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Pressure & Flame Protection

Flame Arresters

WHY USE A FLAME ARRESTER


It could be a bolt of lightning. It could be the tiniest spark. The result would still be the same, death, destruction and devastation. Many processes involve the transportation of potentially flammable or explosive gases or vapours through piping systems. When a confined flammable gas or vapour ignites, the flame will rush along the pipe at an alarming speed, with devastating results. As the flame accelerates to 3000m/sec, what is going to stop this explosive fireball from destroying your plant and killing your staff? The answer is an Amal flame arrester.

WHERE SHOULD A FLAME ARRESTER BE USED?


Wherever flammable liquids are stored or flammable gases/vapours transported, a flame arrester should be used to ensure that in the event of those materials igniting, damage to plant is minimised and threats to life are eliminated. For example burners, incinerators, thermal oxidisers and flares all have permanent sources of ignition and therefore should be fitted with a flame arrester. Storage tanks and mixing vessels that contain flammable liquids have vent pipes and a potential ignition source e.g. lightning or external flame which could cause an explosion. Solution - fit an Amal flame arrester.

RANGE
Many applications can be fulfilled using our standard cast range of flame arresters. However, we also have an extensive fabricated range to meet the rigorous requirements of special applications.
Many types of Amal flame arresters may be used with the complementary range of Marvac pressurevacuum valves. 1

D O YO U R F L A M E A R R E S T E R S WO R K ?
In this vital area of safety, it is comforting to know that at least one company is taking the trouble to test its products well beyond the accepted norms, we do it in order to justify one simple claim, Amal make flame arresters that work for all gas groups in the Process Industry,...because anything less could be disastrous! All Amal units are precision made to guarantee a consistent performance every time, and the special foil material just 0.05mm (0.002ins) thick is used to ensure an extremely low pressure drop through the arrester, which means low energy usage. Amal are one of the few manufacturers who have their own test facilities, where customers actual pipe configurations can be tested in Amals flame and explosion laboratory. Computer controlled test instrumentation measures the flame speed and explosion pressure in test pipes, and with the help of closed circuit video monitoring, Amals engineers can accurately assess the performance of different types of flame arresters in all sorts of situations.

H OW D O T H E Y WO R K ?
A flame arrester is a passive explosion protection device with no moving parts. At the core of each Amal flame arrester is a crimped metal element, which in section comprises a series of triangular passages or cells. All gases have a defined gap through which a flame will not pass; this is called the Maximum Experimental Safe Gap (MESG). To quench a flame, and so prevent its onward passage, the height of the cells in the element should be below the MESG of the gas/vapour being handled. The length of the cells in the element is also important. Once the flame enters the element, the cells will absorb heat from the burning gas, progressively reducing its temperature so that when exiting the arrester, the gases are cooled to below the point where auto ignition would occur. After more than 80 years of experience and extensive testing Amal has conclusive proof that the crimped metal concept of triangular cells is without doubt the most effective method of quenching potentially lethal or destructive flame fronts.
2

Flame Arresters

In-Line (Gas and Vapours) Detonation (Unstable): For flames with supersonic speeds and shock wave. Deflagration: For flames with sub-sonic speeds. In-Line (Liquid) Detonation: For use in filling and emptying lines on storage tanks.

Combination Flame Arresters/Relief Valves A comprehensive range of Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valves is available to work in combination with the AMAL Flame Arresters to give added tank protection.

End-of-Line Deflagration: For flames with sub-sonic speeds. Can be supplied Endurance burn proof.

CONTENTS Page
1 1 2 5 6 7 7-8

Title
Why use a Flame Arrester? Where should a Flame Arrester be used? How do Flame Arresters work? Definitions Types of Arrester Quality and International Standards Design Considerations Materials Flame Speeds Effect of Temperature Effect of Pressure

9-10 11-12 13 14-16 17-18 19 21-22

Cell Selector Model Diagrams Figure Numbering System Gas Groups Specification Sheet Combination Flame Arresters/Relief Valves Typical Applications

