Indian cuisine is the general name for foods of the Indian subcontinent, characterized by the extensive use of various

spices, herbs, and other vegetables, and sometimes fruits grown in India and also for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. Each family of Indian cuisine includes a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically-diverse subcontinent. Hindu beliefs and culture have played an influential role in the evolution of Indian cuisine.[1] However, cuisine across India also evolved as a result of the subcontinent's large-scale cultural interactions with Mongols and Britain making it a unique blend of some various cuisines.[2][3] The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited as the main catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[4] The colonial period introduced European cooking styles to India, adding to the flexibility and diversity of Indian cuisine.[5][6] Indian cuisine has influenced cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia and the Caribbean.[7][8]


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1 History o 1.1 Antiquity o 1.2 Middle Ages 2 Ingredients 3 Regional cuisines o 3.1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands o 3.2 Andhra Pradesh o 3.3 Arunachal Pradesh o 3.4 Assam o 3.5 Bihar o 3.6 Chattisgarh o 3.7 Daman and Diu o 3.8 Goa o 3.9 Gujarat o 3.10 Haryana o 3.11 Himachal Pradesh o 3.12 Jammu & Kashmir o 3.13 Jharkhand o 3.14 Karnataka o 3.15 Kerala o 3.16 Lakshadweep o 3.17 Madhya Pradesh o 3.18 Maharashtra o 3.19 Manipur o 3.20 Meghalaya o 3.21 Mizoram o 3.22 Nagaland o 3.23 Orissa

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3.24 Puducherry 3.25 Punjab 3.26 Rajasthan 3.27 Sikkim 3.28 Sindh 3.29 Tamil Nadu 3.30 Tripura 3.31 Uttar Pradesh 3.32 Uttarakhand 3.33 West Bengal 4 Desserts 5 Beverages o 5.1 Non-alcoholic beverages o 5.2 Alcoholic beverages  5.2.1 Beer  5.2.2 Miscellanea 6 Eating habits 7 Etiquette 8 Outside of India o 8.1 Great Britain o 8.2 United States o 8.3 South East Asia o 8.4 West Asia 9 See also 10 References o 10.1 Bibliography 11 External links
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[edit] History
Indian cooking derives from a 5000-year-old timeline, during which culture has changed, geographical boundaries have changed significantly leading to confusing terms such as subcontinental cuisine while other parts of a region want a separate culinary identity. Indian Cooking has however evolved significantly over time and the varying influences brought into the country by the various rulers and travelers, it has not lost its original identity, rather become richer with the assimilation of the myriad influences. This is very apparent in some of the unique regional cuisines.

[edit] Antiquity
The earliest formal civilizations were the Mohenjo-daro and Harappan civilizations. At around 3000 BCE, sesame, eggplant, and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley,[9] and spices like turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in this region concurrently.[10] Many recipes first emerged during the initial Vedic period, when India was still

heavily forested and agriculture was complemented with game hunting and forest produce. In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, meat, grain, dairy products, honey, poultry and other sorts of meats. Over time, some segments of the population embraced vegetarianism. This was facilitated by advent of Buddhism and a cooperative climate where variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains could easily be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorized any item as saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Ayurveda. In this period vegetarianism also flourished throughout India, beef eating was prohibited which has become a long-standing feature in Hinduism and India.

[edit] Middle Ages
This period was the period of several North Indian dynasties, including the Gupta dynasty which was noted for its love of the arts; also known as the Golden Age of India Art. Travelers who visited India carried with them knowledge and products like tea and spices. Later India saw the period of Central Asian and Afghan conquerors. This period also saw the emergence of the Mughlai cuisine that people now associate with India. It includes the addition of several seasonings like saffron, the addition of nuts and cooking in the "Dum" or sealed pot method of cooking. 18th century saw the establishment of British rule in India. The British loved the elaborate way of eating and adapted several of the food choices to their taste and developed curry as a simple spice to help them cook dishes with Indian spice. This period resulted in the emergence of the Anglo-Indian cuisine and the emergence of certain "Raj" traditions like that of "high-tea" an elaborate late afternoon meal served with tea.

[edit] Ingredients

Ghee made from cow's milk, Ghee is widely used for cooking throughout India.

atta (whole wheat flour). especially cardamom. has a distinctive blend of garam masala. . Coconut oil is used widely along the western coast especially in Kerala. Popular spice mixes are garam masala. rice. urad (black gram). is less used than formerly. asafoetida (hing). Goda masala is a similar sweet spice mix. coriander leaf. The most important or frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper. gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south as well. Hydrogenated vegetable oil. channa (bengal gram). the most important of which are masoor (most often red lentil). and sometimes each individual chef. mustard oil is more commonly used. Pulses are one of the most commonly used food ingredient throughout the diversity of India. The common use of curry leaves and curry roots is typical of Gujrati and all South Indian cuisine. Sweet dishes are seasoned with cardamom. Spices are an indispensable food ingredient in much of India. and rose petal essences. saffron. turmeric (haldi). and clove. and mung (green gram). and garlic (lehsun). and mint leaf. dhuli moong or dhuli urad ± or split. Each region. ginger (adrak). Butter-based ghee. or dal. Split pulses. cinnamon.A typical assortment of spices and herbs. The staples of Indian cuisine are Bajri. and a variety of pulses. fenugreek (methi). while in eastern India. toor (pigeon pea or yellow gram). Most Indian curries are cooked in vegetable oil. are also processed into flour (besan). In recent decades. peanut oil is most popular for cooking. fenugreek leaf. like channa and mung. nutmeg. or desi ghee. known as Vanaspati ghee. Some leaves are commonly used. Pulses may be used whole. coriander (dhania). including tejpat (Bay leaf). dehusked ± for example. In northern and western India. Some pulses. popular in Maharashtra. cumin (jeera). sunflower oil and soybean oil have gained popularity all over India. a powder that typically includes five or more dried spices. are used extensively. black mustard seed (rai). is another popular cooking medium.

