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Factors Affecting Mobility Health Status - An individuals general health status may influence desire for exercise and

activity tolerance Physical factors that interferes with mobility: Fatigue Muscle cramping Dyspnea Neuromuscular or perceptual deficit Chest pain - Mental status is often manifested as changes in mobility or appearance Ex. A client with depression Developmental stage - An individuals developmental stage will affect the parameters of targeted mobility levels. Children (0- 12 yrs old) Childhood development is monitored through achievement of milestone such as sitting, crawling, walking, running and hopping Common problem: Fall Adolescence (12- 18 years old) Activity and mobility landmarks are development of muscles plus cardiac respiratory, and metabolic functions through physical conditioning Common problem: sports-related injury, motorcycle accidents, high-impact falls (e.g. rollerblades, skates) Adults Young adulthood (19- 30 years old) well developed musculoskeletal and nervous system ideally function at peak efficacy Middle aged adult (30-40 yrs old) has gradual decrease in muscle mass, strength and agility Older Adult (40 years and above) progressive change in the physiological system Common problems: recreation-related injuries, falls, pedestrian injuries Environment Home environment safe and mobility friendly Working environment Attitudes and Beliefs - Greatly affected by culture and family - Activities enjoyed by the individual are less likely to produce fatigue than activities that hold no interest to a person Lifestyle - Modern lifestyle requires less activity - Sedentary lifestyle result in loss of muscle strength, decrease endurance, inadequate cardiorespiratory function and obesity - Active lifestyles values exercise Physiological Effects of Mobility and Immobility

Mobility and immobility will affect the various systems of the body Neurologic Effect/ Mental Status -Mobility: mobility and activity can increase an individuals energy level and sense of well-being -Immobility: lead to frustrations, lower self-esteem, anxiety, depression Cardiovascular Effects -Mobility: increases oxygen supply to the heart and muscles thereby benefits overall health -Immobility: formation of thrombi or blood clots. Orthostatic hypotension is an indication that the heart is working harder but less efficient. Respiratory Effects -Mobility: increased intake of o2 which result in increased respiratory capacity and an easing in the work of breathing -Immobility: limits chest expansion lead to increase respiratory effort Musculoskeletal -Mobility: stronger and better defined muscles, strong bones, and increase mobility and range of motion of the joints -Immobility: Gross musculoskeletal impairment eg. Rapid fatigue, decreased muscle tone and strength, muscle atrophy, decreased bone density (increased risk for fracture) Digestive Effects -Mobility: Increased appetite and thirst -Immobility: loss of appetite, stress ulcers Elimination Effects -Mobility: muscles become stronger and more efficient thus enhancing overall efficiency in elimination. -Immobility: constipation, urinary tract infection and formation of kidney stones Integumentary Effects -Mobility: increased circulation and blood flow which enhance oxygenation of tissues, maintaining turgor and luster of skin and hair -Immobility: Pressure ulcers and prolonged healing process

ASSISTIVE DEVICES 1. Definition of terms: Mechanical Aids - Used for ambulation which includes cane, walker and crutches Cane Walker Crutches Crutch Stance (tripod position) - The proper standing position with crutches

Crutch gait -

Is a gait s person assumes on crutches by alternating body weight on one or both legs and the crutches Ex. Four point gait, three point gait,