BUILDING REABILITATION

Editors:

M. Budescu N. Taranu I. Lungu

“Matei-Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House

BUILDING REABILITATION

Editors:

M. Budescu N. Taranu I. Lungu

“Matei-Teiu Botez” Academic Society Publishing House

Editors: Mihai Budescu, Nicolae Taranu, Irina Lungu Authors: Chapter 1: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 2: Ioan Ciongradi, Mihai Budescu Chapter 3: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 4: Nicolae Taranu Chapter 5: Irina Lungu, Mihai Budescu Chapter 6: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 7: Mihai Budescu, Ioan Ciongradi Chapter 8: Mihai Budescu, Anca-Mihaela Ciupala Chapter 9: Dorina Isopescu, Gabriel Oprisan Chapter 10: Dorina Isopescu Chapter 11: Ioan Gavrilas
Translater: Roxana Craciun

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Naţionale a României Building rehabilitation / ed.: M. Budescu, N. Ţăranu. - Iaşi : Editura Societăţii Academice "Matei-Teiu Botez", 2003 Bibliogr. ISBN 973-7962-26-5 I. Budescu, Mihai (ed.) II. Ţăranu, Nicolae (ed.) 624

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GENERALITIES
1.1 CONSTRUCTION REHABILITATION Construction rehabilitation means building up some of its functions, which were damaged during its service, and making them active again. Construction rehabilitation is a permanent concern for civil engineers due to the inevitable decay caused by material aging, which occurs in time and the effects of some accidental events. Thus, earthquakes, winds, slumps, fires, floods, explosions, chemical agents and fabrication processes are only some of the factors causing damages. Another cause occurring even more frequently is related to the dynamics of possible functional alterations. Very frequently, construction decay is caused by material aging in its various forms: its life time exceedence, fatigue, creep, yield, multiple load cycles or the action of the chemical agents. In many cases construction damages occur as a result of the degradation of the foundation soil caused by the rise of groundwater level, the lack of safety measures when dealing with collapsible or active soils, the infiltration of rain and industrial water or water infiltration caused by the defective maintenance of the water supply and sewing systems. Design errors should not be neglected either. There are cases when the designing engineer allows improper structural systems created by architects or when the beneficiary changes the destination of the building at a later stage engendering loading underestimation. Sometimes the designing process may be accompanied by conceptual errors referring to structure, modelling and calculus. Construction errors are also very frequent when using low quality materials or not complying with the project or technologies.
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Indirectly. extraordinary unexpected seismic actions.g. chlorine. imposes structural rehabilitation so that the building service is preserved within safety limits. ii. However one of the most important causes of construction degradation is earthquake and the most vulnerable to its action are the old buildings where specific protection measures have not been taken. altering the structural system. technological alterations may lead to a rise in chemical aggressiveness or vibration level.) may hasten the degradation process particularly in the case of excessive humidity and the absence of any ventilation systems. Changing the destination of the building is possible only when the structure is not seriously affected and safety requirements can be complied with by passing to a lower category of importance. Structural rehabilitation may be achieved by: i. various technological procedures accompanied by the release of aggressive chemical substances (e. which admits the occurrence of structure degradation in certain areas in case of powerful earthquakes. iv. which are unusual for the area. buildings may also be damaged by a series of external factors such as: traffic expansion or the appearance of new buildings in the area and the degradation of infrastructure systems like pipe drains and water supply systems. the basis of all modern design codes in seismic conditions. even when there are no damages.Building Rehabilitation Shortcomings may occur when structural elements are stressed before reaching the appropriate strength of materials or when works are performed in cold weather conditions and without taking proper measures. replacing or partially altering the building. sulfur etc. Function alteration or changing the destination of the building. local strengthening of structural elements. can cause the mass destruction of the building. page 2 . Moreover. There have also been detected many cases when degradation was caused by damaged equipment and industrial installations. iii. One should not ignore the concept of ductile design. changing the destination of the building. All these ways of rehabilitation are strictly related to the condition of the building and the technical and economic possibilities of intervention. Sometimes the great number of earthquakes during the lifetime of a building lead to the loss of the bearing capacity due to material fatigue. Sometimes. In industry.

establishing and designing the intervention measures iii. its importance. and interventions established by the experts.Generalities Replacing or partially altering the building may mean permanently eliminating (one) part of the building (for example reducing the number of floors.the analytic diagnoses of the structure ii. page 3 .an evaluation of the condition of the structural system. . such as: • introducing some adjacent construction elements which. Consolidation or local strengthening (iii) may have good results when only some structural elements are damaged and require ordinary intervention measures.1. the structural system is not altered and the intervention is restricted only to build up the bearing capacity of the damaged elements. Structural rehabilitation consists of several stages: i. A very relevant example of this kind is the building of a board factory where furnaces were placed too close to the central column and no measures of thermal insulation were taken (fig.1]. When a strong earthquake stroke.the diagnosis of the condition of the materials used. consequently. • changing the structural concept through other devices that can result in increasing the safety during service. Structural system alteration may have several meanings. together with the existing structure. in seismic areas. the building appraisement.1). the material becomes much more brittle.2. make another structural system. depending on the condition of the building. like base isolation for structures. keeping the facade only etc) or thoroughly recovering some parts of the damaged building if structure allows it. consisting of: . the authors will only discuss some representative examples they have encountered in their work. 1. . CASE STUDIES Although technical literature describes various damaged buildings and interventions adopted for their rehabilitation. performing the structure rehabilitation (consolidation) iv. Concrete subjection to high temperature for a long period of time leads to its hastened aging and. .the experimental diagnosis. the columns broke down [1. In this way. the experimental diagnosis of the rehabilitated system Some of these stages are not always compulsory.

An example that can be given for this case is the building of a chemical plant producing plastics [1.1 Concrete aging as a result of its subjection to high temperatures for a long period of time BARBOTAGE RECIPIENT SCAFFOLDING FLEXIBLE BEARINGS a. solution adopted to eliminate the source of vibrations page 4 .1.2. By using a scaffolding to support the recipient.1. FURNACES DAMAGED COLUMNS Fig.1. the vibration level in the structure increased. b.2 Aging as a result of the subjection to vibrations over a long period of time a.Building Rehabilitation Currently. fig. vibrations were completely eliminated. the joints between the prefabricated elements weakened and.2]. initial state b. there are various types of industrial equipment producing vibrations and the lack of local isolation measures may weaken the joints between structural elements. endangering the building. Adding some flexible bearings increased the equipment efficiency (fig.a. whose foundation was separate from that of the structure.b). Fig.1.2. For technological reasons. About 15 years later. the recipient for the plastic barbotage was placed on the first floor of the building. consequently.

fig.3 The effects of groundwater aggressiveness on the platform of a pulp and paper plant In some thermoelectric power stations built up in Romania between the 1950s and 1960s. A relevant example is a block of flats in Iasi. the boiler room was designed in such a manner so that the structure of the boilers supports the hall roof as well. fig. the joints of the caissons weakened and the movement made them collapse.1. a bracing lost its stability in one of the stations. Part of the caissons fell over the rolling girder. Most of the times. Gas release in a humid environment generates acids which. Though the hall in fig. design errors become obvious when extraordinary actions occur. in contact with unprotected building elements. However.5. fig. an earthquake weakened it. Cases when water leakage from the water-supply network systems decreases the bearing capacity of the foundation soil are very frequent. [1.1.1.a. which leant because of the water leakage from one page 5 .6. the most serious effect is that produced by the loss or leachate of chemical substances in the sewing systems. from the construction viewpoint. others broke and fell over the paper machine. which spread finally into the ground-water tables and begin attacking the structure from its foundation. When the first series of bins were made.4].1.3].3 [1.4. Since the contiguous components supporting the roof had very different degrees of stiffness. was well built. the magnitude of the seismic action was ignored so that. after the 1977 earthquake.Generalities Serious building damages are encountered in industry. FOUNDATION AND COLUMN DAMAGED BY THE AGGRESSIVE GROUNDWATER Fig. whose destination was a paper factory. lead to their fast decay. which tied the independent columns to the rest of the structure.1. particularly in chemical industry. the truss was pulled by the boiler and the most important effect was the failure of the joints with the intermediate section of the building. As a result. The building has been rehabilitated by replacing the concrete roof by a braced metallic structure.

After bringing the page 6 . thus preventing a future soil failure.1.1. JOINT FAILURE INTERMEDIATE SECTION . 1.4 The bracing failure into a boiler in the thermoelectric station CAISSONS FROM THE ROOF FLEXIBLE COLUMN CAISSONS FALLEN ON THE ROLLING GIRDER CAISSONS FALLEN ON THE PAPER MACHINE PAPER MACHINE RIGID BUILDING DEFORMED AND FISSURED COLUMNS Fig.b.6.MACHINERY HALL BOILER STABILITY FAILURE FOR A BRACING Fig.Building Rehabilitation of the ducts. The building has a frame structure on a network of foundation beams and the soil failed and damaged the basement floor fig.5 The collapse of the roof caissons of a hall after an earthquake because of the different stiffness of contiguous structures The building has been rehabilitated by eliminating the water leakage. and digging in the opposite area.

Fig. they noticed that these had been made through mechanized digging exclusively and the contact area between the soil and the foundation block had not been manually rectified. In order to do this.7. initial stage.1. which has a reinforced concrete frame structure and spread foundations. Among the many examples of this kind encountered it is worth mentioning a particular building in Iasi.1.8.1. SEWERAGE SOIL FAILURE EXCAVATION SOIL IMPROVEMENT a. The same happens to the access staircase foundations at the entrance of some blocks of flats.c. Footings above frost depth may cause foundation up-lifting and local failure of the building.6 Failure of foundation soil due to sewage water infiltration a. fig. page 7 . which are also difficult to assess. rehabilitated structure The most serious execution errors. During the construction of the building. A frost that lasted several days at below -20°C destroyed many shop windows situated on groundfloor of some buildings whose supports had some footings that did not comply with the required frost depth. the beneficiary requested the partial introduction of an additional floor. b. c.Generalities structure back to its vertical position. a mat foundation including the existing beam network was built. fig. fig. the designer increased the footing dimensions of some of the foundations. b.1. soil failure. belong to the hidden works in the infrastructures.6. c. When digging to consolidate the foundations.

RETAINING WALL FAILURE DUE TO THE EARTH PRESSURE INCREASE INDUCED BY TREE ROOTS Fig. England).1.7 Foundations made exclusively by mechanized digging FAILURE OF THE SHOP WINDOWS CONTINUOUS FOOTING ABOVE THE FROST DEPTH FOUNDATION LIFTING DUE TO THE SOIL FROST Fig. on urban slopes.1.1.9 Retaininging stone wall failure caused by the additional pressure page 8 . in most cases. establishments require retaining walls. Tree roots produce further earth pressure leading. to local wall failure when made of stone or brick (rigid structures).8 Foundations built over the frost level Many times.9 (Sheffield. fig.1.Building Rehabilitation MECHANIZED DIGGING WITHOUT BEING MANUALLY RECTIFIED CONSOLIDATION SOLUTION Fig.

11. The groundfloor was conceived for commercial purposes and the other three floors for flats.10 [1.Generalities Of all the causes of building damages. earthquake remains the most important.1. most of them ranging within design errors. fig. Their rehabilitation performed by construction dismantling and re-building may be regarded as a remarkable procedure.7]. An example of this kind is Lecompte du Nouy’s intervention on several Romanian churches. Many of them are historical monuments.5]. Buildings made of stone and brick conceived without any protection measures against earthquakes are the most vulnerable to seismic actions.1. Excluding the fact that the applied seismic design load had not covered the total spectrum of dynamic characteristics. therefore their rehabilitation requires a special approach so that the measures would not diminish their artistic (patrimony) value [1. the lack of measures to obtain proper ductility for structural elements in particular needs to be mentioned.10 Typical damages of old structures made of brick masonry caused by earthquakes The analysis of the buildings performed on modern designing and technological norms and affected by the earthquake on 4th March 1977 has revealed a variety of causes that generated the decay and even the collapse of some construction [1. Although there are much more example.8]. Among them. Nicolae Domnesc and Curtea de Arges. Most frequently. EMBRASSURE DISCONNECTION Fig. particularly if they have experienced several earthquakes during their lifetime. the groundfloor columns failed and the building shrank by one floor. Lacking stirrups. the damage caused by earthquakes on the walls of tall and massive old buildings consists of embrassure disconnection due to the absence of clutching elements to ensure that the vertical elements work together. Sf. such as Trei Ierarhi. other causes for structural damages have been detected. we focus on the block of flats made of reinforced concrete in Valea Calugareasca.1. page 9 . fig. however the alteration of the architecture is being regarded as negative.

11] page 10 . both actions leading to a change in the stiffness of structure. This can be done by dettaching some joints/ties. One way of decreasing the amount of energy induced by the earthquake into the structure is to increase the energy dissipating capacity.14.1. Fig.1. which is different from that based on structural inelastic displacements by means of special equipment. or by making some elements effective. fig.13. This device is most often used to rehabilitate the buildings in seismic areas.12 The behaviour of a structure with supplementary damping [1.12.1.1.3 NEW DEVICES USED IN STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION The measures regarding the structural rehabilitation currently in use are aimed at increasing the bearing capacity of the elements or the energy dissipating capacity for the structures situated in seismic areas. Another way of decreasing the amount of energy induced in the structure consists of adjusting its stiffness.1. fig. fig.11 Failure of insufficiently reinforced columns of a block of flats during an earthquake 1.Building Rehabilitation STRUCTURAL FAILURE FLEXIBLE GROUNDFLOOR WITH COLUMNS LACKING STIRRUPS FAILURE OF COLUMNS Fig.

behaviour under seismic actions and.13 A structure with dettaching elements [11] Fig. the amount of induced energy is different. consequently.1. energy absorbing capacity are different from those of the initial structure. Thus.Generalities Element dettaching is accompanied by energy consumption and the result is a structure whose dynamic characteristics. The dissipation of the energy induced by the earthquake into the structure may also be obtained by means of some inert systems. An example of inert systems is shown in fig.11] By making some elements effective. The mass is placed on a rolling system which allows its free movement and which is at the same time connected to the structure by means of springs. where the role of the additional mass is to restrict value of displacements. as a result of the dettaching capacity of some joints/ties.1.15.1.14 A structure with temporary stiffening elements [1. If the structure page 11 . Moreover. Fig. energy dissipation occurs as an additional measure of increasing safety during service. depending on the stiffness and the dynamic characteristics of the structure. structural stiffness continuously changes with respect to a certain displacement imposed to the connecting elements. It is used for tall buildings in order to decrease lateral displacements.

generating structure restoring forces with the help of the springs. [1. Nowadays.10]. a seismically isolated building behaviour page 12 .15 An additional mass tied to the structure [1.11] The mass is placed on a rolling system which allows its free movement and which is at the same time connected to the structure by means of springs.Building Rehabilitation moves. a. but there are also other systems. ellipsoid systems. which enables the infrastructure to move freely and the superstructure to remain still during the seismic action [1. the effects of seismic action onto a building b. the mass stays still. generating structure restoring forces with the help of the springs. Over the last decades. the mass stays still.1. seismic base isolation has been recommended [1. Fig.16 The principle of seismic base isolation a. fig. the most frequently used “bearings” are the elastomeric supports.16. pendulum systems etc.1.1. in order to increase the safety of some monuments situated in seismic areas. If the structure moves.9].11]. This device creates a sliding joint type. such as rolling systems. Fig. b.

construction rehabilitation has been enriched with solutions using composite materials based on polymeric matrices [1. The main part of hygrothermal rehabilitation is the thermal rehabilitation whose purpose is to provide the closing elements with improved insulation qualities to heat transfer. The hygrothermal rehabilitation of the closing elements. The most important advantages are: • • • • • consolidation is not accompanied by the increase of the building mass. forming the building envelope may become necessary after a period of service for the following reasons [1. which refers to improving the behaviour of some construction elements with respect to vapour diffusion and ventilation. 1. the rehabilitation also consists of a hygro part. The hygrothermal rehabilitation of a building consists of a series of technical measures applied to the envelope’s elements that have some inadequacies affecting the quality of the internal microclimate. 15]: • decrease in effectiveness of the thermal insulations due to the repeated action of some climatic factors during service. simple application.15]. Besides the thermal improvement. the last one concerning the optimum air exchange between outside and inside in order to ensure the sanitation and comfort requests. without any difficulty. consolidation works take a shorter time. in limited spaces. resistance to corrosion.4 HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION The separation of the working space of a building from the environment to create a microclimate in accordance with the specific needs of activities or processes developing within this space is achieved by means of closing elements. high mechanical resistance with respect to the unit weight. These measures are aimed at increasing the performances related to their behaviour to heat transfer in accordance with comfort and energy saving requirements.Generalities Lately. which define the envelope of the building [1.12]. which have a series of advantages compared to the traditional systems. page 13 .

3 1. Orlovschi.Iaşi.P. Editura Academiei.1. Budescu. ISPE. M. CET Borzeşti. N. Budescu.. I..Interacţiunea construcţiilor cu mediul înconjurător V..P.. Studiul răspunsului seismic al unor structuri speciale din industria hârtiei si celulozei. 1994. for economic and energetic reasons request for a complete modernization determined by aesthetic. Combinatul din Brăila.4 1. Tomul XXIV (XXVIII). 2000. V. Biserica Evanghelică Iaşi. A. increase in exigency regarding the insulation level of the existing envelope after a period of service. Negoita. Mihul.. 13.3-4. M. Iaşi octombrie 1978. 1980.Iaşi. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1..15] consists of increasing their resistance to thermal transfer by applying effective and long-lasting supplementary thermally insulating layers.Iaşi. 1-4.P... Budescu. Buletinul I. In this case. M. Ionescu.. functional and resistance reasons etc. I. hygrothermal rehabilitation may be performed based on other principles as well.6 1. I.. Cutremurul de pământ din Romania de la 4 martie 1977.. Proposal of Intervention in order to Rehabilitate The Resistance Structure Of "Trei Ierarhi" Monastery" Buletinul I. Fasc.Iaşi.2 1. Budescu.5 1. 1982. M. Budescu. C.. M.. page 14 1. Ionescu. * * *. Leonte. Al. C. Ciupală. Efectul acţiunii seismice a variaţiilor de temperatură asupra comportării unei structuri în cadre de beton armat. 1979. Expertiză tehnică.. Studiu I. hygrothermal rehabilitation is simply a contextual yet absolutely necessary component of the total rehabilitation. N.P.M. Reabilitarea sistemului de susţinere a convertorului de material plastic de pe platforma Săvineşti.7 1. Proiect I. Tomul XL (XLIV). in heat preservation. 1977. Aur. Simpozionul naţional . M.. * * *. Ciongradi.. C. Fasc. Proiect 1992. The basic principle of all the measures adopted to thermally rehabilitate the closing elements of a building [1.. Budescu. Orlovschi.Building Rehabilitation • • • increase in exigency towards the inner hygrothermal microclimate according to the users’ high standards of hygiene and comfort. Comportarea materialelor şi a construcţiilor din zidarie portantă din municipiul Iaşi. A.. Ciongradi.8 . For specific zones such as window pannels and unsealed joints of elements. but the main purpose remains the decrease in heat loss and consequently. Ciongradi.