as many people from other regions of India came and settled here. many cuisines of India can be found in the islands. and this did cast an influence on the eating habits of the people of Andaman and Nicobar. and still are inhabited by indigenous tribes. desert or the mountains. Indian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce. but also at provincial level. India is a diverse country. primarily at regional level. [edit] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sea food plays a major role in the cuisines of Andaman & Nicobar. raw fish and fruits were their staple diet for a long time. [edit] Andhra Pradesh Main article: Andhra cuisine . The Andaman & Nicobar Islands were. and economics. Bengal and Tamil Nadu. each region has its own food specialties. However.[edit] Regional cuisines States of India. different types of food and their methods to cook came with them. Because the population is mainly derived from migrants from regions of India. The differences can come from a local culture and geographical location whether a region is close to the sea. Since they had very little contact with the outside world.

Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves is a famous snack.Pesarattu. Thukpa is traditional dish common among "Monpa" a tribe of Arunachal. Lettuce is the most common and preferred vegetable of all. coriander and green chillies. prepared by boiling it with ginger. Different varieties of rice are available. One of the most important part of the Andhra cuisine are the various pickles. Most of these pickles are seasonal and are widely famous all around the world. [edit] Arunachal Pradesh The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with fish. Food of Andhra Pradesh is known for its heavy use of spices and chillies. Noteworthy pickles are "Avakaya" ± a pickle made from green mango. Hydrabadi Biryani is one of the most famous dishes from Andhra pradesh. A large part of the population is vegetarian and has innovated some excellent recipes while people living in the coastal areas can treat one with the best of sea food. supplemented with dried fish (Shutki). Curd is also a part of the meal in the Andhra Pradesh as it helps to neutralise the spicy nature of the food. which is served with other lentil preparations along with vegetables. meat and lots of green vegetables. green chillies and onion ± is a popular serving for the Pohela Boishakh festival.The staple food of Andhra Pradesh is Rice.kf. a popular Andhra dish served with Kobbari Pachadi(chutney made using coconut). . pickles (Achar).s [edit] Assam Main article: Assamese cuisine Panta Ilish ± a traditional platter of Panta bhat with fried Hilsa slice. dal. There is also an great variety of non-vegetarian dishes and most amongst these are hugely popular. "Gongura" ± a pickle made from the leaves of the gongura plant. Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is the amalgamation of the delectable Southern Indian and refined Deccani style of cooking.

Preparations are rarely elaborate²the practice of Bhuna. a sour dish. the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients so common in Indian cooking. are very popular. pigeon etc. [edit] Bihar Main article: Bihari cuisine See also: Bhojpuri cuisine Palak paneera dish made up of spinach and paneer cheese. . These two dishes characterize a traditional meal in Assam. Tamul (betel nut. fruits and vegetables that are either fresh. is absent in the cuisine of Assam. It is a mixture of different indigenous styles with considerable regional variations and some external influences. a class of dishes named after the main ingredient. Fish is widely used. generally raw) and paan generally concludes the meal. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils made by an indigenous community called Mariya. and birds like duck. It is characterized by very little use of spices but strong flavors due mainly to the use of endemic exotic herbs.Venison Assamese cuisine is the cuisine of Assam. and ends with a tenga. dried or fermented. a state in North-East India. A traditional meal in Assam begins with a khar.

Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes). Another common dish is alu-bhujia (not to be confused with Bikaneri Bhujia.Bihari society is not very rigid on vegetarianism. As well as these unorthodox dishes. squirrels. but it also has many similarity with Odia cuisine. while the staple diet. Pork forms a major item in their diet and almost every major ceremony starts with the sacrifice of a pig. but people avoid eating non-vegetarian food daily. made from potatoes cut like French-fries and cooked in mustard oil and mild spices. and Postaa-dana kaa halwaa. buttermilk (called mattha). Flying ants.[11] [edit] Daman and Diu . The tribal peoples of the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh eat whatever is available. tangy raita made from lauki (winter melon) or unripened papaya. and spices (paste of green chilly. Many Chattisgarhi people consume liquor brewed from the Mahuwa flower. The cuisine of Bihar has many similarity with North Indian cuisine i. garlic and mustard) is popular in many parts of Bihar.Raita is a condiment based on curd and used as a sauce or dip. yoghurt. Litti. choosing food which would not be eaten by people of other states and regions. and dry foods and preparations made of sesame or poppy seeds mainly in the winter months. the food culture in Hindi Belt. ginger. and lassi. with watery foods such as watermelon and sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit being consumed mainly in the summer months. with common foods including yoghurt (known as dahi).Fish Curry is made using mustard paste which is similar to Odia way of cooking fish. like much of the rest of India is rice. and eaten with roti or rice-daal. Red ant chutney is a favorite dish. They do not usually eat roti and boiled rice together. Because of strong Hindu-Muslim heritage river fish. mushrooms.People generally eat roti soaked in milk. Dairy products are consumed frequently throughout the year. chicken and mutton (mainly goat mutton. Apart from this. butter. also known as rajasthani bhujia).e. Bihari people typically eat boiled rice and daal with cooked vegetables during lunch. [edit] Chattisgarh Chattisgarh has many cuisines not found in the rest of India. Bihari Kebab. It is highly seasonal. which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour. Bihar is famous for Sattu Parathas. since many people view lamb (sheep) meat as offensive) are the popular meats. and rats are some of their choicest delicacies. Fish curry. and roti with cooked vegetables during dinner. Meat-based dishes are eaten mainly with boiled rice. ghee (clarified butter). fish and pork constitute a large part of Chhatisgarhi cuisine. There is a custom of eating poha (flattened rice) with yoghurt and sugar.

