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Indian cuisine is the general name for foods of the Indian subcontinent, characterized by the extensive use of various

spices, herbs, and other vegetables, and sometimes fruits grown in India and also for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. Each family of Indian cuisine includes a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. As a consequence, it varies from region to region, reflecting the varied demographics of the ethnically-diverse subcontinent. Hindu beliefs and culture have played an influential role in the evolution of Indian cuisine.[1] However, cuisine across India also evolved as a result of the subcontinent's large-scale cultural interactions with Mongols and Britain making it a unique blend of some various cuisines.[2][3] The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited as the main catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[4] The colonial period introduced European cooking styles to India, adding to the flexibility and diversity of Indian cuisine.[5][6] Indian cuisine has influenced cuisines across the world, especially those from Southeast Asia and the Caribbean.[7][8]


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1 History o 1.1 Antiquity o 1.2 Middle Ages 2 Ingredients 3 Regional cuisines o 3.1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands o 3.2 Andhra Pradesh o 3.3 Arunachal Pradesh o 3.4 Assam o 3.5 Bihar o 3.6 Chattisgarh o 3.7 Daman and Diu o 3.8 Goa o 3.9 Gujarat o 3.10 Haryana o 3.11 Himachal Pradesh o 3.12 Jammu & Kashmir o 3.13 Jharkhand o 3.14 Karnataka o 3.15 Kerala o 3.16 Lakshadweep o 3.17 Madhya Pradesh o 3.18 Maharashtra o 3.19 Manipur o 3.20 Meghalaya o 3.21 Mizoram o 3.22 Nagaland o 3.23 Orissa

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3.24 Puducherry 3.25 Punjab 3.26 Rajasthan 3.27 Sikkim 3.28 Sindh 3.29 Tamil Nadu 3.30 Tripura 3.31 Uttar Pradesh 3.32 Uttarakhand 3.33 West Bengal 4 Desserts 5 Beverages o 5.1 Non-alcoholic beverages o 5.2 Alcoholic beverages  5.2.1 Beer  5.2.2 Miscellanea 6 Eating habits 7 Etiquette 8 Outside of India o 8.1 Great Britain o 8.2 United States o 8.3 South East Asia o 8.4 West Asia 9 See also 10 References o 10.1 Bibliography 11 External links
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[edit] History
Indian cooking derives from a 5000-year-old timeline, during which culture has changed, geographical boundaries have changed significantly leading to confusing terms such as subcontinental cuisine while other parts of a region want a separate culinary identity. Indian Cooking has however evolved significantly over time and the varying influences brought into the country by the various rulers and travelers, it has not lost its original identity, rather become richer with the assimilation of the myriad influences. This is very apparent in some of the unique regional cuisines.

[edit] Antiquity
The earliest formal civilizations were the Mohenjo-daro and Harappan civilizations. At around 3000 BCE, sesame, eggplant, and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley,[9] and spices like turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in this region concurrently.[10] Many recipes first emerged during the initial Vedic period, when India was still

heavily forested and agriculture was complemented with game hunting and forest produce. In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, meat, grain, dairy products, honey, poultry and other sorts of meats. Over time, some segments of the population embraced vegetarianism. This was facilitated by advent of Buddhism and a cooperative climate where variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains could easily be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorized any item as saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Ayurveda. In this period vegetarianism also flourished throughout India, beef eating was prohibited which has become a long-standing feature in Hinduism and India.

[edit] Middle Ages
This period was the period of several North Indian dynasties, including the Gupta dynasty which was noted for its love of the arts; also known as the Golden Age of India Art. Travelers who visited India carried with them knowledge and products like tea and spices. Later India saw the period of Central Asian and Afghan conquerors. This period also saw the emergence of the Mughlai cuisine that people now associate with India. It includes the addition of several seasonings like saffron, the addition of nuts and cooking in the "Dum" or sealed pot method of cooking. 18th century saw the establishment of British rule in India. The British loved the elaborate way of eating and adapted several of the food choices to their taste and developed curry as a simple spice to help them cook dishes with Indian spice. This period resulted in the emergence of the Anglo-Indian cuisine and the emergence of certain "Raj" traditions like that of "high-tea" an elaborate late afternoon meal served with tea.

[edit] Ingredients

Ghee made from cow's milk, Ghee is widely used for cooking throughout India.

coriander (dhania). Butter-based ghee. Some pulses. The common use of curry leaves and curry roots is typical of Gujrati and all South Indian cuisine. cumin (jeera). or dal. and a variety of pulses. Split pulses. mustard oil is more commonly used. and rose petal essences. fenugreek leaf. coriander leaf. popular in Maharashtra. channa (bengal gram). ginger (adrak). known as Vanaspati ghee. Each region. Pulses may be used whole. dehusked ± for example. Spices are an indispensable food ingredient in much of India. is another popular cooking medium. the most important of which are masoor (most often red lentil). and garlic (lehsun). or desi ghee. especially cardamom. toor (pigeon pea or yellow gram). are also processed into flour (besan). and clove. while in eastern India. has a distinctive blend of garam masala. peanut oil is most popular for cooking. a powder that typically includes five or more dried spices. saffron. sunflower oil and soybean oil have gained popularity all over India. Some leaves are commonly used. Sweet dishes are seasoned with cardamom. are used extensively. Goda masala is a similar sweet spice mix. Coconut oil is used widely along the western coast especially in Kerala. nutmeg. turmeric (haldi). asafoetida (hing). and mung (green gram). The most important or frequently used spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper. In recent decades. . rice. like channa and mung. urad (black gram). fenugreek (methi). Pulses are one of the most commonly used food ingredient throughout the diversity of India. Popular spice mixes are garam masala. black mustard seed (rai). including tejpat (Bay leaf). and sometimes each individual chef. gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south as well. and mint leaf. cinnamon. atta (whole wheat flour). dhuli moong or dhuli urad ± or split. In northern and western India. Most Indian curries are cooked in vegetable oil. The staples of Indian cuisine are Bajri.A typical assortment of spices and herbs. is less used than formerly. Hydrogenated vegetable oil.