Generalities 1. I.. 1st International Conference.M. Editura Cermi. Ed.... D.15 Skinner. Mistretta.. Kim. J.11 1. McVerry. Part II .9 1. England. Earthquake-resistant Design with Rubber. London.International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition (Proceedings). Fizica construcţiilor.. Gavrilaş.41. Reabilitarea higrotermicã a clădirilor. P. Labossiere. An Introduction to Seismic Isolation. Neale. Isopescu. Rehabilitation of concrete bridge beams with externally-bonded composite plates..H. Contributii privind izolarea seismică a structurilor .. 2nded.12 1.H. R. teza de doctorat . 1996.. Editura Vesper.I.Y.. Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures”. N. John Wiley & Sons. Iaşi. M. 1992. Vol.14 1. W. Budescu.13 1.10 1.P. R. – Structures Made of Composite Materials. Quebec.S. page 15 .. 1993 Kelly. 1984. K. Tăranu. Robinson. G. A. SprinerVerlag. Crasto. J. 1996. Iaşi.W. 1999. 1997. Institutul Politehnic Gheorghe Asachi Iasi .

Here are the most frequent situations when assessment is necessary: i. altering the net load. ii. officially certified and authorised by public authority. changing the characteristics of the equipment.replacing/improving the technological process in industrial buildings. the inappropriate service conditions or maintenance of the building as well as the degradation and differential settlements of the foundation soil. Assessing the condition of a building requires a skillful expert. high differences in temperature. vibrations and traffic. the occurrence of flaws in the structure due to designing errors. condense.1 THE NEED FOR ASSESSMENT There are many situations when the owner. especially when degradation affects the structure due to aging or when certain functional or technological changes require some intervention. conclusions and suggestions regarding the condition of the building and the most appropriate intervention decisions that the beneficiary needs to make. defective execution. changing and/or replacing the equipment. changing the installation routes etc. frost and thaw phenomena. changes in the strength and deformation capacity of the building materials over time. making or eliminating holes within the structural. Every assessment ends with an assessment report including the expert’s findings. stiffening. closing or dividing walls) .alterations in the layout (arranging or making basements.2 STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF BUILDINGS 2. a change in the destination of the building or of one of its parts/rooms caused by: . over-storeys and attics. increasing the vibration level. This expert is a very well trained specialist. corrosion. the beneficiary and the administrator of a building has the obligation or the desire to know about the condition of the building and assess its ability to resist various actions. the effects of material fatigue and aging. page 16 .

their characteristics. mine or cave subsidency. their former inhabitants. a damaged water tower may fall over the neighbouring buildings). earthquakes) or other causes (fires. the norms for this type of buildings require that the owners should assess the condition of the structures that had been exposed to strong earthquakes. These assessments establish the building safety level according to the current design codes and possible intervention measures to increase safety in case of earthquakes. the occurrence of important damages due to natural calamities (strong winds. the characteristics and the finishings which need to be protected during the operation and decides upon the logic order of activities required by the rehabilitation operation.Structural assessment of buildings iii. Then. the building is examined by taking photos of its interior. These alterations may sometimes be part of the historical character of the building so they must be carefully analysed before starting the rehabilitation operation to decide what elements need repairing and what elements need replacing. maintaining the historical nature and architectural page 17 . floods. v. landslides. its exterior and its construction site. as well as their alteration in time are also evaluated. by the careful evaluation of the buildings and their site as well as by a thorough planning of the whole rehabilitation process. The rehabilitation process starts with the design activity that selects the materials. the user’s or the public authority inspectors’ observance of the cases when some structural elements are undersized or service loads are actually bigger than the considered design loads. explosions). the occurrence of certain circumstances when other buildings or technologies close to the building of interest may cause various damages (for example. during the rehabilitation operation and about the elements allowing intervention. Protecting a historical construction is partly based on preserving the building materials and the characteristics. the finishing etc. iv. The seismic rehabilitation of historical buildings must be preceded by an elaborate documentary work. In many countries. The initial materials. The buildings located in seismic areas are a special case. they provide clues about what needs to be repaired and what needs to be kept as before. All these provide information about the history of the buildings. Research consists of studying the history of the building and its evolution in time by means of written documents and photos. the utilities they used over time and which is the most important.

• the detailed analytical evaluation. depending on the information and data obtained in the previous stages.3]. 2. • the preliminary approximate analytical evaluation.Building Rehabilitation features of the entire building. [2. decorative elements.1]. rooms). b.2. c. the evaluation operation is generally developed on several levels: • gathering the initial information from the analysis of the existing documents referring to the building and the technical prescriptions in use at the time of its execution.1 Evaluation stages The technical literature presents various methods used to evaluate the condition of the existing buildings [2. followed by the preliminary qualitative evaluation and. • the preliminary qualitative evaluation through direct observation (in situ).1. To sum up.2]. • the additional qualitative evaluation. [2. [2.4]. the above-mentioned evaluation procedures may be approached independently – one by one – or successively.. in groups of two or more. roofs).5] grounded on the following principles: a. windows. [2.2 METHODS OF ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF EXISTING BUILDINGS 2. external characteristics (porches.2. surveys. if necessary. plaster. interiors (entrance halls. the operation begins with gathering the initial data. by the preliminary analytic evaluation. brick. more detailed and achieved by sampling. on which the expert and/or the beneficiary can decide page 18 . uncoverings etc. wood. the assessment of a building condition is done in successive and more and more complex stages to get a thorough and accurate picture of the existing and working conditions of the structural and non-structural elements of the building. visual analyses and inspections on the construction site. These features differ from one building to another and it refers to materials (stone. the rehabilitation operation begins only after all important materials and characteristics that need to be preserved during the process have been identified. Initial evaluation provides the first series of data related to the condition of the building and of the structure. brass). As shown in fig.

if requested. the extent to which the project complies with the current prescription regarding the errection of the building. any interventions.. structure and the geometric dimensions of the main structural elements. any disturbances. studies on the intervention cost. the building service period. the duration and technological stages. steel characteristics from the page 19 • • • • . 2. etc. the description of the technology used.. for reinforcement – steel grade and type. repairs.Structural assessment of buildings to continue with the further detailed evaluation. dividing and closing systems. aggregate grading. cement type and quality. strengthening. repairs or alterations made on it. changing the destination of the building. the names of the designers and contractors. It should be mentioned that when making this decision. the designer’s or the archives’ possession: the initial project. the characteristics of the materials used in the project (for concrete – grade or class. bays. preparation method etc. variations or special events during its service. building services. the book of the building. partial or thorough demolition) and.“the screening method”. the destination and the site of the building. they also need to consider the preservation degree foreseen for the building being assessed.2. the description of the building – spans. finishings. Evaluation results are written down in an assessment report including the recommendations and suggestions related to the intervention (for example. the data base concerning the monitoring of the building behaviour. Successive application of more and more refined evaluation procedures (named “filters”) defines a new investigation method for the structural assessment of buildings . which are either in the beneficiary’s. number of storeys. the geotechnical report. Initial data will include: • • • the time of design and errection of the building. information provided by the administration concerning the building service and behaviour during the previous earthquakes or other accidental actions.2 Initial Data Initial data come from the information gathered by analysing the existing documents.

SUGGESTIONS YES SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? NO PRELIMINARY ANALYTICAL EVALUATION Simplified design diagrams Current analysis methods CONCLUSIONS.1 The diagram of the general evaluation of the condition of an existing building page 20 .Building Rehabilitation ASSESSMENT PLANNING INITIAL DATA from the existing documents PRELIMINARY QUALITATIVE EVALUATION Inspections on the construction site Material characteristic evaluations CONCLUSIONS. SUGGESTIONS SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? YES INTERVENTION PROPOSALS AND OPTIONS COST ANALYSES ASSESSMENT REPORT NO Fig. SUGGESTIONS YES SATISFACTORY RESULTS ? NO QUALITATIVE AND ANALYTICAL DETAILED EVALUATION Checking the documents Additional site inspections Analyses and testings of materials Detailed design diagrams Complex analysis methods CONCLUSIONS.2.

prefabs and their joining. welds etc. beams and girders roofing elements. laboratory test bulletins. bracing systems. According to these aspects. suppliers. closing and dividing elements. There are circumstances when structural elements are not visible as they are hidden by finishings and insulating systems. All these elements need to be identified and surveyed at the same time.Structural assessment of buildings suppliers’ bulletins and site tests etc. the assessment is based on the surveys made during the evaluation process. The qualitative evaluation is based on the architectural and structural design of the building. stairs and staircases. 2.. reinforced concrete or masonry columns and walls.3 Qualitative evaluation The qualitative evaluation of a building is the first assessment stage and consists of an inspection on the construction site in order to identify its structure. the elements that need identification are the following: • • • • • • • • • vertical elements: plain concrete. the damage/degradation/flaws and their causes. others which certainly have a seismic risk and need to be examined through analytic methods. There are buildings which definitely have the required safety level. main and secondary elements of the floors: plates. for the steel in metallic products – steel grade and type. The survey is a brief one if technical documentation is available and a more detailed one if the page 21 .2. the operation requires uncoverings to identify the structural elements. Generally. belts. several types of buildings can be identified. the foundation system. This evaluation regards aspects like preserving the destination and the importance of the building. Therefore. When these are not available. finishing and coating elements if they are fixed to the structural elements.) • a brief presentation of the geotechnical report. the seismic area where it is situated and the actions to which it is subjected.

anticorrosive protection level. the access of running waters. solar radiation and freeze-thaw cycles. deep or evolving. both horizontal and vertical.Building Rehabilitation project is not available. the degradation of the concrete and the reinforcements page 22 • • • • . cracks made by differentiated settlements . the lack of pavements. soundings or ditches. foundation soil investigation – through drillings. wall dampness and condensation and their effects on the building elements. the building survey enables the identification of the position. heights. the lack of trenches and rain-pipes etc). Whatever the case. water infiltration at foundation level due to several causes (disturbed water supplies and pipes. spans. water leakage. ground-water level and the degree of aggressiveness. the position and the structure of the joints between the reinforced concrete prefabs. reinforcement of the reinforced concrete elements. the real dimensions of the structural and nonstructural elements and of any alterations the building has been subjected to during its service with or without the documentation provided by authorised institutions. The qualitative evaluation is also directed towards the elements technical condition and safety degree and the identification of any flaws. shapes and sizes of element cross-sections. the effects of temperature differences. position and structure of metallic joints. bays. Special attention will be paid to the following noticeable aspects: • • • • building movements due to landslides. degradation and damage occurred during the service life of the building. all element axes. the condition of any kind of insulation. The following data need to be pointed out: • • • • • • • the building axes.. the effects of the aggressive environment on concrete and metal (corrosion level – superficial.

the thickness of the corrosion layer. the lack of certain elements. pieces. explosions. element and structure movements or high distortions.). the degradation level of the waterproof. the reinforcement degree of degradation. the building deformation level. the thickness of the corrosion layer for steel elements. the effects of earthquake. section or joint eccentricities . of incomplete or defective welds or screws or because of insufficient screwing etc. These surveys will contain: • • • the flaws/damages. screws. reinforced concrete and masonry). damage. parts of wood elements affected by moisture. the building areas affected by moisture and wall dampness. the lack of certain structural elements. the existence of certain fungi in wood structures). the concrete condition as a result of the degradation caused by wear and accidental blows and the reinforcement protection.Structural assessment of buildings obtained through corrosion. thermal and acoustical insulation. element. accidents. • • The degradations revealed by the analysis of the building technical condition are mentioned in the damage and disturbance surveys. large cracks in the reinforced concrete or masonry elements. which can be found out through topometric measurements as well. fire (element or spar failure. welds etc. fungi etc. information about the flaw dimensions: distortions and deflections (structure translations. • • • • the effects of some biological factors (for example. crack opening and the distance between cracks (for walls and concrete. the depth of the concrete layer affected by chemical and physical agents. page 23 • • • • • • .. their nature and position in the building elements. spars. rivets.. spar buckling. the condition of the reinforcement covering etc). metallic joint degradation due to the lack of certain joint pieces. remanent deflections). the concrete degree of degradation.

All these aspects show that in many cases it is necessary to establish the altered/modified vibration periods and damping characteristics through experiments. experiments will be made to identify these properties. the reinforcement position within the reinforced concrete elements. the building may be given a grade representing its bearing capacity or its degree of risk/safety. Many of the technical reports are also devoted to determine the corrosive effect of the aggressive environment on building elements and to predict corrosion’s likely evolution in time. to the rain water leakage or to losses from ducts. and how to assess the results. wrote down and consigned in various document or form types including a synthesis of the findings on the structural and non-structural elements. then the geotechnical report must be remade. If the data contained in the initial geotechnical report are not relevant or simply not enough.Building Rehabilitation • the degradation level of any kind of installation. the characteristic values established in the project can be used. It is well known that material structure changes over time and possible decays may weaken or even eliminate/destroy the joints between structural elements. Otherwise. When the physical. Thus. 2. In accordance with the various qualitative assessment methodologies. describing the necessary equipment. Technical literature (see chapter 3) minutely presents the methodology of nondestructive and destructive tests on site and in laboratory. a new set of ground investigations based on drilling (sounding) or excavating procedures according to the nature of the soil and the importance of the building are performed and the results are concluded into the new geotechnical report. the quality of the welds etc. chemical and mechanical characteristics of materials need to be checked as well and the elements show no decay. Finally. page 24 . migration or flow. Changes may also occur in the interaction process between structure and non-structural elements and between foundation and foundation soil. Other types of experiments are used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the buildings. analysis results may be digested.4 Analytic Evaluation Along with decision data.2. preliminary qualitative evaluation also provides the initial data for a further more minute analysis based on calculus. or if changes have been detected within the foundation soil structure due to the underground water rise.

In this case. effort and/or stress for individual elements and typical crosssections. the element or the section according to the current design codes at the moment when the assessment is made. The detailed analytic assessment is based on using 3D-calculus models with concentrated masses or finite elements. the effective ductility of the structural elements independently and of the entire structure can also be determined. the initial design values are accepted. These ratios have various names. The bearing capacity of the characteristic cross-sections is determined using the dimensions given by the surveys and the present values of strength found out experimentally. These ratios may also be expressed by absolute deflections or relative displacements. which can reveal and accordingly consider both the structural damaged areas and the non-linear behaviour of the building materials. ASSESSMENT REPORT A building assessment ends with a document called assessment report. A generalised force in the expression of the above mentioned ratio may be the total (base) shear force for the entire structure. 2. The closer to (or bigger than) 1 the values mentioned in the reports.3. The seismic action may be given by an accelerogram or a set of accelerograms recorded from real earthquakes or acceleration spectra specially drawn for the given site. such as coefficient of seismic capacity or degree of safety under seismic actions or other actions. the better the load bearing capacity of the building. The lowest values accepted for structural safety assessment reports are mentioned in the codes and they generally depend on the building category/class of importance. climatic and seismic loads using the actual magnitudes/loads. mass and stiffness is achieved through simplified representations for each principal axis of the building or “stick” models or storey stiffness models (roughly taking into account the influence of the torsion effect).Structural assessment of buildings Preliminary analytic evaluation more accurate than the qualitative evaluation – is based on determining the ratio between available generalised force and necessary generalised force that should be supported by the building. which generally consists of the following chapters: page 25 . The structural analysis will be carried out for gravity loads. If no damages are found. Structure modelling according to loading cases. geometry and cross-sections found in the structural survey and considering all existing damages and flaws.

repairs or strengthening operations carried out. If the beneficiary’s request includes modernization. topography. page 26 . In this case. from detailed assessments made for these events. ceilings. girders. e.Building Rehabilitation A. documents or information on the building history. authorisations and references to perform the rehabilitation process. lintels etc. together with the corresponding documents and references. columns. indicating the technical and/or functional elements which generated it. analysis bulletins and reports including the experimental determination and test results and conclusions. functional and technological changes etc. The assessment should include all the written documents and drawings that were available to the expert. Data and information used in the assessment. foundations. its relation with the neighbouring buildings. • • • • • • C.. The object/reason/purpose of the assessment. on its behaviour during previous earthquakes or other accidental actions. stairs. B. the calculus notes containing the results of the structural analysis after making the changes requested by the beneficiary and after performing the intervention/strengthening measures. notes on the results of uncoverings made inside and outside the building in order to determine the structural element characteristics and hidden flaws if any. the architectural and structural surveys made during the assessment. the changes on the initial layouts and facades requested by the beneficiary (if any). sounding or excavating and/or data gathered from elaborate geotechnical reports made previously for the neighbouring buildings. the expert will further analyse the technical and economic effects of these interventions on the building in general and on the structure in particular. the assessment will be the starting point of supplementary studies and other documents required by the investor and/or the public authority to be granted the funding and to obtain the various certificates. transformations.g.: • • the building project or. surveys on the building damages – walls. if it is not available.. the geotechnical report and how it was conceived: if it was based on drilling. The description of the building from several perspectives: • site location. data concerning any changes. geological and geotechnical soil conditions. if necessary.

