005). Adhesion is a decisive factor of repair effective-ness. It apparently appears to be a trivial problem. In EN 1504 the adhesive bond level are formulated in two ways of expression of results: threshold value in MPa; towards structural repair (EN 1504-3): 2,0 MPa (Class R4), 1,5 MPa (Class R3); pass/fail criteria towards structural bonding (EN 1504-4) e.g. hardened concrete-to-hardened concrete or fresh concrete-to-hardened concrete: the test shall result in fracture in the concrete. macrolevel: a level of an adhesion performance; usually on this level macrodefectslack of adhesion are demonstrated, e.g. various kind of cracks in repaired system (L. Czarnecki, 2007); microlevels: microcracks under low (left) and high (right) load could be observed (H. Schorn, 2007); nanolevel: a level of atoms and molecules. Adhesion is the molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contactthe level at an effective creation of adhesion but also a source of adhesion defects. Photos shows creation of polymer film in polymer modified cementitious composites (H. Schorn, 2007, Czarnecki & H. Schorn, 2007). Additionally, results of thermal compatibility of structural and non-structural repair products are also evaluate in terms of bond strength (see EN 1504-3). Compatibilityaccording to technical vocabulary mean capable of existing together in harmony. The achievement of the compatibility is the general requirement according to the European Standard EN 1504-10: Site application of products and systems and quality control of the works. However, beyond the general statement, products and systems should be compatible with each other and with the original concrete structure (EN 1504-9), the Standard has not defined the concept of compatibility or the method of its quality control. There is only one exception thermal compatibility. According to European Standard EN 1504-3: thermal compatibility the

BREAKDOWN OF REPAIR BOND

failure of adhesion

failure of cohesion

in repair material in concrete substrate

Figure 2. Breakdown of repair bond due to the failure of adhesion and/or failure of cohesion in concrete substrate and/or repair material.

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a)

b)

with the increase of adhesion there is also an increase in the tolerance of compatibility errors in the material selection (Czarnecki et al., 2004).

CRACKS AND ADHESION

c)

d)

Figure 3. Modeling of cooperation non-compatible system (Czarnecki & Emmons, 2002): aconstant temperature, bsurface cooling, csurface heating, dconstraint compatibility (effective to some extent).

S >0

a)

M A C

b)

> C
Figure 4. Shear stresses in the interfacial zone of a composite as a result of a) setting shrinkage, b) difference in coefficients of thermal expansion.

In very roughly estimation, a successful repair means no cracks. Paradoxically, if adhesion in the repaired system is zero than free shrinkage will be possible and in consequence: zero stresses (Carino, 1995). However, from practical point of view zero adhesion repair method seems to be close to absurd. Much more promising is another extremum- maximal adhesion (Tab. 1). In rough estimation, various oriented cracks occur regarding to the combination of values: concrete tensile strength, ftC; repair material tensile strength, ftR and adhesion strength, fA in relation to internal stresses, t (Tab. 2). European Standard EN 1504-4 makes no doubts the bond test shall result in fracture in the reference concrete. Exactly to the Standard reference concrete (MC (0.40) acc. EN 1766) means: C50/60 with surface tensile strength above 3.0 MPa. However, if we treat the reference concrete in the broad sense, it means a given concrete to be repaired. It makes not only broad sense but common sense as well; in agreement with engineers intuition. The repair bond should not be the weakest place in surroundings concrete. It is particularly of importance in structural repair bonding (EN 1504-4), where the casting of fresh concrete to hardened concrete using an adhesive bonded joint where it forms a part of the structure and

Table 1. Modeling relation between adhesion to concrete substrate and shrinkage stresses (acc. Carino, 1995). Diagram Comments repair mortar fill loss in concrete before setting free setting shrinkage

polymer concrete is highly filled with aggregate the coefficient of thermal expansion is usually about two times higher (2 105 mm/mm/C) in comparison with cement concrete (1 105 mm/mm/C). The change of temperature in such system causes shrinkage or expansion of the polymer layer, which is restricted by smaller deflection of the cement concrete. When the polymer layer is under tensile stress the concrete substrate is compressed (Fig. 4). The relationship between shear and normal stresses, which develop at the boundary of cement concrete/ polymer concrete phases, was analysed taking into account thickness of the polymer concrete layer and the difference in modulus of elasticity of both materials (Choi et al., 1999). It was demonstrated that stresses decrease when the thickness of the polymer concrete and their modulus of elasticity increase (range of investigation: E = 3 28 GPa). It is significant that

