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Science 4-2 I.

Fill in the blanks on the answersheet: Soil profile Conservation Biodegrable water cycle slash and burn evaporation pollution hydroelectric energy renewable resource nonrenewable resource

non biodegradable

1. thepresevation and wise use of natural resources is called____________________ 2. when the farmers cut down and set millions of acres of forest o fire at once 3. a___________________________item, like paper, breaks on fire at once, it is called. 4. 4. The adding of harmful materials to the air, water and souls is__________ 5. Energy that comes from moving water is called______________________ 6. A________________________shows a lehngthwise cross section of the different layers of soil 7. The process in which liquid water changes to water vapor 8. A natural resource that cannot replace for thousand or millions of years once it has been used up 9. The natural process called the__________________________renews the supply of fresh o=water. 10. A natural resource that can be replaced or that replaces itself.__________

II>Wirte t or f 1. Smog froms when sunlight reacts with pollutants chemicals produced by burning fuels. 2. An example of renewable resource is air because oit replaces itself. 3. Leather shoes are renewable resource because they are made from animal skin 4. Fabric for clothing,CD, and playground equipments can be made from recycled plastics. 5. Plastic bags is non renewable resource they are made from animal skins 6. Recycling aluminum cans help conserve both enrgy and an important resource. 7. Decayed organic material turns into a dark colored material called humus. 8. Each layer of soil profile is called the horis=zontal layer 9. Organic matter or humus is important to the plants 10. Using biodegradable products, such as paper, will not help the environment. III> Multiple choice 21. Fossil fuels are not renewable, What will happen if people continue to sonsume these fossil:

a. these resources will disappear b.We will need to make more fossil fuels. c. conditions will remain the same d. cars will be able to move faster.

22.The item below are natural resources. Which of these is a renewable resource? a. b. c. d. wood, because trees grow again gold because more can be made easily petronleum because t can be refined into gasoline coal, because more can be made in 100 years.

23 Which of these is a natural part of the soil? a. b. c. d. silt tires paper plastic

24.. Which of the following cannot be recycles after it is used? a. b. c. d. gasoline newxpaper glass bottle aluminum can

25. A negative (bad) effect of the invention and use of paper is the aA increased used of glass bottles b.Decreased amount of books to read c. Decreased pollution in trash dumps d. Increased number of tress cut down 26. Which of these is anatural part of oil? a. b. c. d. plastic silt tires paper

27. A natural resource is a material found on earth. Which of these is a natural resource? a. b. c. d. houses road cars soil

e. After several weeks since the water was preplaced, astudent observes that the water level 28.What might happen to Metrmanila if the yearly rainfall is less than normal? a. b. c. d. there may be ice storms there may be larger ocean waves there maybe a drouhg thre may be a lot of snow

29. which of the following is least likely to be a source of water pollution? a. b. c. d. ovr pumping of water from wells b. acid rain c. agriculture runoff household dumping

30. After several weeks since the water was replaced, a student observes that the water level in the tank is lower. What process caused this to happen a. b. c. d. erosion evaporation precipitation d condensation

31. Sewage treatment plants give many benefits to the environment. By analyzing the water cycle and the effects of sewage treatment plants on the environment, whatnegative impact could occur at these facilities during heavy rainfall? a. these facilities can lower the water level of the river b. these facilities will atrract more visitors to the river for recreational purposes c. these facilities can lovwer evaporation of water from the river d. thesse facilities could overload, releasing pollution into the river. 32. Which of the following is a renewable resource? a. petroleum b.. aluminum c. water d. iron

33. the topsoil is the most productive soil layer because a. it is the coloest b. it is where most organic matter is found

c. it is the warmest d. that is wehre the rain falls

34. Not only does it save resources to recycle metals and glass, it also takes far less_____to make containers and toher products from recycled minerals. a. aluminum b. energy c. water d. paper

35. Why does clearing tropical rain forest have an adverse effect on soil wuality> a. the soil is only good for farmrers for a few years before the nutrients are gone because the soil is almost infertile below the first few centimeters. b. Byclearning rain forests, soil is vulnerableto direct sunlight that damages The richmness of the soil c. burning fields leave ash and soot in the soil, making it impossible to grow crops. d. uprooting trees makes the soil vulnerable to erosion.

36. Not only does it save resource to recycle metals and glass, it also takes far less_____to make containers and other products from recycled minerals. a. aluminum b. energy c. water d. paper

37. Environment organizations have asked businesses to take action to reduce waste. Which of the following changes docould a business make in order to become more environmentally friendly? a. when packing boxes, use Styrofoam filler b. purchase wood products manufactured only in other countries

c. Purchase only recycled paper and paper products. D when making photcopies, print on one side of the paper.