each region has its own food specialties. but also at provincial level. and this did cast an influence on the eating habits of the people of Andaman and Nicobar. different types of food and their methods to cook came with them. The differences can come from a local culture and geographical location whether a region is close to the sea. Because the population is mainly derived from migrants from regions of India. many cuisines of India can be found in the islands. desert or the mountains. as many people from other regions of India came and settled here. [edit] Andhra Pradesh Main article: Andhra cuisine . Bengal and Tamil Nadu.[edit] Regional cuisines States of India. and still are inhabited by indigenous tribes. However. and economics. Indian cuisine is also seasonal with priority placed on the use of fresh produce. Since they had very little contact with the outside world. raw fish and fruits were their staple diet for a long time. [edit] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sea food plays a major role in the cuisines of Andaman & Nicobar. India is a diverse country. primarily at regional level. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands were.

Food of Andhra Pradesh is known for its heavy use of spices and chillies. green chillies and onion ± is a popular serving for the Pohela Boishakh festival. a popular Andhra dish served with Kobbari Pachadi(chutney made using coconut). Curd is also a part of the meal in the Andhra Pradesh as it helps to neutralise the spicy nature of the food. Different varieties of rice are available. Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves is a famous snack. supplemented with dried fish (Shutki).Pesarattu. which is served with other lentil preparations along with vegetables. Noteworthy pickles are "Avakaya" ± a pickle made from green mango. A large part of the population is vegetarian and has innovated some excellent recipes while people living in the coastal areas can treat one with the best of sea food. There is also an great variety of non-vegetarian dishes and most amongst these are hugely popular. Hydrabadi Biryani is one of the most famous dishes from Andhra pradesh. coriander and green chillies. Cuisine of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is the amalgamation of the delectable Southern Indian and refined Deccani style of cooking. "Gongura" ± a pickle made from the leaves of the gongura plant. Lettuce is the most common and preferred vegetable of all. One of the most important part of the Andhra cuisine are the various pickles. prepared by boiling it with ginger. Most of these pickles are seasonal and are widely famous all around the world. dal. .kf. meat and lots of green vegetables. Thukpa is traditional dish common among "Monpa" a tribe of Arunachal.The staple food of Andhra Pradesh is Rice. [edit] Arunachal Pradesh The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh is rice along with fish.s [edit] Assam Main article: Assamese cuisine Panta Ilish ± a traditional platter of Panta bhat with fried Hilsa slice. pickles (Achar).

Venison Assamese cuisine is the cuisine of Assam. pigeon etc. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils made by an indigenous community called Mariya. and ends with a tenga. fruits and vegetables that are either fresh. and birds like duck. a state in North-East India. Preparations are rarely elaborate²the practice of Bhuna. Fish is widely used. generally raw) and paan generally concludes the meal. Tamul (betel nut. [edit] Bihar Main article: Bihari cuisine See also: Bhojpuri cuisine Palak paneera dish made up of spinach and paneer cheese. a sour dish. are very popular. It is characterized by very little use of spices but strong flavors due mainly to the use of endemic exotic herbs. A traditional meal in Assam begins with a khar. It is a mixture of different indigenous styles with considerable regional variations and some external influences. the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients so common in Indian cooking. . dried or fermented. a class of dishes named after the main ingredient. These two dishes characterize a traditional meal in Assam. is absent in the cuisine of Assam.

Bihari society is not very rigid on vegetarianism. with watery foods such as watermelon and sherbet made of pulp of the wood-apple fruit being consumed mainly in the summer months. and lassi.Raita is a condiment based on curd and used as a sauce or dip. As well as these unorthodox dishes. Red ant chutney is a favorite dish. the food culture in Hindi Belt. which are parathas stuffed with fried chickpea flour. Bihar is famous for Sattu Parathas. The tribal peoples of the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh eat whatever is available. It is highly seasonal. They do not usually eat roti and boiled rice together.e. Fish curry. fish and pork constitute a large part of Chhatisgarhi cuisine.Fish Curry is made using mustard paste which is similar to Odia way of cooking fish. and eaten with roti or rice-daal. Because of strong Hindu-Muslim heritage river fish. yoghurt. ghee (clarified butter). The cuisine of Bihar has many similarity with North Indian cuisine i. tangy raita made from lauki (winter melon) or unripened papaya. and spices (paste of green chilly. Many Chattisgarhi people consume liquor brewed from the Mahuwa flower. and rats are some of their choicest delicacies. Pork forms a major item in their diet and almost every major ceremony starts with the sacrifice of a pig. Dairy products are consumed frequently throughout the year. Bihari Kebab. [edit] Chattisgarh Chattisgarh has many cuisines not found in the rest of India. There is a custom of eating poha (flattened rice) with yoghurt and sugar. Another common dish is alu-bhujia (not to be confused with Bikaneri Bhujia. made from potatoes cut like French-fries and cooked in mustard oil and mild spices. choosing food which would not be eaten by people of other states and regions.People generally eat roti soaked in milk. with common foods including yoghurt (known as dahi). but it also has many similarity with Odia cuisine. and Postaa-dana kaa halwaa. while the staple diet. Apart from this. and roti with cooked vegetables during dinner.[11] [edit] Daman and Diu . but people avoid eating non-vegetarian food daily. and dry foods and preparations made of sesame or poppy seeds mainly in the winter months. also known as rajasthani bhujia). Chokha (spicy mashed potatoes). Litti. chicken and mutton (mainly goat mutton. Bihari people typically eat boiled rice and daal with cooked vegetables during lunch. squirrels. ginger. mushrooms. butter. Flying ants. since many people view lamb (sheep) meat as offensive) are the popular meats. garlic and mustard) is popular in many parts of Bihar. like much of the rest of India is rice. Meat-based dishes are eaten mainly with boiled rice. buttermilk (called mattha).