Zero adhesion

high adhesion level

repair mortar after setting shrinkage stresses estimated on 2 MPa

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Table 2. Various kind of cracks in repaired system. Diagram Relation

ftk depends on the various repair materials (MCC Modified Cement Concrete, PCCPolymer Cement Concrete, PCPolymer Concrete) and on different system: with- and without protection coating.

ft R < t < ft C f A 5 f A < t < ft C ft R HARM (HIGH ADHESIVE REPAIR MATERIAL)NEEDS

ft C < t < ft R f A

ft R < t < ft C f A

t < ft C ft R f A
tinternal shrinkage stress, ftRrepair material tensile strength, ftCconcrete tensile strength, fAadhesion strength. Table 3. Requirement adhesion strength value, fA in relation to the concrete tensile strength, ftk (authors suggestion). Repair system without protection coat with protection coat

Previous considerations give us a set of required adhesion strength ascribed to the given mechanical strength of concrete substrate. If we put together the concrete strength classes according to the EN 206-1 and required adhesion values, than compare them with features of various repair materials, the computation diagram for repair usability can be built up (Fig. 5). It is obvious that existing repair materials are good enough for ordinary concretes. Categorization top down for usability of repair materials for concrete substrate of various classes will be as follow: PC(Polymer Concrete and Mortars) below C60/75 PCC(Polymer Cement Concrete and Mortars) below C40/50 MCC(Modified Polymer Cement Concrete and Mortars) below C25/30. There is no effective (adhesive) enough repair materials for High Strength Concrete, HSCclasses C70/85, C80/95, C90/105, C100/115 and more. Of course, when we think about concrete repair, we usually have an old and weak concrete in mind, e.g.below C20/25. However, an old concrete is not necessarily a weak one, it could be quite healthy and strong. Moreover, a damage caused by accidental impact (e.g. due to the traffic), overloading, settlement and explosion could also happen to new high-strength concrete elements. There is need for new generation of repair materialsHigh Adhesive Repair Materials, HARM. The work on High Adhesive-Polymer Cement Concrete, HA-PCC is already under way. The PCC with adhesion bond (pull-off test) around 5 MPa has been received (ukowski, 2003) till now. It is worth to stress that High Strength Concrete needby naturemore aggressive surface preparation, which could resultin turnin the increase of microcracks in concrete substrate (Czarnecki et al., 2003). In such case bonding layer on concrete substrate below the repair materials will be justified or even needed. The repair materialsas the ruleshould contain microfibers for better microcrack bridging. There is a need not only for new generation of repair materials but also for new generation of repair systems and methods.

Repair material MCC (polymer content 5% cement mass) PCC (polymer content >5% cement mass) PC fA = 1,20 ftk fA = 1,25 ftk fA = 1,30 ftk fA = 1,15 ftk fA = 1,20 ftk fA = 1,25 ftk

MCCModified Cement Concrete, PCCPolymer Cement Concrete, PCPolymer Concrete.

is required to act compositely. It means, that fA > ftC, or in more practical way fA > ftk. There is a need for the compromise between economy and ageing sensibility (durability), compatibility level and reliability requirement. It is necessary to remember that ageing is more dangerous in case of polymer composite than mineral one, and external protection coating makes a difference too. According to the authors suggestion (Tab. 3): fA = (1.15 1.30)

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Figure 5. Required adhesion strength, fA vs. concrete compressive strength, fCm adequately to the concrete strength classes. Areas of adhesion usability adequate to various kind of repair materials: MCC, PCC, PC are described.

