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EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Outlining the Importance of Hospitality Management Training By Thomas Cassidy 2001

Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements For the award of the BA (Hons) in Hospitality Management School of Hospitality, Tourism and Consumer Studies Faculty of Business and Management University of Ulster Page Number Declaration Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations Abstract Introduction Chapter 1 Literature Review 1.1 Background Aspects to Training 1.2 Definitions 1.3 Aims & Objectives of Training 1.4 Training Philosophy 1.5 Principles of Effective Training 1.5.1 Benefits of Effective Training 1.6 Scale of the Industry 1.7 The Importance of Management Training to the Hospitality Industry 1.8 Consequences of not Training 1.9 Benefits of Effective Training 1.10 The Economys Effect on Training 1.11 Importance of Training to the Employee 1.12 Educations Viewpoint on Management Trainings Importance 7 7 8 1 2 2 3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6 6 6-7 iv-v vi vii viii ix

1.13 Hospitality Managers 1.14 Types of Training Available 1.15 In Company On the Job Training 1.15.1 In Company Off the Job Training 1.15.2 External Off the Job Training 1.16 Relevant Facts from the Main Advisory & Information Organisations In the Hospitality Industry 1.17 Evaluation of the Training Process 1.18 Basic Concepts in Training Chapter 2 - Methodology

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2.1 Methodology 2.2 General aim of Dissertation 2.2.1 Specific Objectives 2.3 Overview of Various Methods 2.4 How to collect Date 2.5 How to Analyse the Data 2.6 Presentation of Findings 2.7 Limitations of Chosen Method Chapter 3 Presentation of Findings & Analysis 3.1 Selected areas of Research on Hospitality Management Undergraduate Courses 3.2 Colleges which offer Higher National Diploma (HND)/ Equivalent 3.2.1 Hallam University Sheffield 3.2.2 Hallam University Sheffield 3.2.3 Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne France 3.3 Colleges which offer Bachelor of Science (BSc) Degrees

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24 25 25 26 27-28 29

3.3.1 Hallam University Sheffield 3.3.2 Hallam University Sheffield 3.3.3 Cornell University (USA) 3.4 Other Degree Courses on offer 3.4.1 Boston University (USA) 3.4.2 University of Ulster Jordanstown (Northern Ireland) 3.4.3 Shannon College (Ireland) 3.4.4 Ecole Hoteliere de Lausanne France 3.4.5 Swiss School of Hotel and Tourism Management 3.4.6 University of Strathclyde Hotel School (Scotland) 3.4.7 University of Strathclyde Hotel School (Scotland)

29-30 30-31 32-34 35 35-36 37 38-39 40 41-43 44-45 45-47 Page Number

3.5 Broad Comparison of the Hilton Hotel & Gleneagles Hotels In House Training Programmes 3.5.1 Hilton Hotel Group 3.5.2 Training in the Gleneagles Hotel Scotland 3.6 Discussion & Analysis 3.7 Selected HND/Equivalent Courses 3.7.1 Duration & Placement 3.7.2 Content 3.7.3 Options 3.8 Selected Degree Courses 3.8.1 Duration 3.8.2 Content 3.8.3 Optional Units 57-58

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48-50 51-53 54 54 54 54-55 55 55 55 55-57

3.8.4 Placement 3.9 The Hilton Group & Gleneagles Hotel Discussion/ Analysis 3.9.1 Similarities between the Hotels 3.9.2 Differences between the Hotels Chapter 4 Conclusions & Recommendations 4.1 Conclusion 4.2 Recommendations Appendix 1- The HCIMA Corpus of Management Excellence Appendix 2 Universities, Colleges of Further and Higher education that Run Recognised Courses in Hospitality Studies (BHA) Appendix 3 - Boston University Electives Appendix 4 - Cornell University Electives Appendix 5 - Hilton Group In House training Programmes Appendix 6 - Gleneagles Hotel In House Training References Bibliography Table 1