F l a m e A r r e s t i n g Te c h n o l o g y

DEFINITIONS
Flame arrester A device fitted to the opening of an enclosure or to the connecting pipework of a system of enclosures and whose intended function is to allow flow but prevent the transmission of flame. Flame arrester element That portion of a flame arrester whose principal function is to prevent flame transmission. Flame arrester housing That portion of a flame arrester whose principal function is to provide a suitable enclosure for the flame arrester element, and to allow mechanical connections to other systems. Stabilised burning Steady burning of a flame stabilised at or close to the flame arrester element. Short time burning (standard) Stabilised burning for a specified time. Endurance burning Stabilised burning for an unspecified time. Explosion Abrupt oxidation or decomposition reaction producing an increase in temperature, pressure, or in both simultaneously. Deflagration Explosion propagating at subsonic velocity. Detonation Explosion propagating at supersonic velocity and characterised by a shock wave. Stable detonation A detonation is stable when it progresses through a confined system without significant variation of velocity and pressure characteristics. NOTE: For atmospheric conditions and for the test mixtures and test configurations of EN12874:2001 typical velocities range between 1600m/s and 2200m/s. Unstable detonation A detonation is unstable during the transition of a combustion process from a deflagration into a stable detonation. The transition occurs in a limited spatial zone where the velocity of the combustion wave is not constant and where the explosion pressure is significantly higher than in a stable detonation. NOTE: With regard to the test apparatus of EN12874:2001 the occurrence of unstable detonation is limited to pipe sections with a length of few pipe diameters. The approximate position of this transition zone depends on the details of the test apparatus and has to be determined for the individual case. Maximum experimental safe gap (MESG) The maximum gap of the joint between the two parts of the interior chamber of a test apparatus which, when the internal gas mixture is ignited and under specified conditions, prevents ignition of the external gas mixture through a 25mm long joint, for all concentrations of the tested gas or vapour in air. The MESG is a property of the respective gas mixture. Bi-directional flame arrester A flame arrester which stops flame transmission from both sides. Deflagration flame arrester A flame arrester designed to prevent the transmission of a deflagration. It may be end-of-line or in-line. Detonation flame arrester A flame arrester designed to prevent the transmission of a detonation. It may be end-of-line or in-line. Endurance burning flame arrester A flame arrester which prevents flame transmission during and after burning. Liquid product detonation flame arrester A flame arrester, in which the liquid product is used to form a liquid seal as a flame arrester and which prevents a flame transmission of a detonation. Liquid seal An arresting element formed by the liquid product. End-of-line flame arrester A flame arrester which is fitted with one pipe connection only. In-line flame arrester A flame arrester which is fitted with two pipe connections one on each side of the flame arrester element. Pre-volume flame arrester Pre-volume flame arresters prevent flame transmission from inside a vessel to the outside or into connected pipework. They may be end-of-line or in-line. Integrated temperature sensor A temperature sensor integrated into the flame arrester by the manufacturer to indicate a stabilised flame.

Types of Flame Arresters


D E T O N AT I O N / D E F L A G R AT I O N
The recommended flame arrester will either be a deflagration unit used in gases with sub-sonic flame speeds or a detonation unit to handle supersonic speeds. Detonation units are always confined in the pipeline, whereas deflagration units can be located in the pipeline or at the end of the pipe-vent.

S TA B I L I S E D B U R N I N G I N - L I N E
After a flash back, flames may stabilise and burn continually on the element surface, causing re-ignition of the gas on the protected side. Stabilised burning can be detected and controlled by the use of temperature sensors, that can be fitted close to the element to detect any abnormal rise in temperature. These can be interlocked to shut-off, extinguishing or other systems appropriate to the process.

ENDURANCE BURNING END-OF-LINE


On end of line applications a different solution is required. A fusible link holds the weather cover in the normal position, during an endurance burn extreme temperatures are generated which ultimately cause the fusible link to melt, releasing the cover and allowing the heat to escape.

Q U A L I T Y A N D I N T E R N AT I O N A L S TA N D A R D S
Quality in such a critical area as explosion protection must be assured and Amal is certified to the highest international standard - ISO 9001:2008. In addition Amal Flame Arresters are designed, tested and certified to EN 12874:2001 in accordance with ATEX Directive 94/9/EC by INERIS and have also been tested in accordance with various standards and organisations such as: BS 7244:1990, USCG, IMO, FTZU, PTB, BAM, PROCHEM, CSA, HSE, GOST-R, NEMCO, and IBExU. Amal Flame Arresters are also designed and certified to the Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 97/23/EC by Lloyds.

D E S I G N C O N S I D E R AT I O N S
Due to the safety critical nature of the process, designing and specifying flame arresters requires great care and consideration. There is a wide range of volatile gaseous compounds and mixtures, each having its own unique combustion characteristics. Careful consideration also needs to be given to the corrosive nature of these compounds, as the element and housing of any flame arrester will need to be constructed of materials resistant to this corrosion.

M AT E R I A L S
Amal manufacture elements from Stainless Steel 316L as standard, and have the capability to produce elements from many commercially available materials, including Hastelloy, Nickel, Monel and Tantulum.

FLAME SPEEDS
Effect of Straight Pipe on Flame Speeds and Explosion Pressure
3.0 150
Unstable or overdriven detonations

Flame speed in metres/sec (thousands)

C D D D 20

1.8

Explosion pressure Barg

30

AB BC

Deflagration Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) CD Stable detonation x DN 50 (2" NPS) Pipe 29.5% hydrogen/air Detonation arrester DN 50 (2" NPS) Pipe 7% ethylene/air Detonation arrester z DN 50 (2" NPS) Pipe 4.3% propane/air Detonation arrester

1.0 0.5 0.3 0.2 0 A 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pipe length in metres 14 16 18 0 B B B 10

Flame speed can have a crucial role in the specifying of a flame arrester and flame speeds can be directly related to pipe length and diameter. While the flame characteristics can vary with different gases the basic pattern remains the same. In the example above an ethylene/air mixture in a DN50/2" pipeline shows the classic profile of increasing flame speed and pressure up to a 3m pipe length, this is the deflagration zone with subsonic 7

flame speeds, there then follows a rapid acceleration to a peak of 2300m/sec, called an overdriven or unstable detonation, where the flame speed is actually supersonic, this is the deflagration to detonation transition zone (DDT). At 6 metres the flame speed decays to a stable detonation speed of 1830m/sec. All Amal detonation flame arresters are tested up to the level of over-driven detonation.

T H E E F F E C T O F T E M P E R AT U R E
ins. mm. 0.045 1.10

D / IIA

0.032

0.80

Cell Height

Cell height

C / IIB3
0.024 0.60

0.018 0.015 0.012

0.45 0.38 0.3

B / IIC

0.006

0.15

0 32

25 77

50 122

100 212

150 302

200 392

250F 482C

Temperature

The operating temperature is important, as the safe gap (MESG) is affected by temperature, the higher the temperature the smaller the safe gap for the same gas. Heat transfer is less efficient at higher temperatures, therefore more surface area may be required, hence longer cells and/or smaller cell heights.