coconut milk.e. tuna and mackerel. and the cuisine is mostly seafood based. with almost all popular brands of foreign liquor being available due to the visits of people from the state to consume the alcohol. Fish and meat in their diet is considered as non-vegetarian. Kingfish (Vison or Visvan) is the most common delicacy.Daman and Diu is a union territory of India which. Their vegetarian cuisine is unique. while eating strict vegetarian (no meat. dining and wining is the most popular pleasure in the territory. Broadly they can be considered as facultative vegeterians. Goan Saraswat Brahmin and Daivajna Brahmins are mostly fish eaters. the staple foods are rice and fish. The cuisine of Goa is influenced by its Hindu origins. both the native Gujarati food and traditional Portugese food is available. The area is located in a tropical climate. located along India's west coast along the Arabian Sea. Seafood. Use of Kokum is another distinct feature. lobster. they eat fish and chicken on most of the days. The state is frequented by tourists visiting its beaches and historic sites. Consequently. Goan cuisine consists of regional foods popular in Goa.[12][13] [edit] Goa Main article: Goan cuisine See also: Saraswat cuisine and Malvani cuisine Pomfret fried fish Pork Vindaloo is a Goan dish popular in many parts of India. squid and mussels. no-fish diet) food on some days. On the other hand other Brahmins belonging to Pancha Dravida category are strictly vegetarian. Because the neighbouring state Gujarat has prohibited alcohol. prawns. i. four hundred years of Portuguese colonialism. like Goa was a former colonial possession of Portugal. shark. rice and paste are main ingredients of Goan delicacies. others include pomfret. Among the shellfish are crabs. so its food has an international aspect. and spices and flavors are intense. Goan food cannot be considered complete without fish. . due to religious reasons. and modern techniques. tiger prawns.

North Gujarat. Because Haryana is rich in cattle population. Many Gujarati dishes are distinctively sweet. spicy or sweet). for example. and called Rotli in Gujarati). Undhiyu. and spicy at the same time. The typical Gujarati Thali consists of Roti (a flat bread made from wheat flour. milk products are extremely common. depending on a given family's tastes as well as the region of Gujarat they are from. In mango season. are commonplace. salty. Khakraa are some of the snacks famous in Gujarat. [edit] Haryana Kadhi. . Kachori. The cuisine changes with the seasonal availability of vegetables. and South Gujarat are the four major regions of Gujarat that all bring their own style to Gujarati food. Regular fasting. Kachchh. and nuts. which may be stir fried. Gujarati cuisine is primarily vegetarian. The spices used also change depending on the season. rice. and sabzi/shaak (a dish made up of different combinations of vegetables and spices. Jalebi. daal or kadhi. Keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal. with diets limited to milk and dried fruits. Kathiawad. Cuisine can vary widely in flavor and heat. such as added artificial flavors and preservatives. Garam Masala and its constituent spices are used less in summer. Food in Haryana is prepared using no modern materials.[edit] Gujarat Main article: Gujarati cuisine Dhokla is a popular Gujarati snack.

The cuisine was then influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of Kashmir by Timur from the region of modern Uzbekistan. but avoids onion. Kashmiri Pandit food is also very elaborate. The food usually uses yogurt. An equal emphasis is laid on vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. As compared to other states in north India nonvegetarian cuisine is more preferred. of which there are over 30 varieties. it has been strongly influenced by the cuisines of Central Asian. and the North Indian plains. Lassi and Sherbat are the two popular beverages of Haryana. popular in the United Kingdom for their exotic tastes.People of Haryana are fond of food preparations such as Kadhi Pakora. due to the traffic of many truck drivers. it does not include many minced meat dishes. garlic. and is an important part of the Pandits' ethnic identity. All through your way to Haryana. Bhagjery and chutney of Til. rice. Some of the specialities of Himachal include Pateer. although there is a bias towards non-vegetarian dishes. tomatoes. oils and spices as such turmeric. Chouck. you will come across a number of Dhabas or roadside food stalls serving food. The most notable ingredient in Kashmir cuisine is mutton. Churma. Bajra Aloo Roti. since there are a number of liquor shops in this Indian state. Also to be noted are Balti curries. vegetables and bread. Persia. Kheer. Methi Gajar. Bathua Raita. On many roads in is common to come across a booze shop. . Unlike Kashmiri Muslim cuisine. and chicken. broth. They too have lentil. that were originally brought by Kashmiri immigrants hailing from the Baltistan region of Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Singri ki Sabzi and Tamatar Chutney. Kashmiri cuisine has evolved over hundreds of years.[14][15] [edit] Himachal Pradesh Main article: Culture of Himachal Pradesh#Cuisine The day to day food of Himachalis is very similar to the rest of the north India. Subsequently. [edit] Jammu & Kashmir Main article: Cuisine of Kashmir Rogan Josh is a quite popular Kashmiri dish. Besan Masala Roti. The first major influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists.

The varieties reflect influences from the food habits of many regions and communities from the three neighbouring South Indian states. Mysore Pak. Thovve. Ragi mudde.Although the ingredients differ from one region to another. Jolada rotti. Dharwad pedha. as well as the state of Maharashtra and Goa to its north. Pickle. Akki rotti. The cuisine of Karnataka includes many vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisines. The famous Masala Dosa traces its origin to Udupi cuisine. and Uppittu. Kosambari. Palya. Rice and Ghee [edit] Kerala Main article: Cuisine of Kerala . These traditional dishes are not available at the restaurants as they have not been commercialised. Plain and Rave Idli. MysoreMasala Dosa and Maddur Vade are popular in South Karnataka. Gojju. Dessert (Yes. All preparation except the pickles and festive ones are low on oil and spices. a typical Kannadiga Oota (Kannadiga meal) includes the following dishes in the order specified and is served on a banana leaf: Uppu(salt). it is a tradition to start your meal with a dessert ± Paaysa). Saaru. Khara Bath. Ragi rotti. Raita. Coorg district is famous for spicy varieties of pork curries while coastal Karnataka boasts of many tasty seafood specialities. Huli. Vangi Bath. Davanagere Benne Dosa. [edit] Karnataka Main article: Cuisine of Karnataka Karnataka food served on a plantain leaf. Some typical dishes include Bisi bele bath. However on a visit to a tribal village or a tribal wedding in a remote area one can get a chance to taste such exotic food. Chapati.[edit] Jharkhand Main article: Traditional Cuisines of Jharkhand Traditional Jharkhand cuisine is equally vegetarian as well as non-vegetarian. Among sweets. Chiroti are well known. Chitranna. Kesari Bath.