any alterations. religious or tourist monument. the history of the building. The surveys and photos of fissures. fissures and crack survey. coverings. The results of the qualitative evaluation of the building are obtained by examining the following elements: • the architectural and structural project and/or the building surveys and the survey of the important details where the project details are not available or the construction did not comply with the project or the building was subjected to changes for which no technical documentation is available. Building degradation and damage. openings. degradations and damages detected are enclosed. E. the degradation. If they are not available. D. information provided by the beneficiary or other people regarding the building behaviour during previous earthquakes and other accidental events. spans. with the changes requested by the beneficiary. floors. with strengthening. Description explains their likely causes. insulations. data obtained through soundings and uncoverings. mechanism combining methods). floors etc. if it is an architectural. the design of the roof structure. the following methods can be used: • • simplified calculus methods (equivalent static method. The main architectural and structural drawings are enclosed. the inspection or the visual examination/analysis on the construction site. historical. current method) postelastic static calculus methods (biographical method. Depending on the complexity of the calculus. • • • F. Calculus notes contain the results of the analytic examination of the structure under several circumstances: the present situation. with both alterations and strengthening etc. damage. stairs.Structural assessment of buildings • • • • • the general assemble of the building (structural elements and corresponding joints. pavements. foundations and footing level. its layout and its architectural design. repairs and consolidations to which the building has been subjected. page 27 . cracks. carpentry etc the structure elevation. they are replaced by architectural and structural surveys. heights). photos. finishings.

to assess its stiffness. their results. the loading cases. structural and non-structural element structural element or overall structural consolidation in order to increase the endurance. mainly applied to old. The minute calculus notes and the result listings are usually enclosed in one copy only. the internal or external structural or non-structural element with a high risk of failing. so that test results could be compared to (identified with) the analytic results and the calculus models could be validated. initial data. G. such as: internal and external repairs/mendings. If these values cannot be found within the project papers or they are not reliable. shape and destination altering measures. stiffness and ductility of the structural assembly as much as possible through interventions on the existing elements or by replacing or adding new structural element. Conclusions and suggestions regarding the intervention. whose retrofit is not financially worthy. The final conclusions of the qualitative and analytic evaluation are followed by suggestions and intervention measures required to obtain the intended safety level. The notes provide the data used in the calculus and enclose the test bulletins. elastic modulus etc. This chapter also includes calculus schemes. partial demolition by reducing the number of storeys or removing parts of the building. page 28 .linear dynamic calculus methods (time-history). non-destructive or destructive tests are required. ii.). such as: - iii. yield strength. physically and morally worn out buildings. The intervention measures may be classified as: i.Building Rehabilitation • non . To determine the load bearing capacity of the structure and structural elements individualy. the software packages used. decreasing the live load in the building/on the floors. the values of the physical and mechanical material characteristics are required (ultimate strength. There are also cases when the dynamic structural characteristics need to be determined as well. interpretation and comments. changing the building function in order to lower its category (class. overall demolition measures. structure. Strengthening efficiency can also be evaluated by checking the increase in structure stiffness with the increase in its own vibration frequency. shape and functional preserving measures. group) of importance.

Hart.Structural assessment of buildings The expert presents the suggested measures and the solutions which are to be detailed in the intervention project (repairs. Kelley. the decision concerning the intervention. positioning and work stages belongs to the beneficiary.. U. Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation. 1996. 2. AICR. division and floor improvements.. and Bresler. pp. C. B. S..4 Hirosawa.) or may decide to perform other works as well. Berkeley. closing. Bucureşti. cu propuneri de măsuri pentru reducerea gradului de risc". Lew. such as: • • • functional and technological change or modernization. 1976. the owner or the investor who. Tokyo.S. “Metoda de determinare a capacităţii portane la solicitări gravitaţionale şi seismice a construcţiilor din fondul existent.3 Okada.A. H. or demolition). EERC 76-1. Baumert.S. 126-136.1 Pielert.. M.. Japanese National Committee for Earthquake Engineering”. “Strength and Ductility Evaluation of Existing Low-Risc Reinforced Concrete Buildings-Screening Method”. page 29 .5 Asociaţia Inginerilor Constructori din România. These measures are tested by calculus to confirm the increase in safety under exterior actions at least to the level required by official norms. BIBLIOGRAPHY 2. If requested. the importance of the building as a historical monument etc. M. T. G. 2. 1976. “ASCE Standards on Structural Condition Assessment and Rehabilitation of Buildings”. finishing. 2. together with the public authority representatives (if any) may consider other intervention criteria as well (urban character. American Society for Testing and Materials.J. the expert will also present the estimated economic documentation of the costs involved in the intervention measures.. In the end. strengthening.. J. 2. C.C. and Green. ASTM STP 1258. “Evaluation Methods of Earthquake Resistant Properties of Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings”. “Natural Hazards Evaluation of Existing Buildings”. Ed. insulation and installation changes. land value. and Pinkham. 1975. Ch.2 Culver. University of California.. National Bureau of Standards. 1990..

page 30 . destructive methods. The greater the compactness.1. which enable the identification of the structural model and the pre-and post-rehabilitation diagnosis. iii. Experimental tests to establish the behaviour of the structural elements and the building are carried out “in situ”. ultrasonic velocity depends on compactness.2]. the building material.1]. [3. the entire building.3. ii.2 ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSIS Ultrasonic velocity in a completely compact solid (void free) is about 5000 m/s compared to the sound velocity in the air is about 340 m/s [3. fig. the structural member. the closer the velocity will get to the value corresponding to a completely compact object and the greater the percentage of voids the lower the velocity. 3. the condition of the building is determined by dynamic measurements.3].1 GENERAL ASPECTS The diagnosis made to determine the construction condition involves experimental determinations on three levels: i.3 SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN STRUCTURE DIAGNOSIS 3. Within the solid. [3. Usually. To determine the characteristics of the materials used in construction two methods are used: • • non-destructive methods.

1) Since concrete strength is directly related to its compactness. Thus.2 The ultrasonic measuring principle A C To determine the concrete strength of the structural elements.3.e. The signal is sent to an emitter (E).5). The emitter is connected to the concrete piece through a thin layer of soft material. page 31 .3. then it is amplified (A) and visualised analogically or digitally (C). an ultrasonic signal having the frequency of 40-100 KHz is released by an impulse generator (G). ultrasonic velocity through concrete can provide a measure of its strength RC and the following relation can be formulated: RC = f(VL) (3.3.: VL = d / t (3. holes etc.3. in a solid.fig. Fig. usually plasticine [3. which is connected to the element being tested.3. The equipment used to determine the ultrasonic velocity through concrete can be of various types all of them following the same principle.Building Rehabilitation V=5000 m/s V=340 m/s a. by means of ultrasounds certain internal flaws of the concrete like segregation areas. three measuring methods can be used (fig.1. 3. The ultrasonic signal is received by a receiver (R). the longitudinal ultrasonic velocity (VL) is determined by measuring the necessary time (t) for the ultrasonic impulse to be propagated on the length (d). d G E R Fig.4 and 3.2.6 shows the photo of an ultrasonic measuring instrument.3. in the air Within a concrete element. Ultrasonic propagation: a. i. b.2]. as presented in a simplified drawing . can be detected and located. b. Fig.2) Thus.

4] Ultrasonic wave velocity is influenced by various factors.5]: • • the size of the building element. such as [3.6 Ultrasonic measuring instrument.3 Measurings on opposite sides E Fig.3.5 Measurings on the same face Fig.4 Measurings in the corner zone R1 R2 R3 Fig.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis E E d1 d1 R R R d2 d2 d3 Fig.3. the reinforcement of the construction element.3. SDS COMPANY [3.3. page 32 .

no correction is necessary. Therefore. determined with the relation (3. If the ratio LS/Le<0.7 presents the correction values for various LS/Le ratios. within a compact concrete with the propagation velocity VL= 4000 m/s. the result is: λ =10 cm and d >1. To determine the concrete strength of a building where the propagation velocity is measured in conditions that are different from those of a standard element. If the impulse encounters the reinforcement on its way. certain corrections need to be made.6 km/s and that through concrete is 3. the velocity being measured is lower than the standard velocity and correction needs to be made. if the minimum transverse dimension of the element (the direction on which determination is made) is more than 16 cm.4) λ = VL/f (3.6 λ. The graph chart in fig. reinforcements must not be ignored. The propagation velocity determined with the relation (3.6 x 10=16 cm.1) is valid only if: d > 1. the propagation velocity will be higher than the propagation velocity for the plain concrete as ultrasonic velocity through steel is 5.Building Rehabilitation • the temperature of the environment.4) where: VL f is the propagation velocity is the oscillation frequency For the regular frequency of 40 KHz.5 km/s.5-4. page 33 . perpendicular to the direction of the ultrasonic propagation is the vibration wavelength. the disturbances which occur distort the measured velocity so that it appears to be lower than real velocity by almost 6-7% which can lead to an underestimated strength by 30-40%. When determining the propagation velocity for the reinforced concrete structures. where LS is the cub side on which calibrating determinations were carried out (usually LS=20 cm) and Le is the length of the ultrasonic signal.6λ where: d λ (3.3) is the minimum dimension of the element being tested. If λ < d < 1.4.3.

Thus.4 Ls/Le 0.4 velocityvitezei [Km/s] variatia [km/s] Fig. The standardising curves that establish a relation between the two variables depend on the type of the equipment.5 0. Although they do not decrease the strength. Therefore.3 DETERMINING THE CONCRETE STRENGTH BY MECHANICAL METHODS 3. For temperatures below 0°C the free water in the concrete pores freezes and the propagation velocity in ice is higher than in water. The diameter of the mark is measured with a micrometric magnifying lens. temperatures between 40°C and 60°C on the concrete element may cause micro-cracking.24 0. then the measured velocity needs to be corrected.3. The concrete strength is determined through an empirical relation between the diameter of the mark and this mechanical characteristic.3 0. page 34 . The variation of the ultrasonic velocity functions depending on the ratio LS/Le If reinforcements cannot be avoided.1 0 0 0.32 0. the velocity measured is higher than that of the concrete at the standard temperature (+20°C ±5°C).12 0. they lower the impulse velocity.2 0. All these corrections are explained in details in the catalogues of measuring equipment and in the present norms.18 0. The temperature of the environment of the element being tested also influences the ultrasonic impulse velocity.7.3.1 The imprint method The imprint method consists of hitting the concrete surface with a ball-shaped steel head and measuring the diameter of the mark obtained. 3.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis 0.

vi. v.3. ii. the concrete in the testing region should be as representative as possible for the whole element from the point of view of homogeneity and quality. the concrete strength can be determined by measuring the back pressure of a mobile system at its impact with a concrete surface.2]. viii. The areas where strength is determined with the sclerometer must comply with the following conditions: i. Thus. The concrete strength determination by means of the sclerometer is based on the relation between the concrete hardness expressed by the back pressure index and its compressive strength. page 35 . vii. the concrete surface must be perfectly flat and smooth.3]. iv. using a concrete structure as standard element.Building Rehabilitation 3.2 The back pressure method The back pressure method is based on the energy returned at the impact between two objects. the tested points will be chosen so that the regions with gravel size of more than 7 mm and superficial visible holes would be avoided. ix. the surface must not be humid. [3. the surface of the tested area for which the concrete quality is determined must be of maximum 400 cm2 and minimum 100 cm2. The results of the sclerometer test are relevant for a concrete layer whose thickness is about 3 cm from the tested surface. correction coefficients will be used [3. To determine the strength of other types of concrete whose characteristics are different from those of the standard concrete. iii. number of tested points required for the determination of the concrete strength in a single area must correspond to at least 5 correct measurements. the sclerometer must be kept perfectly perpendicular on the tested area. The instrument used for this test is called sclerometer. the surface being tested should not coincide with the concrete pouring direction or with its opposite side. it should cover both the highly stressed areas and the potential lowstrength regions.

System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig. the extraction areas should be representative for the examined element.8 The sclerometer Schmidt. taking care that: • they should not cross reinforcements – the choice of these regions is based on the project or the non-destructive measurements with the pachometer. core extraction from locally deteriorated areas can be used only to point out the characteristics of the examined flaw – the cores obtained by this method cannot be used to determine the concrete strength of the examined element.5) .8 presents the photo of a sclerometer used to measure the concrete strength by means of the back pressure method. Fig. page 36 (3.3.1 Core extraction The place of core extraction from construction elements is established according to the damage level of the construction and its importance.4.3.4] 3. • • The core diameter d depends on the following factors: • the maximum aggregate size for which the relation below is valid dcore ≥ (3…4) dmax of the aggreg. SDS COMPANY [3.4 DETERMINING THE CONCRETE STRENGTH BY DESTRUCTIVE TESTS ON CORES/SAMPLES 3.

6) When extracting the core. its modulus of elasticity is close to or higher than that of the concrete in the core. the number of the examined elements.Building Rehabilitation • the distance between the reinforcements in the extraction areas (a) measured in centimetres for which the following condition should be observed: dcore ≤ a-dreinforcement. certain remedial works will need to be made by: • • • polishing the end surface under water jet (for unevenness of maximum 23mm) cutting the end surface with a diamond tool under water jet filling the end surface with a putty (epoxy mortar. cement mortar.4. sulphur paste with or without smoke black) which complies with the following requirements: maximum thickness of 1 cm. good adherence to concrete. its strength to compression is close to a higher than that of the core concrete. 3.2 The number of cores and their preserving conditions The number of cores extracted for a structure will be chosen according to the following criteria: i.2dcore cutter-3 (3. high hardening rate. page 37 .7) If the core ending surfaces are not the result of the plane and perpendicular cutting on generators. ii. after the extraction. the stress pattern of the element. The height of the core that is going to be tested destructively must comply with the following limits: dcore≤ hcore≤ 2dcore (3. the strength reserve and the stress level of the crosssection estimated by the expert need to be considered. The hole made by drilling will be filled with a suitable material to restore the load bearing capacity of the weakened section.

the device used to flatten the surfaces. The strength under compression determined on cores must be corrected according to the following factors: • • • • the diameter of the core.3 Compression core testing The strength recorded by the testing machine is not the real concrete compressive strength due to the following factors: • • • • the degradation of a concrete layer adjacent to the lateral surface of the core due to core drilling. It is recommended that the test specimens should be kept in water at 20-25°C from their cutting to the test and at least 24 hours before the test. page 38 . When determining the necessary number of cores sufficient information needs to be gathered and taken into account. the indication of the element the core has been extracted from. the extent of the damage. information about the structure. the ratio between the core height and its diameter.4. The results of the tests are written down in an analysis bulletin which should include: i. iv. 3. the degradation o a concrete layer adjacent to the end surfaces of the core. the existence of an interlayer between the machine loading plates and the core whose properties are different from those of the concrete. ii. the cores must be taken out and kept in air at the same temperature for their conditioning. local variations in the quality of concrete from one element to another and within the same element. the slenderness of the core measured through the ratio: hcore/dcore the damaged ending layers.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis iii.

The dimensions of the test specimens used to determine the elasto-dynamic constants by the non-destructive resonance method must comply with the following condition (3. v.4. the core dimensions. the compressive strength measured directly on the core the values of the strength correction coefficients. diameter and orientation of the bars found in the core.8): hcore ≥ 4 dcore and under unusual circumstances the following relation is accepted: hcore ≥ 3dcore (3.8) When the longitudinal resonance methods are used. the class and the age of the tested concrete. iv. viii. the test conclusions.9) (3. xi. vi. the direction of the core extraction versus the direction of the concrete pouring. The dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete Ed is determined with the relation: page 39 . vii. the test specimen is fixed at its middle length and the emitter and the receiver are disposed one at each end. the statistic processing of the test results. the end surface preparation. xiii. the number. ix. The determination of the concrete elastic constants on cores is done by longitudinal resonance methods and ultrasonic methods. xii.Building Rehabilitation iii. the strength values obtained for each test bar after correction. x. 3. the nature of the evening layer used (if necessary).4 Non-destructive testing of cores The non-destructive testing of cores is necessary to determine the elastic constants of the concrete and to verify or determine the relation between the parameters used in the non-destructive tests.

the longitudinal fundamental frequency. the correlation between action and response through the studied system must be made. this operation being specific to a laboratory. this problem is approached differently. determining the system response to an existing experimentally and comparing it to a standard response.4 hcore g CL 3. iii. determining the system characteristics by introducing some known actions and analysing its response. the Bancroft correction factor which is about 1 for: dcore< 0. the apparent specific density. various instruments.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis 2 E d = 4 ⋅ L2 ⋅ f L ⋅ ρa ⋅ CL g (3. capture the system response and process the information obtained. To make a quantitative and qualitative characterisation of an oscillating process.10) where L fL ρa - is the length of the test specimen. When analysing vibrations experimentally. like in the case of working machine parts directly supported by the system or external disturbance.5 VIBRATION MEASURING METHODS.6] In practice. when vibrations are transmitted to the system through the supporting medium. the gravity acceleration. action determining the parameters of the action experimentally and comparing them to the system response by analytic calculus. machines and equipment are required to generate vibration. EQUIPMENT AND OPERATIONS The vibration of a system (be it a building or a machine foundation) may be generated by internal disturbance. according to the purpose of the vibration study: i. ii. which is the foundation soil in the case of buildings or the construction element for the equipment. page 40 . This correlation consists of determining the quantitative and qualitative values which define both action and reaction [3.

7]: i. or with indirect action.1 Acting systems and procedures Dynamic actions may be classified according to its application manner into [3. fig.3.b.9.3. if they are generated by the inertia forces of some moving mass placed on the oscillating system.a. ii.11. pneumatic or electromagnetic systems etc. mechanical generators use direct current electrical engines with variable rotative speed or hydraulic engines.3. using a translating inertial mass. b. by means of mechanical. Fig. direct action. To produce rotational movements.3. the dynamic force F(t) is determined with the relation: page 41 . In case of direct acting achieved by means of a spring with the stiffness k.9.a or a rotational inertial mass.1.11. indirect or inertial actions.5. fig. direct actions. using connecting rod.a Mechanical generators Mechanical generators may be with direct action. b. fig. if they come from outside and have a fixed point as a supporting point.3. indirect or inertial action The dynamic actions can be generated by several methods. fig.Building Rehabilitation 3.10.5. 3. The devices used to generate dynamic actions are called vibration generators or vibrators.9 Acting ways in dynamic regime a. fig.3. F(t) F(t) a.b.