The operating temperature is therefore important to ensure the correct arrester is specified. e.g. although a gas may be IIA at ambient it may become equivalent to IIB3 at higher temperatures.

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE


ins. mm. 0.048 0.045 1.20 1.10

Cell Height
0.032 0.80

Cell height

0.024 0.018 0.015 0.012 0.06

0.60 0.45 0.38 0.30 0.15

B / IIC

C / IIB3

D / IIA

1.0 14.7

2.0 29

4.0 58

6.0 87

8.0 bar A 116 psi A

Absolute pressure

As can be seen the safe gap is significantly affected by pressure. An example is, at 2 barA the safe gap is approximately half of that at 1barA, and at 8 or 9 barA the safe gap is so small that manufacture of a suitable element is impractical.

Amal have tested IIB3 arresters up to 6 barA. High pressure applications are typically on pumps and compressors. The operating pressure is defined as the pressure at which ignition of gas/vapour and air can occur.

C E L L S E L E C T O R (For use under ambient conditions*) END-OF-LINE European Gas Group IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIB3 IIB IIC US Gas Group D C C C B A Cell Height mm 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.45 0.15 Width mm 19 19 19 19 19 19 Notes

US all gases except Hydrogen US plus Hydrogen

Hydrogen is "B" in the USA but treat as "A" END-OF-LINE (Endurance Burn) European Gas Group IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIB3 IIB IIC US Gas Group D C C C B A Cell Height mm 0.8

Width mm 19

Notes Hydrocarbons only Refer to Factory Refer to Factory Refer to Factory Refer to Factory Refer to Factory

DEFLAGRATION (In-Line) If mounted directly under a breather valve which cannot be piped away. (See page 19) DEFLAGRATION (In-Line) If mounted in-line or under a breather valve which can be piped away. Hence the length of pipe between the ignition source and flame arrester is important.
Up to DN65 DN80 to DN350 DN400 & larger

European Gas Group IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIB3 IIB IIC

US Gas Group D C C C B A

Up to 2.5" Cell Width Height mm mm 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.45 0.15 19 19 19 19 19 19

3" to 14" Cell Width Height mm mm 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.45 0.38 0.15 38 38 38 38 38 38

16" & larger Cell Width Height mm mm Notes 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.45 0.38 0.15 76 76 76 76 76 76

US all but Hydrogen US plus Hydrogen

*Ambient conditions are up to 60C and up to 1.1bar a. Cell configurations are available for higher temperatures and pressures, refer to factory. Refer to factory. For group IIA, IIBI, IIB2, IIB3, IIB, and IIC, maximum length (L) to ignition shall not exceed 50 x pipe diameters (50 x D). Refer to factory for actual L/D ratios. Note: All DN sizes (DN20, DN40 etc.) refer to pipe connections.

C E L L S E L E C T O R (For use under ambient conditions*)


DEFLAGRATION (In-Line Stabilised Burn - Bio Gas only)
DN50 to DN150 DN200

European Gas Group


1

US Gas Group
D

2" to 6"
Cell Height Width

8"
Cell Height Width

mm
0.6

mm 19

mm 0.6

mm 38

DEFLAGRATION (In-Line Type BIR Construction)


up to DN80

European Gas Group


1IA / IIB1

US Gas Group
D/C

up to 3"
Cell Height Width

Note: BIR compact in-line unit designed for use with E85 Bio-fuel but can be used for other applications. mm 19

mm
0.6

DETONATION (In-Line)
Pipe length to ignition source is not important. European Gas Group IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIB3 IIB US Gas Group D C Cell Ht mm Width mm Cell Ht mm Width mm Cell Ht mm Width mm Cell Ht mm Bi-Direction Width mm
up to DN20 DN25 to DN50 to DN100 to DN40 DN80 DN150 DN200 DN250 to DN350 to DN450 DN300 DN400 & above

up to 0.75" 0.6 76 0.45 76 0.3 76 0.15 76

1" to 1.5" 0.6 76 0.45 76 0.3 76 0.15 76

2" to 3" 0.45 76 0.38 76 0.3 76 0.15 76

4" to 6" 0.45 76 0.38 76 0.3 76 0.15 152

8" 0.45 76 0.38 114

10" to 12" 0.45 152 0.38 190

14" to 16" 0.45 152 0.38 190

18" & above 0.45 152

IIC

B&A

DETONATION (US Coast Guard) (In-Line)


Pipe length to ignition source is not important. US Coast Guard Gas Group D C B&A Cell Ht mm Width mm Cell Ht mm Width mm Cell Ht mm Bi-Direction Width mm
up to DN20 DN25 to DN100 DN125 DN150 DN200 DN250 to DN350 DN450 & above

up to 0.75" 0.6 76 0.38 76

1" to 4" 0.45 76 0.38 76

5" 0.45 76 0.45 152

6" 0.45 152 0.45 152

8" 0.45 152 0.38 114

10" to 16" 0.45 152 0.38 190

18" & above 0.45 152

Element Width 19 = 19mm (0.75") 38 = 38mm (1.5") 76 = 76mm (3.0") 114 = 114mm (4.5") 152 = 152mm (6.0") 190 = 190mm (7.5")

Number of Elements 1x 1x 1x 3x 2x 1 x 38 19 38 76 38 76 2 x 76

Nominal Cell Height 80 60 45 38 30 15 = = = = = = 0.80mm 0.60mm 0.45mm 0.38mm 0.30mm 0.15mm (0.032") (0.024") (0.018") (0.015") (0.012") (0.006") Cell Height
en tW idt

Ele

Note: All DN sizes (DN20, DN40 etc.) refer to pipe connections.