FACTORS AFFECTING ADHESION BOND

There are many factors affecting adhesives strength involved (Czarnecki & Chmielewska, 2005) with: concrete substrate: mechanical strength, surface roughness, microcracks, porosity, dampness, impurities, etc., repair materials: viscosity, wetting (surface tension), setting shrinkage, thermal expansion, elastic modulus, creep, etc., environmental impact: transportation phenomena (diffusion, osmosis, capillary suction), temperature level and change of temperature, humidity level and change of humidity, mechanical loading, degradation (ageing, carbonation, corrosion). Some of them could increase adhesion level, but in generalare the reasons of adhesive destruction; in case of environmental usually gradually due to the time. Considering the factors affecting adhesion bond the High Adhesive Repair Materials need is still obvious.

in the concrete in the broad sense and compare it with concrete strength classes according to the EN 1206-1, it will be clear that existing repair materials are suitable only for the repair of the ordinary (regular) concrete. There is the need for new generation materials High Adhesion Repair Materials for repair of the High Strength Concrete; HARM for HSC.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In the paper has been used some ideas and figures formerly published in Adhesion in Interfaces of Building Materials: a Multi-scale Approach (L.Czarnecki, A.Garbacz, eds), Advances in Materials Science and Restoration (AMSR), 2007. Author would like express acknowledgement to AMSR Editor Prof. dr FH Wittmann and Aedificatio Publisher. This work has been prepared in the framework of the Warsaw University of Technology grant nr 504 G 1080 7007.

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES
Carino, N.J. 1995. Prediction of restrained shrinkage cracking in cement-based repair materials: a rational approach.

If we would treat the European Standard (EN 1504-4) requirement: adhesion test shall result in fracture

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Research needs for establishing materials properties to minimize cracking on concrete repairs. Gaithersburg, MD. Choi, D-U., Fowler, D.W. & Wheat, D.L. 1999. Thermally-induced interface stresses in polymer concreteportland cement concrete composite beams, RILEM Proc. no PRO 9. International Symposium Adhesion between polymers and concrete ISAP99 (Eds.Y.Ohama, M.Puterman), Dresden, 6781. Czarnecki, L. 2007. Adhesion level prediction for repair concrete systems. In Adhesion in Interfaces of Building Materials: a Multi-scale Approach (Eds. L. Czarnecki and A. Garbacz). Advances in Materials Science and Restoration AMSR No. 2. Aedificatio Publishers. 2128. Czarnecki, L. & Chmielewska, B. 2005. Factors affecting adhesion in building joints. Cement-Lime-Concrete. 2: 7485. Czarnecki, L. & Emmons, P.H. 2002. Repair and protection of concrete structures (in Polish), Ed. Polski Cement, Krakow. Czarnecki, L., Garbacz, A. & Kostana, K. 2003. The Effect of Concrete Surface Roughness on Adhesion in Industrial Floor Systems. In: 5th Colloquium Industrial Floors (Ed. P. Seidler), Esslingen, Germany. Czarnecki, L., Godkowska, W. & Piatek, Z. 2004. Estimation of compatibility of polymer i polymer-cement composites with ordinary concrete under short-time load conditions. Archives of Civil Engineering, L (1): 133150. Czarnecki, L. & Schorn, H. 2007. Nanomonitoring of polymer cement concrete microstructure. The International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, Vol. 13 (3): 141151.

European Standard EN 1504-3. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structuresDefinitions RequirementsQuality control and evaluation of conformityPart 3: Structural and non-structural repair. European Standard EN 1504-4. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structuresDefinitions RequirementsQuality control and evaluation of conformity Part 4: Structural bonding. European Standard EN 1504-9. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures DefinitionsRequirementsQuality control and evaluation of conformityPart 9: General principles for the use of products and systems. European Standard EN 1504-10. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structuresDefinitions RequirementsQuality control and evaluation of conformityPart 10: Site application of products and systems and quality control of the works. European Standard EN 1766. Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures. Test methods. Reference concretes for testing. Garbacz, A. Gorka, M. & Courard, L. 2005. On the effect of concrete surface treatment on adhesion in repair systems. Magazine of Concrete Research. 57, 4960. ukowski, P. 2008. Role of polymers in forming of properties of polymer-cement binders and composites. Warsaw University of Technology Publishing House. pages 159. Petrie, E.M.: http://www.omnexus4adhesives.com. Schorn, H. 2007. Experiments from the macro to the nanoscale. In Adhesion in Interfaces of Building Materials: a Multi-scale Approach (Eds. L. Czarnecki and A. Garbacz), Advances in Materials Science and Restoration AMSR No. 2, Aedificatio Publishers, 91105.

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