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RAMON MAGSAYSAY (August 31, 1907- March 17, 1957)

The third President of the Third Republic of the Philippines from December 30, 1953 until his death. He was a Nacionalista. Order: 7th President of the Philippines (3rd President of the 3rd Republic) Term of Office: December 30, 1953- March 17, 1957 Vice President: Carlos P. Garcia Predecessor: Elpidio Quirino Successor: Carlos P. Garcia Born: August 31, 1907 at Iba, Zambales First lady: Luz Banzon-Magsaysay (1915-2004) with 3 children: Teresita & Milagros Magsaysay and former congressman and now senator Ramon Magsaysay, Jr. (1938) Early Life and Career Ramon Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales. His parents were Ezequil Magsaysay, a blacksmith, and Perfectadel Fierro, a school teacher. Of Visayan descent, he was nonetheless ethnically affiliated with the Ilocanos of Iba and considered himself as one of them. Magsaysay studied at Zambales Academy during his high school. In 1927, he enrolled at the University of the Philippines. He took up pre-law course and later shifted to engineering, all the while working as a chauffeur to support himself. However, he did not finish his course due to illness. Eventually he studied commerce at Jose Rizal College, graduating in 1933. When World War II broke out in the country, Magsaysay joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine army. Following the fall of Bataan in 1942, he organized the Western Luzon Guerilla Forces that fought against Japanese. In 1946, Magsaysay was elected on the Liberal party ticket to the Philippine House of Representative. He was appointed Secretary of National Defense in the administration of President Elpidio Quirino in 1950. He intensified the campaign against the HUKBALAHAP guerillas, waging one of the most successful anti-guerilla campaigns in modern history. This success was due in part to the unconventional methods he employed, namely utilizing soldiers to distribute relief goods and other forms of aid outlying, provincial communities. Where before Mafsaysay the rural folk looked on the Philippine Army if not in distrust, at least with general apathy. During this term as Defense Secretary, Filipinos began to respect and admire their soldiers. In 1953, he resigned from his post as defense secretary, criticizing the Liberal government and becoming the presidential candidate of the Nacionalist party. Presidency In the Philippine election of 1953, Magsaysay won president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino with a convincing fashion. He was sworn into the office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, that aimed to defeat communist-Marxist movements in South East Asia, South Asia and the Southwestern Pacific. During his term, he made Malacang Palace literally a "house of the people", opening its gates to the public. One example of his integrity followed a demonstration flight aboard a new plane belonging to the Philippine Air Force (PAF). President Magsaysay asked what the operating costs per hour were for that type of aircraft, then wrote a personal check to the PAF, covering the cost of his flight.

His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries Domestic Policies Agrarian Reform President Ramn Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program:

Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao. Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) -- governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations. Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) -- Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations. Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) -Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.

Foreign Policies SEATO The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "Manila Conference". Members of SEATO were alarmed at the possible victory of North Vietnam over South Vietnam, which could spread communist ideology to other countries in the region. The possibility that a communist state can influence or cause other countries to adopt the same system of government is called the domino theory. The active coordination of the Magsaysay administration with the Japanese government led to the Reparation Agreement. This was an agreement between the two countries, obligating the Japanese government to pay $550 million as reparation for war damages in the Philippines. Laurel-Langley Agreement The Magsaysay administration negotiated the Laurel-Langley Agreement which was a trade agreement between the Philippines and the United States which was signed in 1955 and expired in 1974. Although it proved deficient, the final agreement satisfied nearly all of the diverse Filipino economic interests. While some have seen the Laurel-Langley agreement as a continuation of the 1946 trade act, Jose P. Laurel and other Philippine leaders recognized that the agreement substantially gave the country greater freedom to industrialize while continuing to receive privileged access to US markets. Reparations Agreement Following the reservations made by Ambassador Romulo, on the Philippines behalf, upon signing the Japanese Peace Treaty in San Francisco on September 8, 1951, for several years of series of negotiations were conducted by the Philippine government and that of Japan. In the face of adamant