[16] [edit] Madhya Pradesh Poha. cloves. and cinnamon play a large part in its food. a popular breakfast dish in Madhya Pradesh. numerous rivers and backwater networks. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala. black pepper. poultry and meat. The people of the island have a great inclination towards the coconut water as it is the most abundant aerated drink of the place. Kerala also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli. Most of Kerala's Hindus eat fish except the Brahmin community and because Kerala has large minorities of Muslims and Christians that are predominantly non-vegetarians. puttu. cardamom. and pathiri. idiyappam.and river-food based dishes. grated coconut and coconut milk are widely used in dishes and curries as a thickener and flavouring ingredient. Almost all the dishes have a touch of coconut since it is an integral ingredient of Lakshadweep cuisines. Since the island has a close proximity with Kerala. [edit] Lakshadweep The culinary influence of Kerala is quite evident in the cuisines of Lakshadweep. appam. dosa. The local food of Lakshadweep primarily comprises coconut and sea fish. hence the cuisines reflect the taste of the inhabitants of that place. to be the main starch ingredient used in Kerala food. along with tapioca (manioc/cassava). .Spicy fish from Kerala. Rice is grown in abundance. Rice and fish along with some vegetables is the staple diet in most Kerala households. Kerala cuisine is a blend of indigenous dishes and foreign dishes adapted to Kerala tastes. and consequently. ginger. Kerala cuisine has a multitude of both vegetarian and dishes prepared using fish. and strong fishing industry have contributed to many sea.Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years. and could be said. Kerala's long coastline.

In summers. biryani pilaf and kababs such as shami and seekh.The cuisine in Madhya Pradesh varies from region to region. with the north and west of the state being mainly based around wheat and meat. Gwalior and Indore abound in milk and milk-based preparations. it is mostly a breakfast item served with Jalebi. keema. a beer and a fine rum which is produced from the cane. The city restaurants also serve tasty chaats (snacks). korma. melons and watermelons. Bhopal is known for meat and fish dishes. . The beverages in the region include lassi (buttermilk). custard apples. sugarcane juice. kachoris and samosas.P) is poha (flattened rice). the meals tend to end with fruits such as mangoes (dusseharis). Ujjain and Ratlam are world famous for their savory snacks that are made from chick-pea flour. such as rogan josh. Indore. There also is the local liquor which is distilled from the flowers of the mahua tree called sulfi and date palm toddy. One other popular dish in the region is the bafla (wheat cakes) dunked in rich ghee which are eaten with daal (a pungent lentil broth). papayas and guavas. bananas. and the wetter south and east being dominated by rice and fish. It is followed by sweet ladoos.[17] [edit] Maharashtra Main article: Maharashtrian cuisine Wada. Another popular dish in Malwa region (central M.

jowar and bajra extensively.[18] Manipuris typically raise vegetables in a kitchen garden and rear fish in small ponds around their house. Bajri. sabudana khichadi. Gaud Saraswat Brahmin. wheat. but coconut oil is not very widely used as a cooking medium. Rest of the Maharashtra apart from Konkan. Maharashtrian cuisine covers a range from being mild to very spicy dishes. vegetables. is loosely called the Konkan and boasts of its own Konkani cuisine. has its own distinctive cuisine known as the Varadi cuisine. Like the other coastal states. Maharashtrian dishes for 'UPwas' have a special mention as most of them are favourites for life time e. rice is the staple food grain in Maharashtra. a deep purple berry that has a pleasing sweet and sour taste. organic and healthy. jowar. Popular dishes include puran poli. [edit] Meghalaya Main article: Meghalayan cuisine . is served chilled. rice.g. a popular snack from Mumbai. Dishes are typically spicy foods that use chili pepper rather than Garam masala . uses ground nuts. which lies on the coast of the Arabian Sea. During summer another drink called panna made from bioled raw mango is consumed. Besides the coastal cuisine. Jowar and Tandul. A part of Maharashtra. Kokum. and Goan cuisines. jaggary. As in many states of India. The staple diet of Manipur consists of rice. lentils and fruit form important components of Maharashtrian diet.Ragada in a pani puri. which is a homogeneous combination of Malvani. most commonly used in an appetizer-digestive called the sol kadhi. leafy vegetables. ukdiche Modak and batata wada. The cuisine of Maharashtra has its own distinctive flavors and tastes. Peanuts and cashew nuts are widely used in vegetables and peanut oil is the main cooking medium. Maharashtrian meal consists of rice and bread both along with 'varan'/'aamtee' ± a type of lentils and spiced veggies. The staple dishes of Maharashtrian cuisine are based on Bajri. It can be divided into two major sections±the coastal and the interior. Wheat. the interior of Maharashtra²the Vidarbha area. and fish.Grated coconuts spice many kinds of dishes. [edit] Manipur Main article: Manipuri cuisine Manipuri cuisine is simple. there is an enormous variety of vegetables in the regular diet and lots of fish and coconuts are used. Another feature is the use of kokum.