10

I N - L I N E M O D E L D I AG R A M S

LIR Flanged*

(LF Version)

LIR Screwed

(LR Version)

LIRD Screwed

(DS Version)

LIR

(LS Version)

IRDB

(DT Version)

IRQ*

(DF Version)

IRDBE

(DT Version)

IRE

(DF Version)

*Eccentric variants are available

BIR

BIR

11

E N D - O F - L I N E M O D E L D I AG R A M S

NPC Screwed

(NC Version)

NP Screwed

(NP Version)

LEFC

(LC Version)

LEF

(LE Version)

LERC

(LC Version)

LER

(LE Version)

ERQ

(EC Version)

ERQB Endurance Burn

(EC Version)

LERC Screwed

(LC Version)

12

FIGURE NUMBERING SYSTEM


Model Nominal (mm) Connection Dia. Element Code Nominal (mm) Element Dia. Nominal (mm) Element Width Nominal Cell Height

ERQ

/
Element Model code Connections
LIR LR Screwed

50

EC

/
Burn type
Standard

100

/
1

19

*80

*Note: Nominal cell size - 80 = nominal 0.80mm (0.032") etc.


Weather Cover
Not reqd

Type
Deflagration

Construction Element
Light weight Fixed

Pipe size range Metric


DN6 to DN40 Flanged DN15 to DN400 Screwed DN50 to DN80 Flg DN20 to DN150 Scd DN20 to DN50 Pln DN20 to DN150 Flanged DN15 to DN1000 Screwed DN15 to DN80 DN40 to DN200 DN80 DN6 to DN40 DN15 to DN150

Imperial
4" to 112"

Element size range Metric Imperial


DN25 to DN50 1" to 2"

Deflagration

LIR/ LIRE

LF

Flanged or screwed

Light weight

Fixed

Standard

Not reqd

Flanged 2" to 16" Screwed 2" to 3"


1

DN40 to DN600

112" to 24"

Flg 34" to 6"

Deflagration

LIR

LS

Flanged, screwed or plain

Light weight

Fixed

Standard

Not reqd

Scd 34" to 2"

DN50 to DN300

2" to 12"

Pln 34" to 6"


Flanged 2" to 40" Screwed 1 2" to 3"
1

In-Line

Deflagration

IRQ/ IRQE

DF

Flanged or screwed

Standard

Replaceable

Standard

Not reqd

DN25 to DN2000 1" to 80"

Deflagration Deflagration Detonation Detonation

IRE BIR LIRD LIRD/ LIRDE

DF DF DS DR

Flanged Screwed Screwed Flanged

Light weight Standard Standard Standard

Replaceable Replaceable Fixed Fixed

Endurance Standard Standard Standard

Not reqd Not reqd Not reqd Not reqd

112" to 8" 3"


1

DN50 to DN250 DN80 to DN125 DN25 to DN50 DN40 to DN300

2" to 10" 3" to 5" 1" to 2" 112" to 12"

4" to 112" 2" to 6"

Detonation

IRDB/ DT IRDBE

Flanged or screwed

Standard

Replaceable

Standard

Not reqd

Flanged DN15 to DN600 Screwed DN15 to DN80 Screwed DN6 to DN50 Plain DN32, 40 & 80 Screwed DN6 to DN50 Plain DN32, 40 & 80 DN6 to DN50 DN15 to DN400 DN6 to DN50 DN15 to DN400 DN40 to DN400 DN40 to DN400 DN15 to DN50 DN15 to DN600 DN15 to DN50 DN15 to DN150

Flanged 2" to 24" Screwed 1 2" to 3"


1

DN25 to DN2000

1" to 80"

Deflagration

NP

NP

Screwed & plain

Light weight

Fixed

Standard

None

Screwed 1 4" to 2" DN50, 80 & 100 Plain 1 1 1 4", 1 2", 3" Screwed 1 4" to 2" DN50, 80 & 100 Plain 114", 112", 3"
1

2", 3" & 4"

Deflagration

NPC

NC

Screwed & plain

Light weight

Fixed

Standard

Fitted

2", 3" & 4"

End-of-Line

Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration Deflagration

LER LER LERC LERC LEF LEFC ERQ ERQ ERQB ERQB ERQB

LE LE LC LC LE LC EC EC EC EC EC

Screwed Flanged Screwed Flanged Flanged Flanged Screwed Flanged Screwed Flanged Flanged

Light weight Light weight Light weight Light weight Light weight Light weight Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard

Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Fixed Replaceable Replaceable Replaceable Replaceable Replaceable

Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Standard Endurance Endurance Endurance

None None Fitted Fitted None Fitted Fitted Fitted Sprung Sprung Sprung

4" to 2" 2" to 16" 4" to 2" 2" to 16"

DN25 to DN100 DN25 to DN600 DN25 to DN100 DN25 to DN600 DN40 to DN400 DN40 to DN400 DN50 to DN100 DN50 to DN800 DN50 to DN100 DN50 to DN200 DN200 multiples

1" to 4" 1" to 24" 1" to 4" 1" to 24" 112" to 16" 112" to 16" 2" to 4" 2" to 32" 2" to 4" 2" to 8" 8" multiples