38. Tyrone posted alist of things to do: Turn off water while not in use Close the ref door quickly Only take as much food as you can eat Turn off lights when not in use. a. b. c. d. renew energy resources conserve resources recycle resources reuse material

39. Brian was looking into a bucket of soil. The soil appeared dry, grainy, and white, the soil must be made of: a. leaf bits b. top soil c. sand d. clay

40.which of these may casue the most dangerous water pollution? a. b. c. d. oil run off from highways b. insects that live in water c. large meat-eating fish d. rotting forest leaves

41. the diagram below shows some ways in which groundwater can be affected by humans: a, tozic waste is safe if buried below the level of the basements of the houses. b. chemicals applied by farmers lower the level of pollution in drinking water c. drinking water can become polluted from unidentified d. human activities do not affect groundwater.

42. the picture below shows the soil profile in a certain place. Wht soil forizon has rich concetrations of organic matter and humus? a. a horizon b. b horizon c. chorizon d. d horizon

43. surface mining is a type of mining that is done at the surface of the earth. In addition to supplying valuable minerals to industry, surface mining might also a. create recreational ponds and lakes b. increase earth s surface area c. discourage landfills d. eliminate groundwater pollution

44. the cartoon below shows a numorous view of a scientific phenomenon. What process is occurring that makes the child breath become visible? a. melting b. cndensation c. boiling d. evaporation

the pie chart on the right shows the percentage by weight of recycle materials. Which concluson is supported by the data in the pie chart. a. very few people in the Phils. Have yards and therefore have no need to compost b. b. paper products are recycled in greater amounts than any other individual produts. c. C. a greater number of containers are made from glass than from plastic. d. D. construction materials are more expensive to recycle than metal.

The data table below compares cars and light trucks in regradr to gas mileage and the amount of gases released into the environment.

a. b. c. d.

they produce less nitrogen oxide and carbon dioxide emissions than cars. They have a greter negative impact on the environment They havebecome more popular than cars in the recent year. They get more average miles per gallon than cars.

IV> Fill in the blanks:

Earthquake Landslide

fault mineral

glacier magma

igneous rocks

lava weathering

metamorphic rocks

Sedimentary rock

1. 2. 3. 4.

the molten rock beneath the earth s surface is 2. The molten rock that reaches the earth surface 3. A sudden movement of the earth crust 4. The new rock that forms when melted rock from the earth s mantle cools and hardens is called 5. theenw rock that forms when sand, particles of rock, bit of sol and the reiams of once a living things harden. 6. The new rock that forms when existing rocks are changed by heat, pressure or chemicals is 7. 7. A_______is a solid material that has a definite chemical make up forming cyrstals 8. the slow werning away of rock into smaller pieces 9. a large mass of slow-moving ice is 10. thesuddent movement of loose rocks and soil down a steep slope

V. True or False: 1. the center of the earth is made of molten rock

2. the crust of earth is much cooler than its other layers 3. deposition can only be caused by the wind 4. the core is where geologists look for oil,gas, and other esource. 5. chemical weathering happns when substances react with the minerals in the rock. 6. when magma cools and hardens, it will turn into igneous rocks 7. the strength of an earthquake depends on the amount of water that has built up along a fault 8. Ignenoues rocks willnot turn into sediments even if it undergoes weathering adnerosion. 10. cementing of rocks happens when dissolved mineral fill in carcks between sediments. VI. Multiple choice: 1. the road shown below was suddenly broken by anatural event.

Which event most likely caused it to crack? a. b. c. d. wind earthquake a lava flow from a avolcano an avalanche down a mountain

2. the picture on the right shows four diff erent rock layers in a hillsisde. What is the best evdidence that one of thse layers of rock was formed under an ocean? a. the height above sea level of the layer b. the number of caves in thelayer c. the type of fossil in the layer d. the thickness of the layer

3. the diagram above left contains different layers of soil and rocks as shown in the bove right chart. The area being referrd above contains the igneus rocks basalt. Why were no fossils found in the layer? A. there was not enough time for fossil to form B. fossils do not form in igneous rocks C. fossils were too small to be found D. not all organizms form fossils.

4. in what environment was the tuff formed?

a. an inland lake b. an inland river c. the middle of the ocean d. part of an ocean near a beach 5. Which of the following statement cannot be explained by the info: A. part of this area was formed near volcanes b. part of this area originally formed in the ocean. c. the number of fossil types has increased over time d. the number f fossil types has decreased over time.

6. this rock was brought to school. The class found fossils of water plants and shells in the rock. What does tihis tell us about the rock? A. the rock was once at the bottom of the sea b. the rock needs to be washed c. the rock is heavier thatn most rocks d. the rock was once at the bottom of the sea.