The operation of this system is based on the position of the mass during the rotational movement.10. page 42 . Mechanical generators with direct acting F(t) = k ⋅ X(t) where: (3.13) && X(t) = ω2 ⋅ X(t) (3.3. and the dynamic force is the sum of the forces produced by the two moving masses. fig.11. the minimum force is reached when the position of the mass is on the axis linking the rotation centres and the highest value when it is perpendicular to the axis. t . Thus.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig.11) (3. For the indirect action. ω is the circular frequency of the rotational movement .12) X(t) = X ⋅ sin (ω t) where: X is the displacement amplitude (of the rod-crank driving system).14) In the case of mechanical generators with inert mass rotating in opposite directions.the time.b. the dynamic force F(t) is the result of a mass movement and it depends on its acceleration: && F(t) = m ⋅ X(t) and acceleration is: (3. the displacement amplitude X(t) depends on the position of the mass with respect to the rotation centre Ω.3.

b Hydraulic generators Hydraulic generators are direct-driving and have the advantage of generating random movements of the seismic type as well. b. Fig. Fig.Building Rehabilitation F(t)=m ω X(t) 2 F(t)= 2 m r ω2 cos (ω t) ω r ω X(t) m r ω cos (ω t) m r ω2 sin (ω t) 2 m r ω2 a. Usually. b.12 Inertial generator 3.1.11 Indirect-driving mechanical generators a.3. such a generator or actuator is made of a hydraulic cylinder.3. with rotating inertial mass Fig.3. The servo valve is electrically page 43 .12 shows the photograph of an inertial generator used to test bridges. with translating inertial mass. a servo valve with compensating nitrogen bottles and an oil pump.5.

13 presents the photograph of a driving system of this type.3.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis driven by a computer using a specialised software.15 presents an electrodynamic generator.3.5.14 Vibration electrodynamic generator Electrodynamic generator can be direct-driving or indirect-driving.1. Fig. page 44 .8] 3. Fig.3.c Electrodynamic generators Electrodynamic generators are built on the principle of the diffuser. which consists of an electromagnet supplied with direct current and a coil supplied by a power oscillator.3. Fig. ELASTIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT WORK OSCILLATOR METALLIC CORE ELECTROGENERATOR SUPPLY COILS Fig. depending on the oscillator supply. Fig.3. Because of the magnetic field.14 shows a generator of this type. the movement of the coil can be sinusoidal or random.13 Hydraulic generator produced by MTS [3.

Building Rehabilitation

Fig.3.15 An electrodynamic generator produced by MB Dynamics [3.9]

3.5.2. Transducers and sensing devices used for measuring vibration During the vibratory movement of a system, any of its points can be characterised by the displacement, speed and acceleration on various directions or by the material state of stress and deformation in that point. As a matter of fact, the vibration of the material point is characterised by a variation in the mechanical energy, which can be acquired by means of sensing devices and converted by transducers in a measurable form of energy (usually electrical energy). The transducers are devices housing the conversion of mechanical energy into another form of energy. The conversion can be made directly from mechanical energy to electric energy, such transducers being termed energetic transducers or generators. The variation of the mechanical energy can be represented by the variation of electrical energy, resulting in parameter transducers. 3.5.2.a Resistive electric transducers The resistive electric transducers are parameter transducers that convert the variation of the mechanical energy into the variation of the electric resistance, which ultimately corresponds to a variation of current.
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System and equipments used in structure diagnosis

The resistive tensometer transducers consist of a grid made of a special alloy representing the resistance which is fixed on a holder, fig.3.16 and fig.3.17.

HOLDER

GRID

CONDUCTOR

Fig.3.16 A resistive electric transducer

Fig.3.17 A tri-directional resistive electric transducer produced by Vishay [3.10]

Taking into account that the wire resistance is:
R = ρ⋅ l S

(3.15)

where:

ρ l S

- resistivity, - length, - surface.

The variation of the grid resistance of a transducer can be determined with the following formula: ∆ R = R ⋅ε ⋅ k (3.16) where: ε is the strain, k - the transducer parameter (the material, the grid shape and dimensions, the holder etc are considered, indicated by the producer. To measure the resistance variation ∆R of a resistive electric transducer caused by the specific strain ε, the Wheatstone bridge is used. The transducer resistances are generally ranged from 120 to 1000Ω, and the measured specific strains can reach 2-3%. 3.5.2.b Inductive Transducers The inductive transducers are included in the class of parameter transducers and are based on converting a movement variation into the inductance (L) variation of a circuit changed with direct current.
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For dynamic measurements, the variable cored inductive transducers are used very frequently, fig.3.18. For this transducer, the coil inductance is directly proportional to the penetration depth (l) of the core. Therefore, the transducer can also be used for measurements where great displacements are detected.
COIL METALLIC CORE

l

Fig.3.18. A variable cored inductive transducer

3.5.3. Sensing devices When measuring vibrations, sensing devices are very often used to measure forces, movements displacements and accelerations. 3.5.3.a Force detectors This type of detectors have an elastic body with a perfectly linear behaviour whose strain caused by an external action is converted into an easily measurable analogous variable by means of a transducer. For static actions, detectors which have mechanical displacement transducers may be used, as shown in fig.3.19.
DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER ELASTIC ELEMENT

Fig.3.19 Force detector and mechanical transducer
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System and equipments used in structure diagnosis

With dynamic actions, most force detectors use resistive, inductive or piezoelectric transducers to measure the strain of the elastic body. 3.5.3.b Vibration detectors The detectors used to measure vibrations can be divided into two categories: i. ii. fixed point detectors, which measure vibration in relation to a motionless point (inductive transducers); seismic detectors, operating on the principle of an oscillating system whose degree of dynamic freedom consists of a mass, a spring, a damping device and a transducer, fig.3.20.
x r (t) = Xr sin(θ t -φ )

SPRING DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER K C DAMPING DEVICE

xo (t) = Xo sin( t) θ

Fig.3.20 Seismic detector

The movement of the mass of the seismic equipment is given by the relation:
x r (t) = X r sin(θ t − φ )

(3.19)

where: Φ is the phase difference between the movement of the holder and that of the mass of the seismic instrument. Since the seismic detectors are systems with a degree of dynamic freedom, the following formula can be written:
xr = x0 p2 (1 − p ) + 4ξ p
2 2 2 2

p=

θ ω

tgΦ =

2ξp 1- p 2

(3.18)

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where:

xr x0 ω ξ θ

is the amplitude of the seismic mass, - the oscillation amplitude, - own pulsation of the seismic detector, - the critical damping fraction, - the oscillation pulsation.

If relation (3.18) between xr/xo and p is represented (fig.3.21) in a chart for ξ=0.005…0.5 the following ranges can be defined: I. II. III. θ ≤ ω (acceleration detector) where xr ≈ p2 x0, i.e. the value measured by the detector is directly proportional to acceleration, θ=0; θ ≈ ω (frequency meter): the detector’s response is high in amplitude and corresponds to the frequency meter range, θ=π/2; θ ≥ ω (speed or displacement detector), where xr ≈ x0, therefore the displacement of the holder is the same with that of the mass but out of phase by π. This means that the seismic mass will remain fixed, whereas the holder moves, θ = π.

Fig.3.21 The seismic detector’s ranges

Fig.3.22 shows the photograph of SS-1 Ranger seismometer [3.12], which measures the speeds of a vibratory movement. The sensitivity of the device reaches 350 V/m/s, enabling the measurement or the recording of vibration of very low intensity. The most frequently used vibration detectors are accelerometers due to their small weight, their robustness and their region of operation at high frequency.
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14] When choosing an accelerometer. page 50 .22 The SS-1 Ranger seismometer [3.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis Fig.24 presents an accelerometer produced by MVI Technologies Group. Fig.A. [3.23 An accelerometer with a piezoelectric transducer Fig. Fig. the most important parameter is the operation range so that acceleration would not depend on frequency.3.23.24 A DA 120 accelerometer [3.S.14]. [3.12] Most modern accelerometers work on the principle of seismic detectors with piezoelectric transducers [3.13]. fig.3.3. U.3.3.18].

25 presents a calibration curve for accelerations where the area with constant acceleration representing this operation range can be noticed.3.3.Building Rehabilitation Fig.25 The frequency response curve of an accelerometer 3. it is amplified and then taken by an analogue to digital converter (data acquisition system) and recorded by the computer.a Analogue to digital conversion The detector output parameter is the variation of an electric variable whose amplitude is directly proportional to the variable being measured.5. Fig.4.26 The data collecting and processing system page 51 . For the signal to be measured and processed. 4 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 Detector Amplifier Data collecting system – analogue to digital converter Computer The programme used to collect and process signals 5 Fig. The digital signal can be processed and displayed by means of a specialised programme.4 Equipment used in information acquisition and processing 3.3.5.26.3. fig.

6]: • • • • The accuracy of the sampling intervals. The number of bytes used in the digital representation. fig. page 52 . representing a constant sampling frequency. The time increments are usually homogeneous. The quality of the signal filtration before the A/D conversion.27. TIME AMPLITUDE b.27 Analogical signal (a. Under certain conditions the original analogical signal may be obtained through the reversible process using a digital to analogue (D/A) converter.3.) For the multi-channel conversion. for instance.).3. In this case. ∆t TIME Fig.System and equipments used in structure diagnosis The analogue to digital converters (A/D) are used to convert an analogical signal into a sequence of digitally expressed numbers representing the instant value of the signal at pre-set discrete time intervals. The linearity of the analogical amplifiers for in the signal processing. even though the time lag among channels can be compensated. digital signal (b. it is better to use synchronised maintenance and sampling circuits to sample all the channels simultaneously for the sequentially made A/D conversion as well. AMPLITUDE a. The quality of the digital signal depends on the following factors [3. a single A/D converter is usually used to multiprocess several channels.

28. Fig.01 -0.b [3. 0.3. many operations can be made later.6].0006 0.) and its Fourier analysis (spectrum) (b. if desired. The latter is a finite. For instance.) For a time-analysis it is important to choose a band width or a frequency domain.0004 b. The DFT equations require real signals recorded in time.40 0.15].3.28. the acceleration signals may be integrated to obtain the speed value using the direct digital integration in the time region or.5.0008 12. the operations in the frequency region.01 0.0000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Fig.b Dynamic measurement processing Once the signal has been obtained in digital form using proper filters.28 The signal recorded by a seismometer (a. The FFT algorithms equally apply real or complex series over time [3.02 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a. The FFT analysers use the FFT algorithm (the first Fourier transformation) to calculate the spectra of the data blocks. 0.0010 6. which implies the use of a filter.4. but the following aspects can be considered: page 53 .0002 0. discrete approximation of the Fourier integral transformation.3. fig. Each integration corresponds to a division of the Fourier spectrum by jω. 0.a presents a signal recorded by a Ranger seismometer at the foundation of a turbo generator and the resulted Fourier spectrum. The FFT algorithm is an effective way of calculating the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).00 -0.33 0. It is difficult to establish precise rules to choose the band width of the filter.Building Rehabilitation 3.

3. Ionescu C.1 Winden N.8 MTS (www. 1995. Pressure. Testing during concrete construction.concretendt.10 Measurements Group (www.W. McGRAWHILL. Dinamica construcţiilor.mts. particularly for the periodical signals containing discrete and equally spaced frequency components.13 Patrick L.. 3. U. Determinarea rezistenţei betonului prin metode nedistructive.B.com/tech_theory. Oneţ T.endevco.com).com/). 1990. Stefan D.measurementsgroup. by H.com/). Chapman & Hall. 1979.12 SEISMOMETRUL SS-1.. „Gh. Severin C. • Usually. Shoc and Vibration Handbook.. Reinhardt. to represent a spectrum. Asachi” Iaşi. London. 1966.Verificarea calităţii construcţiilor de beton armat şi beton precomprimat. 3. Ranger Seismometer. lucrari de laborator.htm). Editura Dacia. & Acceleration Measurement (www. 3. In order to cover a large region of frequency... USA. Ed..3 Tertea I..htm) 3. KINEMETRICS. a linear range of frequency is used together with a constant band width. W. Editura tehnică. a frequency logarithmic scale may be selected. Fourth Edition. Prüfung von Beton mit Ultraschall. 3. it is recommended to use a constant band width on a linear frequency scale – the band width must be between one fifth and one third of the minimum domain of frequency analysed.. Atanasiu G. Ultrasonic measurement for setting control of concrete.com/pdf_pat_articles/patw_dynamicforce-2. the spectrum shape will be determined by means of resonances so that the band width would be chosen of about one third of the band width of the narrowest resonance peak.com/mg.pdf).. M. page 54 . for the stationary or transitory random signals. 3. 1981. 3. Bucureşti. Berlin. 3. 3.G. Budescu M..2 Stefanescu-Goangă A.T.5 Pohl E. 3.11 KISTLER (www..System and equipments used in structure diagnosis • for the stationary signals.6 Cyril. 1989. Dynamic Force.7 Ciongradi I. 3.kistler. Exemple de calcul. Vibration and Shock (www..4 SDS COMPANY (www. Cluj-Napoca.9 MB Dynamics innovates and delivers SOLUTIONS. Deutsche Bauinformation. Strat L. BIBLIOGRAPHY 3. H..mbdynamics.

Building Rehabilitation

3.14 10dB-STEEL (www.01db.com/GB/HTM/OVERFRM.HTM). 3.15 Ciongradi, I., Budescu, M., Albu, Gh., Analiza caracteristicilor dinamice de la CET Craiova, UT Iaşi, 1998. 3.18 Buzdugan, Gh., Fetcu, L. şi Radeş, M., Vibraţii mecanice, Bucureşti, Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, 1982.

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4
ADVANCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES FOR REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS
Advanced polymeric composites are increasingly being used in strengthening civil engineering structures made of traditional materials. In particular these materials are utilized in structural rehabilitation of reinforced-concrete load-bearing elements due to their versatility, high strength-to-density and stiffness-to-density ratios and corrosion resistance to many aggressive factors. Fibre reinforced polymeric composites (FRPC) are easily applied on structural members made of steel, timber, reinforced and prestressed concrete for use in structural rehabilitation works where space constraints and time limitations are imposed.

4.1 FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES – ROLE AND PHASES Composites are materials consisting of two or more chemically distinct phases (constituents) on a macroscale, having a distinct interface separating them (fig.4.1)

a b c
Fig.4.1. Phases of a composite system: a – continue phase (matrix); b – disperse phase (fibres as reinforcements); c - interface

In fibrous polymeric composites, fibres with high strength and high stiffness are embedded in and bonded together by the low modulus continuous polymeric matrix. Each of the individual phases must perform certain functional requirements
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based on their mechanical properties so that a system containing them may perform satisfactorily as a composite [4.1]. In the case of advanced FRPC the continuous fibres constitute the backbone of the material and they determine its strength and stiffness in the direction of fibres. The desirable functional requirements of the fibres in a composite are: they should have a high elastic modulus for an efficient use of reinforcement; the fibres should have a high ultimate strength; the variation of strength between individual fibres should be low; the fibres must be stable and retain their strength during handling and fabrication; the diameter and surface of the fibres should be uniform. The polymeric matrix is required to fulfil the following main functions: to bind together the fibres and protect their surfaces from damage during handling, fabrication and service life of the composite; to disperse the fibres and separate them; to transfer stresses to the fibres; to be chemically and thermally compatible with fibres. The interface region is small but it has an important role in controlling the overall stress-strain behaviour of the composites. It exhibits a gradation of properties and it is a dominant factor in the resistance of the composite to corrosive environments. It also has a decisive role in the failure mechanisms and fracture toughness of the polymeric composites.

4.2. FIBRES FOR POLYMERIC COMPOSITES Reinforcing fibres for polymeric composites are fabricated from materials that are stronger and stiffer in the fibrous form than as a bulk material. Their high fibre aspect ratio (length/diameter) enables an effective transfer of load via matrix materials [4.2]. Proper selection of type, amount and orientation fibres results in a composite with desired mechanical characteristics such as axial strengths, elastic moduli, fatigue strength and cost. Fibres used in tension elements utilized for structural rehabilitation must meet certain requirements such as: high strength, high stiffness, convenient elongation at tensile fracture, high toughness, durability, low cost and availability in suitable forms. The diameter of fibres should be small enough to reduce the possibility of surface flows and to provide a high transfer area of shear stresses between the reinforcing fibres and the matrix.
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Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings

The type and chemical compositions of fibres determine several properties such as: stress-strain relationship, toughness, durability and fatigue resistance. There are three main types of reinforcing fibres utilized in polymeric composites for structural rehabilitation of civil engineering structures: glass fibres, carbon and graphite fibres and aramid fibres. Fibres are available in a variety of configurations, which may be classified in the following main categories: unidirectional, in which all the fibres lie in one direction; bi-directional, where the fibres lie at 900 to one another; random, when the fibres are in-plane randomly distributed.