58-59 60 60 60-61

62 63-64 65-74 75-97

98-100 101-103 104-118 119-132 133-135 136-139 21

1.1 Background Aspects to Training Attitudes and attention to training has changed greatly in the last 50yrs. Historically training applied more to manual and trade skills often effected through apprenticeships. In more recent years much more emphasis has come about in management training. With the aid of modern technology the training expertise itself has been greatly developed and improved to cover all aspects of modern business & industry. Results from the HRfocuss Survey (2001) in the USA State that second to strategic planning, training is the second most frequently cited critical issue coming before usual concerns of hiring, retention and compensation. Relating to plans & strategies the survey delivers quotations such as: "Training is our key issue. We survey our staff to find out areas of need & interest for training purposes. In this way we can present training that is relevant to employees" (Vice President of Human Resources at a 250- employee Health Care company) (Cited by HR focus, 2001. P2) "Our agency is creating a unified training plan to include developing career paths for our employees. We are also developing a work force analysis plan to set strategies for retention, recruitment and succession" (HR Administrator at a 600-employee Government entity) (Cited by HR focus, 2001. P2) "Our managers are sent to training seminars and use videos for training on legal issues. Training is our number one goal for 2001. We are working on developing a more comprehensive training program for new employees as well as on going training opportunities for all employees" (Director of HR at a 120-employee health cares company) (Cited by HR focus, 2001. P2)

1.2 Definition

The above quotes illustrate how training has grown in stature. "Training is the systematic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience" (Armstrong 1999, p507) "A planned process to modify attitude knowledge or skill behaviour through learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. Its purpose, on the work situation, is to develop the abilities of the individual and to satisfy the current and future manpower needs of the organisation" (Manpower services commission, 1981) (Cited by Armstrong, 1999, p507) While Armstrongs definition is concise, the definition given by the manpower services commission gives a better insight to training by not only explaining what training is but also giving the reason for training practices to be implemented. Sometimes there is confusion between the terms "Education" & "Training" because there is a degree of inter-relationship. This relationship can be best understood by considering Education as dealing with the imparting of knowledge whereas Training is directed towards changing of behaviour and attitude.

1.3 Aims & Objectives of Training Armstrong (1999) states that the fundamental aim of training is to help organisations achieve their purpose by adding to their key resources i.e. the people they employee. Investing in training means that employees will be able to perform better and empower themselves to make use of their natural abilities. The main objectives of training are to:

Develop competencies of employees to improve their performance. Help people to grow within the organisation in order that as far as possible, its future Human resources can be met from within.

Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfer or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible.

(Adopted from Armstrong, 1999, p507-508)

1.4 Training Philosophy According to Armstrong (1999) there are three broad approaches to training open to organisations. Some adopt a lassie-faire approach believing that employees will find out what to do for themselves or through others. (E.g. If skill shortages were to be encountered, they would rectify the situation by poaching staff from other organisations that invest in training). Secondly other organisations may invest in training in good times, but in bad times training budgets will be the first to be cut. Thirdly organisations that adopt a positive training philosophy do so because they are convinced that they live in a world where competitive advantage is achieved by having higher quality people than the opposition. This goal cannot be achieved if managers do not invest in developing the skills and competencies of their employees. It is important for employees to also realise that organisations are showing an act of faith by creating opportunities for further education and enhancement of their skills. This is the proactive approach rather than reactive approach designating training as a continuous and on-going process within the organisation.

1.5 Principles of Effective Training For a company to design an effective training programme the following principles should be known and understood: 1. Training can only be successful if it is recognised that learning is a voluntary process that individuals must be keen to learn and consequently they must be properly motivated. 2. People learn at different rates and particularly in the case of adults, often start from different levels of knowledge and skill with different motives and attitude. 3. Learning is hindered by feelings of nervousness, fear, inferiority, and by lack of confidence.

4. Instruction must be given in short frequent sessions rather than a few long stints. 5. Trainees must participate 6. Training must make full use of appropriate and varied techniques and of all the senses, not just one, such as the sense of hearing. 7. Trainees need clear targets and progress to be checked frequently. 8. Confidence has to be built up by praise, not broken down by reprimand. Learning must be rewarding. 9. Skills & Knowledge are acquired in stages marked by periods of progress, "standstill" and even a degeneration of the skill or knowledge so far acquired. Instructors must know of this phenomenon ("the learning curve"), as it can be a cause of disappointment and frustration for many trainees. (Adopted from Boella, 1996, p119-20)

1.5.1 Benefits of Effective Training The principles of effective training dictate that training needs to be tailored to suit individual needs. If these principles are followed and understood the following benefits can be obtained:

Minimise learning costs. Improve individual, team and corporate performance in terms of output, quality, speed and overall productivity. Improve operational flexibility by extending the range of skills possessed by employees (multiskilling). Attract high quality employees by offering them learning and development opportunities increasing their levels of competence and enhancing their skills thus enabling them to obtain more job satisfaction to gain higher rewards and to progress within the organisation. Increase the commitment of employees by encouraging them to identify with the mission & objectives of the organisation. Help to manage change by increasing understanding of the reasons for change and providing people with the knowledge and skills they need to adjust to new situations. Help develop a positive culture in the organisation, one for example that is orientated towards performance improvement. Provide higher levels of service to customers.