112" to 16" 112" to 16"


1

2" to 2" 2" to 24" 2" to 2" 2" to 6"

DN200 to DN350 8" to 14"

13

GAS GROUPS
Material Name Formula MW Vapour Flash Auto- Boiling Melting Flammable European Density Point Ignition Point Point Range Gas relative to (C) Point (C) (C) (Vol. %) Group air (air=1) (C) 1.52 2.07 3.53 2.00 1.41 2.70 3.45 0.90 1.94 2.49 1.83 2.00 4.19 2.65 1.38 0.59 4.50 3.05 3.22 3.74 2.70 3.57 5.20 3.67 4.38 5.43 4.74 3.77 1.87 2.01 2.56 2.56 1.94 1.94 4.02 4.43 3.20 2.53 2.49 2.63 0.97 3.89 3.20 2.79 1.75 2.72 2.23 3.74 2.43 4.16 2.91 2.84 2.43 1.46 4.92 5.48 4.78 4.47 5.07 3.42 3.35 -38 39 49 -18 12 5 34 Gas -26 54 -1 21 -2 -32 Gas Gas 38 33 76 52 -11 72 90 62 67 51 14 -20 Gas Gas 29 24 Gas Gas 22 37 -9 -12 -7 -30 Gas 28 -9 60 -45 -18 -50 86 13 36 -18 -20 -37 Gas 46 82 58 47 66 13 2 175 427 316 465 524 390 340 335 235 360 481 378 294 390 651 379 300 615 475 498 550 460 190 585 566 265 511 414 287 340 390 384 313 425 267 240 312 230 80 609 593 240 425 632 520 519 626 232 424 260 244 361 498 210 288 250 312 648 413 460 21.1 118 140 56.2 82 51 140 -85 52.5 141 77 97 71 45 -23 -33 149 133 185 155 80 190 212 179 179 156 104 38.4 -4.4 -0.5 118 99 -6 1 126 149 78 78 76 46.1 -191 132 78 130 -24 47 12 202 102 152 81 83 49 -33 174 231 194 159 180 83 60 -123.5 16.6 -73 -95.4 -46 -112 -23 -81 -87 13 -84 -129 -119 -135 -103 -78 -71 -8 -6 -37 5.5 -13 -51 -26 -43 -31 -112 -119 -109 -138 -89 -89 -185 -140 -77 -64 -123 -49 -96 -111 -205 -46 -123 -67 -97 -123 -139 11 -76.5 -96 6.5 -104 -94 -128 -30 7 -43 -60 -17 -35 -50 4.0 to 60 5.0 to 16.0 2.7 to 10.3 2.5 to 13.0 3.0 to 16.0 7.3 to 19.0 2.4 to 11.6 2.5 to 100 2.8 to 31.0 2.0 to 8.0 3.0 to 17.0 2.5 to 18 4.4 to 7.3 2.9 to 11.2 2.4 to 11.7 15 to 28 1.1 to 7.5 1.2 to 10.0 1.2 to 11.0 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIC* IIB3 IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIA IIA IIB3 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB2 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB2 IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIB1 IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIA IIC* IIB3 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB2 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA US Gas Group D D D D D D D A C D C C D D C D D D D D D D D D D D D D B D D D D D D D D D D B C D D D D D D D C D D D D C D D D D D D D

Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetyl Chloride Acetyl Acetone Acetylene Acrolein Acrylic Acid Acrylonitrile Allyl Alcohol Allyl Bromide Allyl Chloride Allylene Ammonia n-Amyl Acetate n-Amyl Alcohol Aniline Anisole Benzene Benzonitrile Benzyl Acetate Benzaldehyde Benzyl Chloride Bromobenzene 1-Bromobutane Bromoethane 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane 1-Butanol (n-Butanol) 2-Butanol 1-Butene 2-Butene n-Butyl Acetate Butyl Acrylate Butyl Chloride n-Butylamine n-Butyraldehyde Carbon Disulphide Carbon Monoxide Chlorobenzene 1-Chlorobutane Chloroethanol Chloromethane (Methyl Chloride) 1-Chloropropane Chloroethane (Ethyl Chloride) m-Cresol Crotonaldehyde Cumene Cyclohexane Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopropane n-Decane n-Decanol Dekalin n-Dibutyl Amine 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichloroethane 1.2-Dichloroethylene

C2H4O C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C2H3OCl C5H8O2 C2H2 C3H4O C3H4O2 C3H3N C3H6O C3H5Br C3H5Cl C3H4 NH3 C7H14O2 C5H12O C6H7N C7H8O C6H6 C6H5CN C9H10O2 C6H5CHO C7H7Cl C6H5Br C4H9Br C2H5Br C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C7H12O2 C4H9Cl C4H11N C4H8O CS2 CO C6H5Cl C4H9Cl C2H5OCl CH3Cl C3H7Cl C2H5Cl C7H8O C4H6O C9H11 C6H12 C6H10 C5H10 C3H6 C10H22 C10H22O C10H18 C8H19N C6H4Cl2 C2H4Cl2 C2H2Cl2

44.06 60.06 102.1 58.08 41.06 78.5 100.1 26.04 56.06 72.06 53.06 58 121 76.5 40.06 17.04 130.2 88.2 93.13 108.1 78.12 103.1 150.2 106.1 126.5 157 137 109 54.1 58.1 74.1 74.1 56.12 56.12 116.2 128.2 92.58 73.14 72.12 76.14 28.01 112.6 92.58 80.5 50.49 78.54 64.5 108.2 70.09 120.2 84.16 82.15 70.15 42.08 142.3 158.3 138.1 129.3 147.0 98.96 96.95