A short description of the main types of fibres for polymeric composites used in structural rehabilitation is given below. 4.2.1. Glass fibres Glass fibres are the most commonly used reinforcing fibres for polymeric matrix composites. Molten glass can be drawn into continuous filaments that are bundled into rovings. These rovings can be fabricated into chopped fibres, continuous strands, chopped strands mats and woven fabrics before using them as reinforcement in composites. During fabrication, fibre surfaces are coated to improve wetting by the matrix and provide better adhesion between the composite constituents. Coating the glass fibres with a coupling agent will provide a flexible layer at the interface, the strength of the bond is improved and the number of voids in the material is reduced [4.3]. The most common glass fibres are made of E-glass and S-glass. E-glass is the least expensive of all glass types and it has a wide application in fibre reinforced plastic industry. S-glass has higher tensile strength and higher modulus than E-glass. However, the higher cost of S-glass fibres makes them less popular than E-glass. The main properties of E-glass and S-glass are summarized in Table 4.1, which also gives the main properties of carbon and aramid fibres [4.4]. To facilitate fabrication of glass fibre reinforced polymers glass strands are incorporated into rovings, fabrics, woven rovings and mats.
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0 longitudinal 30 radial 0.2.4 85.-0.3 -0.20 0.4 2. 4. The carbon atoms are arranged in crystallographic parallel planes of regular hexagons to form graphite.2.0 longitudinal 30 radial -2..1 4.5 2.4 (10-6/ oC) 5 2.9 -0.2..5].35 0.20 0. Most of the carbon fibres are produced by thermal decomposition of polyacrylonitril (PAN).20 0.5 1.6 -2.Building Rehabilitation Glass fibre rovings consist of up to 120 untwisted strands. different stages of carbonization (at 1000-1500 0C and 1500-20000C) and finally graphitization (at 2500-30000C). usually supplied wound together on a spool and suitable for unidirectional (UD) fibre reinforced of resins. The manufacturing process for this type of fibre consists of oxidation (at 200-3000C).. Carbon fibres “Carbon” and “graphite” fibres are used interchangeably but there are some significant differences between these two coming from their modular structure.5 380 240 62 124 175 (%) 3.6 0. page 59 Poisson’s coefficient .35 Woven rovings (WR) are glass fibre rovings woven into a coarse fabric.22 0. so that it has a two-dimensional ordering [4. while in carbon. Table 4.9 1.1 Ultimate tensile strain Thermal expansion coefficient Young modulus Tensile strength Density Fibre Type (kg/m3) E-glass 2500 S-glass 2500 Carbon (high 1950 modulus) Carbon (high 1750 strength) Kevlar 29 Kevlar 49 Kevlar 149 1440 1440 1440 (MPa) 3450 4580 2100 2800 2760 3620 3450 (GPa) 72.. usually with a balanced square weave. the bonding between layers is weak. Glass fabrics are woven from twisted glass fibres on textile machinery and are available in several weaves.35 0.-1.0 longitudinal 30 radial -2.6.

in general. b) carbon (high strength).6].4. Carbon fibres are commercially available in long and continuous tow. which is a bundle of 1. therefore sizing is necessary before embedding them in the matrix. e) E-glass The high cost of these fibres is caused by the high price of raw materials and the long process of carbonization and graphitization. The tensile modulus and strength of carbon fibres are stable as temperature rises. they are also highly resistant to aggressive environmental factors [4.000 parallel filaments. They are 10 to 30 times more expensive than E-glass [4. Carbon and graphite fibres with suitable properties have been page 60 . The most important disadvantage of carbon fibres is their high cost. The carbon fibres behave elastically to failure and fail in a brittle manner (fig 4. ultimate tensile strength and failure elongation decrease (fig. as the elastic modulus increases. These fibres show high specific strength and stiffness. d) S-glass.000 to 160. therefore high-modulus fibres are produced by graphitization. Stress-strain curves of typical reinforcing fibres a) carbon (high modulus). Moreover. c) Kevlar 49.5].2.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Graphite has a higher tensile modulus than carbon. Carbon fibre tows can also be woven into two-dimensional fabrics of various styles.2).4. graphite fibres cannot be easily wetted by the matrix.2). Tensile stress (MPa) 4000 c a 2000 b e d 3000 1000 0 0 1 2 3 4 Tensile strain (%) Fig.

1.7]. Kevlar has a very good tension fatigue resistance.3. but they retain more than 80% of their original strength at 1800C. Kevlar fibres absorb some water. but under compressive load it is ductile. Kevlar fibres are produced by extruding liquid crystalline solution of the polymer with partially oriented molecules. Kevlar 49 (used in reinforced plastics) and Kevlar 149 (with the highest tensile modulus among all available aramid fibres).3 shows the comparison of different fibres and materials on a specific tensile strengthtensile modulus plot [4.4. These fibres are sold under the DuPont trademark “Kevlar” and they have been extensively used for structural engineering applications. The strength and modulus of Kevlar fibres decrease linearly when the temperature rises. the amount of absorbed water depending on the type of the fibre. Kevlar 49 has brittle behaviour under tension. particularly in structural strengthening of load-bearing elements made of traditional materials.2.Building Rehabilitation developed for structural engineering applications. At high moisture content. Aramid fibres Aramid is a generic term for a group of organic fibres having the lowest specific gravity and the highest tensile strength-to-weight ratio among the current reinforcing fibres. There are several types of Kevlar fibres: Kevlar 29 (for composites with maximum impact and damage tolerance). Table 4.1 gives some of their physical and mechanical properties. not observed in glass or carbon fibres gives Kevlar composites better impact resistance. Kevlar fibres are resistant to many chemicals but they can be degraded by some acids and alkalies. The compressive strength of Kevlar fibres is less than 20% of the tensile strength. a low creep and can withstand high temperatures. Some typical properties of Kevlar fibres are given in Table 4. while fig. Kevlar fibres tend to crack internally at the preexisting microvoids and produce longitudinal splitting [4. 4. It also shows a large degree of yielding on compression side when subjected to bending. metal like and absorbing a large amount of energy. page 61 . This type of behaviour.5].

which are irreversibly formed from low molecular weight precursors of low viscosity. in particular.4. Resin is a generic term used to designate the polymer. POLYMERIC MATRICES 4. The fabrication and properties of composite materials are fundamentally affected by resin.3.3. Structural rehabilitation systems are mainly based on thermosetting resins. the resin is cured to give a three-dimensional crosspage 62 . polymer precursor material. in advanced composites for structural rehabilitation. The initial low viscosity of thermoset resins enables high fibre volume fractions to be incorporated while still retaining good fibre wet-out.7] 4.3 Performance diagram of fibres used in structural composites [4. they are characterized by lack of softening on heating [9]. and/or mixture or formulation thereof with various additives or chemically reactive components [8].Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Specific 20 strength 18 (104 m) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 S-glass Aramid (Kevlar) Carbon (high strength) E-glass Steel wires Graphite (high modulus) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Specific modulus (106 m) Fig. Polymeric matrices have the highest potential applications in the construction industry and. These polymers have strong bonds both in the molecules and between the molecules. There are two fundamental classes of polymeric matrices. After compounding with fibres.1 Thermosetting resins Matrix in a polymeric composite can be regarded as a structural or a protection component. its chemical composition and physical properties. Thermophysical characteristics of the matrix influence the processability and mechanical properties of the composite material. thermoplastics and thermosetting.

The most common thermosetting matrices used in advanced composites for structural strengthening are epoxy. They can be formulated to have a wide range of stiffness (fig. Prior to adding fibres.3. The main advantages of epoxy resins are: easy processing.4 Stress-strain curves of epoxy matrix resins of different modulus page 63 .Building Rehabilitation linked polymeric matrix of large molecular weight. low shrinkage during cure and excellent resistance to chemicals and solvents.4) and other properties since epoxies can be obtained from a large number of starting materials. and the polymerization initiator. 4. which results in low impact resistance [4. good adhesion to a wide variety of fibres.4. long required fabrication time and low failure strain.4. greater dimensional stability. However thermosetting polymers have a limited storage life. The three-dimensional network of thermosets results in less flow under stress. The main physical properties of the cross-linked resins depend on the backbone of the epoxide. Cross links are formed and epoxy liquid resins changes to a solid material. small amounts of reactive curing agents are added to liquid resin to initiate polymerization. Stress 140 (MPa) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Low modulus High modulus Intermediate modulus Strain (%) 7 8 Fig.10]. very good mechanical properties.2 Epoxy matrix The term epoxy resins defines a class of thermosetting resins prepared by the ringopening polymerization of compounds containing an average of more than one epoxy group per molecule. curing agents and modifiers. polyester and vinyl ester which are discussed here. lower coefficient of thermal expansion and greater resistance to solvents.

3 Polyester matrix The so-called general purpose polyester unsaturated resins are made using ethylene glycol.4). page 64 . The graph shows a non-linear relationship and this is a function of the viscoelastic nature of the material [4. fast cure time and low viscosity. fracture toughness and strain-to-failure are reduced.3. Epoxy resins can be partially cured.10]. The cross links formed during the curing process play a major role in establishing the final properties of the solid epoxy. brittle. This volumetric shrinkage can be reduced by adding a thermoplastic component. Relatively flexible polyesters are produced from highly aliphatic precursors. thermal stability and chemical resistance are improved as the density of the cross links increases. 4. without fabricator requiring knowledge of resin chemistry and detailed information on resin handling [4. either orthophthalic or isophtalic acid as the saturated diacid. Tensile modulus and tensile strength (fig. The density of cross-links depends on the chemical structure of the starting resin. A wide variety of polyesters is available based on the choice of the diacid. and fumaric as the unsaturated diacid [4.5 gives a typical stress-strain curve for a general purpose polyester resin tested in tension and compression.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The main disadvantage of epoxy resins are their relatively high cost and long curing period. thus the reinforcement can be pre-impregnated with liquid resin and partially cured to give a prepreg. High-performance epoxies have been prepared with a variety of phenolics and aromatic amines. The main disadvantage of polyester resins is their high volumetric shrinkage. The main advantages of polyester resins are low cost. Cross link can range the properties of polyester resins in the same manner as explained for epoxy resins. The flexibility of polyesters may be controlled by the choice of diacid and diols. Their mechanical properties are generally lower than those of epoxies.4. After that a prepreg material can be subsequently moulded by a fabricator. highmodulus (stiff) polyesters. modify the chemical structures between cross-links and reduce the resin viscosity.1].10]. Other chemical agents are added to extend the pot life. with increasing glass-transition temperatures may be obtained from combinations with large amounts of aromatic diacids and/or aromatic diols. On the other hand. Fig.4. curing agent and reaction conditions.

4. Some variations contain urethane and ester bridging groups. b. They exhibit good characteristics of epoxies such as chemical resistance and tensile strength. The range of applicability of polyesters may be extended by adding methylmethacrylate to improve weathering.3. 4.compression. However their volumetric shrinkage is higher than that of epoxy and they have only moderate adhesive strength compared to epoxy resins. Due to their chemical structure these resins have fewer cross links and they are more flexible and have a higher fracture toughness than polyesters.4 Vinyl ester matrix Vinyl esters are resins based on methacrylate and acrylate.Building Rehabilitation Stress (MPa) 140 120 a 80 * 40 b 2 4 6 8 10 Strain (%) 12 Fig.tension.5 Stress-strain curves for general purpose polyester resin [1] a. as well as those of polyesters such as viscosity and fast curing. page 65 .2. They also have very good wet-out and good adhesion when reinforced with glass fibres. or highly chlorinated or brominated monomers to improve fire resistance. Vinyl esters properties are a good combination of those given by epoxy resins and polyesters. Some typical properties of thermosetting resins are given in Table 4.

therefore a variety of methods have been used to predict properties of composite materials.0.0.14 .38 .36 .60 100 epoxy 1200 .0 .15 . Most of composite structures made of fibrous composites consist of several distinct unidirectional laminae.39 50 .0. page 66 .75 0.15 175 vinyl ester 1150 .Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Table 4. These experiments may become time consuming and cost prohibitive.1350 73 – 81 3.10 0.08 . When any change in the system variables occur.4.5 . The mechanics of materials approach is based on micromechanics.1.3.1 .2 MATRIX polyester 1200 .4.5 0.75 .45 0.1 Strength and stiffness of FRP composites 4.39 55 .104 2.40 45 .100 0.0.4.4 MICROMECHANICAL MODELS FOR PREDICTING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES 4.1 General The properties of a composite material depend on the properties of its constituents and their distribution and physical and chemical interactions.130 2.1300 55 .0.65 0. These properties can be determined by experimental measurements but one set of experimental measurements determines the properties of a fibre-matrix system produced by a single fabrication process.35 .30 170 PROPERTY Density Tensile strength Longitudinal modulus Poisson’s coefficient Thermal expansion coefficient Moisture content Service temperature UM kg/m3 MPa GPa – 10-6/ 0C % 0 C 4. additional measurements are required.1400 34.0.3.

In most cases the properties of FRP composites can be determined using the micromechanics which in composites literature means the analysis of the effective composite properties in terms of constituent material properties. the major Poisson’s ratio (ν12=νLT). The basic strength parameters referred to the principal material axes of the unidirectional lamina are presented in fig.4.7: • • • • • longitudinal tensile strength (FLt). transverse tensile strength (FTt). in-plane shear strength (FsLT). Therefore.Building Rehabilitation A lamina is a flat or curved arrangement of unidirectional or woven fibres in a support matrix. a unidirectional composite can be considered to be transversely isotropic.4. A unidirectional lamina has the strongest properties in the longitudinal direction.6). longitudinal compressive strength (FLc).2. The unidirectional composite shows different properties in the material axes directions. it is isotropic in the 2-3 plane. The in-plane elastic behaviour of a unidirectional lamina may be fully described in terms of four basic lamina properties: • • • • longitudinal modulus (E1=EL).6) is the basic building block in a laminated fibre-reinforced composite material.4. A unidirectional composite consists of parallel fibres embedded in a matrix. Thus. page 67 . this type of composites are orthotropic with their axes 1. that is.3 as axes of symmetry (fig. These axes are also referred to as the material axes of the lamina.3) is nearly identical because of the random fibre distribution in the cross section. transverse compressive strength (FTc). The unidirectional lamina (fig. transverse modulus (E2=ET). Any direction in the 2-3 plane is also a transverse direction. material behaviour in the other two directions (2. The direction parallel to the fibres is called the longitudinal direction (axis 1 or L) and the direction perpendicular to the fibres in the 1-2 plane is called the transverse direction. shear modulus (G12=GLT).

The weight fractions are easier to obtain during fabrication or using one of the experimental methods after fabrication. fibres and the matrix material respectively. wf and wm the corresponding weights of the composite. Let us also consider wc.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings (3) (2) T Transverse direction (1) L Longitudinal direction Fig.2 Volume and weight fractions A key element in micromechanical analysis is the characterization of the relative volume and/or weight content of the various constituent materials.a) (4. Therefore it is desirable to determine these fractions and the relationships between the weight fractions and volume fractions. The subscripts c.6 Unidirectionally fibre reinforced lamina 4. Assuming that no voids are present in the composite the volume fractions and the weight fractions are defined as follows: vc = v f + vm Vf = vf vc V f + Vm = 1 and Vm = vm vc (4.1.1. Let the volume fraction and the weight fraction be denoted by V and W respectively.4.f and m represent the composite material. Consider a volume vc of a composite material which consists of volume vf of fibres and volume vm of the matrix material.1b) (4.1c) page 68 . and the matrix material respectively.4. the volume fractions are used in micromechanics of composites. fibres.

Building Rehabilitation σ 1 =σ L σ 1 =σ L a. σ 2 =σ T τ21=τTL e. b) longitudinal compressive stress (FLc).2b) The density ρc of the composite can be obtained in terms of the densities of the constituents (ρf and ρm) and their volume fractions or weight fractions. c) transverse tensile stress (FTt). σ 1 =σ L σ 2 =σ T σ 2 =σ T b. the following equation can be derived for the composite material density: (4. From the weight of a composite written as: (4. d) transverse compressive stress (FTc).4) ρ c = ρ f V f + ρ mVm page 69 τ21=τTL . σ 1 =σ L τ12=τLT c.3) ρ c vc g = ρ f v f g + ρ m v m g (in which g is the gravity acceleration) and using the definition for the volume fractions.2a) wm wc (4. σ 2 =σ T d.7 Lamina loading schemes for basic strength parameters: a) longitudinal tensile stress (FLt). e) in-plane shear stress (FsLT) wc = w f + wm Wf = wf wc and Wm = (4.4. τ12=τLT Fig.

do not change along the fibre length. whereas a poorly made composite can have up to 5% void content [4. matrix and voids: V f + V m + Vv = 1 (4.4. the area fractions must be equal to the volume fractions.2]. The fibre volume fraction for the square array is found by dividing the area of the fibre enclosed in the square by the total area of square: page 70 . the conversion between the weight fractions and volume fractions can be obtained: Wf = ρf Vf ρc Wm = ρm Vm ρc ρc Wm ρm (4.7) The composite density calculated theoretically from the weight fractions may not agree with the experimentally determined density. Assuming that the theoretically calculated density is ρct and the experimentally determined density is ρce the volume fraction of voids Vv is given by: Vv = ρ ct − ρ ce ρ ct (4.8. d. to lower fatigue resistance and greater susceptibility to water penetration. and the fibre diameter.9) The range of constituent volume fractions that may be expected in fibre reinforced composites can be determined using representative area elements for idealized fibre-packing geometries such as the square and triangular arrays shown in fig. If it is assumed that the fibre spacing. s. Higher void contents lead to increased scatter in strength properties. A good composite must have less than 1% voids.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The density of composite materials in terms of weight fractions can be obtained as: ρc = Wf 1 ρ f + Wm ρ m (4.8) The void content may significantly influence some mechanical properties of a composite material. When the composite material consists of fibres. then.5) Considering the definition of weight fractions and replacing the weights by the products of density and volume.6) and the reverse relations are: Vf = ρc Wf ρf Vm = (4.

4.4]: page 71 .13) These theoretical limits are not generally achievable in practice. based on the following assumptions [4. In this case: V f max = In case of a triangular array: π 4 = 0.2]. In most continuous fibre composites the fibre volume fractions range from 0. when s=d.75.4.11) Vf = ⎜ ⎟ 2 3⎝ s⎠ π ⎛d ⎞ 2 (4. b.5 to 0.10) The maximum theoretical fibre volume fraction occurs when s=d.Building Rehabilitation Vf = π ⎛d ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 4⎝s⎠ 2 (4.907 (4.1. a. b) triangular 4. the maximum fibre volume fraction is: V f max = π 2 3 = 0.785 (4. [4.8 Representative area elements for idealized fibre-packing geometries a) square.12) and. Fig.3 Longitudinal modulus of a unidirectional composite Elementary mechanics of materials models have been adopted in the elastic range.

The fibre and matrix materials are assumed to be homogeneous and linearly elastic.9.9 Model of FRP composite for predicting longitudinal behaviour page 72 .4. continuous. so that no slip occurs between fibre and matrix materials.14) in which subscripts f. fibre matrix lc ∆cL (1) L σL (2) T σL Fig.9 the load (Pc=σLAc) is shared between the fibres (Pf=σf1Af) and the matrix (Pm=σm1Am). the area fractions must equal the volume fractions.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings • A unidirectional composite may be modelled by assuming fibres to be uniform in properties and diameter. m and c refer to fibre. respectively and the second subscript refers to the direction. and parallel throughout the composite. but the fibre can be either isotropic or orthotropic. matrix and composite. • • • • Let us consider the model of the unidirectional composite shown in fig. The matrix is assumed to be isotropic. Since it is assumed that the fibres remain parallel and that the dimensions do not change along the length of the element. matrix and composite are equal we can write: ε f 1 = ε m1 = ε c1 (4.4. For the model shown in fig.4. It may be assumed that a perfect bonding exists at the interface. Since no slippage occurs at the interface and the strains of fibre.