(Adopted from Armstrong, 1999, p508) It would be unreal to assume that everything is positive for organisations that invest in training programmes for their employees. They can fall prey to other organisations that have no training policy and depend on poaching. As a direct result of a no training policy the latter can offer attractive remuneration to poach staff resulting in inflationary staff costs. The reason companies are able to entice staff away may be due to the fact that many employed within the Hospitality industry are very employable because they are multi-skilled which means that they are qualified for a number of positions. (E.g. Jurys Hotels employ workers who will be able to work within food & beverage and accommodation departments etc). It must also be remembered that absence of employees from the workplace while on training can adversely affect productivity levels in the short term. In a recent survey Look Whos Training now (2000) "The main reasons for not training beyond induction were: lack of time; difficulty in providing cover for staff and staff not staying long enough to be trained" (www.htf.org.uk, Accessed 25 March 2001)

1.6 Scale Of the UK Hospitality Industry Training is more important now than ever because the Hospitality & Tourism industry today, according to the British Hospitality Association (BHA), is one of the UKs largest and fastest growing industries. The BHA states that the industry accounts for 10% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In addition the hospitality industry accounts for 10% of the total UK workforce providing both full time and flexible employment for over 2 million people. In 1996 the BHA reported 13.6 billion spending in the UK by overseas visitors (Excluding 3 billion accumulated through fares to UK carriers). This would have represented the export value for the Hospitality industry that year. Hospitality also accounted for one quarter of the Uk'S invisible earnings. It is not surprising therefore that the BHA in its submissions have stated that: "Hospitality is regarded by Government as a key driver in the countrys economy"

(www.bha-online.org.uk, Accessed 1 March 2001) This has been very strongly reaffirmed by Prime Minister Tony Blairs comments & concerns for the Hospitality industry across the UK arising from the current Foot and Mouth crisis. The indications at present are that losses in the Hospitality industry due to cancellations & reduction in normal activity is greater than the direct losses in the Agriculture industry. If the Foot and Mouth crisis continues, in the long term it will affect the estimates of Henley centre for forecasting that by the year 2006 the hospitality industry will have created 400,000 new jobs, currently creating one in every five new jobs. Grave concerns have also been expressed for the immediate future of the 300 million industry and its 35,000 employees in Northern Ireland, and the same sentiment would apply to the Republic of Ireland, but on a much greater scale.

1.7 The Importance of Management Training to the Hospitality Industry The importance of management training to the hospitality industry has been highlighted by Peterson & Hicks (1996). According to Peterson & Hicks (1996) management training is vital because of the unavoidable changes that occur in organisations. To achieve continuing progress successful organisations will reprogram themselves and retrain their employees accordingly, e.g. to gain a competitive edge over their competitors by improving service quality in their hotel etc. 1.8 Consequences of not training Peterson & Hicks (1996) are also adamant that those organisations that are successful at present but continue unchanged and become complacent will be in for a big shock. They argue that training is a continuous process and that peoples skills need to be continually updated to avoid becoming obsolete just like technologies which become outdated if development is not ongoing.

1.9 Benefits of Effective Training

While Peterson & Hicks (1996) have highlighted the consequences of not training they also pointed out how organisations benefit from effective management training. The effect of management training at the top filters downward throughout the entire organisation where well trained staff build stronger teams of employees, in turn leading to better financial results. Gob (1999) believes that Hospitality operators are generally strong believers in management training and are prepared to invest in effective training programmes.

One example is, "In the early 90s, the Mirage Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas and ARAMARK spent over $5.5 and $25 million respectively on training. These financial commitments were made in hope of producing capable managers that can deal with new and uncertain challenges" (Tracey & Tews 1995) (Cited By Gob 1999, Vol. 8, No. 3) The importance of management training is reiterated by John Russell, president of HFSs Hospitality division, who stated in the October 1996 issue of Hotel & Motel Management, "The chains that survive will be the ones that focus on training" (Cited by Gillette, 1996)

1.10 The Economys Effect on Training Investment in training will hopefully produce managers that can deal with new challenges etc and guide the organisation forward in a positive and competent manner. (E.g. changes in the Economy etc). During the 80s due to economic instability many Hospitality organisations closed management training programs to save money. Once these problems subsided almost all organisations reintroduced the management training programs because,

"The cost of formal management training is money well spent resulting in effective satisfied employees" (Gob 1999, Management Training: Is It Essential, Hosteur) This underlines one of the three approaches put forward by Armstrong that in good times organisations would invest in training and in bad times the training budget would be the first to cut.