Ki Kpu. fowl. mainly sharing similarities with other cuisines from the North-East of India. A popular dish is Bai.Meghalayan cuisine is the local cuisine of one of the Indian States. The popular dishes are Jadoh. Meghalaya. has a unique cuisine of its own. The meat and fish used are often smoked. eaten with rice. They rear goats. different from other states in the north east of India. The staple food of the people is rice with spicy meat and fish preparations. [edit] Mizoram The cuisine of Mizoram is very different from most Indian cuisines. The locally made wine is their favorite beverage (alcohol is illegal in the state.[20] [edit] Nagaland Naga cuisine. Like the other tribes in the north-east. also one of the seven sisters and home of three Mongoloid tribes. Tung-toh. Dishes are served on fresh green banana leaves (never happens anymore). and Mizoram cuisine offers mainly non-vegetarian delicacies. Which can be made from boiling spinach with pork and bamboo shoot. [edit] Orissa Main article: Oriya cuisine Luchi. pigs. Another common dish is Sawchair made of rice cooked with pork or chicken. and pickled bamboo shoots.[19] Mizo cuisine is a blend of Chinese and north Indian cuisines. so this is not true). they ferment rice beer. ducks and cows and relish their meat. dried or fermented. retaining the nutritive value of the food. Meals are usually less spicy and plain in taste. . is known for exotic meats but simple and flavorful ingredients. of the Naga people. is an unleavened flour bread deep fried in oil. mostly eaten in Orissa. which is consumed in religious rites and at major ceremonies and celebrations.

a mix of cumin. Some of the hot favorite cookery items in Pondicherry are Coconut Curry. and French cuisine has become a large influence in cuisine in the territory. Soya Dosa. is a treasured staple food from Punjab. The French and the Indo style have given birth to an innovative taste. The French way of life has left a deep impact on the lifestyle of the people in the union territory of Pondicherry. Tandoori Potato. while garam masala (curry powder) and haladi (turmeric) are commonly used for non-vegetarian curries. Fish and other seafood such as crab and shrimp are very popular. Podanlangkai. The influence of the neighboring areas like Tamil Nadu.Vegeterian foods also include foods prepared without onion and garlic as in temple prasadam and bramhin cuisine. Baked Beans:[21] [edit] Punjab Main article: Punjabi cuisine Dal makhani. particularly in the rural areas. Andhra Pradesh and Kerala is also visible. fennel. Oriyas are very fond of sweets and no Oriya repast is considered complete without some dessert at the end. Chicken and mutton are also consumed. mustard. while relying heavily on local ingredients. a dish made of rice. Curried Vegetables. [edit] Puducherry The union territory of Pondicherry in the country of India was a French settlement for a long time. quite unlike the fiery curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. Oriya cuisine is rich and varied.Chungdi Jhola. The flavors are usually subtle and delicately spiced. water. that is fermented overnight. Pakhala. is a spicy gravy based Prawn curry with different flavours of spices. and yoghurt. Assad. Stuffed Cabbage. . fenugreek and kalonji (nigella) is widely used for tempering vegetables and dals. Panch phutana. is very popular in summer.

Rice is cooked for a long time in sugar cane juice. Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine ± such as Tandoor. [edit] Rajasthan Main article: Rajasthani cuisine Rajasthani thali. is cooked using rice. making . Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-veg dishes. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes.Tandoori Chicken is a popular chicken based dish.Within the area itself. such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag (Sarson Ka Saag). In fact. and hence the food is generally cooked in milk or ghee. Rajasthani cooking was influenced by the availability of ingredients in this arid region.There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab.The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. Naan. with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with Whole Wheat. People in the area of Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and milk products. In Rajasthan water is at a premium. Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer ± derive from the Punjab. Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. Rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas (spices). The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly. garlic and ginger. Roh Di Kheer. the area is well known for quality of its milk products. there are different preferences. known locally as ghee. with restaurant style using large amounts of clarified butter.

Laapsi. Mirchi Bada and Pyaaj Kachori. vegetable. and from a culture that has churned the best from its neighboring states of Gujarat. Major dishes of a Rajasthani platter includes Daal-Baati. Panchkoota. wheat. Sindhi food is eaten in India. Bhutias and Lepchas. finger quite rich. Scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. buckwheat. Kadhi and Boondi. Depending on the altitudinal variation. Some of the common traditional cuisine with their food recipes has been presented for introduction of dietary culture of the Sikkim Himalayas.[22] where a sizeable number of Hindu Sindhi people migrated following the Partition of India. Haryana and Punjab. Meat and dairy products are also consumed depending on availability. Rice is the staple food. one gravy and one dry. and snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia. barley. Bail-Gatte. various traditional fermented foods and beverages. Raabdi. The dietary-culture of this region is mostly reflected in the pattern of food production. Pakistan. Besides these. There is a distinctness in the Rajasthani cuisine which comes from a tradition that is old and tranquil. In the Sikkim Himalayas traditional foods are an integral part of the dietary culture of the various ethnic groups of people consisting of the Nepalese. . as well as for product diversification. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten without heating was preferred. The daily food in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flat-bread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes. which constitute of about 20 per cent of the basic diet for long centuries are prepared and consumed. etc. Chaavadi. potato. [edit] Sikkim Momos served in a tomato-based broth Sikkim has its own unique dietary culture with specific cuisine and food recipes. [edit] Sindh Main article: Sindhi cuisine Sindhi cuisine refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from the Sindh region. especially in Sindhi enclaves such as Ulhasnagar[23] and Gandhidam. On the other hand. While Sindh is not present in modern India. are grown. Besan or gram flour is a mainstay of Marwari food mainly because of the scarcity of vegetables in this arid land. Tarfini. soybeans.

coconut and rosewater. Madurai. Lentils are also consumed extensively. The indigenous Tripuri people comprises the communities of Tipra. Uchoi and others. chili. pepper. The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. coriander. ginger. garlic. cinnamon. chicken. cumin. [edit] Uttar Pradesh . The southern regions in Tamil Nadu. Noatia. though there is a minority modern vaishnavite Hindu vegetarian following. mutton. prawns. tamarind. Tamil food is characterized by the use of rice. Kaaraikudi or Chettinaadu are famous for their spicy non vegetarian dishes. Jamatia. Reang. turtle. cardamom. and frogs. The major ingredient of Tripuris cuisine for non-vegetarian food includes pork. namely. or in the form of independent dishes. nutmeg. fish.[edit] Tamil Nadu Main article: Cuisine of Tamil Nadu Dosa served with chutney and sambar. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil word 'kari' which means "an additive to the main course or a side dish" Rice and legumes play an important role in Tamil cuisine. either accompanying rice preparations. The Tripuri people have their own culture and cuisine. cloves. Vegetables and dairy products are essential accompaniments. Tamil Nadu is famous for its spicy non vegetarian dishes (just like Andhra Pradesh). crabs. its distinct aroma and flavour achieved by the blending of spices including curry leaves. The Tripuris are non-vegetarian. [edit] Tripura Main article: Tripuri cuisine A bowl of thukpa. legumes and lentils.