For example aramid and carbon fibres are anisotropic whereas glass is practically isotropic.1. In Equation (4. fibres and matrix: ⎛ dσ c ⎜ ⎜ dε ⎝ c ⎛ dσ f ⎞ ⎟ =⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠ L ⎝ dε f ⎞ ⎛ ⎟V f + ⎜ dσ m ⎜ dε ⎟ ⎝ m ⎠ ⎞ ⎟Vm ⎟ ⎠ (4.10.a). Then. The matrix modulus does not need a second subscript.18) are known under the name “rule of mixtures” indicating that the contributions of the fibres and the matrix to the composite stress and elastic modulus respectively are proportional to their volume fractions. two cases are distinguished [4.Building Rehabilitation Static equilibrium requires that the total force on the lamina cross section must equal the sum of the forces acting on the fibre and matrix: σLAc= σ c1 Ac = σ f 1 A f + σ m1 A m (4.18) Relationships (4. the longitudinal tensile strength of the composite can be calculated with: FLt = F ft V f + σ m (1 − V f ) page 73 (4.18) it is assumed that the fibre can be anisotropic with different properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions and that the matrix is isotropic.15) Since the area fractions are equal to the corresponding volume fractions.4 Longitudinal tensile strength When a fibre reinforced composite is subjected to longitudinal tension the constituent with the lower ultimate strain will fail first. 4.4.19) .17). The rule of mixtures predictions for the longitudinal elastic modulus is very close to the experimental results.15) can be rearranged to give an expression for the composite longitudinal stress: σ L = σ c1 = σ f V f + σ mVm (4.16) can be differentiated with respect to strain. When the ultimate tensile strain of the fibre is lower than that of the matrix (εfu<εmu) the composite will fail when its longitudinal strain reaches the ultimate strain in the fibre (fig. which is the same for the composite.17) where (dσ/dε) represents the slope of the corresponding stress-strain diagrams at the given strain.16) and (4. If the stress-strain curves of the materials are linear. the slopes (dσ/dε) are constants and they can be replaced by the corresponding elastic modulus in Equation (4. Thus: E L = E c1 = E f 1V f + E m (1 − V f ) (4. Equation (4. Under assumption of uniform strengths.4.16) Equation (4.7] depending on the relative magnitudes of the ultimate strains of fibres and matrix.

b). matrix dominated strength (εmu<εfu) page 74 .a).10 Longitudinal stress-strain curves for composite and constituents a. the longitudinal fibre tensile strength. the average matrix stress at the fibre fracture strain(fig.11) or kinking of the fibre within the restraint of the matrix material.4.20) Fft FLt Fmt σm fibre Fft fibre composite σf FLt Fmt composite matrix matrix εfu a.10.4.4. fibre dominated strength (εfu< εmu) b.5 Longitudinal compression strength When fibre reinforced composite materials are loaded in longitudinal compression the models for tensile longitudinal strength cannot be used since the failure of the composite is. associated with microbuckling (fig. Then.4.4.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings where: FLt Fft σm Vf is the longitudinal composite tensile strength.10. When the ultimate matrix tensile strain is lower than that of the fibre (εmu<εfu) the composite fails when its longitudinal strain reaches the fracture strain of the matrix (fig.1. εmu strain εmu b. εfu strain Fig.18]. There are three main longitudinal compression failure modes [4.7]: stress stress (4. the fibre volume fraction. in many cases. the longitudinal tensile strength of the composite can be calculated with: A lot of a FLt = σ f V f + Fmt (1 − V f ) 4. [4.

4.19] and the following formula can be developed for the fibre critical stress in case of extensional mode buckling (fig.Building Rehabilitation • • • microbuckling of fibres in either extensional or shear mode (fig.4. Fig.11 Modes of fibre buckling a-representative volume element.12).13).22) When the shear buckling mode occurs (fig.4.21) from which the longitudinal compressive strength in the composite material is: FLc = V f σ cr = 2V f V f Em E f 3(1 − V f ) (4.11.4. transverse tensile fracture due to Poisson strain (fig.b).11.c) the following formula for the fibre buckling stress is determined: σ fcr = Gm V f (1 − V f ) (4.b): σ fcr = 2 V f Em E f 3(1 − V f ) (4. b-extension mode.4. shear failure of fibres without buckling (fig.23) and the longitudinal compressive strength is: page 75 .11. c-shear mode To find the fibre buckling load in each buckling mode the energy method can be utilised [4.4.

12.13 Transverse tensile rupture due to Poisson strain A model of failure under longitudinal compressive loading is based on the transverse tensile fracture due to Poisson strains (fig. Em ] Ef (4. This occurs at an angle α=45o to the loading axis. fig. the predicted strength is [4.25) σL σL α σL Fig.24) Another possible failure mode under longitudinal compression is the failure of fibres in direct shear due to maximum shear stress.4. In case of the shear mode governed by the shear strength of the fibre. may be encountered.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings FLc = Gm 1−Vf (4. at high values of Vf for well aligned fibres when pure compressive failure.7]: FLc = 2 Fsf [V f + (1 − V f ) in which Fsf is the shear strength of the fibre.4.26) page 76 .12 Shear failure without fibre buckling σL Fig. the transverse Poisson strain is: ε T = −ν LT ε L = ν LT σL EL (4.13). which can be related to shear failure of the fibres. Under the compressive longitudinal stress.4.4.

2]: FLc = [ E f V f + E m (1 − V f )](1 − V f1 / 3 )ε mu ν f V f + ν m (1 − V f ) (4.14: • • The fibres are assumed to be uniform in properties and diameter. page 77 • .4.27) and the corresponding formula for FLc is: FLc = ν LT EL ε Tu (4. 4. Both constituents are assumed to be linear-elastic materials and the fibrematrix bond is perfect. Let us consider a simple mathematical model shown in fig. and the main assumption is that the stress is the same in the fibre and matrix.28) The ultimate transverse strain of the composite can be calculated from the ultimate tensile strain [4.6 Transverse modulus The transverse modulus is a matrix-dominated property being sensitive to the local state of stress.29) and the longitudinal compressive strength of the composite is [4. continuous and parallel throughout the composite.20] of the matrix (εmu): ε Tu = ε mu (1 − V f ) 1/ 3 (4. At failure σL is the compressive strength (FLc) such that εT equals the ultimate transverse tensile strain (εTu) of the composite: ν LT σL EL = ε Tu (4.30) Experimental results are in better agreement with predictions of Equation (4.4.1.Building Rehabilitation and the compressive failure of a unidirectional fibre reinforced composite loaded in the fibre direction may be caused by transverse splitting of the material. The composite is represented by a series model of matrix and fibre elements.30) than with the predictions based on microbuckling of fibres.

∆f lf lm ∆m σT σT fibre matrix t lc Fig. generally both constituents will be present at any section perpendicular to the load. experiencing the same stress.4.14 that each layer has the same area on which load acts. Thus the load is shared between the fibres and the matrix and the assumption that the stresses and page 78 . Assuming the fibres and matrix to deform elastically and the stress is the same in the fibre.4.14 Model of a unidirectional composite under transverse normal stress The model utilised to determine the transverse modulus is not mathematically rigorous.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Considering the model made up of layers representing fibres and matrix materials it is clear from fig. Since the dimensions of the representative volume element do not change along the longitudinal direction. especially at the higher volume fraction.31) ET = E f Em E mV f + E f (1 − V f ) (4. matrix and composite.32) where Ef is the transverse modulus of the fibres. the length fractions must be equal to the volume fractions. we can write: (σ c )T ET and: = σf Ef Vf + σm Em Vm (4. in the transverse direction. In a real composite the parallel fibres are dispersed in the matrix material in a random fashion.

and defects in matrix such as microcraks and voids.4.34) and ξ1 is the reinforcing efficiency factor for transverse loading.1.21] developed semiempirical equations to match the results of more exact micromechanics analyses: ET = E m where: 1 + ξ 1 η1 V f 1 − η1 V f (4. A reduction coefficient (Cv) to account for voids can be used [4. the fibre-matrix interface properties. satisfactory results are obtained by taking ξ1=2. 4. Many factors influence the transverse tensile strength and the most important are: the matrix strength. the Halpin-Tsai equation reduces to the inverse rule of mixtures. causing stress and strain concentrations in this constituent and at the fibre-matrix interface.35) The preceding equation above assumes perfect adhesion between phases and thus failure occurs by matrix fracture at or near the interface.20] for the prediction of transverse tensile strength of fibrous composites leads to the formula given below: FTt = ET Fmt (1 − V f1 / 3 ) Em (4.23] to modify Equation (4. where the critical stresses and strains usually occur.36) . An empirical approach [4.33) η1 = (E (E f f E m ) + ξ1 Em ) − 1 (4. Halpin and Tsai [4. For usual case of circular-section fibres.Building Rehabilitation the matrix are equal is inaccurate and the mechanics of materials prediction underestimates the transverse modulus. the high-modulus fibres act as effective constraints [4. whereas a value of ξ= ∞ yields the rule of mixtures. When ξ1=0.7 Transverse tensile strength The transverse tensile loading is the most critical loading of a unidirectional composite. In case of transverse loading.22] on the deformation of the matrix.35) and Cv can be determined with: Cv = 1 − 4Vv π (1 − V f ) page 79 (4.

lf τLT L m f t b. experimental data are usually required if transverse strength is the controlling mode of failure of the component [4. (Rtm) can also account for voids: ⎡ ⎛ E ⎞⎤ RtT = Rtm C v ⎢1 + (V f − V f )⎜1 − m ⎟⎥ ⎜ E f ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ (4.24].1.15 a) Model of unidirectional composite for prediction of shear modulus. The mechanics of materials approach uses a series model under uniform shear stress (fig.25]. γm γf γc ∆c Fig.9 In-plane shear modulus The behaviour of unidirectional composites under in-plane shear loading is dominated by the matrix properties and the local stress distributions. b) shear deformations for constituents and for the model page 80 .Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings where Vv is the void volume fraction [4.4.4.8 Transverse compressive strength Transverse compressive strength values are usually higher than tensile strength values for both matrix and composite.4. This is explained by the additional constraints placed on the matrix. Also the transverse compressive strength increases with increase in the fibre volume fraction. For preliminary design Equation (4. 4. Another empirical formula based on tensile strength of the matrix. 4.23]. T τTL ∆f ∆ m lm lc τLT τTL a. preventing its deformation in the direction perpendicular to the plane of load-fibre axes.1.37) The effect of voids is very detrimental to the transverse strength and this is reflected by both empirical formulas.37) can be used replacing the tensile strength of the matrix by the compressive strength of the matrix [4. Although the results provided by these formulas can be used for preliminary design.4.15) to determine the shear modulus.

39) by lc and recognising that the width fraction is proportional to volume fractions. γf.4. ∆c. lf.40) Assuming linear shear stress-shear strain behaviour of fibres and matrix. yields: γ c = γ f V f + γ mVm (4. the shear strains can be replaced by the ratios of shear stress and the corresponding shear modulus: τ LT G LT lc = τf Gf lf + τm Gm lm (4. is the sum of the shear deformations of the fibre.41) we obtain: G LT = G f Gm GmV f + G f (1 − V f ) (4.38) (4.15 the total shear deformation of the composite.39) γ c lc = γ f l f + γ m lm Dividing both sides of Equation (4. ∆m. lm): ∆c = ∆ f + ∆m (4. Gf is the shear modulus of fibres and Gm the shear modulus of matrix.42) As in the case of transverse modulus Equation (4. and the matrix. and the Halpin-Tsai equations can be used to give better predictions: G LT = Gm where: 1 + ξ 2 η2 V f 1 −η2 V f (4.42) underestimates the values of the in-plane shear modulus. each shear deformation can be then expressed as the product of the corresponding shear strain (γc. fibres and matrix and from Equation (4.Building Rehabilitation Using the notations shown in fig. ∆f. But the shear stresses are equal on composite.41) where GLT is the in-plane shear modulus of the composite. γm) and the cumulative widths of the material(lc.44) .43) η2 = (G (G f f Gm ) + ξ 2 page 81 Gm ) − 1 (4.

4. and Poisson’s ratio.46) When the reinforcing fibres are anisotropic. The best agreement with experimental results has been found for ξ2=1. For a preliminary design.16) the failure could occur by matrix failure. Equation (4. L τTL= τ21 τ21= τTL Fms Failure surface T τ12= τ21= τLT Fig. 4. the in-plane shear strength may be evaluated using a formula similar to Equation (4.4.16 In-plane shear failure of unidirectional composite Fms Shear failure may also occur when off-axis unidirectional composite elements are loaded in axial tension. the matrix and the fibres have been assumed to be isotropic.1. using the following formula: G= E 2(1 + ν ) (4.4.10 In-plane shear strength Under in-plane shear (fig.37) replacing the matrix tensile strength with the shear strength of the matrix as follows: page 82 . Assuming ξ2=1.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings and ξ2 is the reinforcing efficiency factor for in-plane shear. constituent debonding or a combination of the two.45) In this section.43) becomes: G LT = Gm ( G f + G m ) + V f (G f − Gm ) (G f + G m ) − V f (G f − Gm ) (4. the corresponding shear modulus (G12) should be utilised. E. the shear modulus of the constituents can be computed from the elastic modulus.

relates the longitudinal stress. νTL.4.47) Again. Deformed composite εL εT (4.49) Undeformed composite f lf Fig. νLT. and is normally referred to as the major Poisson ratio: ν LT = − εT εL (4.17 Model of unidirectional composite for prediction of Poisson’s ratio page 83 ∆f lc σL lm m σL ∆m . when the reinforcing fibres are anisotropic. εT.Building Rehabilitation ⎡ ⎛ G FsLT = Fms C v ⎢1 + (V f − V f )⎜1 − m ⎜ G ⎢ f ⎝ ⎣ where Cv is the reduction coefficient.48) where εL is the longitudinal strain and the loading scheme is: σL≠0.4. εL: ν TL = − when σT≠0. ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ (4. in this section the matrix and the fibres have been assumed to be isotropic. the corresponding shear modulus (G12) should be utilised.11 Prediction of Poisson’s ratio Two Poisson ratios are considered for in-plane loading of a unidirectional fibre reinforced unidirectional composite. The second one called the minor Poisson ratio. relates the transverse stress.4. Using the axis system shown in fig.17 the first Poisson ratio. 4.1. σL=0 and τLT=0. σT=0 and τLT=0. to the longitudinal strain. σT. to the transverse strain. σL.

The total transverse deformation of the composite. ET and νLT : ν TL = ν LT ET EL (4.5 PROPERTIES OF FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES RELATED TO STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES As stated in the previous chapter the properties of polymeric composites are determined by the properties of their constituents.4.17. ∆f and ∆m: ∆ c = ∆ f + ∆ m . ∆ c = (ε c )T l c (4.2] can be used to determine νLT. The performance of composites can be ranked on the basis of specific strength (strength-to-density ratio) and specific modulus (elastic modulus-to-density ratio). ∆ m = (ε m )T l m . ∆c. page 84 . ∆ f = (ε f )l T f .Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings A model similar to that used to predict ET [4.50) Assuming that no slippage occurs at the interface and the strains experienced by the composite.51) Equation (4. is the sum of the constituent transverse deformations.52) Thus the minor Poisson ratio can be obtained from the already known engineering constants EL. The following functional relationship (presented in macromechanics of composites) exists between engineering constants: ν LT E L = ν TL ET (4. for cumulative thicknesses of layers is utilised to express the transverse strains in the composite and constituents (fibre and matrix) in terms of longitudinal strains and the Poisson ratio. fibre and matrix are equal and that the widths are proportional to the volume fractions the following formula is obtained for the major Poisson ratio: v LT = v f V f + vmVm (4. the load is applied parallel to the fibres. however. their distribution and the interaction among them. The deformation pattern illustrated in this figure.53) 4. fig.51) is the rule of mixtures for the major Poisson ratio of a unidirectional composite.

page 85 . the behaviour of unidirectional composites is mainly dominated by the matrix properties. Specific strength (104m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 a b c 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 6 Specific modulus (10 m ) Fig. the lower the ultimate strain. c-carbon/epoxy As it can be seen carbon/epoxy composites with unidirectional fibres seem to have the most convenient combination of specific modulus and strength [4.7]. Stress-strain diagrams of some unidirectional polymeric composites normal to the fibre direction are illustrated in fig. As a matter of fact carbon/epoxy plates are the most utilized composite products in structural rehabilitation of traditional building elements.20.18 Performance map of epoxy composites a.4.19. in the fibre direction. is usually dominated by the fibres properties.Building Rehabilitation In view of these characteristics a comparative representation of the performance of epoxy composites is shown in fig. As it can be seen from fig.4. the higher the elastic modulus.18. However.4. b-Kevlar/epoxy. The behaviour of polymeric composites with unidirectional fibres. in the transverse direction.glass/epoxy.4.

19 Stress-strain diagrams of unidirectional epoxy composites in fibre direction: aglass/epoxy. Stress (MPa) 10 0 c 80 60 b a 0 0. c.3 0.carbon/ epoxy. (MPa) 2500 c a b 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1 2 3 Strain ε(%) 4 5 Fig.5 Strain (%) Fig.4.20 Stress-strain diagrams of some unidirectional polymeric composites in the transverse direction. c) carbon/epoxy page 86 .4 0. S-glass/epoxy. 4.2 0.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings Stress. b).kevlar/epoxy.1 0. a) E glass/epoxy. b.