dining and wining is the most popular pleasure in the territory. i. due to religious reasons.e. Among the shellfish are crabs. like Goa was a former colonial possession of Portugal. located along India's west coast along the Arabian Sea.[12][13] [edit] Goa Main article: Goan cuisine See also: Saraswat cuisine and Malvani cuisine Pomfret fried fish Pork Vindaloo is a Goan dish popular in many parts of India. Their vegetarian cuisine is unique. both the native Gujarati food and traditional Portugese food is available. Fish and meat in their diet is considered as non-vegetarian. The cuisine of Goa is influenced by its Hindu origins. Kingfish (Vison or Visvan) is the most common delicacy. they eat fish and chicken on most of the days. while eating strict vegetarian (no meat. with almost all popular brands of foreign liquor being available due to the visits of people from the state to consume the alcohol. Seafood. Goan cuisine consists of regional foods popular in Goa. coconut milk. four hundred years of Portuguese colonialism. and modern techniques. so its food has an international aspect. others include pomfret. Because the neighbouring state Gujarat has prohibited alcohol. On the other hand other Brahmins belonging to Pancha Dravida category are strictly vegetarian. shark. prawns. Consequently. no-fish diet) food on some days. Use of Kokum is another distinct feature. Broadly they can be considered as facultative vegeterians.Daman and Diu is a union territory of India which. the staple foods are rice and fish. The state is frequented by tourists visiting its beaches and historic sites. lobster. The area is located in a tropical climate. rice and paste are main ingredients of Goan delicacies. and spices and flavors are intense. and the cuisine is mostly seafood based. . tiger prawns. Goan Saraswat Brahmin and Daivajna Brahmins are mostly fish eaters. squid and mussels. Goan food cannot be considered complete without fish. tuna and mackerel.

for example. Undhiyu. Kathiawad. In mango season. Jalebi.[edit] Gujarat Main article: Gujarati cuisine Dhokla is a popular Gujarati snack. Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal. . and nuts. Regular fasting. The typical Gujarati Thali consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour. milk products are extremely common. and spicy at the same time. and South Gujarat are the four major regions of Gujarat that all bring their own style to Gujarati food. Food in Haryana is prepared using no modern materials. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet. Cuisine can vary widely in flavor and heat. such as added artificial flavors and preservatives. The cuisine changes with the seasonal availability of vegetables. [edit] Haryana Kadhi. salty. Gujarati cuisine is primarily vegetarian. and sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices. Garam Masala and its constituent spices are used less in summer. Kachchh. rice. are commonplace. which may be stir fried. Because Haryana is rich in cattle population. and called Rotli in Gujarati). Khakraa are some of the snacks famous in Gujarat. North Gujarat. daal or kadhi. The spices used also change depending on the season. with diets limited to milk and dried fruits. spicy or sweet). Kachori. depending on a given family's tastes as well as the region of Gujarat they are from.

All through your way to Haryana. The first major influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists. although there is a bias towards non-vegetarian dishes. it has been strongly influenced by the cuisines of Central Asian. since there are a number of liquor shops in this Indian state. An equal emphasis is laid on vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. that were originally brought by Kashmiri immigrants hailing from the Baltistan region of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. They too have lentil. Some of the specialities of Himachal include Pateer. Unlike Kashmiri Muslim cuisine. Churma. . and is an important part of the Pandits' ethnic identity. due to the traffic of many truck drivers. broth. Subsequently. Bhagjery and chutney of Til. it does not include many minced meat dishes. Also to be noted are Balti curries. The food usually uses yogurt. Bajra Aloo Roti. Chouck. The most notable ingredient in Kashmir cuisine is mutton. you will come across a number of Dhabas or roadside food stalls serving food.People of Haryana are fond of food preparations such as Kadhi Pakora. Persia. popular in the United Kingdom for their exotic tastes. and the North Indian plains. of which there are over 30 varieties. and chicken. Bathua Raita. garlic. Lassi and Sherbat are the two popular beverages of Haryana. As compared to other states in north India nonvegetarian cuisine is more preferred. rice. [edit] Jammu & Kashmir Main article: Cuisine of Kashmir Rogan Josh is a quite popular Kashmiri dish. On many roads in Haryana. Methi Gajar. The cuisine was then influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of Kashmir by Timur from the region of modern Uzbekistan. is common to come across a booze shop. Kashmiri Pandit food is also very elaborate. Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney.[14][15] [edit] Himachal Pradesh Main article: Culture of Himachal Pradesh#Cuisine The day to day food of Himachalis is very similar to the rest of the north India. oils and spices as such turmeric. Besan Masala Roti. Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years. tomatoes. vegetables and bread. but avoids onion.

Gojju. Chapati. Vangi Bath. Kosambari. Chitranna. Plain and Rave Idli. it is a tradition to start your meal with a dessert ± Paaysa). Davanagere Benne Dosa. Ragi rotti. All preparation except the pickles and festive ones are low on oil and spices. and Uppittu. Thovve. The cuisine of Karnataka includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. Khara Bath. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath. Huli. Mysore Pak. Dharwad pedha. These traditional dishes are not available at the restaurants as they have not been commercialised. The famous Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine. Raita. MysoreMasala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South Karnataka. Palya.Although the ingredients differ from one region to another. Among sweets. Saaru. [edit] Karnataka Main article: Cuisine of Karnataka Karnataka food served on a plantain leaf. Chiroti are well known. Coorg district is famous for spicy varieties of pork curries while coastal Karnataka boasts of many tasty seafood specialities. Dessert (Yes. Pickle. Rice and Ghee [edit] Kerala Main article: Cuisine of Kerala .[edit] Jharkhand Main article: Traditional Cuisines of Jharkhand Traditional Jharkhand cuisine is equally vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian. Ragi mudde. The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of many regions and communities from the three neighbouring South Indian states. Jolada rotti. Kesari Bath. a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf: Uppu(salt). as well as the state of Maharashtra and Goa to its north. Akki rotti. However on a visit to a tribal village or a tribal wedding in a remote area one can get a chance to taste such exotic food.