Shahi paneer. Raita. they also use Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal balls) and Mangodi (sun-dried Moong Dal balls) as substitute for vegetables at times. Pooris and kachoris are relished on special occasions. and Salad. Thechwani. sabzi and rice constituting the essentials of daily food habits. among the most popular snacks in all of India. It is traditionally cooked over wood fire. Both Garhwalis and Kumaunis are fond of lentil or pulses and µBhaatt¶ or rice. Main dishes from Uttarakhand include Chainsoo. Jholi. etc. Uttar Pradesh has also been greatly influenced by Mughal (Mughlai cuisine) cooking techniques which is very popular worldwide. To combat the extreme winters and possible exhausting of food. Awadhi is a type of West-Central Uttar Pradeshi cuisine found in the state's Awadh Region. there are some basic differences that tell apart the two. are also originally from Uttar Pradesh. [edit] Uttarakhand Main article: Kumauni cuisine Saag is a popular Kumaoni dish made from any of the various green vegetables like Spinach and Fenugreek The food from Uttrakhand is known to be wholesome to suit the high-energy necessities of the mountainous and wintry region. Daal. The cuisine mainly consists of food from two different sub regions Garhwal and Kumaon. The similarity between both of them is the liberal use of Ghee and charcoal cooking. roti. though the basic ingredients of both Garhwali and Kumaoni cuisine are the same. Baadi. The samosa and pakora. The Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes but a vast majority of the state enjoys sober vegetarian meals with Dal. Kafuli. .Main article: Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) with Naan bread. The distinctive trait of the Kumauni cuisine is the tightfisted use of especially milk and milk-based products as cows from hilly areas do not yield high-quality or amount of milk.

Barak Valley of Assam and West Bengal. Bengalis prepare fish in innumerable ways ± steamed or braised. ponds and lakes teem with many kinds of freshwater fish that closely resemble catfish. Tomatoes. The nature and variety of dishes found in Bengali cooking are unique even in India. Macher Jhol (Literally translated to Fish in Gravy). chapatis. pulses. Bengal's many rivers. [edit] Desserts Main article: List of Indian sweets and desserts Popular sweets. displayed at a shop in Kolkata. They eat rice. Bengali cuisine is known for its subtle flavours. its confectioneries and desserts. [edit] West Bengal A traditional Bengali meal called. Fish cookery is one of its better-known features and distinguishes it from the cooking of the landlocked regions.The dishes prepared by the people of Uttarakhan are similar to Uttar Pradesh. With an emphasis on fish and lentils served with rice as a staple diet. Main article: Bengali cuisine Bengali cuisine is a style of food preparation originating in the eastern India which includes states of Tripura. bass. . shad or mullet. vegetable. or stewed with greens or other vegetables and with sauces that are mustard-based or thickened with poppyseeds. onions and spices are used to make the food delicious. and has perhaps the only multi-course tradition from India that is analogous with French and Italian cuisine in structure.

The bases of the sweets and other ingredients vary by region. milk is a staple. known as mithai. are a type of confectionery. a popular sweet dish made from cottage cheese. In the Eastern part of India. Many are made with sugar. Imarti. Payas (or Kheer as it is called in Hindi) Indian sweets. It is customary to attach a thin layer of edible silver foil as decoration. a popular sweet made from Lentils. and cooked by frying. for example.Rasgulla. Rasmalai. a sweet dish made from cottage cheese. milk and condensed milk. Chikki A simple sweet made out of peanuts and molasses. Gulab jamun is an Indian dessert made out of fried milk balls soaked in sweet syrup. Barfi is a sweet made of dried milk with ground cashews or pistachios. . and most sweets from this region are based on milk products.

while Imarti is reddish in color. Often taken with milk. Laddu (sometimes transliterated as laddoo) is made of flour and other ingredients formed into balls that are dipped in sugar syrup. Several variations exist in different parts of India. Khajas of the Silao and Rajgir are known for their puffiness. where the sweetened milk/cream is frozen in small metal cans to be served frozen. usually made from rice and milk. . Laddu is often made to celebrate festivals or household events such as weddings. which is known as "pak".Bengal and Orissa. child birth. it is made dry outside and full of sugar syrup inside. Imarti is a variant of Jalebi. especially in the northern India. The street-side hawkers. Presently. feasts and celebrations. mawa and oil. or payasam in South India. and is juicy. Khajas are prepared and sold in the city of Patna. Kulfi is Indian ice-cream. ancient traditions maintain that a wedding is not fully blessed if payas is not served at the feast during traditional ceremonies like marriage. It has been a cultural dish throughout the history of India. Typically Jalebi is brown or yellow. It is typically sold by street-side hawkers who carry around these frozen cans of kulfi in a big earthen pot. tea or even yogurt (or Lassi) Khaja is a sweet food of Orissa and Bihar states in India. The popularity of Laddu is due to its ease of preparation. with a different flour mixture. The crisp croissants are then soaked in the sugar syrup until they absorb the sugar syrup. including Andhra Pradesh. These areas which are home to khaja. once comprised the central part of Maurya and Gupta empires. being usually found at ceremonies. a paste is made out of wheat flour. and has a more coiled texture. Malpoa is one of the most ancient homemade sweets of India. but additional colors may be applied for display. You can get Laddus which are famous in Bihar and are called "Maner Ka Laddoo" in Maner Sweets ± Maner and Patna. and it is especially popular in Bihar. Kheer is a sweet rice pudding. Khajas were prepared in the southern side of the Gangetic Plains of Bihar. It is then deep fried until crisp. In Kakinada Khaja. In many parts of India. It is also known as "payas". Refined wheat flour. Khajas have travelled to some other parts of India. At first. called "kulfiwalla" (one who sells kulfi) are much awaited by school kids who savor kulfis during school lunch-times. Variations in the preparation of Laddu result in a spectrum of tastes. annaprasan (first solid feed to child) etc. It is a form of pancake (made of what or rice flour) deep fried and dipped in sugar syrup. Then a sugar syrup is made.Jalebi is made by deep-frying flour in a circular (coil-like) shape and then dipping in sugar syrup. Khaja of Kakinada is a coastal town of Andhra Pradesh. Gaya and several other places across the state of Bihar. It is believed that. A summer-tikme favorite in most of India. sugar and oils are the chief ingredients of khaja. It comes in a variety of flavors such as mango kesar or cardamom. Usually it has a milky appearance. even 2000 years ago.