1.3 to 8.0 1.4 to 7.2 0.9 to 8.4 1.4 to 13.5 1.1 to 14.0 6.0 to 36.5 2.8 to 6.6 6.8 to 11.0 1.1 to 16.3 1.9 to 8.5 1.4 to 11.3 1.7 to 9.8 1.6 to 9.3 1.7 to 9.3 1.7 to 7.6 1.3 to 9.9 1.8 to 10.1 1.7 to 9.8 2.5 to 12.5 1.3 to 50.0 12.5 to 74.2 1.3 to 7.1 1.8 to 10.1 4.9 to 16 8.1 to 17.2 2.6 to 11.1 3.8 to 15.4 1.1 to 1.4 2.1 to 15.5 0.9 to 6.5 1.3 to 8.4 1.1 to 8.7 2.4 to 10.4 0.8 to 5.4 0.7 to 49 2.2 to 9.2 6 to 16 5.6 to 12.8

14

GAS GROUPS
Material Name Formula MW Vapour Flash Auto- Boiling Melting Flammable European Density Point Ignition Point Point Range Gas relative to (C) Point (C) (C) (Vol. %) Group air (air=1) (C) 3.91 4.57 2.53 3.67 4.64 4.16 2.56 2.98 1.59 1.56 2.53 2.15 3.54 3.05 2.91 3.20 1.04 1.59 2.11 3.12 3.05 4.50 3.45 2.56 2.15 3.95 3.67 0.97 2.08 2.15 2.63 1.53 1.04 1.59 2.36 3.32 ~3 to 4 C7H16 C6H14 C6H14O C6H12O C6H12 H2 H2S C5H8 CH4 CH4O C3H8O2 C3H6O2 CH3Br C4H8O C2H4O2 CH4S C5H8O2 C5H12O CH2Cl2 100.2 86.2 102.2 100.2 84.2 2 34.1 68.1 16 32 76.1 74.1 94.9 72.1 60.1 48.1 100.1 88.2 84.9 3.47 2.98 3.54 3.47 2.91 0.07 1.18 2.36 0.55 1.11 2.63 2.56 3.28 2.49 2.08 1.66 3.46 3.05 2.94 16 33 -28 124 96 93 -45 7 Gas Gas 58 -49 -28 12 33 34 Gas 13 85 44 -4 70 9 -20 -48 20 18 Gas 34 111 39 Gas Gas 69 -35 60 250 -4 -22 41 23 -26 Gas Gas -54 Gas 12 39 -13 Gas -9 -19 -18 10 -28 285 225 423 253 560 260 220 537 464 285 455 537 505 449 421 375 556 557 680 312 229 204 215 160 425 350 402 445 205 443 180 275 385 472 363 410 235 427 295 345 440 299 393 432 490 385 398 285 429 430 520 315 96 170 55 245 196 193 35 102 -25 7 153 37 69 101 127 116 -89 79 85 135 77 181 99 53 36 117 136 -104 116 198 125 11 -20 101 31 162 20-200 98 69 126 63 -253 -60 34 -161 65 125 57 4 80 32 6 101 55 40 -91 -95 -57 -140 -85 -146 -183 -98 -85 -98 -94 -86 -100 -123 -48 -109 -95 -100 33 -50 -10 -76 -69 -116 -42 -141 -92 -60 -98 -60 12 -7 -48 -183 -117 171 -70 -84 -45 -71 -80 -144 -75 -95 -169 -8.5 -13 -85 -111 -92 8 -86 -36.5 3.4 to 14.5 0.8 to 6.3 1.8 to 10.1 1.8 to 12.2 IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIB1 IIB1 IIB1 IIB1 IIB2 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB3 IIB3 IIB3 IIA IIB1 IIA IIB2 IIA IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB3 IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIB IIB IIA IIB3 IIB1 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIC IIB1 IIB2 IIA IIA IIB2 IIA IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA D D D C D D D C D C C D D D D C D D D D C US Gas Group D D D D

1.2-Dichloropropane Dicyclopentadiene Diethyl Amine Diethylene Glycol Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diethyl Ether Diethyl Ketone Dimethyl Ether Dimethylamine Dimethyl Formamide Dimethyl Sulphide Di-isopropyl Ether 1,4-Dioxane Diketene Epichlorhydrin Ethane Ethanol Ethanolamine 2-Ethoxyethanol Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acetoacetate Ethyl Acrylate Ethyl Formate Ethyl Mercaptan Ethyl Methacrylate Ethylbenzene Ethylene Ethylenediamine Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Ethylene Oxide Formaldehyde Formic Acid Furan Furfural Gasoline Heptane Hexane 2-Hexanol 2-Hexanone 1-Hexene Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Isoprene Methane Methanol 2-Methoxyethanol Methyl Acetate Methyl Bromide Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Formate Methyl Mercaptan Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Tertiarybutyl Ether Methylene Chloride

C3H6Cl2 C10H12 C4H11N C4H10O3 C6H14O3 C5H12O3 C4H10O C5H10O C2H6O C2H7N C7H7NO C2H6S C6H14O C4H8O2 C4H4O2 C3H5ClO C2H6 C2H6O C2H7NO C4H10O2 C4H8O2 C4H10O3 C5H8O2 C2H6O2 C2H6S C6H10O2 C8H10 C2H4 C2H8N2 C2H6O C3H8O2 C2H4O CH2O CH2O2 C4H4O C5H4O2