and pathiri. . Rice and fish along with some vegetables is the staple diet in most Kerala households. and could be said. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala. poultry and meat. The local food of Lakshadweep primarily comprises coconut and sea fish. to be the main starch ingredient used in Kerala food. black pepper. ginger. [edit] Lakshadweep The culinary influence of Kerala is quite evident in the cuisines of Lakshadweep. numerous rivers and backwater networks. Almost all the dishes have a touch of coconut since it is an integral ingredient of Lakshadweep cuisines. puttu. appam.Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years. Kerala also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli. cloves. and cinnamon play a large part in its food. Kerala's long coastline. grated coconut and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries as a thickener and flavouring ingredient. and consequently. Since the island has a close proximity with Kerala. Most of Kerala's Hindus eat fish except the Brahmin community and because Kerala has large minorities of Muslims and Christians that are predominantly non-vegetarians. Rice is grown in abundance. Kerala cuisine has a multitude of both vegetarian and dishes prepared using fish.Spicy fish from Kerala.and river-food based dishes. The people of the island have a great inclination towards the coconut water as it is the most abundant aerated drink of the place. idiyappam. a popular breakfast dish in Madhya Pradesh. Kerala cuisine is a blend of indigenous dishes and foreign dishes adapted to Kerala tastes. cardamom. along with tapioca (manioc/cassava). dosa.[16] [edit] Madhya Pradesh Poha. and strong fishing industry have contributed to many sea. hence the cuisines reflect the taste of the inhabitants of that place.

. keema. korma. Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based preparations. papayas and guavas. bananas. One other popular dish in the region is the bafla (wheat cakes) dunked in rich ghee which are eaten with daal (a pungent lentil broth). such as rogan josh. The beverages in the region include lassi (buttermilk). sugarcane juice. Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.[17] [edit] Maharashtra Main article: Maharashtrian cuisine Wada. it is mostly a breakfast item served with Jalebi.The cuisine in Madhya Pradesh varies from region to region. and the wetter south and east being dominated by rice and fish. melons and watermelons. kachoris and samosas. biryani pilaf and kababs such as shami and seekh. with the north and west of the state being mainly based around wheat and meat. The city restaurants also serve tasty chaats (snacks). the meals tend to end with fruits such as mangoes (dusseharis). Indore. In summers. Bhopal is known for meat and fish dishes. Ujjain and Ratlam are world famous for their savory snacks that are made from chick-pea flour.P) is poha (flattened rice). There also is the local liquor which is distilled from the flowers of the mahua tree called sulfi and date palm toddy. custard apples. It is followed by sweet ladoos. a beer and a fine rum which is produced from the cane.

g. most commonly used in an appetizer-digestive called the sol kadhi. A part of Maharashtra. wheat. The staple diet of Manipur consists of rice. has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varadi cuisine. Wheat. Dishes are typically spicy foods that use chili pepper rather than Garam masala . but coconut oil is not very widely used as a cooking medium. [edit] Meghalaya Main article: Meghalayan cuisine . Popular dishes include puran poli. jaggary. vegetables. Maharashtrian dishes for 'UPwas' have a special mention as most of them are favourites for life time e. and fish. a popular snack from Mumbai. As in many states of India. a deep purple berry that has a pleasing sweet and sour taste. leafy vegetables. The staple dishes of Maharashtrian cuisine are based on Bajri. jowar and bajra extensively. is served chilled. the interior of Maharashtra²the Vidarbha area. which lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Another feature is the use of kokum. there is an enormous variety of vegetables in the regular diet and lots of fish and coconuts are used. and Goan cuisines. Bajri. organic and healthy. It can be divided into two major sections±the coastal and the interior. Rest of the Maharashtra apart from Konkan. Like the other coastal states. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and peanut oil is the main cooking medium. Jowar and Tandul. rice is the staple food grain in Maharashtra. Kokum. During summer another drink called panna made from bioled raw mango is consumed. Besides the coastal cuisine. uses ground nuts. The cuisine of Maharashtra has its own distinctive flavors and tastes. sabudana khichadi. [edit] Manipur Main article: Manipuri cuisine Manipuri cuisine is simple. which is a homogeneous combination of Malvani. ukdiche Modak and batata wada.[18] Manipuris typically raise vegetables in a kitchen garden and rear fish in small ponds around their house.Grated coconuts spice many kinds of dishes. Gaud Saraswat Brahmin. is loosely called the Konkan and boasts of its own Konkani cuisine. rice. Maharashtrian meal consists of rice and bread both along with 'varan'/'aamtee' ± a type of lentils and spiced veggies. lentils and fruit form important components of Maharashtrian diet.Ragada in a pani puri. jowar. Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range from being mild to very spicy dishes.