27 0. GPa) 3. The composite properties listed in the Table 4.3 E – glass /epoxy Fibre volume fraction. Table 4.Building Rehabilitation All materials exhibit quasi-linear behaviour with low ultimate strength and strains. straight constant section structural shapes made of fibre reinforced polymeric composites.65 1600 177 10.06 Minor Poisson’s ratio (νTL) Longitudinal tensile strength (FLt.2 0. Kg/m3) Longitudinal modulus (EL.7].02 1280 30 Carbon /epoxy 0. 4. These values can be used for preliminary design purposes.8 7. GPa) 39 Transverse modulus (ET.28 Major Poisson’s ratio (νLT) 0. 4. The process involves pulling these raw materials through a heated steel forming die using a continuous forms such as rolls of roving or rolls of mats. MPa) 1080 Tranverse tensile strength (FTt.6 0.3 are at ambient temperature (240C) and zero moisture conditions.1 Pultrusion Pultrusion is a continuous fully automated manufacturing process which allows the production of long.8 0.6 MANUFACTURING PROCEDURES OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE PRODUCTS FOR STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION There are various manufacturing options available and they have been developed to suit the variety of production parameters encountered.3 gives a list of the main properties needed to design strengthening solutions of civil engineering structures using advanced polymeric composites. However for a final design of a component.5 2.6. The processes most used to produce composite strips and shapes or to apply external composite reinforcing elements are presented in this chapter.34 0. GPa) 8.60 1380 87 5. Table 4. fillers and specialized additives) and flexible textile reinforcing fibres. Raw materials are a liquid resin mixture (containing resin.02 2860 49 .6 In-plane shear modulus (GLT. (Vf) 0.55 2100 Density (ρ. it is recommended that a designer obtain more exact properties for the particular selection of the constituent used [4. MPa) 39 Property page 87 Kevlar 49/epoxy 0.

016 0.0 -6 0 coefficient (α1.015 0.4. The performer is an array of tooling which squeezes away excess resin as the product is moving forward and shapes the materials prior to entering the die. 4. catalyst.11].0 60 83 0. 10 / C) Transverse thermal expansion 21 coefficient (α2. and any other additives required. h-caterpillar type pull. c-guide. the hardening of the resin is initiated by the heat from the die and a rigid. cured profile is formed that corresponds to the shape of die. g-forming and curing die. d-resin impregnator. j-cutt off saw The creels position the reinforcements for subsequent feeding into the guides. Fig.3 30 As the reinforcements are pre-impregnated and saturated with the resin mixture in the resin bath and pulled through the die. the composite is a flat sheet form. On exiting the resin bath. In certain applications a radio frequency wave generator unit is used to preheat the composite before entering the die. i-pull blocks. 10-6/0C) 49 0. e-surfacing material. 620 MPa) Transverse compressive strength (FTc.028 strain (εLtu) Ultimate transverse tensile 0. The resin bath wets out (pre-impregnates) the reinforcement with a solution containing the resin. MPa) 89 Ultimate longitudinal tensile 0.005 1875 246 -0.005 335 158 -2.005 strain (εTtu) Longitudinal compressive strength (FLc. b-mat creels.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings In-plane shear strength (FsLT. f-preformer. page 88 .21 The pultrusion process : a-roving creels. Fig. The main function of the reinforcement guides is to locate properly the reinforcement within the polymeric composite. 128 MPa) Longitudinal thermal expansion 7.21 shows the representation of the process [4.

Fibre volume fractions of up to 65% are achievable with unidirectionally aligned fibres [4. this heater is positioned between the resin bath and the performer. d-roller a The release agent applied to the mould is allowed to dry before any lay-up is undertaken.Building Rehabilitation When in use. Constant section shapes with good and uniform properties are manufactured using the pultrusion technique. d c b Fig.6.22 Hand lay-up technique a-mould. Fig.2 Hand lay-up technique This is the simplest procedure used for the manufacture of fibre reinforced polymeric composite components.4.13]. In this technique fabrics. the cured profile is pulled to the saw for cutting to length. In general pultrusion is dominated by the use of unidirectional reinforcement.22 shows the hand lay-up operation [4. c-brush. b-composite layer.12]. In the die the thermosetting reaction is heat activated (energy is primarily supplied electrically) and the composite is cured. which lends itself most appropriately to the process and gives maximum strength and stiffness in the axial direction of the composite product. On exciting the die. 4. This forms the outer surface of the component after removal from the moulding and may therefore have special properties for improved weathering and page 89 . The operating speed is influenced by the curing rate and by the time required for excess solvents to be eliminated from the composite.4. A gel coat resin is first laid-up against the carefully prepared mould surface. woven rovings or chopped strand mat are laid over a polished mould previously treated with a released agent.

the liquid thermosetting resin is worked into the reinforcement by hand with the aid of a brush or roller.4. During the spray-up operation.23. Subsequent layers of resin and reinforcement are then applied until the required thickness of the composite is reached.6. g e d f e a c b Fig. fibre roving is fed continuously through a chopper and the resulting chopped strands are projected onto the mould in conjunction with resin. although a heating source can be used to accelerate the cure. After the gel coat of resin is brushed over it and the first layer of fibrous reinforcement is placed in position.23 The spray-up technique: a-resin premixed with catalyst. as it is a flexible process and some design alterations can be readily made. the labour cost per unit is high and the quality of the composite products depends to a large extent on the worker’s skill [4. depending on the destination of the element. fig.4. b-resin premixed with accelerator. There are two systems used in the spray-up process: page 90 . e-gun nozzle. However. d-roving chopper. g-composite product The fibre/resin matrix is then consolidated with rollers.3 Spray-up technique In this process. c-roving. such as wood. Normally the lay-up cures at room temperature. especially suitable for glass fibre reinforced polymeric composites. This process has the advantage of using the minimum of equipment and low-cost moulds that may be in any suitable material. sheet metal or fibre reinforced polymers. 4. There are no size restrictions.14]. the fibres and the resin are simultaneously deposited on a mould.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings abrasion resistance. The gel coat can be reinforced with a surface tissue mat which also has the function of balancing the composite throughout its cross section. f-mould.

4 Continuous laminating In continuous laminating. fig. d-impregnating roll. able to control the thickness of the composite product and maintain the fibre/resin ratio. By either method.Building Rehabilitation • • if two gun nozzles are used (fig. The lay-up is then passed through a heating zone and resin is cured. b-cellophane creels. g-resin bath.6. the labour cost for producing complex shapes is less than with a hand lay-up process. finite product page 91 . ethickness control rolls. are passed through a resin dip and brought together between cellophane covering sheets.24. which is the cheapest form of reinforcement. This technique requires an operator with considerable skill. The main advantages of the process are: it uses roving reinforcement.4. fabrics or mats. the process is also suitable for on-site fabrication. Also the quality of the finished composite element is highly dependent on the skill of the operators. and merged spray is directed onto the mould by the operator. when only one gun nozzle is used all ingredients are fed into a single mixing chamber ahead of the spray nozzle. the resin mix precoats the chopped strands. lay down the fibres and smooth the surface. c-guidance rolls.23) one carries resin premixed with catalyst while the other one carries resin premixed with accelerator.24 Continuous laminating process a-reinforcement creels.4. The fibre/resin matrix is then rolled by hand to remove air.4. 4. f-infrared radiation oven. a b b e e f g c d h Fig.

b-fibre resin lay-up.5 Pressure bag method This is another variation of the hand lay-up technique. fig. g e e Air under pressure f d b c h i d a Fig. Continuous laminating is an automated process with low tooling cost ideally suited for the production of flat or corrugated panels of various cross sections.4.6. fig. undercuts are possible and also core and inserts can be used [4. joints are sealed and a vacuum is created. Since the pressures applied in this method can be much greater than in the vacuum bag method.26. normally rubber sheeting. 4.25 Pressure bag moulding a-mould. The resulting low atmospheric page 92 .25.15].6.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings The laminate thickness and the resin content are controlled by squeeze rolls as the various plies are brought together. h-moulded part. d-clamps. The wall thickness is very uniform.6 Vacuum bag moulding The vacuum bag is a process of moulding fibre reinforced polymeric composites in which (after lay-up) cellophane or polyvinyl acetate is placed over lay-up.tailored rubber bag (not inflated). i-tailored rubber bag (inflated) Various shapes can be made. though limited in size.4. A tailored bag. is placed against the lay-up. there is no limitation of the length of the elements produced.35MPa is applied between the pressure plate (e) and the rubber bag (f). fibre/matrix ratios by weight can be increased to about 65% with a corresponding increase in mechanical properties. Air pressure up to 0. g-air pressure line. Though the widths are limited by the size of rolls. f. e-pressure back-up plate. 4. c-cellophane.4.

4.4. d-to vacuum.26 Vacuum bag moulding: a-mould. and a vacuum pressure is applied. d e f d c d d b b before vacuum applied a after vacuum applied Fig. c-flexible bag. f-clamp page 93 . There are two holes in the vacuum bag. achieving a high degree of vacuum with surfaces of rough texture may require a large investment in equipment. it requires more labour and quality often depends on the operator.5. There are several advantages of vacuum impregnation over traditional wet hand lay-up: it is possible to avoid hand contact with the resin (or adhesive).6 Reinforcement impregnation by vacuum Vacuum impregnation of the fibrous reinforcement is.27. grinding or water blasting). e-gasket. primer is applied and after curing the primer. However. A vacuum bag is placed on top of the fibres. waste at the work site can be minimized. and it is specially organized for strengthening of concrete elements [4. Though better adhesion in multilayered constructions is possible. one for the inlet where the resin is injected and one for the outlet where the vacuum pressure is applied. Higher fibre volume fractions are possible with less air voids and the manufactured component has a better internal surface. to a certain extent. The beam surface is cleaned. b-fibre resin lay-up. the reinforcing fibres or fabrics are placed in predetermined directions.4.16]. It is important that the resin can flow and wet all fibres. comparable with lay-up. the bag is sealed on contour.Building Rehabilitation pressure then eliminates voids and forces out the entrapped air and excess resin. fig. the quality of the composite product can be improved. The concrete beam to be strengthened is prepared (through sand blasting.

4.28-4. • Prefabricated angles. ereinforcing fibres. Usually these systems are divided into “prefab”(or “pre-cured”) and “wet lay-up” (or “cured in situ”) systems. d-reinforced concrete beam.27 Strengthening of a reinforced concrete beam with vacuum injection system a-polymeric resin. page 94 . hand layup or continuous laminating.16].30. figs. a) Prefabricated elements • Prefabricated straight strips can be manufactured by pultrusion. channels. They are factory-made curved or shaped elements that can be fitted around columns or beams. The difference is related to the individual phases of the composite and also the form and the technique used in strengthening [4. i-resin trap 4. c-resin transportation. They are usually in the form of ribbon strips that may be delivered in roll coil. f-vacuum bag. b-resin flow.7 STRENGTHENING SYSTEMS POLYMERIC COMPOSITES WITH FIBRE-REINFORCED There are various systems of structural strengthening with fibre reinforced polymers.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings b) g) f) c) c) g) h) A b) A Section A-A i) a) Fig.4. shells or jackets which are installed through the use of adhesives. g-vacuum and resin flow. These strips are adhesively bonded to the members to be strengthened.h-vacuum.

The fibrous reinforcement can be applied directly into the resin which has been put onto the member surface. Dry multidirectional fabric where fibres run in at least two directions. Dry fibre tows that are wound or otherwise mechanically placed onto the strengthened member surface. The polymeric resin is added to the fibre during winding process. Resin pre-impregnated uncured multidirectional sheet or fabric. Installation of this product may be carried out with or without additional polymeric resin. with fibres running predominantly in two directions. The structural member may be partially or fully covered. Placement of the system on the structural element surface requires saturating resin usually after a primer (a coating applied to a surface prior to the application of an adhesive to improve the performance of the bond) has been applied.Building Rehabilitation b) Wet lay-up systems • Pre-impregnated fibre tows that are wound or otherwise mechanically placed onto the strengthened element surface. • • • • • Woven roving Bi-directional fabric Mat Fig. where fibres run predominantly in one direction.4. Resin pre-impregnated uncured unidirectional sheet or fabric with fibres running predominantly in one direction. or can be pre-impregnated with the resin and then applied wet to the sealed substrate. In this case installation requires saturating resin and the fabric is applied using one of the two processes described before.28 Glass fibre products page 95 Roving . Dry unidirectional fibre sheet and semi-unidirectional fabric. These systems may be applied with or without additional resin. Installation may be done with or without additional resin.

1990. The University of Arizona..Analytical Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Fibre Reinforced Plastic Plates. Iasi. New-York. 1993. B.Composite Materials Handbook. 4. A. b.K.Polymer Composites for Civil and Structural Engineering.Analysis and Performance of Fibre Composites. 1992. b. 4. Willey-Interscience.. 4.Structures Made of Composite Materials.Advanced polymeric composites for rehabilitation of buildings aramid fabric aramid strips Fig..J. 1996. Inc.1 Hollaway L. 1993. page 96 ..4.. P.D. John Willey & Sons. 4..5 Malek. Fig. Broutman. Second edition. Glasgow. Marcel Dekker. New York.4 Taranu N. PhD Dissertation.6 Schwartz M. Vesper.2 Agarwal.30 Carbon fibre products for structural strengthening a.3 Mallik.M. carbon sheet.29 Aramid fibrous products for structural strengthening a. 4. Isopescu D. Manufacturing and Design. carbon/epoxy plate BIBLIOGRAPHY 4. Chapman and Hall. 1997. L. Basel.Fibre-Reinforced Composite Materials.4...

April. C.25 Chamis. Benjamin. Kelly. 4. Elemente portante din materiale plastice.24 Chamis. Taylor& Francis.Building Rehabilitation 4. University of California Printing Office. New York. Volume 2. New York. page 97 . 4. and Moisture Related Properties.8 The Composite Materials Handbook-MIL 17. Oxford.23 Barbero. 4.R. 1976. Quinn J. Bristol. 1990. Strengthening Concrete Beams for Shear with CFRP Sheets. Technical report. 1999. Teza de doctorat. 4.Thermosetting Resin Matrix.B. Van Vostrand.M.. Morrisson Molded Fibreglass Co. Metal Park. Thermal. 4.17 fib. Simplified Composite Micromechanics Equations for Mechanical.12 Hutchinson A.C.. L.J. J. Pergamon..14 Nostrand.J. Cambridge. 4th edition. 1994.. J..20 Nielsen. 2nd edition. 17..P. 1981.21 Halpin. Philadelphia. Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures. New York.9 Williamson R. Sprint –Digital-Druck.. 14.E. AFML-TR-67-423. Gere. SAMPE Quarterly. 4. Stuttgart.W. S.18 Jones. Hollaway &M. C. E. 4. 4.. 4. N.16 Taljsten. Simplified Composite Micromechanics Equations for Hygral. McGraw Hill Book Co. A. American Society for Metals. New York. and Mechanical Properties. Mat. 4. B. Philadelphia. Effects of Environmental Factors on Composite Materials. 1999. 1974. ed. R.22 Gibson. 1995.C. Construction and Building MATERIALS.. Plastics Engineering Handbook of the SPI Inc. Tsai. In: Concise Encyclopedia of Comp.19 Timoshenko.. 1994.-Polymers in Construction. vol. Marcel Dekker. Theory of Elastic Stability. 4. 4. Oxford. McGraw Hill Book Co. 1995. S. B. Chap.Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Oxford University Press. Taylor & Francis. 4.7 Daniel I. 1987. Ed. Leeming. Ishai O.. J.S. Berkeley. 2003. Lancaster.15 Frados. Technomic. 1967. 4. 1984. R.13 Taranu. Structural Design with Plastics. Van 4. 4.B. 2000.C. James D. 1999. Air Force Technical Report.1978.C. IPIasi. Woodhead. Thermal. 1961. 4. Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites.. New York.10 Restaino A.. 2001. 3 “Materials” from “Strengthening of Reinforced Structures”. F. In Engineer’s Guide to Composite Materials. Principles of Composite Material Mechanics. Introduction to Composite Materials Design. Mechanics of Composite Materials.11 EXTREN Design Manual.M.3. CRC Press. Eds.B. 4. L.

the choice of an inappropriate foundation system. the defective maintenance of the water supply. by: o o o non-existing protection measures for buildings founded on moisture-sensitive soils. the groundwater level.5 INFRASTRUCTURE CONSOLIDATION 5. ii. by: o o o • • changing the destination of the building. iii. sewage. v. the necessity of maintaining the building in service. iv. Thus. the intervention may be caused by: • • the aggressiveness of the ground waters or of the foundation soil. the decrease in the bearing capacity of the foundation soil. infiltrations of rain waters. the foundation type and its present state.1 GENERAL ASPECTS The following factors are to be taken into account when consolidating infrastructures: i. Before starting the intervention works at the infrastructure level of a construction it is necessary to identify the cause. the increase in loads on foundations. introducing additional floors. the structure and the importance of the building. • execution errors: page 98 . and heating systems. the nature of the foundation soil. consolidation.

except for sandstone. which is present in the natural stone foundations. If this is destroyed and removed by mechanical alteration and dissolution. road traffic.1].Infrastructure consolidation o o o o • • not complying with the designed foundation depth. missing or incorrectly located reinforcement bars. with no appropriate protection measures.2 TYPES OF FOUNDATION DEGRADATION 5. This degradation process. the inappropriate display of not initially designed basements within buildings the decrease in the capacity of the foundation system due to underground works or construction works in its close vicinity. • • not complying with the minimum frost depth. 5.1 Erosion of foundations made of stones The strength and durability of rocks are determined by the amount and distribution of the soft mineral included in the mineralogical composition. settlements as a consequence of vibration effects produced by: o o o pile driving. page 99 . The modifications applied to the foundation and/or foundation soil – as necessary stages in consolidating a construction – may create unwanted situations. marls and limestone [5. is accelerated by the succession of the freeze – thaw phenomena and by the presence of salts in the gravitational water. functioning of various machines that increase the compaction degree of sands. not complying with the foundation dimensions designed in the project.2. incorrect excavations. the hard mineral groups remain with very weak connections among them. Most of rocks have no significant degradations as a consequence of erosion. which are at the same time unfavourable to the constructions nearby.1. The main consolidation procedures of the construction infrastructures are presented in Table 5.