1.11 Importance of Training to the Employee According to Gob (1999) this is an area that is often overlooked, as new employees are eager to become contributing members of the team. Employees may therefore see the amount of time and effort, which an organisation spends, on them to help them become competent as a strong indication of their importance to the organisation. Conversely the lack of a strong training program can be from the employees perspective as an indication that the employee is not important enough to warrant any attention & effort from the organisation. 1.12 Educations Viewpoint on Management Trainings Importance Most educational institutions that run Hospitality management-training programmes are very much aware of the importance of training according to Gob (1999). The educational programs are, in a way, a form of management training themselves. According to Gob (1999) most Hospitality professionals are agreed on the theoretical aspects of management training. There will always be differences of opinion as to the practical application of the theory. 1.13 Hospitality Managers Management training will not only help managers to manage and develop the business; it will also help them to identify the training required for their employees. Knowledge of and commitment to proper training implementation by management is crucial to the overall success of any organisations training programme. 1.14 Types of Training Available

Armstrong (1999), Boella (1996) and Go, Monachello and Baum (1996) are in agreement that there are three main places were training can take place. In company on the job, in Company off the job, and external training, each having its advantages and disadvantages that merit discussion and interpretation

1.15 In company On the Job Training In relation to the Hospitality Industry for the best part, staff work is carried out in direct contact with customers. "For this reason much of the training of new staff has to be performed "on the job" so that the experience of dealing with its customers can be obtained. On the job training therefore plays a vital part in the industries approach to training" (Boella, 1996, p120) On the job training (OJT) is a process which may involve several steps as suggested by Armstrong (1999). This includes teaching & coaching by managers or team leaders or training at a desk or bench. The effectiveness of OJT will be determined by the quality of this guidance from managers or team leaders. It is therefore vital that appropriate training is provided for managers and team leaders in this respect, and that it is made clear to them that this is part of their job and will be one of the areas for assessment of their performance. Many managers/ team leaders are unskilled in training techniques and rely on their employees to provide the necessary training to trainees rather than learn the necessary training skills themselves. This is why Go et al (1996) maintains that since this is a process of learning by doing that OJT is the most used and abused approach to training. Placing responsibility of training on employees managers or team leaders can be doing more harm than good firstly to the trainee and more importantly to the organisation. Armstrong (1999), Boella (1996) and Go et al (1996) agree that such actions can spell disaster. Employees with no experience in training techniques may inadvertently impart bad habits or practices to their trainees. In the first instance as Boella (1996) suggests, the employee may not have a suitable personality never mind the knowledge of what to instruct and what not to instruct. It is therefore vital that if employees are to be given the responsibility of developing the skills of

newcomers, they must have a sound and comprehensive knowledge of the job. A more obvious problem that may affect the development of newcomers is the attitude of trainees themselves. They maybe distracted by the environment and therefore find it difficult to acquire the basic skills quickly enough. Overall OJT is the only way to develop and practice specific managerial, team leading, technical, manual and administrative skills needed by the organisation as suggested by Armstrong (1999). In relation to the above point Go et al (1996) believes that OJT requires planning, structure and supervision to be effective for developing a variety of practical and customer orientated capabilities. The main advantages of OJT are as follows: 1. Actuality & immediacy. 2. Theory put into practice immediately and relevance obvious. 3. Much of the learning can take place naturally as part of the Performance management process. 4. Most effective if specific learning objectives have been articulated. (Adopted from Armstrong 1999, p519) "Finally if done correctly OJT is a sensible & cost effective method for training and assessing trainees progress in jobs such as Retail sales, Food & Beverage operatives and Check in and Checkout positions" (Go et al 1996, p211) Examples include Domino Pizza where approximately 85% of training is OJT delivered by store managers using corporately developed training programs. E.g. OJT is used extensively by Ramada Inn, which has developed an OJT training aid. This training aid helps trainees by making them aware of the training objectives the benefits to themselves and the benefits to the company and the customer in performing the task. It also provides trainee with the sequence of steps that should be followed to perform the task correctly as well as a list of tools, materials and equipment required to do the task. Finally the training aid provides an evaluation form for providing feedback to the trainee. (Examples adopted from Go et al 1996, P211) Used right OJT can form an important component in skills training as well as in orientation or induction training for new employees. In a recent survey Look Whos Training Now (2000) stated that