113 132.2 73.14 106.1 134.2 120.2 74.14 86.1 46.08 45.1 73.1 62.1 102.2 88.11 84.1 92.5 30.1 46.1 61.1 90.1 88.1 130.1 100.1 74.1 62.13 114.2 106.2 28 60.1 62.1 76.1 44.1 30 46 68.1 96.1

1.6 to 18.1 1.7 to 48 1.6 to 7.7 3.4 to 26.7 2.8 to 14.4 2.2 to 15.2 2.2 to 19.7 1.4 to 7.9 2.0 to 22.0 2.0 to 11.7 2.3 to 34.4 3.0 to 12.5 3.3 to 19.0 5.5 to 17.0 1.7 to 15.6 2.2 to 11.5 1.0 to 54.0 1.4 to 14.0 2.7 to 16.5 2.8 to 18.2 1.8 to ? 1.0 to 6.7 2.70 to 36.0 2.7 to 16.6 3.2 to 15.3 1.8 to 14 3.0 to 100 7.0 to 73 18 to 51 2.3 to 14.3 2.1 to 19.3 1.3 to 7.1 1.1 to 6.7 1.1 to 7.5 1.2 to 8.0 1.2 to 6.9 4.0 to 76 4.3 to 46 1.5 to 8.9 5.0 to 15.0 5.5 to 44.0 1.8 to 14 3.1 to 16.0 10 to 16 1.8 to 11.5 5.0 to 23.0 3.9 to 21.8 1.7 to 12.5 1.6 to 15.1 12.0 to 25.0

D D D C D D C D D D D C D

B C

15

GAS GROUPS
Material Name Formula MW Vapour Flash Auto- Boiling Melting Flammable European Density Point Ignition Point Point Range Gas relative to (C) Point (C) (C) (Vol. %) Group air (air=1) (C) 4.43 4.26 2.60 2.11 3.08 4.43 3.95 3.88 3.46 2.49 3.05 3.26 2.08 2.08 3.53 2.04 1.46 3.12 2.01 2.74 3.60 2.49 3.53 3.05 2.91 3.18 3.71 4.55 3.50 2.04 5.20 3.11 4.71 2.98 3.70 2.16 1.60 3.36 2.21 79 88 28 35 36 31 13 21 34 -49 33 79 15 12 14 -37 Gas 38 -37 20 31 -14.5 75 12 -1 4 86 -17 Gas 165 (45) 30 -8 Gas -78 Gas -25 Gas 21 C8H10 106.2 3.67 32 567 480 414 417 421 205 220 230 340 309 300 715 371 456 450 317 460 270 449 482 490 321 282 200 395 480 482 410 230 190 371 410 220 402 530 472 385 570 640 230 463 218 211 114 101 132 151 126 121 140 36 138 182 97 83 102 48 -48 120 34 115 145 66 175 119 84 111 203 87 89 3 285 220 72 15.6 -13 -72 32 -83 130-230 144 -25 80 6 -50 -29 -108 -51 -57 -102 -23 -129 -79 43 -127 -90 -92 -83 -185 -96 -104 -42 -31 108.5 -80 -96 -38 -95 -30 -73 -115 -117 -7 -60 -93 -139.5 -154 -161 -122 -144 0.9 to 5.9 1.8 to 40 7.3 to 63 0.8 to 2.9 1.0 to 6.5 0.7 to 3.9 2.4 to 11.6 1.5 to 7.8 1.2 to 10.5 1.4 to 10.0 2.1 to 13.5 2.0 to 12.0 2.0 to 8.0 2.0 to 10.4 2.4 to 10.3 1.9 to 13.1 2 to 38.5 1.8 to 12.4 0.9 to 6.8 2.0 to 11.8 1.5 to 9.7 1.1 to 12.3 1.5 to 12.5 1.1 to 7.1 1.1 to 6.6 8.0 to 10.5 1.2 to 8.0 2.0 to 11.6 0.9 to 9.2 0.8 to 6.0 2.6 to 13.4 9.0 to 15.0 3.6 to 33 2.6 to 21.7 5.6 to 16 5.5 to 21.3 0.6 to 8.0 0.9 to 6.7 IIA IIA IIB2 IIA IIB2 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB1 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB1 IIB3 IIA IIA IIB1 IIB2 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIB3 IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA IIA D D D D US Gas Group D D C D C D D D

Naphthalene Nitrobenzene Nitroethane Nitromethane 1-Nitropropane Nonane n-Octane 1-Octene 2.4-Pentadione n-Pentane 1-Pentanol Phenol 1-Propanol (propyl alcohol) 2-Propanol (iso-propyl alcohol) n-Propyl Acetate n-Propylamine Propylene Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Propylene Oxide Pyridine Styrene Tetrahydrofuran Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Tetrahydrothiophene Thiophene Toluene m-Toluidine Trichloroethylene Triethylamine Trimethylamine Triethylene Glycol Trioxane Turpentine Vinyl Acetate Vinyl Bromide Vinyl Chloride Vinyl Fluoride Vinylidene Chloride Vinylidene Fluoride White Spirit o-Xylene