claims of the Japanese government that it found impossible to meet the demand for the payment of eight billion dollars by the way of reparations, president Magsaysay, during a so-called "cooling off" period, sent a Philippine Reparations Survey Committee, headed by Finance Secretary Jaime Hernandez, to Japan for an "on the spot" study of that country's possibilities. When the Committee reported that Japan was in a position to pay, Ambassador Felino Neri, appointed chief negotiator, went to Tokyo. On May 31, 1955, Ambassador Neri reached a compromise agreement with Japanese Minister Takazaki, the main terms of which consisted in the following: The Japanese government would pay eight hundred million dollars as reparations. Payment was to be made in this wise: Twenty million dollars would be paid in cash in Philippine currency; thirty million dollars, in services; five million dollars, in capital goods; and two hundred and fifty million dollars, in long-term industrial loans.] On August 12, 1955, President Magsaysay informed the Japanese government, through Prime Minister Ichiro Hatoyama, that the Philippines accepted the Neri-Takazaki agreement.In view of political developments in Japan, the Japanese Prime Minister could only inform the Philippine government of the Japanese acceptance of said agreement on March 15, 1956. The official Reparations agreement between the two government was finally signed at Malacaang Palace on May 9, 1956, thus bringing to a rather satisfactory conclusion this long drawn controversy between the two countries. Magsaysays Charisma as a Leader The votes of the masses or the common tao made Ramon Magsaysay as Philippine President in 1953. True to his promise, Magsaysay tried hard to improve the status of the masses. He geared his administration to the urgent demands of rural improvement. To make the move toward the attainment of his development goals, Magsaysay had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act in 954 which provides for a greater protection to the tenants by granting them the freedom to choose the system of tenancy under which they would want to work. The implementation of this Act was accomplished with the establishment of the Agriculture Tenancy Commission and the Court of Agrarian Relations whose main function is to settle satisfactorily and promptly all tenancy disputes. During the first year of Magsaysays administration, 28,000 land patents covering 241,000 hectares, were issued to settlers/landless. The following year, the number increased to 33,075. Agricultural lots were distributed to landless applicants. It was during his barrio-to-barrio campaigns that he realized, as nobody in the government realized, the plight of the taos who lacked the necessary leadership to make their voices heard. The Philippines during Magsaysay time successfully negotiated the RP-US trade relations that culminated in the signing of the Laurel-Langley Trade Agreement of 1956. It was also during Macapagals term that Japan agreed to pay war reparation to the Philippines over a 20 year period for the damage inflicted by the Japanese to the country during World War II. DEATH Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu where he was scheduled to speak at an educational institution. That same night, he boarded the presidential plane Mt. Pinatubo heading back to Manila. In the early morning hours of March 17, his plane was reported missing. It was late in the afternoon that day that newspapers reported that the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu, and all those aboard killed except one newspaperman, Nestor Mata. Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the presidency to complete the last eight months of Magsaysays term. An estimated 2 million people attended Magsaysays burial on March 22, 1957.

CARLOS P. GARCIA (November 4, 1896- June 14, 1971)

The 8th president of the Philippines (1957-1961). His administration was known for its Filipino First policy, which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party. Order 8th President of the Philippines (4th President of the 3rd Republic) Term of Office March 23, 1957 (elected December 30, 1957)- December 30, 1961 Vice President Diosdado Macapagal Predecessor Ramon Magsaysay Successor Diosdado Macapagal Born November 4, 1896 Talibon, Bohol Died June 14, 1971 Bohol, Philippines Early Life and Career Garcia was born in Talibon, Bohol to Policronio Garcia and Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra). He grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. Garcia got his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. He briefly took law courses at Siliman University in Dumaguete City. He then studied in Philippine Law School and earned his degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination. Instead of practicing law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname Prince of Visayan Poets. In 1925, Garcia began his career in politics after scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol. He was elected for another term, but served only until 1931 when he successfully ran for governor of Bohol. He served as provincial governor for two terms. He became a member of the congress in 1946, and was elected three times to the senate for three consecutive terms from 1941-1953. Garcia served as Magsaysays running mate in the presidential election of 1953. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramon Magsaysay, for four years concurrently serving as vice-president. Presidency Accession At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice-President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. Garcia was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia. Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice-President Garcia enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacaang Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President Garcia's first actuations dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay. 1957 Presidential Election Incumbent President Carlos P. Garca won his opportunity to get a full term as President of the Philippines after the untimely death of President Ramn Magsaysay in a plane crash in March 1957. His running mate,Senator Jos Laurel, Jr. lost to Pampanga Representative Diosdado Macapagal. This was the