"The most common route at over one third of all training incidents was on the job training provided by an internal provider and leading to no qualification" (www.htf.org.uk, Accessed 25 March 2001)

1.15.1 In Company - Off the job Training Go et al (1996) suggests that the distinguishing factor of In House Off the Job Training from other types of off the job training is that: "In house off the job training is conducted away from the physical location were the job is actually carried out but still on company premises" (Go et al 1996, p212) Armstrong (1999) also believes that this type of training is the best way to acquire advanced manual, office, customer service or selling skills and to learn about company procedures and products. It also increases the trainees identification with the organisation. The availability of equipment and trained trainers helps in that the basic skills are acquired much quicker and often more economically. There are a number of methods and techniques available with the choice depending on what is to be imparted. The main method guidelines are as follows,
1. Talks are best used for imparting knowledge such as company history

and policies, legal matters, regulations, recipes, and an outline of methods and procedures. In giving a talk, progress must be checked frequently by use of questions and answers. 2. Discussions are best used to elaborate on and to consolidate what has been imparted by other techniques. 3. Lectures often mean little more than talking at trainees and are therefore to be avoided as there is usually little trainee participation. 4. Case studies, projects, business games are best used to illustrate and to consolidate principles of management such as planning, analytical techniques, etc.

5. Role-playing is best used to develop social skills such as receiving

guests, handling customer complaints, selling, interviewing or instructional techniques. Ideally this should be supported by video tape recordings, if possible. 6. Films, charts, and other visual aids should not normally be used as instructional techniques by themselves, but should support talks, discussions, case studies and role-playing. Films on a variety of hotel and catering subjects are available from several training organisations. 7. Programmed texts, Interactive videos, I.Roms satisfy many of the principles of learning. In addition, individuals can use them at any convenient time not requiring the presence of an instructor. They cannot, of course, be used to teach some things such as manual skills and they can be very expensive to design. (Adopted from Boella, 1996, p121-123) As with any system there are always going to be disadvantages which Armstrong (1999) goes on to state. Trainees sometimes find it hard to transfer the skills and knowledge learned on courses to the work place. Additionally managers and team leaders transferring from training situation to real life may find things more complex. The problem here tends to be that their training deals with motivation and leadership theories, which deal with the mind. This make's it much harder to get across, as the connection between what people learn say in the classroom may not always be apparent. This is why "Strenuous efforts have to be made to ensure that learners perceive the reality of what they are learning and are expected to develop and implement action plans for putting it into practice" (Armstrong 1999, p520) The action learning approach/concept was developed by Revans (1989) in order to overcome such problems.

1.15.2 External Off the job Training

This form of training may involve employees being released to attend a local college or university for either short term or formal certified programs i.e. National Vocational Qualifications (NVQS) etc. Go et al (1996) suggests training can either be tailored to organisations specific needs or it may focus on special disciplines related to both the Hospitality & Tourism Industry. External training can also cover more technical or management topics which are beneficial for the development of managers or team leaders, technical and social knowledge and skills as suggested by Armstrong (1999). Other forms of external training could be special courses & conferences run by other organisations other than educational institutions. Another quite favourable approach used by larger organisations, which Go et al (1996) suggested, are work-based placements and projects at different locations within the parent organisation or other organisations. For those people who have the opportunity to participate in external training courses it allows them to broaden their horizons as they are exposed to peers from different organisations. As with most forms of training the transfer of learning into practice is more difficult than the two previous types of training mentioned. Another major concern is that the effectiveness of external training will be determined by how quickly the knowledge and skills acquired are used; Armstrong (1999) states if not used immediately the learning acquired may evaporate quickly. Finally due to the wide variety of courses available it may be hard for organisations to pick the most relevant to meet their objectives.

1.16 Relevant Facts from the Main Advisory & Information Organisations in the Hospitality Industry 1. The Hotel and Catering International Management Association (HCIMA) is the professional body for the international Hospitality industry, "Who encourages and acknowledges quality and industrial relevance in education training programmes" (www.hcima.org.uk, Accessed 10 May 2001) As a professional body it promotes professional expertise in the three levels of management, supervisory, operational and senior management, which in turn will improve standards throughout the entire industry.