[edit] Mizoram The cuisine of Mizoram is very different from most Indian cuisines. Meghalaya. different from other states in the north east of India. Which can be made from boiling spinach with pork and bamboo shoot. so this is not true). Tung-toh. pigs. and Mizoram cuisine offers mainly non-vegetarian delicacies. Like the other tribes in the north-east. Dishes are served on fresh green banana leaves (never happens anymore). ducks and cows and relish their meat.Meghalayan cuisine is the local cuisine of one of the Indian States. Another common dish is Sawchair made of rice cooked with pork or chicken. and pickled bamboo shoots. [edit] Orissa Main article: Oriya cuisine Luchi. . which is consumed in religious rites and at major ceremonies and celebrations. mostly eaten in Orissa.[20] [edit] Nagaland Naga cuisine. has a unique cuisine of its own. also one of the seven sisters and home of three Mongoloid tribes. is known for exotic meats but simple and flavorful ingredients. mainly sharing similarities with other cuisines from the North-East of India. They rear goats. A popular dish is Bai. The staple food of the people is rice with spicy meat and fish preparations.[19] Mizo cuisine is a blend of Chinese and north Indian cuisines. of the Naga people. fowl. they ferment rice beer. eaten with rice. The meat and fish used are often smoked. Meals are usually less spicy and plain in taste. is an unleavened flour bread deep fried in oil. The popular dishes are Jadoh. The locally made wine is their favorite beverage (alcohol is illegal in the state. dried or fermented. retaining the nutritive value of the food. Ki Kpu.

water.Vegeterian foods also include foods prepared without onion and garlic as in temple prasadam and bramhin cuisine. while relying heavily on local ingredients. Stuffed Cabbage. a mix of cumin. Podanlangkai.Chungdi Jhola. Soya Dosa. Panch phutana. Some of the hot favorite cookery items in Pondicherry are Coconut Curry. is a treasured staple food from Punjab. The French and the Indo style have given birth to an innovative taste. while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. [edit] Puducherry The union territory of Pondicherry in the country of India was a French settlement for a long time. is a spicy gravy based Prawn curry with different flavours of spices. Assad. fennel. mustard. fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals. that is fermented overnight. Pakhala. is very popular in summer. particularly in the rural areas. Fish and other seafood such as crab and shrimp are very popular. The flavors are usually subtle and delicately spiced. Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is also visible. Chicken and mutton are also consumed. a dish made of rice. Oriya cuisine is rich and varied. . and yoghurt. The French way of life has left a deep impact on the lifestyle of the people in the union territory of Pondicherry. Baked Beans:[21] [edit] Punjab Main article: Punjabi cuisine Dal makhani. Tandoori Potato. quite unlike the fiery curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. The influence of the neighboring areas like Tamil Nadu. and French cuisine has become a large influence in cuisine in the territory. Curried Vegetables.

making . Roh Di Kheer. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion. the area is well known for quality of its milk products. there are different preferences. Rice is cooked for a long time in sugar cane juice. such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag).The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer ± derive from the Punjab. with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with Whole Wheat. known locally as ghee. Rajasthani cooking was influenced by the availability of ingredients in this arid region. In fact. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Naan. People in the area of Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and milk products. is cooked using rice. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-veg dishes. with restaurant style using large amounts of clarified butter. and hence the food is generally cooked in milk or ghee.There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab. Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. garlic and ginger. Rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas (spices). Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine ± such as Tandoor. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly.Within the area itself. In Rajasthan water is at a premium.Tandoori Chicken is a popular chicken based dish. [edit] Rajasthan Main article: Rajasthani cuisine Rajasthani thali.

Haryana and Punjab. vegetable. buckwheat. various traditional fermented foods and beverages. etc. There is a distinctness in the Rajasthani cuisine which comes from a tradition that is old and tranquil. as well as for product diversification. Depending on the altitudinal variation. wheat. Panchkoota. especially in Sindhi enclaves such as Ulhasnagar[23] and Gandhidam. . which constitute of about 20 per cent of the basic diet for long centuries are prepared and consumed. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes.[22] where a sizeable number of Hindu Sindhi people migrated following the Partition of India. The dietary-culture of this region is mostly reflected in the pattern of food production. barley. Major dishes of a Rajasthani platter includes Daal-Baati. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred. While Sindh is not present in modern India. Scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. Besides these. Tarfini. potato. Bhutias and Lepchas. are grown. [edit] Sikkim Momos served in a tomato-based broth Sikkim has its own unique dietary culture with specific cuisine and food recipes. finger millet. [edit] Sindh Main article: Sindhi cuisine Sindhi cuisine refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from the Sindh region. Pakistan. Laapsi. Some of the common traditional cuisine with their food recipes has been presented for introduction of dietary culture of the Sikkim Himalayas. Sindhi food is eaten in India. In the Sikkim Himalayas traditional foods are an integral part of the dietary culture of the various ethnic groups of people consisting of the Nepalese. On the other hand. soybeans. Besan or gram flour is a mainstay of Marwari food mainly because of the scarcity of vegetables in this arid land. Kadhi and Boondi. Bail-Gatte. Mirchi Bada and Pyaaj Kachori. Rice is the staple quite rich. and from a culture that has churned the best from its neighboring states of Gujarat. Raabdi. one gravy and one dry. Chaavadi. Meat and dairy products are also consumed depending on availability. and snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia.

Tamil Nadu is famous for its spicy non vegetarian dishes (just like Andhra Pradesh). The southern regions in Tamil Nadu. chicken. mutton. Kaaraikudi or Chettinaadu are famous for their spicy non vegetarian dishes. tamarind. and frogs. Reang. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil word 'kari' which means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes play an important role in Tamil cuisine. crabs. [edit] Tripura Main article: Tripuri cuisine A bowl of thukpa. Uchoi and others. Tamil food is characterized by the use of rice. [edit] Uttar Pradesh . Vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments. or in the form of independent dishes. garlic. The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. its distinct aroma and flavour achieved by the blending of spices including curry leaves. namely. Noatia. prawns. The indigenous Tripuri people comprises the communities of Tipra. pepper. either accompanying rice preparations. ginger.[edit] Tamil Nadu Main article: Cuisine of Tamil Nadu Dosa served with chutney and sambar. chili. coconut and rosewater. turtle. fish. The major ingredient of Tripuris cuisine for non-vegetarian food includes pork. nutmeg. coriander. Jamatia. cinnamon. cloves. though there is a minority modern vaishnavite Hindu vegetarian following. cardamom. Madurai. cumin. The Tripuri people have their own culture and cuisine. legumes and lentils. Lentils are also consumed extensively. The Tripuris are non-vegetarian.