which originated in Orissa. Adding dry fruits like mangoes enhances the Shrikhand's taste. Rasgulla is a popular relished sweetmeat in India. this dish made its way to West Bengal when the Oriya cooks started migrating to West Bengal in search of jobs. One of the popular sweet makers for Motichoor Ka Ladoo is Maner Sweets in Maner and in Patna(Maurya Lok). engagements and births. This is a signature sweet from West Bengal in India. Indian filter coffee (right) is especially popular in southern India[24][25] . Shrikhand is a creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt. leaving the thick yogurt cream by itself. Originally a dessert in Orissa for centuries. from which all water is drained off. The harder version is robust and often easier for storage. Sandesh comes in two varieties. Sandesh is a sweet made from fine cheese made from cow's milk kneaded with fine ground sugar or molasses. a small town near Patna. this represents sweet making at its finest. This sweet dessert can be found in many eastern Indian households. The softer version although considered better. in the eastern region of the country. "Norom Pak" (the softer version) and "Koda Pak" (the harder version). and appreciated by the connoisseur.Motichoor Ka Ladoo is a sweet food of the central Bihar made from grilled gram flour flakes which are sweetened. Molasses made from dates can be used to make a special variation of Sandesh called "Noleen Gurher Sandesh" (a Sandesh made from "Noleen Gurh" or molasses from dates) or simply "Noleen Sandesh" (as shown in the figure). it is now made and consumed throughout India and Pakistan. [edit] Beverages [edit] Non-alcoholic beverages While masala tea (left) is a staple beverage across majority of India. Revered for its delicate making. This dish is produced by the boiling of small balls of casein in sugar syrup. mixed with almonds. and it has ancient roots in the Indian cuisine. pressed into balls and fried in ghee. It is a Western India traditional dish. bringing along the recipe. Originally from Maner. It was only then that Nobin Chandra Das of Kolkata modified its recipe to give it its current form. but was made known to the outside world by Nobin Chandra Das of Kolkata. It is a traditional gift at weddings. is fragile.

One of the finest varieties of Coffea arabica is grown around Mysore. and Falsa (Grewia asiatica). wherein the tea leaves are boiled in a mix of water. a mixture of carbonated water. are also very popular. cloves. Different varieties and flavors of tea are prepared to suit different tastes all over the country. Salted lassi is more common in villages of Punjab & Indian Porbandar. which are particularly rich. strawberry or other fruit juices. Bel. chaach. there is a chilled beverage known as "Panner Soda" or "Gholi Soda". milky concoction. the finest varieties are grown in Darjeeling and Assam. Indian filter coffee. Orange. It is prepared by blending yogurt with water and adding salt and other spices to taste. Gurhal (Hibiscus). Tea is a staple beverage throughout India. and ginger.Lassi served at a restaurant. is largely served in South India. It is generally prepared as masala chai. Panha (Raw Mango sharbat) and coconut water. Other beverages include nimbu pani (lemonade). Sandalwood. Lassi is a popular and traditional Punjabi yogurt-based drink of India. Karnataka. In southern India. cinnamon. rose water. It can be served in concentrate form and eaten with a spoon or diluted with water to create the drink. and is marketed under the trade name "Mysore Nuggets". Sharbat is a cold sweet beverage that is prepared from fruits or flower petals. spices such as cardamom. Lemon. Saffron lassis. is also served cold. coffee. rosewater and/or lemon. These are known to have several medicinal values and are known to be ayurvedic in nature. Traditional lassi is sometimes flavored with ground roasted cumin. Popular sharbats are made of one or more of the following: Rose. is also especially popular in South India. Another popular beverage. Gujarat. rose milk. sweet. It is made by blending yogurt with water or milk and Indian spices. and large quantities of milk to create a thick. badam doodh (almond milk with nuts and cardamom). Another beverage from the south. Pineapple. or kafee. Sweet lassi is a form of lassi flavored with sugar. [edit] Alcoholic beverages . The resulting beverage is known as salted lassi. and sugar.

The scenario changed. even though there are several other popular ones including the foreign brewers.A bottle of Kingfisher Premium Lager Beer. With the average age of the population decreasing and income levels on the rise.8% alcohol ± such as Australian Max Strong Beer). The most notable Indian brewer is United Breweries. with the entry of SABMiller to the Indian market. The international beer giant started by acquiring small breweries in the south but then completely changed the landscape with the acquisition of Shaw Wallace's beer portfolio. the popularity of beer in the country continues to increase while the Indian beer industry has witnessed major changes over the last five years.8% alcohol ² such as Australian lager) or strong lagers (7. a rate of growth that has increased in recent years. The industry was previously dominated by competition between the United Breweries Group and the Shaw Wallace. Kingfisher is the largest selling beer brand in India. The Indian beer industry has witnessed steady growth of 10-17% per year over the last ten years. [edit] Beer See also: Indian beer Beers in India are either lagers (4. [edit] Miscellanea . however. with volumes exceeding 170 million cases during the 2008±2009 financial year.