In relation to quality and standards, the Corpus of management excellence will highlight the HCIMA S viewpoint i.e. "The Corpus provides an integrated system as the basis of the core HCIMA activities, forming a comprehensive and wide ranging benchmark against which both individuals and courses can be measured" (www.hcima.org.uk, Accessed 10 May 2001) The achievement of blocks within the Corpus framework can help gain accreditations for membership and courses. The format is clear and easy for everyone to understand and the blocks guide them through the accreditation process. More importantly, "Individual success is not confined to the completion of college courses but allows for a variety of means to contribute to professional body member (www.hcima.org.uk, Accessed 10 May 2001) According to the HCIMA this can include on job training, external training, college and university programmes and courses and much more. (For more information on the HCIMA S Corpus of management excellence. (Refer to appendix 1) 2. The British Hospitality Association (BHA) provides information on current issues, statistics & developments within the Hospitality industry. According to the BHA (2001), the number of colleges offering recognised courses in Hospitality studies currently stands at 112 within the UK. This includes both full-time and part-time courses. (For further detail on listed colleges refer to appendix 2). 3. The Hospitality Training Foundation (HTF) stated that for 1997/98 the number of students on Catering and Institutional Management in higher education stood was 17,584. This includes under graduate courses comprising of Degrees, Higher National Diplomas (HND) and Diplomas (DipHes). 1.17 Evaluation of the Training Process

Hamblin (1974) defines evaluating training as "Any attempt to obtain information (feedback) of the effects of a training programme and to assess the value of the training in the light of that information" (Cited by Armstrong 1999, p531) By evaluating the effectiveness of training Torrington & Hall (1998) and Go et al (1996) both believe that it is one of the most unsatisfactory aspects of training, with many organisations believing that training ends once the delivery of the training program is complete. The belief that training ends once delivery is completed has two consequences:

It defeats what has been stated earlier in the chapter that training was a continuous process through out employees working life. Secondly and more importantly it will result in the failure to measure whether the training program has met the objectives set out before hand and whether it has developed/ induced a positive behavioural change.

Both Torrington & Hall (1998) and Go et al (1996) believe that, evaluation is vital in determining how successful the training program has been and for the organisation it is vital to be able to demonstrate value for money. The evaluation process is very straightforward when the output of training is clear as suggested by Torrington & Hall (1998). Armstrong (1999) states by implementing an evaluation process the organisation will have a degree of control and that it is therefore important that the entire training program is evaluated because:

It is important to assess whether the training program has met the objectives set out at the planning stage. Finally it is important to indicate where improvements or changes are required in order to ensure that the training will be more effective.

Complications arise when it comes to evaluating the success of a managementtraining programme of social skills and development where outputs are hard to

measure. Torrington & Hall (1998) believe that while difficult, evaluation should still be carried out. In the evaluation of training programs Kirkpatrick (1994) suggest there are four levels of evaluation: Level 1 Reaction at this level, evaluation measures how those who participated in the training have reacted to it. In a sense, it is a measure of immediate customer satisfaction. The following guidelines suggested by Kirkpatrick (1994) for evaluating reactions are:

Determine what you want to find out. Design a form that will quantify reactions. Encourage written comments & suggestions. Get 100% immediate response. Get honest responses. Develop acceptable standards. Measure reactions against standards, and take appropriate action. Communicate reactions as appropriate.

Level 2 Evaluating learning this level obtains information on the extent to which learning objectives have been obtained. It will aim to find how much knowledge was acquired, what skills were developed or improved, and, as appropriate, the extent to which attitudes have changed in the desired direction. So far as possible, the evaluation of learning should involve the use of tests before and after the programme paper and pencil or performance tests. Level 3 Evaluating behaviour this level evaluates the extent to which behaviour has changed as required when people attending the programme have returned to their jobs. The question to be answered is the extent to which knowledge; skills and attitudes have been transferred from the classroom to the workplace. Ideally, the evaluation should take place before and after the training. Time should be allowed for the change in behaviour to take place. The evaluation needs to assess the extent to which specific learning objectives relating to changes in behaviour and the application of knowledge and skills have been achieved. Level 4 Evaluating results this is the ultimate level of evaluation and provides the basis for assessing the benefits of the training against its costs. The evaluation has to be based on before and after measures and has to determine the extent to which the fundamental objectives of the training has