first time in Philippine electoral history where a president was elected by a plurality and not majority, and in which the president and vice president came from different parties. Filipino First Policy President Garca exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. He also made a program focused on thriftiness. Austerity Program In the face of the trying conditions of the country, President Garcia initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". Garca's administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." Garca was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts. The main points of the Austerity Program were: 1. The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well. 2. There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments. 3. Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items. 4. The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum. 5. An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts. 6. The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the paymenyburden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay. 7. There would be an intensification of food production. The program was hailed by the people at large and confidence was expressed that the measures proposed would help solve the standing problems of the Republic. BohlenSerrano Agreement During his administration, he acted on the BohlenSerrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. 1961 Presidential Election At the end of his second term, he ran for reelection in the Election 1961 in November 1961, but was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal,Vice-President under him, but belonged to the opposing Liberal Party - in the Philippines the President and the Vice-President are elected separately. Post-Presidency After his failed re-election bid, Garcia then retired to private life, living as a citizen in Bohol. On June 1, 1971, Garcia was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention and was selected as its president. However, he died of a heart attack on June 14, 1971 at the age of 74.

DIOSDADO PANGAN MACAPAGAL (September 28, 1910- April 21, 1997)

He was the 9th President of the Philippines. He was elected in 1961, defeating the re-election bid of Carlos P. Garcia. He failed in his own re-election bid in 1965, losing to Ferdinand Marcos. He was also known by his nickname The Incorruptible. Order 9th President of the Philippines (5th President of the 3rd Republic) Term of Office December 30, 1961- December 30, 1965 Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez Predecessor Carlos P. Garcia Successor Ferdinand Marcos Born September 28, 1910 Lubao, Pampanga Died April 21, 1997 Makati City

Early Life and Career Macapagal was born in Lubao, Pampanga. His parents were Urbano Macapagal and Romana Pangan. Nhe graduated valedictorian in Lubao Elementary School and he graduated with second highest rating in the Pampanga High School. His family was poor, but with the help of Honorio Ventura, the Secretary of Interior at that time, he studied law and graduated in the University of Sato Tomas and pursued and earned the postgraduate degree of Doctor of Civil Law and Ph.D. in Economics in the same university. He finished his law degree in 1936. He worked as a lawyer for an American employer in Manila, and was assigned as a legal assistant to President Manuel Quezon. During the Japanese occupation, Macapagal served as support to the anti-Japanese task force and as an intelligence liaison to the US guerillas. It was during this period that his first wife died of malnutrition. He later married Evangelina Macaraeg, the mother of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. He held the office as second secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, DC. In 1949, he was elected to the House of Representatives, where he served until 1956. During that time, he was the Philippines representative to the United Nations General Assembly three times. In 1957, as a member of the Liberal Party, he became vice president under President Carlos Garcia of the Nacionalist Party. Presidency In the 1961 presidential election, Macapagal ran against Garcia's re-election bid, promising an end to corruption and appealing to the electorate as a common man from humble beginnings. He defeated the incumbent president with a 55% to 45% margin. His inauguration as the president of the Philippines took place on December 30, 1961. Major issues of presidency Major legislations signed Republic Act No. 3512 - An Act Creating a Fisheries Commission Defining Its Powers, Duties and Functions, and Appropriating Funds Therefore.  Republic Act No. 3518 - An Act Creating The Philippine Veterans' Bank, and For Other Purposes.  Republic Act No. 3844 - An Act To Ordain The Agricultural Land Reform Code and To Institute Land Reforms In The Philippines, Including The Abolition of Tenancy and The Channeling of Capital Into Industry, Provide For The Necessary Implementing Agencies, Appropriate Funds Therefore and For Other Purposes.

Republic Act No. 4166 - An Act Changing The Date Of Philippine Independence Day From July Four To June Twelve, And Declaring July Four As Philippine Republic Day, Further Amending For The Purpose Section Twenty-Nine Of The Revised Administrative Code. Republic Act No. 4180 - An Act Amending Republic Act Numbered Six Hundred Two, Otherwise Known As The Minimum Wage Law, By Raising The Minimum Wage For Certain Workers, And For Other Purposes.