7. in order for the tracks of a animal to be fosiled, they must immediately be buried with sediment after they are made. a. be filled with volcanic ash and dissolve b. erode over time and disappear comepletely c. fossilize much faster than if they wre buried. d. Sink into the sediment where they would never be discovered. 8. a truckload of sand was delivered to the school playground forming a heap of sand. It rained for a week. When the rain stopped, the heap of sand was flattened. What probably happened to the sand? 9. A. the heap of sand evaporated

a. b. c. d.

the heap of sand eroded the heap snad erupted the heap of sand evaporated the heap of sand fossiled

10.most likely caused thje rock to move on the road/ a. b. c. d. hurricane landslide blizzard tsunami earthquake is caused by sudden shifts in which of the following layers of earth? a. b. c. d. crust mantle outer core inner core

12.rock layers may be forced deep underground and exposed to high temperature and pressures. These rocks changes and become a. b. c. d. rare metals igneous rocks sedimentary rocks metamorphic rocks

13.a truckload of sand was delivered to the school playground forming a heap of sand. It rained for a week. When the rain finally stopped, the heap of sand was flattened. What probably happened to the sand? a. b. c. d. the heap of sand eroded the heap of sand erupted the heap of sand fossiled the heap of sand evaporated

14.4.buried wt sediment after they are made, if the tracks remained exposed on the earth s surface, they be: a. b. c. d. be filled with volcanic ash and sdissolve erode over time and disappear fossilize much faster than if they were buried sink into the siedimentwherethey would never be discovered

15.the picture on the right show a model of the rock cycle. During which part f the rock cycle does water break rocks apart? a. b. c. d. part1 b. part 2 c. part3 d. part 4

16. the picture below shows rock layers of a aortion of the crust that were moved along a fault. The number represent different layers of rock? Which rock layer is probably the oldest? a. 1 b.3 c. 4 d.6

17. Rocks that contain fragments of bones, shells, and plant remain are most likely a. crystals b. igneous c. sedimentary d. metamorphic

18. the diagram on the right shows the rock cycle. Which two processes result in the formation of igneous rocks? a. melting and solidification b. compression and precipitation c. crystallization and cementation d. sedimentation and eveporation

19. the presence of fossil organism in rocks can provide informantion about the environment time the sediments were deposited a. fossils occur only in sedimentary rocks b. manyorganizms survive millions of years c. fossils do not undergo chemical and physical weathering d. differentorganizms usually inhabit specific environment.

20. the landform on the right was probably caused a. wind

b. high tides c. running water d. human activity

20.How does freezing water casue the weathering of rocks? a. b. c. d. freezing water cracks the rocks freezing water makes the rocks longer. Freezing water holds the rocks in place. Freezing water makes the rocks thicker.

21. the diagram below shows a cross-section of the mid-atlantic ridge uner the ocean that was once a volcano. The number represent difrent areas of the crust long the mid-atlantic ridge. a. 1 b.2 c.3 d.4

VII> Multiple choice: 1. which of the following is not one of the earth s layers? a. inner core b. crust c. outer mantle d. lower mantle

2. which of the earth s layer is liquid? a. lower crust b. outer core c. inner core d. mantle 3. the core of earth is made up of almost completely of which element? A. iron b. granite c. sulfur d. calcium 4. which layer of the earth is the thickest. a. mantle b. core c. rust d. all layers are the same thickness 5 straing with the outermost layer, what is the order of the earth layer a. core,mantle,crust b. mantle inner crust,core c. crustinnenr core, mantle d. crust, upper mantle, lower mantle,outer core, inner4 core VIII write true or false: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. the crust is broken down into two parts: upper and lower the core is where geologists look for oil,gas, and other resources the earth s mantle is flexible and shifts under heavy loads the crust of the eart is much cooler thanits outer layers extreme pressure casued the inner core of the earth to reiman solid the thinnest parts of the earth s crust are its continents earthquakes occur when heat ravel thourgh the mantle and caused tectonic plates to shift 8. the outer core is liquid 9. Mostof the earth s heat is stored in the mantle 10. The center of the earth is made of molten rock.`

Ix. fill in the blanks Mantle Mudslide earthquake crust fault lave magma volcano landform landslide

igneous rock

1. the new rock that forms when melted rock from Earth s mantle cools and hardens. 2. 2. The outer layer of earth is 3. 3. During the earthquake, the movement of rock near the earth s surface can create new________________,such as mountains and cvalley. 4. _____________is an oening in the earth;s crust through which hot gases,ash,and molten rock escape from deep inside the earth. 5. Movement of the crust usually take place along_________or crack, in earth s crust. 6. The molten rock beneath earth s surface is 7. The molten rock that reaches earth s surface is 8. A sudden movement of earth s crust is 9. A landslide is called_________if loose soil and rock is soaked with water. 10. The sudden movement of loose rock and soil down a steep slope is______

X. T or F 1. earthquake are commonly caused when sections of crust move. 2.One effect when too much pressure builds up in earth s crust is an earthquake 3.Earthquake never create new landforms such as mountains 4.Earthquakes under the sea cannot cause tsunami 5. strength of an earthquake depends on the amount of pressure that has built up 6. earth s crust is always changing 7. a volcanic erupton does not change the surrounding landscape 8. rocks formed from volcanoes are called metamorphic rocks. 9. earthquake commonly cased when section of crust move. 10. earthquake and volcanic eruption can trigger landslides and mudslid es