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Shear Stress in the Shaft

When a shaft is subjected to a torque or twisting, a shearing stress is produced in the shaft. The shear stress varies from zero in the axis to a maximum at the outside surface of the shaft. The shear stress in a solid circular shaft in a given position can be expressed as: = T r / Ip where = shear stress (MPa, psi) T = twisting moment (Nmm, in lb) r = distance from center to stressed surface in the given position (mm, in) Ip = "polar moment of inertia" of cross section (mm4, in4) The "polar moment of inertia" is a measure of an object's ability to resist torsion. (1)

Circular Shaft and Maximum Moment


Maximum moment in a circular shaft can be expressed as: Tmax = where Tmax = maximum twisting moment (Nmm, in lb)
max max Ip

/R

(2)

= maximum shear stress (MPa, psi)

R = radius of shaft (mm, in) Combining (2) and (3) for a solid shaft Tmax = ( /16)
max

D3

(2b)

Combining (2) and (3b) for a hollow shaft Tmax = ( /16)


max

(D4 - d4) / D

(2c)

Circular Shaft and Polar Moment of Inertia


Polar moment of inertia of a circular solid shaft can be expressed as Ip = R4/2 = D4/32 (3)

where D = shaft outside diameter (mm, in) Polar moment of inertia of a circular hollow shaft can be expressed as Ip = (D4 - d4) /32 where d = shaft inside diameter (mm, in) (3b)

Diameter of a Solid Shaft


Diameter of a solid shaft can calculated by the formula D = 1.72 (T max/
max) 1/3

(4)

Torsional Deflection of Shaft


The angular deflection of a torsion shaft can be expressed as = L T / Ip G where = angular shaft deflection (radians) L = length of shaft (mm, in) G = modulus of rigidity (Mpa, psi) The angular deflection of a torsion solid shaft can be expressed as = 32 L T / (G D4) (5a) (5)

The angular deflection of a torsion hollow shaft can be expressed as = 32 L T / (G (D4 - d4)) (5b)

The angle in degrees can be achieved by multiplying the angle in radians with 180/ Solid shaft ( replaced)
degrees

584 L T / (G D4)

(6a)

Hollow shaft ( replaced)


degrees

584 L T / (G (D4- d4)

(6b)

Torsion Resisting Moments of Shafts of Various Cross Sections


Maximum Torsional Resisting Moment - Tmax (Nm, in lb) ( /16)
max

Shaft Cross Section Area Solid Cylinder Shaft

Nomenclature

Hollow Cylinder Shaft ( /16) Ellipse Shaft Rectangle Shaft Square Shaft Triangle Shaft Hexagon Shaft

(D - d4) / D
max

max 4

D3 h = "height" of shaft b = "width" of shaft h>b h>b b = length of triangle side

( /16) (2/9) (2/9) (1/20) (1/1.09)

b2 h

max

b2 h b
3

max max

b3 b3

max