Domestic policies Economy In his inaugural address, Macapagal promised a socio-economic program anchored on "a return to free and private enterprise", placing economic development in the hands of private entrepreneurs with minimal government interference. Twenty days after the inauguration, exchange controls were lifted and the Philippine peso was allowed to float on the free currency exchange market. The currency controls were initially adopted by the administration of Elpidio Quirino as a temporary measure, but continued to be adopted by succeeding administrations. The peso devalued from P2.64 to the US dollar, and stabilized at P3.80 to the dollar, supported by a $300 million stabilization fund from the Land reform Like Ramon Magsaysay, President Diosdado Macapagal came from the masses. He savored to call himself the "Poor boy from Lubao".. Ironically, he had little popularity among the masses. This could be attributed to an absence of charismatic appeal of his stiff personality. But despite this, Macapagal had certain achievements. Foremost of these was the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (Republic Act No. 3844) which provided for the purchase of private farmlands with the intention of distributing them in small lots to the landless tenants on easy term of payment. In comparison with the previous agrarian legislation, the law lowered the retention limit to 75 hectares, whether owned by individuals or corporations. It removed the term "contiguous" and established the leasehold system. The share-tenancy or the kasama system was prohibited. It formulated a bill of rights that assured agricultural workers the right to self organization and to a minimum wage. It also created an office that acquired and distributed farmlands and a financing institution for this purpose. The major flaw of this law was, however, that it had several exemptions, such as lands producing for export (big capital plantations established during the Spanish and American periods); fishponds, salt beds, and lands primarily planted to citrus, coconuts, cacao, coffee, durian, and other similar permanent trees; landholdings converted to residential, commercial, industrial, or other similar non-agricultural purposes. It was viewed that the 75-hectare retention limit was just too high for the growing population density. Moreover, this law merely allowed the transfer of the landlordism from one area to another. This was because landlords were paid in bonds, which he could use to purchase agricultural lands. Likewise, the farmer was free to choose to be excluded from the leasehold arrangements if he volunteered to give up the landholdings to the landlord. Within two years after the law was implemented, no land was being purchased under its term and conditions caused by the peasant's inability to purchase the land. Besides, the government seemed lacking of strong political will, as shown by the Congress' allotment of only one million pesos for the implementation of this code. At least Php200 million was needed within a year from the enactment and implementation of the code, and Php300 million in the next three years for the program to be successful. However, by 1972, the code had benefited only 4,500 peasants covering 68 estates, at the cost of Php57 million to the government. Consequently, by the 1970s, the farmers ended up tilling less land, with their share in the farm also being less. They incurred more debts, depending on the landlord, creditors, and palay buyers. Indeed, during the administration of Macapagal, the productivity of the farmers further declined.

Foreign policies Sabah claim On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagal's administration, the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines. The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts. The Philippines broke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963. It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpur. To date, Malaysia continues to consistently reject Philippine calls to resolve the matter of Sabah's jurisdiction to the International Court of Justice. Sabah sees the claim made by the Philippines' Moro leader Nur Misuari to take Sabah to International Court of Justice (ICJ) as a non-issue and thus dismissed the claim. Maphilindo In July 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal convened a summit meeting in Manila. Maphilindo was proposed as a realization of Jose Rizal's dream of bringing together the Malay peoples, seen as artificially divided by colonial frontiers. Maphilindo was described as a regional association that would approach issues of common concern in the spirit of consensus. However, it was also perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta and Manila to delay, or even prevent, the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. Manila had its own claim to Sabah (formerly British North Borneo) and Jakarta protested the formation of Malaysia as a British imperialist plot. The plan failed when Sukarno adopted his plan of konfrontasi with Malaysia. The Konfrontasi, or Confrontation basically aims at preventing Malaysia to attain independence. The idea was inspired onto President Sukarno by the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or literally the Indonesian Communist Party. The party convinced President Sukarno that the Formation of Malaysia is a form of neo-colonization and will later affect tranquility in Indonesia. The subsequent development of ASEAN almost certainly excludes any possibility of the project ever being revived. Post-Presidency In 1971, Macapagal was chosen as president of the constitutional convention that drafted what became the 1973 constitution. Then in 1979, the National Union for Liberation was established by Macapagal to oppose the Marcos regime. In his retirement, he devoted much of his time to reading and writing. He authored several books, and wrote a weekly column forvthe Manila Bulletin newspaper. Heart failure, pneumonia and renal complications caused his death at Makati Medical Center on April 21, 1997. He is buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. Reference: Philippine History(2008) BY Lacandula, C. M. et al.


( Magsaysay, Garcia And Macapagal)

Submitted to: Atty. Jennifer Asuncion

Submitted by:

Agustin, Ronalyn Alberto, Rommel Ancheta, Nikki Canosa, Gennelyn De San Jose, Searle Elegores, Gwen Eleria, Jhessel Lanso-an, Aimee Mangantulao,Paul