Kafuli. among the most popular snacks in all of India. Shahi paneer. Jholi. Daal. though the basic ingredients of both Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the same. The samosa and pakora. The similarity between both of them is the liberal use of Ghee and charcoal cooking. It is traditionally cooked over wood fire. there are some basic differences that tell apart the two. Pooris and kachoris are relished on special occasions. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine found in the state's Awadh Region. Thechwani. etc. they also use Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal balls) and Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Uttar Pradesh has also been greatly influenced by Mughal (Mughlai cuisine) cooking techniques which is very popular worldwide. Baadi. are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. To combat the extreme winters and possible exhausting of food. The Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes but a vast majority of the state enjoys sober vegetarian meals with Dal.Main article: Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) with Naan bread. [edit] Uttarakhand Main article: Kumauni cuisine Saag is a popular Kumaoni dish made from any of the various green vegetables like Spinach and Fenugreek The food from Uttrakhand is known to be wholesome to suit the high-energy necessities of the mountainous and wintry region. The distinctive trait of the Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of especially milk and milk-based products as cows from hilly areas do not yield high-quality or amount of milk. The cuisine mainly consists of food from two different sub regions Garhwal and Kumaon. and Salad. roti. . Main dishes from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo. Both Garhwalis and Kumaunis are fond of lentil or pulses and µBhaatt¶ or rice. sabzi and rice constituting the essentials of daily food habits. Raita.

Tomatoes. pulses. Bengal's many rivers. Barak Valley of Assam and West Bengal. [edit] Desserts Main article: List of Indian sweets and desserts Popular sweets. vegetable. its confectioneries and desserts. Macher Jhol (Literally translated to Fish in Gravy). Fish cookery is one of its better-known features and distinguishes it from the cooking of the landlocked regions. With an emphasis on fish and lentils served with rice as a staple diet. [edit] West Bengal A traditional Bengali meal called. onions and spices are used to make the food delicious.The dishes prepared by the people of Uttarakhan are similar to Uttar Pradesh. shad or mullet. and has perhaps the only multi-course tradition from India that is analogous with French and Italian cuisine in structure. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India. or stewed with greens or other vegetables and with sauces that are mustard-based or thickened with poppyseeds. chapatis. bass. Bengalis prepare fish in innumerable ways ± steamed or braised. ponds and lakes teem with many kinds of freshwater fish that closely resemble catfish. They eat rice. Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle flavours. . displayed at a shop in Kolkata. Main article: Bengali cuisine Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in the eastern India which includes states of Tripura.

. milk is a staple. milk and condensed milk. and cooked by frying. The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. and most sweets from this region are based on milk products. Gulab jamun is an Indian dessert made out of fried milk balls soaked in sweet syrup. are a type of confectionery. Many are made with sugar. In the Eastern part of India. a sweet dish made from cottage cheese. for example. a popular sweet dish made from cottage cheese. Barfi is a sweet made of dried milk with ground cashews or pistachios. Chikki A simple sweet made out of peanuts and molasses. a popular sweet made from Lentils.Rasgulla. It is customary to attach a thin layer of edible silver foil as decoration. Imarti. Payas (or Kheer as it is called in Hindi) Indian sweets. known as mithai. Rasmalai.

once comprised the central part of Maurya and Gupta empires. tea or even yogurt (or Lassi) Khaja is a sweet food of Orissa and Bihar states in India. including Andhra Pradesh. and is juicy. but additional colors may be applied for display. Khajas of the Silao and Rajgir are known for their puffiness. Variations in the preparation of Laddu result in a spectrum of tastes. The crisp croissants are then soaked in the sugar syrup until they absorb the sugar syrup. even 2000 years ago. ancient traditions maintain that a wedding is not fully blessed if payas is not served at the feast during traditional ceremonies like marriage. while Imarti is reddish in color. It comes in a variety of flavors such as mango kesar or cardamom. sugar and oils are the chief ingredients of khaja. Imarti is a variant of Jalebi. Kulfi is Indian ice-cream. called "kulfiwalla" (one who sells kulfi) are much awaited by school kids who savor kulfis during school lunch-times. It has been a cultural dish throughout the history of India. You can get Laddus which are famous in Bihar and are called "Maner Ka Laddoo" in Maner Sweets ± Maner and Patna. In many parts of India. Then a sugar syrup is made. Khaja of Kakinada is a coastal town of Andhra Pradesh. where the sweetened milk/cream is frozen in small metal cans to be served frozen. Khajas are prepared and sold in the city of Patna. The popularity of Laddu is due to its ease of preparation. Kheer is a sweet rice pudding. It is typically sold by street-side hawkers who carry around these frozen cans of kulfi in a big earthen pot.Bengal and Orissa. Often taken with milk. In Kakinada Khaja. At first. These areas which are home to khaja. with a different flour mixture. Gaya and several other places across the state of Bihar. especially in the northern India. Khajas have travelled to some other parts of India. Khajas were prepared in the southern side of the Gangetic Plains of Bihar. Presently.Jalebi is made by deep-frying flour in a circular (coil-like) shape and then dipping in sugar syrup. child birth. A summer-tikme favorite in most of India. The street-side hawkers. It is a form of pancake (made of what or rice flour) deep fried and dipped in sugar syrup. usually made from rice and milk. a paste is made out of wheat flour. it is made dry outside and full of sugar syrup inside. Refined wheat flour. being usually found at ceremonies. feasts and celebrations. and it is especially popular in Bihar. It is believed that. Malpoa is one of the most ancient homemade sweets of India. . mawa and oil. Typically Jalebi is brown or yellow. Several variations exist in different parts of India. It is then deep fried until crisp. and has a more coiled texture. Usually it has a milky appearance. annaprasan (first solid feed to child) etc. which is known as "pak". or payasam in South India. It is also known as "payas". Laddu (sometimes transliterated as laddoo) is made of flour and other ingredients formed into balls that are dipped in sugar syrup. Laddu is often made to celebrate festivals or household events such as weddings.