been achieved in areas such as increasing sales or increasing customer satisfaction. Evaluating results is obviously easier when they can be quantified. However, it is not always easy to prove the contribution to improved results made by training as distinct from other factors and as Kirkpatrick says "Be satisfied with evidence, because proof is usually impossible to get" (Cited by Armstrong, 1999, p531-532) While Kirkpatricks evaluation approach of (1994) goes into considerable detail it is largely in line with Hamblins approach of (1974). Overall it would appear that the concepts have not changed dramatically but there is an increased emphasis on the importance of training within organisations both from the personnel and business aspect. To give training programs every chance of succeeding Boella (1996) believes that it is vital that line management is seen to support the implementation of training initiatives. One way of showing their support is to actually participate as far as possible. If there is a lack of support however, it is possible that a gap between trainers and line management may develop if instruction is entirely left to the trainer. In order to ensure that gaps dont appear line managers can take the initiative through departmental managers and skilled operators such as chefs, as stated earlier in the chapter to be trained to take some training sessions. Through such actions Boella (1996) believes that the instruction is in line with the working requirements and conditions, but of more importance: "It persuades line management that training personnel are working with and for line management" (Boella, 1996, p125)

1.18 Basic Concepts in Training After dealing with the importance of Hospitality management training, the types of training available and the evaluation process, it is appropriate to reflect on the concepts involved in a training programme:

Training is holistic i.e. training; is an integral part of all operational areas within a business rather than a separate function.

Training occurs all of the time and not just during formal training periods. Through good supervision and management the correcting of incorrect techniques or procedures should occur immediately to ensure the employee in question receives the necessary training. Training must be systematic & consistent. If not training becomes devalued and little used, especially if standards demanded are not being met in everyday activities. Planning of training is vital and requires attention to detail and careful organisation Training is a vital developmental tool in developing the careers of young people within the Hospitality Industry.

Today training is used as a motivator and can be used as a means of countering labour turnover and attracting good job candidates as more and more young people are now asking whether organisations have a training policy in place. (Adopted from Go et al, 1996, p215) Finally Boella (1996) believes that training is a tool management should use to increase employees efficiency.

It also enables the underlying goals to be achieved by equipping its personnel with the "Competencies, knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to achieve whatever realistic aspirations they have in their work by enabling them, through increased competence and confidence to earn more and if desired promotion" (Boella, 1996, p126)

2.1 Methodology In setting out the methodology relating to this dissertation it is important to focus on the associated aims & objectives: 2.2 General aim of Dissertation: 1. Assess the current status of Education & Training opportunities that exist within the Hospitality industry. 2. Suggest recommendations for developing the Education & Training process to meet present day requirements for the Hospitality Industry. 2.2.1 Specific Objectives: 1. To provide up-to-date assessment of the current Education & Training provision for the Hospitality Industry. 2. To make it possible for the Hospitality Industry to see how current weaknesses and deficiencies in staff skills could be rectified through appropriate education and training programmes 3. To demonstrate to the industry how suggested improvements & developments could be implemented to improve staff competencies within the Hospitality industry.

2.3 Overview of Various Methods After a comprehensive review of literature covering training in general and Hospitality Management training in particular the next step is to investigate the Hospitality education and training available at HND and Degree level and to review training programmes currently in use in UK Hotels. The research for this will be carried out on a Case Study basis. According to Yin (1984), up to 6 sources of evidence can be used in a Case Study. These 6 sources are set out in the following paragraphs were table 1 shows their relevant strengths and weaknesses.
1. Documentation can include letters, memoranda and administrative

documents such as proposals etc. The most important use of documents within a case study is to corroborate evidence from other sources. There has been some confusion of over reliance on documents in case study research as suggested by Yin 1984.

This has been due to casual investigators who may mistake certain kinds of documents (E.g. proposals for projects or programs as if they contained the unmitigated truth)
2. Archival records can include service records such as the number of

3.

4.

5.

6.

clients served over a given period or organisational records such as budgets etc. Yin 1984 therefore believes that it is important that the investigator is careful in determining the accuracy of records and the conditions under which they were produced. Interviews are the most important sources for a case study, and can take several forms from an open-ended interview to a structured interview. Interviews can therefore be used to corroborate interview data with information from other sources as suggested by Yin 1984. Interviews must be considered as verbal evidence and for this reason they could be subject to problems of bias, poor recall and poor or inaccurate articulation. Direct Observation occurs when the investigator makes a site visit e.g. to a new hotel. In relation to direct observations can be either formal or casual, the main concern is the reliability of the observation. One way to overcome the problem as suggested by Yin (1984) is to use multiple observers. Participant Observation is unique in that the researcher may actually participate through a variety of roles; this can however be a problem as their maybe a potential for bias. Physical Artefacts can include any physical evidence that maybe gathered during a field visit as suggested by Yin 1984 (E.G. Rocks collected by a Geologist).