C10H8 C6H5NO2 C2H5NO2 CH3NO2 C3H7NO2 C9H20 C8H18 C8H16 C5H8O2 C5H12 C5H12O C6H6O C3H8O C3H8O C5H10O2 C3H9N C3H6 C4H10O2 C3H6O C5H5N C8H8 C4H8O C5H10O2 C4H8S C4H4S C7H8 C7H9N C2HCI3 C6H15N C3H9N C6H14O4 C10H16 C4H6O2 C2H3Br C2H3Cl C2H3F C2H5CI2 C2H2F2

128.2 123.1 75.1 61.04 89.1 128.2 114.2 112.2 100.1 72.2 88.2 94.1 60.1 60.1 102.1 59.1 42.1 90.1 58.1 79.1 104.1 72.1 102.1 88.2 84.1 92.1 107.2 131.4 101.2 59.1 150.2 136.3 86.1 107 62.5 46.1 97 64.04

D D D D

C D D C C D D D D D D C D D

*Excluded from EN12874:2001

16

S P E C I F I C AT I O N S H E E T
Please complete this form with as much relevant information as possible and return to your local Safety Systems office or representative. Based on the detailed information supplied, Amal will specify the correct flame arrester to ensure a safe application. Customer Enquiry Ref. Contact Dated Tel Fax Email Application Data
Selection Code Gas Group Flow Rate Equivalent Air Rate MW or Density Max. Allowable PD Pressure at Ignition Pressure - Operating Pressure - Design Temp. at Ignition Temp. - Operating Temp. - Min. Design Temp. - Max. Design Distance to Ignition

For help in completing this specification sheet, refer to the following page.

Item No Quantity Tag No.

Units

Preferred Flame Arrester Type Pipe Size Connections Facing Concentricity Pipe Schedule Burn Type Direction Orientation Location Analysis of Gases/Vapours

Materials
Housing Element: Cage/Matrix Bolting Gaskets Weather Cowl Ext. coating

Required Accessories

Comments Required Approvals


PED ATEX Yes / No Yes / No

Other (specify)

17

A P P L I C AT I O N D ATA
Selection Code Such as European, USA, US Coast Guard, etc. Gas Group If known please specify. Flow Rate Flow rate of gas or vapour (and units). Equivalent Air Rate If known please give the equivalent air flow rate in Nm3/h. MW or Density Specify either Molecular Weight or Density of the flowing gas or vapour. Max. Allowable PD State the maximum pressure drop (and units) you can allow across the flame arrester at the given flow rate. Pressure at Ignition Give the pressure at which ignition is likely to occur. Pressure - Operating State the opening pressure (and units) under normal flowing conditions. Pressure - Design What is the design pressure (and units) of the system? Temperature at Ignition What will be the likely temperature (and units) at which ignition would occur? Temperature - Operating State the operating temperature (and units) under normal flow conditions. Temperature - Minimum Design What is the minimum design temperature (and units) of the system? Temperature - Maximum Design What is the maximum design temperature (and units) of the system? Distance to Ignition State the maximum distance (and units) the flame arrester is likely to be away from the point of potential ignition.

PREFERRED FLAME ARRESTER


Type State whether in-line or end-of-line with a fixed or replaceable element. Pipe Size Please state the nominal size of the pipe connections. Connections State the required flange/thread standard and rating, e.g. ANSI 150#, PN16, API, etc. Facing RF, FF, RTJ, etc. Concentricity Please state if the inlet and/or outlet need to be concentric or eccentric. Pipe Schedule State the preferred pipe schedule of the protected system. Burn Type State if the flame arrester needs to be standard/short burn type or endurance. Direction State if the flame arrester is required to be bi-directional or uni-directional. Orientation Give the orientation of the flame arrester, e.g. horizontal or vertical. Location Give details of the location, e.g. directly under a P/V valve, inlet to fan, pump, etc.

18

C O M B I N AT I O N F L A M E A R R E S T E R S / R E L I E F VA LV E S AMAL flame arresters can be combined with pressure and/or vacuum valves. ISO16852:2008 requires transmission tests to be conducted on flame arresters directly combined with pressure and/or vacuum valves when used as End-of-line venting systems.The AMAL flame arrester/relief valve combination is ATEX approved in accordance with ISO16852:2008.

MODELS Valve Type: 121, 121S, 121SS, 121SV, 121V, 121VS, 601, 651 Flame Arrester Type: IRQ, LIR Both Flame Arrester types can be used in combination with any of the above valve types. (Cannot be used with pipe away valve types.)

C E L L S E L E C TO R
DEFLAGRATION
European Gas Group
IIA / IIB1 IIB3 IIB

US Gas Group
D/C C B

Cell Height

Width
mm 19 19 19

mm
0.8 0.45 0.45

Temperature C 200 200 200

Connection Size Metric Imperial DN50-DN300 DN50-DN300 DN50 2"-12" 2"-12" 2"

19

In-Line

End-of-Line

Combination Flame Arrester/Breather Valve

Element

20

A P P L I C AT I O N S

Flare Stack

End-of-Line Arrester
21

In-Line Arrester

In-Line Arrester (liquid)

Pressure Vacuum Valve

Vapour Recovery Unit (VRU)

Thermal Oxidizer

Protecting You Protecting Your Process

Bio-Gas Landfill

Instrumentation

Fan/Blower/Pump

Diesel Engine
22

Safety Systems UK Ltd. Sharp Street, Worsley, Manchester, UK, M28 3NA. Tel +44 (0)161 703 1999 Fax +44 (0)161 703 8451 Email support@safetysystemsuk.com Web site www.safetysystemsuk.com
Registered Office: Victoria Road, Leeds, LS11 5UG, UK

AMPR0709