Adding dry fruits like mangoes enhances the Shrikhand's taste. is fragile. This is a signature sweet from West Bengal in India. mixed with almonds. [edit] Beverages [edit] Non-alcoholic beverages While masala tea (left) is a staple beverage across majority of India. This dish is produced by the boiling of small balls of casein in sugar syrup. it is now made and consumed throughout India and Pakistan. and it has ancient roots in the Indian cuisine. this dish made its way to West Bengal when the Oriya cooks started migrating to West Bengal in search of jobs. "Norom Pak" (the softer version) and "Koda Pak" (the harder version). Sandesh is a sweet made from fine cheese made from cow's milk kneaded with fine ground sugar or molasses. and appreciated by the connoisseur. The harder version is robust and often easier for storage. bringing along the recipe. pressed into balls and fried in ghee. Rasgulla is a popular relished sweetmeat in India. Originally from Maner. The softer version although considered better. Sandesh comes in two varieties.Motichoor Ka Ladoo is a sweet food of the central Bihar made from grilled gram flour flakes which are sweetened. which originated in Orissa. It is a traditional gift at weddings. It was only then that Nobin Chandra Das of Kolkata modified its recipe to give it its current form. leaving the thick yogurt cream by itself. this represents sweet making at its finest. Indian filter coffee (right) is especially popular in southern India[24][25] . It is a Western India traditional dish. This sweet dessert can be found in many eastern Indian households. in the eastern region of the country. from which all water is drained off. engagements and births. Molasses made from dates can be used to make a special variation of Sandesh called "Noleen Gurher Sandesh" (a Sandesh made from "Noleen Gurh" or molasses from dates) or simply "Noleen Sandesh" (as shown in the figure). but was made known to the outside world by Nobin Chandra Das of Kolkata. Shrikhand is a creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt. a small town near Patna. One of the popular sweet makers for Motichoor Ka Ladoo is Maner Sweets in Maner and in Patna(Maurya Lok). Originally a dessert in Orissa for centuries. Revered for its delicate making.

Traditional lassi is sometimes flavored with ground roasted cumin. In southern India. It is prepared by blending yogurt with water and adding salt and other spices to taste. rosewater and/or lemon.Lassi served at a restaurant. sweet. Different varieties and flavors of tea are prepared to suit different tastes all over the country. wherein the tea leaves are boiled in a mix of water. badam doodh (almond milk with nuts and cardamom). Lassi is a popular and traditional Punjabi yogurt-based drink of India. and Falsa (Grewia asiatica). is largely served in South India. coffee. rose water. Gujarat. cloves. is also served cold. Another beverage from the south. It is made by blending yogurt with water or milk and Indian spices. Salted lassi is more common in villages of Punjab & Indian Porbandar. Gurhal (Hibiscus). and ginger. a mixture of carbonated water. Pineapple. The resulting beverage is known as salted lassi. Indian filter coffee. there is a chilled beverage known as "Panner Soda" or "Gholi Soda". strawberry or other fruit juices. Panha (Raw Mango sharbat) and coconut water. Sandalwood. is also especially popular in South India. One of the finest varieties of Coffea arabica is grown around Mysore. spices such as cardamom. Karnataka. chaach. Popular sharbats are made of one or more of the following: Rose. Lemon. the finest varieties are grown in Darjeeling and Assam. It can be served in concentrate form and eaten with a spoon or diluted with water to create the drink. These are known to have several medicinal values and are known to be ayurvedic in nature. Bel. Another popular beverage. milky concoction. Orange. and is marketed under the trade name "Mysore Nuggets". or kafee. Other beverages include nimbu pani (lemonade). and large quantities of milk to create a thick. rose milk. It is generally prepared as masala chai. which are particularly rich. cinnamon. [edit] Alcoholic beverages . Sharbat is a cold sweet beverage that is prepared from fruits or flower petals. and sugar. Sweet lassi is a form of lassi flavored with sugar. are also very popular. Saffron lassis. Tea is a staple beverage throughout India.

The Indian beer industry has witnessed steady growth of 10-17% per year over the last ten years. The international beer giant started by acquiring small breweries in the south but then completely changed the landscape with the acquisition of Shaw Wallace's beer portfolio. The most notable Indian brewer is United Breweries. with volumes exceeding 170 million cases during the 2008±2009 financial year. a rate of growth that has increased in recent years. however.8% alcohol ² such as Australian lager) or strong lagers (7.8% alcohol ± such as Australian Max Strong Beer). The industry was previously dominated by competition between the United Breweries Group and the Shaw Wallace. Kingfisher is the largest selling beer brand in India. with the entry of SABMiller to the Indian market. [edit] Miscellanea . The scenario changed. With the average age of the population decreasing and income levels on the rise. even though there are several other popular ones including the foreign brewers.A bottle of Kingfisher Premium Lager Beer. [edit] Beer See also: Indian beer Beers in India are either lagers (4. the popularity of beer in the country continues to increase while the Indian beer industry has witnessed major changes over the last five years.