Table 1
Sources of Evidence Documentation Strengths Stable repeated review. Unobtrusive exist prior to case study, exact names etc. Weaknesses Retrievability difficult biased selectivity. Reporting bias reflects author bias.

Broad coverage Access may be extended time span. blocked. Archival Same as above precise and quantitative. Same as above privacy might inhibit access.

Interviews

Targeted focuses Bias due to poor on case study topic. question bias. Insightful provides perceived casual inferences. Incomplete recollection Reflexibility interviewee expresses what interviewer wants to hear.

Direct Observation

Reality covers events in real time

Time consuming

Selectivity Contextual misses facts covers event context Reflexibility observers presence might cause change. Cost observers need time Participant Observation Same as above Insightful into interpersonal behaviour. Physical Artifacts Insightful into cultural features Insightful into technical operations Same as above Bias due to investigators actions Selectivity Availability

(Yin, 1994, p.80) Documentation will be used as the main source of evidence for the case study as it is the most relevant and most practical of the six options listed.

2.4 How to collect the data The main route for accessing data will be Online University prospectuses containing detailed information on undergraduate programs for Hospitality management courses. The prospectuses will also outline course content and structure for the number of years of study. For the second part of the research covering In House hotel training the data will be collected from each hotels literature on staff training, out lining various training initiatives etc. 2.5 How to Analyse the Data Once all the data has been collected the next step is to decide how the data will be analysed. For the case study the data collected will be analysed through compare & contrast. This may be done by, "Looking for patterns immediately while we are reviewing documents, observing or interviewing, or we can code the records, aggregate the frequencies and find patterns that way or both. Sometimes we will find significant meaning in a single instance, but usually the important meanings will come from reappearance over and over" (Stake, 1995, p28) Compare & Contrast is the most appropriate method for analysis as it relates to comparing what the different colleges throughout the UK/ Ireland/ Europe and the USA have to offer and how they differ. The research also involves comparing what two hotels have to offer in house in regard to training and how their programmes differ.

2.6 Presentation of Findings The presentation of the findings is very important to enable the researcher to analyse the data and enable the reader to understand their findings quickly in their simplest form. To achieve this tables were selected as being the best possible way to set out and access the basic information.

2.7 Limitations of Chosen Method If the research process is carefully planned researchers will find that there will be less problems. However three major problems were identified. Firstly the terminology used by each of the colleges differed in explaining the Hospitality courses they offer to perspective students. To overcome this, similarities were grouped together broadly. Secondly the amount of information given by colleges varied considerably. (E.g. Some colleges, instead of giving the duration of the courses, gave the number of semesters.). That problem could have been overcome if there had been more time to verify the details from the colleges in question. Finally in relation to In House hotel training courses it became difficult to find out the duration of courses especially within the Gleneagles Hotel. Again this could have been verified by contacting the hotel if there had been more time to do so. 4.2 Recommendations 1. Languages should be incorporated as one of the core elements within all Hospitality Management courses, and not just offered as an optional unit. Students who graduate without having taken a language are already at a disadvantage if they have competitive career aspirations in the Hospitality Industry. This is especially true where large hotel operators are concerned with businesses all over the world. E.g. If a promotional opportunity arose in France an employee who has French as a second language is already in a stronger position than the employee who only has English. 2. It would be beneficial for more co-ordination between Universities and colleges to give prospective students the best choice of Colleges/ University relative to their career aspirations and to be able to easily compare course content in its simplest form. This will perhaps emerge soon with ongoing development of internet communications.

3. Better lines of communication and understanding between education and training establishments and the Hospitality Industry need to be established. This has become even more evident in Northern Ireland

where top chefs have stated recently that the current standards of qualified chefs is short of what the Hospitality Industry needs. 4. Placement / Practical experience needs to be either extended or used as a prerequisite before prospective students can be considered for Hospitality Management courses. This would help graduates to have better practical experience and be at a level of practical competence equivalent to persons who have left school at 16/ 17 and worked in the industry for a number of years.

5. Many people see the Hospitality industry in a bad light in relation to long unsociable hours and bad rates of pay. Businesses within the industry have to now promote the Hospitality industry, as a sector where an attractive career can be attained. E.g. Botanic Inns who own 10 bars and 1 hotel are trying to improve their image by offering Competitive Rates of Pay, Paternity leave and a Contributory Pension Scheme etc. This is the way forward for the rapidly expanding Hospitality Industry.

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