accompanied by achar (pickles) and some curd. are often eaten after lunch in parts of India. Palm wine locally known as neera is a sap extracted from Inflorescence of various species of Toddy palms. millet (finger-millet) or rice is used to brew the drink. Indian families will gather for "evening breakfast" to talk. It is usually drunk at room temperature in summer. Dinner may be followed by dessert. and translucent. The drink is generally ready within a week. There are also several other popular alcoholic drinks in India. gajraila. Chuak is the traditional Tripuri rice-beer. Jharkhand. 'Reals' (pronounced as Reaals). qulfi or ras malai. and the whole family gathers for the occasion. North Indian people prefer roti. South Indians. [edit] Eating habits People in India consider a healthy breakfast. It is usually drunk on social occasions of any Tripuri ceremony as a ritual. Curd and two or three sweets are also included in the main course. oyster white. Then boiling water is poured and sipped through a narrow bore bamboo pipe called the Pipsing. ranging from fruit to traditional desserts like kheer. people of western India. stuffed in a barrel of bamboo called the Dhungro. parathas. . generally accompanied by various chutneys. Hadia is a rice beer commonly made in the Bihar. and eat snacks. The popular brands of fenny are 'Cashyo' (the makers of which spell it feni). Goa has registered for a geographical indicator that would allow it to claim the sole right to term drink created in the region as fenny or 'Goan Cashew Feni'.[clarification needed] Paan (betel leaves). or nashta. important. which aid digestion. and a vegetable dish. dhokla and milk. or parathas. They generally prefer to drink tea or coffee with the first meal of the day. drink tea. It is made by fermenting rice in water. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables. The making involves the use of herbs mixed with boiled rice and left to ferment. nan. Semi-fermented seeds of millet are served. Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh states of India. Dinner is considered the main meal of the day. It may alternatively be spelt hadiya. idlis and dosas. Fenny is a Goan liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple and fenny (also feni) originated here. Chhaang is consumed by the people of Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan hill region of West Bengal with great enthusiasm. Orissa. Lunch may be accompanied by items such as kulcha. but is often served piping hot in brass bowls or wooden mugs when the weather is cold. gulab jamun. Lunch in India usually consists of a main dish of rice in the south and east and rotis made from whole wheat in the northern and western parts of India. Chhaang is a relative of the more universally known beer. Barley. and 'Big Boss'. Chuak is offered to village elders on any occasion or celebration in a traditional Tripuri family. It is served cool and has lower alcoholic strength than other Indian country liquors. It is sweet.A bottle of cashew fenny.

were traditionally used as an alternative to plates. Other etiquette includes eating with one hand only. rural dwellers raise a hand full of rice[citation needed] to eat while urban folks tend to only use the fingers and thumb. puri. Traditional serving styles vary from region to region in India. Among the middle class throughout India. Traditional ways of dining are being influenced by eating styles from other parts of the world. [edit] Outside of India [edit] Great Britain . breads such as naan. spoons and forks are now commonly used. where the staple is parboiled rice. and rice.[edit] Etiquette Paan usually accompanies post dinner Main article: Etiquette of Indian Dining Several customs are associated with food consumption. cleaned banana leaves. Leaf plates are still utilized on auspicious and festive occasions but are much less common otherwise. One universal aspect of presentation is the thali. or roti. Most South Indian meals end with plain curd and rice. When hot food is served on banana leaves. In South India. Traditionally. meals were eaten while seated either on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. Along the coast to the south. a piece of roti is gripped with the thumb and middle finger and ripped off while holding holding the roti down with the index finger. using instead the fingers of the right hand. Often roti (flat bread) is used to scoop the curry without allowing it to touch the hands. which could be disposed of after the meal. a large plate with samplings of different regional dishes accompanied by raita. In the wheat growing/consuming north. preferably the right hand. although knives are not. Food is most often eaten without cutlery. the leaves add aroma and taste to the food.

[28] [edit] United States A survey held in 2007 revealed that more than 1. the Indian food industry in the United Kingdom is worth £3. a modified version of Indian Chicken tikka. Singapore is also well-known for its fusion take on Indian cuisines. New Jersey.[34] Other cuisines which .5 million British customers every week. is a local creation with a strong Indian influence reflected by its complex use of spices.[31][32] There are numerous North and South Indian restaurants all around Singapore. Indian cuisines in US are quite diverse based on region culture and climate.200 Indian food products have been introduced in the United States since 2000.Chicken tikka masala.[27] According to Britain's Food Standards Agency. The fish head curry for example."[26] In 2003. Indian cuisine has had considerable influence on Malaysian cooking styles[7] and also enjoys popularity in Singapore.000 restaurants serving Indian cuisine in England and Wales alone. accounts for two-thirds of all eating out. It has been called "Britain's true national dish.2 billion.[29] There are numerous Indian restaurants across the US. Indian cuisine is very popular in South East Asia because of its strong Hindu and Buddhist historical cultural influence in the region and on its cuisines. Major cuisines are North Indian and South Indian. there were as many as 10.[30] [edit] South East Asia An Indian food restaurant in Singapore.[33] Indian influence on Malay cuisine dates to the 19th century. There are also several places in New York. Chicago and Los Angeles that have specialized cuisines that serve authentic Gujarati food. and serves about 2. most of them located in Little India.

[39] Curry's international appeal has been compared to that of pizza.[4] [edit] See also India portal Food portal Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on Cuisine of India y y y y y y Indian bread Curry Spices Multilingual list of Indian Vegetables Marwari Bhojnalaya Indian Chinese cuisine . such as chicken tikka. to such an extent that European explorers such as Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus set out to find new trade routes with India. leading to the Age of Discovery.[38] The popularity of curry across Asia has led to the dish being labeled the "pan-Asian" dish.[40] Though the tandoor did not originate in India.[35] and Thai. enjoy widespread popularity. Indian spices and herbs were among the most sought-after trade commodities.[41] Historically. Indian tandoori dishes. Vietnamese.borrow Indian cooking styles include Filipino.[37] [edit] West Asia Indian cuisine is also fairly popular in the Arab world because of its similarity to and influence on Arab cuisine.[36] The spread of vegetarianism in other parts of Asia is often credited to ancient Indian Hindu and Buddhist practices. The spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders. Indonesian.