There are also several other popular alcoholic drinks in India. Curd and two or three sweets are also included in the main course. which aid digestion. ranging from fruit to traditional desserts like kheer. Goa has registered for a geographical indicator that would allow it to claim the sole right to term drink created in the region as fenny or 'Goan Cashew Feni'. millet (finger-millet) or rice is used to brew the drink. or parathas. Then boiling water is poured and sipped through a narrow bore bamboo pipe called the Pipsing. stuffed in a barrel of bamboo called the Dhungro. Lunch in India usually consists of a main dish of rice in the south and east and rotis made from whole wheat in the northern and western parts of India. and a vegetable dish. Palm wine locally known as neera is a sap extracted from Inflorescence of various species of Toddy palms. idlis and dosas. people of western India. It is sweet. . It is made by fermenting rice in water. Barley. Lunch may be accompanied by items such as kulcha. Jharkhand. dhokla and milk. accompanied by achar (pickles) and some curd. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables. It is served cool and has lower alcoholic strength than other Indian country liquors. Chuak is offered to village elders on any occasion or celebration in a traditional Tripuri family. qulfi or ras malai. South Indians. and 'Big Boss'. oyster white. Fenny is a Goan liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple and fenny (also feni) originated here. The popular brands of fenny are 'Cashyo' (the makers of which spell it feni). Chhaang is consumed by the people of Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan hill region of West Bengal with great enthusiasm. are often eaten after lunch in parts of India. and translucent. gajraila. gulab jamun. Chhaang is a relative of the more universally known beer. Indian families will gather for "evening breakfast" to talk.A bottle of cashew fenny. but is often served piping hot in brass bowls or wooden mugs when the weather is cold.[clarification needed] Paan (betel leaves). generally accompanied by various chutneys. Semi-fermented seeds of millet are served. Orissa. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states of India. It is usually drunk on social occasions of any Tripuri ceremony as a ritual. They generally prefer to drink tea or coffee with the first meal of the day. and the whole family gathers for the occasion. Dinner may be followed by dessert. 'Reals' (pronounced as Reaals). important. drink tea. Hadia is a rice beer commonly made in the Bihar. The drink is generally ready within a week. nan. It is usually drunk at room temperature in summer. parathas. North Indian people prefer roti. It may alternatively be spelt hadiya. Dinner is considered the main meal of the day. and eat snacks. or nashta. [edit] Eating habits People in India consider a healthy breakfast. Chuak is the traditional Tripuri rice-beer. The making involves the use of herbs mixed with boiled rice and left to ferment.

breads such as naan. [edit] Outside of India [edit] Great Britain . Traditional ways of dining are being influenced by eating styles from other parts of the world. spoons and forks are now commonly used. Traditionally. Most South Indian meals end with plain curd and rice. rural dwellers raise a hand full of rice[citation needed] to eat while urban folks tend to only use the fingers and thumb. Food is most often eaten without cutlery. Leaf plates are still utilized on auspicious and festive occasions but are much less common otherwise. Along the coast to the south. Other etiquette includes eating with one hand only. a piece of roti is gripped with the thumb and middle finger and ripped off while holding holding the roti down with the index finger. Among the middle class throughout India. cleaned banana leaves. although knives are not. using instead the fingers of the right hand. meals were eaten while seated either on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. One universal aspect of presentation is the thali. which could be disposed of after the meal. where the staple is parboiled rice. Traditional serving styles vary from region to region in India. When hot food is served on banana leaves. Often roti (flat bread) is used to scoop the curry without allowing it to touch the hands. and rice. the leaves add aroma and taste to the food. In the wheat growing/consuming north. a large plate with samplings of different regional dishes accompanied by raita.[edit] Etiquette Paan usually accompanies post dinner Main article: Etiquette of Indian Dining Several customs are associated with food consumption. preferably the right hand. were traditionally used as an alternative to plates. puri. In South India. or roti.

2 billion. It has been called "Britain's true national dish."[26] In 2003. accounts for two-thirds of all eating out.5 million British customers every week.[30] [edit] South East Asia An Indian food restaurant in Singapore.Chicken tikka masala. and serves about 2.[31][32] There are numerous North and South Indian restaurants all around Singapore. a modified version of Indian Chicken tikka.[29] There are numerous Indian restaurants across the US.000 restaurants serving Indian cuisine in England and Wales alone. is a local creation with a strong Indian influence reflected by its complex use of spices. Singapore is also well-known for its fusion take on Indian cuisines. Indian cuisines in US are quite diverse based on region culture and climate. Major cuisines are North Indian and South Indian. Chicago and Los Angeles that have specialized cuisines that serve authentic Gujarati food. There are also several places in New York. Indian cuisine is very popular in South East Asia because of its strong Hindu and Buddhist historical cultural influence in the region and on its cuisines. New Jersey.[27] According to Britain's Food Standards Agency. The fish head curry for example.[33] Indian influence on Malay cuisine dates to the 19th century.200 Indian food products have been introduced in the United States since 2000. the Indian food industry in the United Kingdom is worth £3.[28] [edit] United States A survey held in 2007 revealed that more than 1. Indian cuisine has had considerable influence on Malaysian cooking styles[7] and also enjoys popularity in Singapore.[34] Other cuisines which . there were as many as 10. most of them located in Little India.

[35] and Thai. leading to the Age of Discovery. Indian spices and herbs were among the most sought-after trade commodities.[39] Curry's international appeal has been compared to that of pizza.[37] [edit] West Asia Indian cuisine is also fairly popular in the Arab world because of its similarity to and influence on Arab cuisine.[4] [edit] See also India portal Food portal Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Cuisine of India y y y y y y Indian bread Curry Spices Multilingual list of Indian Vegetables Marwari Bhojnalaya Indian Chinese cuisine . The spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders.[38] The popularity of curry across Asia has led to the dish being labeled the "pan-Asian" dish. enjoy widespread popularity.[36] The spread of vegetarianism in other parts of Asia is often credited to ancient Indian Hindu and Buddhist practices.borrow Indian cooking styles include Filipino.[40] Though the tandoor did not originate in India. Indonesian. Indian tandoori dishes. such as chicken tikka. to such an extent that European explorers such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus set out to find new trade routes with India. Vietnamese.[41] Historically.

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