1 ENLARGING THE EXISTING FOUNDATIONS INTRODUCING BORED PILES OR MICROPILES CONSOLIDATING THE FOUNDATION SOIL BY INJECTION CONSOLIDATING THE ADJACENT SOIL BY PLANTATIONS OR OTHER PROCEDURES page 100 .2.2 Degradation of foundations and basement walls made of brickwork Brick is the most porous foundation material used in making the infrastructure works for constructions.Building Rehabilitation 5. Table 5.

accelerating the decrease in their strength and durability. especially with cement mortar.Infrastructure consolidation Moisture leads to damages due to the freeze-thaw successions. The favourable conditions of fungus rot growth in wood infrastructures imply a temperature between 0 and 40°C.2. the climate. In this situation problems occur after a while only to walls that have been covered. the number of freeze-thaw cycles. fig.3 The rotting of wood infrastructures The infrastructures made of wood have as a main cause for damages the development of fungus rot that thrives on nutrients that are found in wood. ii. Large continuous cracks can completely destroy the bricks. arrangement of the ground for a fast exhaustion of the run off waters near the building etc. These situations are recorded on old buildings because the original ground level increases by: • • • modernization of the urban planning in the built area. iv. the natural moisture content of the ground and its variation in time. and blocking the air escape. 5. and the wood must have at least 20% water with respect to its dry weight together with a significant availability of oxygen in the area. 5. The factors that influence the damages to the brickwork infrastructures both qualitatively and quantitatively are: i. Moisture can thus penetrate farther up into the wall before it finds a zone where the fluid exchanges with the exterior are no longer blocked.2.4 Moisture damage on stone and brick infrastructures where lime and clay are used as mortar Brick walls where lime and clay are used as mortar often absorb moisture. Wood infrastructures damaged by fungus rot are the most vulnerable to insect attacks that destroy the wooden mass. asphalt works. iii. the freezing speed on the construction site. which materialize in exfoliation or splitting of the surface parallel to the external side with no waterproofing. Raft and pile foundations are frequently subjected to attack by fungus rot when the water table sinks below the top of the foundations. page 101 .1.5. disturbing the moisture balance in the wall.

a Groundwater level lowering Settlements occur as a result of the stress increase in the foundation soil and changes in the pore water pressure. plantation in urban areas of deciduous trees induce as an effect the lowering of the groundwater table and consequently supplementary settlements to the existent constructions.5.5. 5.2.Building Rehabilitation INITIAL LEVEL OF UNDERGROUND WATER NEW LEVEL OF UNDERGROUND WATER Fig. and infrastructure expansions for terrestrial transportation have blocked much larger surfaces to the rain water infiltration as well as the occurrence of the areas with cut-and-cover gallery works for metros.1 Rotting of wood foundations due to groundwater lowering The brick walls immediately above the stone brick infrastructures can suffer important damages. new building construction has involved an important volume of works for drainage and/or water removals. Therefore. some of them are founded page 102 .b Grounds with low bearing capacity The constructions previous to the development of civil engineering and respectively to geotechnical engineering have no quantitatively justified dimensioning based on geotechnical reports. 5.2. In urban areas. such as exfoliation and detachments of the mortar layers due to the crystallization of the salt from the infiltrated water or dissolving/hydration of the existent minerals in the constitutive rocks.2.5 Damages caused by additional settlements in case of: 5.5.

Under some circumstances local stability problems of infrastructures can occur due to loss of lateral supports [5.5.2.e Removal of neighbouring constructions In every city there is an area considered as historically and culturally representative for the present community. introducing a new foundation (underpinning). fixed by connectors. iv.5. fig. fig. The interventions on constructions associated to this area are of consolidation type but they can also be radical.1]. on one side or both sides of foundation (all over the foundation height or only to a certain extent). Damages can be found in areas subjected to supplementary settlements (see fig. ii. page 103 iii.1. the following procedures can be applied for the rehabilitation of natural rock foundations: i.2.Infrastructure consolidation on grounds with low bearing capacity.5. v.5. consolidation of foundation soil.c Grounds with irregular stratification in the active zone of foundations The risk to make a foundation on an irregular soil profile for constructions with large surface in the horizontal plane is increased especially since the absence of certain soil investigation methods was accepted due to the lack of advanced technology. In these situations.c. the damages beginning from the infrastructure and most of the times propagating to the superstructure [5. 5. 5.6.). fig.3 CONSOLIDATION OF NATURAL ROCK FOUNDATIONS Usually. like the removal of some buildings that cannot be recovered. the settlements being differentiated on the footing.2]. . introducing an adjacent foundation.5.2. 5.d Load increase Constructions that initially performed well can present damages due to the supplementary settlements induced by load alteration.a.2.2. consolidation by injection.b. under the existing one performing a reinforced coating. the remained neighboring constructions are subjected to irregular displacements upward by the partial decompression of the foundation soil.2. 5.5.

3. covering. fig. b.5.5. introducing adjacent foundations Underpinning is performed on alternatively cast sections (section length will be 80120 cm). The connection between coating /jacketing and the existing foundation is usually made with clamps hammered in joints or bored holes.3 Underpinning with discharge on isolated supports.Building Rehabilitation a. fig. clamp can be fixed by mortar injection.b. Fig. a.5. REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES REINFORCED CONCRETE PILASTER a. Underpinning can also be done on piles.2.5. on pilasters page 104 .2 Consolidation procedures of natural stone foundations. In some cases. fig.2. the underpinning presented in fig. c. Fig.a can be continued by the restoration of the affected stone works by jacketing. In the case of bored holes. b. by a previous injection of cracks or uncovered joints [5.3. b.3]. In addition to the reinforcing bars located transversally longitudinal reinforcing bars will be provided as well.a and on pilasters. b.5.b. a.5. underpinning. on piles. c.

5 Procedures for coupling adjacent foundations with connections under the foundation The underpinning procedure both enlarges and deepens the old foundation system with two aspects to consider: • an increase of the dead load together with a structural benefit from the new foundation member.4 and 5.4 Procedures for coupling adjacent foundations a. connection is achieved in one of the variants indicated in fig. pierced connectors.Infrastructure consolidation In the case of adjacent foundations. PIERCED CONNECTOR OLD FOUNDATION NEW FOUNDATION EMBEDDED CONNECTOR OLD FOUNDATION NEW FOUNDATION a.5. given the increased foundation width and depth together with a potential increase of the effective settlement on the enlarged active zone. b.5.5. applied for the consolidation of natural rock foundations. an increase of the bearing capacity of the foundation soil. Fig. b. page 105 • . that increases the average value of the reactive pressure and by that consuming partly the new bearing capacity value of the foundation soil.5. embedded connectors NEW FOUNDATION OLD FOUNDATION CONNECTOR Fig.

since it influences the cement mortar setting and strengthening. the rehabilitation of reinforced concrete foundations is achieved by introducing some adjacent foundations. When injecting natural rock foundations. The ring can work independently with discharge on the existing foundation.6. 5. the following aspects should be taken into account: • • • • • fissures should not be too fine and should allow injection.5. In the case of continuous footings.c and d.a or. the systems used are the same as those for natural stone foundations. foundations will not be exposed to heat or moisture excess during injections based on lime mortar. with the connecting systems in fig. which partially overtake the load from the existing foundations.4]. The technology related to the injection of natural rock foundations will be the same as the one applied in brickwork injections. the inserted mortar should not be in aggressive water or moving water. by direct coupling to the column bases. fissures should not have clayey mud.4 and 5. fig. A peripheral ring is introduced in the case of spread foundations [5. they will be protected by introducing of continuous insulations on the external side. page 106 .2. fig.b.5. The procedures of increasing the bearing capacity of the foundation soil are obviously applied too.6. if the foundations consolidated through this procedures are exposed to freeze-thaw cycles.Building Rehabilitation The overall effect on safety factor is sometimes questionable when consolidating foundations without the active zone from the soil underneath.5.4 CONSOLIDATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS Reinforced concrete foundations generally require consolidation because of the existence of certain execution errors and more frequently due to load increase or foundation soil degradation.5. fig. Usually.5. when this is not possible. which can also contribute to the increase in soil bearing capacity.

8. that is partly transferred now to the new foundation members.5.5. peripheral ring coupled on the column base SPREAD FOUNDATIONS NETWORK OF FOUNDATION BEAMS A A SECTION A-A Fig.7 Consolidation of beam networks with spread foundations Each of the various options presented above gives the benefit of the best accordance between active and reactive pressure at the footing level.5.6 Consolidation procedures for spread foundations a. b.5.Infrastructure consolidation Beam networks are consolidated either by introducing certain spread foundations designated to the column area. peripheral ring at the foundation base.7. fig. b. page 107 . fig. and if necessary. a.5. the foundation system is transformed into a mat foundation. or certain supplementary beams.9. Fig. fig.

A NETWORK OF BEAMS A MAT FOUNDATION SECTION A-A Fig.5. Under certain circumstances.8 Consolidation of beam networks with supplementary beams.5.Building Rehabilitation A BEAM NETWORKS A SUPPLEMENTARY FOUNDATION BEAMS SECTION A-A Fig.9 Consolidation of beam networks with a mat foundation page 108 . the increase in beam capacity is achieved by procedures generally used for beam consolidation. Beam networks made of steel profiles connected to the beams of the existing structure can be applied as well. for structures where the structural walls possess high storage of bearing capacity. To rehabilitate mats on beams when the bearing capacity of beams is decreased. piles that couple to the existing foundation with reinforced concrete elements or steel profiles included in concrete can be used.

page 109 .1]. generally by welding steel plates at the ends of each pile segment. The Lindo piles are recommended in grounds consisting of hard rocks or other obstacles difficult to overcome by regular solutions. The pile body has an included steel pipe in the cross-section centre. represent favourable solutions within the consolidation works [5. Pressed or driven Mega piles of reinforced concrete have a square cross-section of the side of about 300 mm and the segment length of 1 m. The pile consists of a removable steel pipe. If the pile does not reach a soil layer of high consistency or the layer is not at the required depth. a connecting beam will be made to include both piles and the body of the old foundation. externally protected against corrosion by a layer of 1.5 TYPES OF PILES USED IN INFRASTRUCTURE CONSOLIDATIONS The development of various piling technologies offers the possibility of an optimal choice of the consolidation type used for the infrastructure of a certain construction based on the existing conditions. an enlarged base of plain concrete is performed. If the piles are located on the perimeter external to the existing foundation. These piles are usually used for constructions in soft rocks. Concrete is pumped into the pile under pressure.Infrastructure consolidation 5. which is introduced into the ground by drilling. Concrete is pumped into the pile when it has reached the required depth and a steel core is introduced with the dimensions varying from 50 to 100 mm. through which the verticality of the pile insertion is checked and the air or water flush can aid the pile driving. The section joints are made by welding. they are filled with concrete. This solution is possible only by making slits and introducing the pile through the existing foundation. The direct location of piles under the existing foundation is more difficult. the work being performed from the inside and the minimum basement height required by the technology being 2. the driving also being helped by local water flush. They are introduced by light hammering. The hollow steel pile with circular cross-section or the piles made of steel profiles. and then pouring the concrete in the joint zone.8 µm of epoxy resin. The load transmission from the existing foundation to the new pile group can be achieved through different variants. In the case of hollow piles. The Mega-steel pile is a square steel pipe pile which is driven down into the soil with a hydraulic jack.5 m. The joints are made to give adequate bending capacity.

especially because of the lack of information regarding the dimensions.Building Rehabilitation 5. page 110 . The technological procedure consists of soil removal both inside and outside around the existing foundation up to the depth where the pile is not damaged.5. ensuring the site stability.7 FOUNDATION SOIL CONSOLIDATION The consolidation of the foundation soil should generally take into account the following actions [5. and from each of them to the foundation soil [5.10). as from a pile foundation above to a pile foundation underneath. The load is transmitted in steps. number and location of piles. ROTTEN ZONE WOODEN PILES NEW PILE MEMBER REINFORCED CONCRETE PLATE Fig.5]: • • increasing the bearing capacity of the soil.6 CONSOLIDATION OF PILE FOUNDATIONS The partial or total replacement of a number of wooden piles damaged by rot by concrete or steel piles is difficult. The next step consists of removing the rotten pile segment and placing new steel or reinforced concrete pile segments with an individual joint (more difficult to do) or with a transfer zone of the plate type (fig.5.1].10 Consolidation of wooden piles foundations 5.

in case of successive procedure. soils with high permeability – with large voids or cracks. The consolidation of the foundation soil is usually achieved through the following injection procedures: • • • • silicate grouting.7. The effectiveness of the injection procedure is entirely dependent on the initial water-particle bonding. cement grouting. The introduction of the solutions into the soil is performed by means of injectors in order to ensure a uniform solution penetration. The result is a cohesive soil with clogged voids and an increased bearing capacity (fig. waterproofing with bitumen. clay grouting. New materials (foamy substances) are recommended to accommodate various soil types and site conditions so that the increase of the internal friction angle and cohesion is reflected into a larger bearing capacity of the consolidated foundation soil [5.9]. Soil injection is performed by introducing a substance that binds the particles and fills in the voids with a gel.1 Soil consolidation by silicate grouting Silicate grouting consists of injecting a solution of sodium silicate and an electrolyte into the ground. soil impermeability.Infrastructure consolidation • • improving the mechanical properties of the soil.5. page 111 .11). which hardens in time. The sodium silicate should have a certain viscosity to enter the voids and not to be washed away by the electrolyte solution. thus obtaining an increase in strength and impermeability [5. permeability and underground water conditions.6]. cohesionless soils. This procedure is applied to: • • • low cohesive soils. the injectors are successively pushed. The two substances in contact react and produce a silicate gel that binds the solid particles. 5.

7].2 Soil consolidation by cement grouting Cement grouting consists of an under pressure injection into the soil voids of cement grout or fluid mortar of cement. basaltic soils.8 r Fig. The silicate grouting can also be performed by adding inorganic reagents for fine and silty sands.1 and 10 m/day. or organic reagents for sands and fine pervious gravels [5.5. page 112 . [5. karstic voids. which reduces ground permeability and increases bearing capacity.5 r r 0. 5.Building Rehabilitation INJECTOR INJECTED AREA 1.4].00 m/day. with permeabilities between 0. resulting in the precipitation of the silica gel. In loessy soils (containing carbonate or calcium sulphate) the sodium silicate reacts with the soluble salts in water. The silicate grouting is not recommended to: • • • • • boulders. naturally included into the soil. oil or raisins.11 The location of the injected zones The silicate grouting with two solutions can be used in sands and sandy fine gravels with a permeability coefficient of 2. The precipitation time of the silica gel can be modified from minutes to several hours by dosing the quantities and the solution concentrations. whose voids are not filled with fine materials.00 – 8.7. soils logged with oil products. soils with underground water whose pH is greater than 9.

The cement grouting can be used for gravels and sands where the voids are large enough to let the particles hydrated by cement break through.50 and 2.1 mm. Cement grouting gives unsatisfactory results in very aggressive soils or in soils with high salinity. Clay grouting is more economical in the ground with cages and large cracks. The spacing between injection points depends on the ground permeability and varies between 1. as a suspension. The injection pressure is 3 – 5 at. dispersion time and coagulation of clay suspension can be controlled. which. The size of the cement hydrated particles is about 50µ. 5. The cement grout or mortar is introduced into the ground by injection.05 l/min. makes the soil clogged and impervious. since cement setting and hardening are hampered. In this case. depending of the soil unit absorption. once in the soil fissures. By adding various chemical substances. voids or pores. Calcium chloride may be added to accelerate the setting. sandy clays with low plasticity are used. in rocks with numerous karstic voids. lime grout) of 3 – 5 % of the weight of the solid particles. clay is processed by soaking and dispersion in water. magnesium chloride.7. for clogging the fissured rocks and those with karstic voids. In order to be injected.Infrastructure consolidation This procedure is applied for soils whose particles can be bound with cement. and the soil that can be treated should have voids of at least 0. the use of fat clays is not recommended. for which the performance of cement grouting provides important cement consumption and would thus be uneconomical. Clay grouting can be performed in soils with aggressive water. Water release from the clay mortar can be accelerated by adding a coagulant during injection (calcium chloride. they can be easily washed away by the water moving through the rock voids. The mortars currently used have c/a dosages between 1:2 and 1:12.3 Ground consolidation by clay grouting Clay grouting consists of introducing a suspension or clayey paste into the soil by injection or caulking. Therefore. The procedure can be applied if the value of the specific soil absorption is higher than 0. as the suspensions made of these clays hardly release water and remain in fluid state inside the fissures. page 113 .00m.

1 and 100 l/min. In contact with the rocks and the cold water moving through the void.Building Rehabilitation Clays and especially fat clays have the ability to exchange the ions from the adsorption complex in the presence of an electrolyte [8].4 Ground consolidation by bitumen grouting Bitumen grouting can be performed in cold and warm conditions. The penetration radius of the hot melted bitumen depends on the fissure size and continuity. protect against aggressive waters. 5. It should be taken into account that by cooling. the ground permeability. at temperatures of 200. The salts from the underground water are often used to break the emulsion. bitumen hardens and cannot be washed away. sodium will be replaced by calcium ions and the suspension will coagulate. fills the voids between the particles and produces ground imperviousness. Clay – cement mixtures can be used in grounds consisting of boulders with large voids.7. Bitumen grouting in warm conditions is considered appropriate for hard rocks with cracks and voids for which the unit absorption of water varies between 0. while sodium and potassium ions make them more fluid. protect against water currents. page 114 . The bitumen released (from the emulsions) groups. 12 %.2200C in order to: • • • create impervious curtains. Mortar pumps are used to introduce clayey suspensions in sands and gravels. The presence of calcium and magnesium ions coagulates the clayey suspensions. the injecting pressure value and the injection duration. Bitumen grouting in warm conditions consists of under pressure injection of hot melted bitumen into the ground. breaking it. By adding a solution made from some calcium salt to a clayey suspension whose particles have sodium in the adsorption complex. Bitumen grouting in cold conditions consists of injecting the ground with a bitumen emulsion. bitumen reduces its volume by approx. Chemical substances are added after the emulsion injection or at the same time with the ground penetration.

This system is efficient in soils with fine and very fine particles. The advantage of electroosmosis injection over the introduction of chemical solutions under pressure is that a directional dispersion of chemical solutions into the ground can be achieved.5 Soil consolidation by other procedures The ground consolidation can also be achieved by reducing the moisture content. The solutions are dispersed into the soils in the space between the anode and cathode. or as a completion of warm bitumen grouting.7. [5. page 115 . soils where differential settlements occur as a consequence of the stress state modification against the one initial estimated. They can represent simple solutions for improving the construction behaviour. Thus. 5. In addition to the procedures mentioned above. but in some situations their effects are difficult to estimate and they are also quite costly.8]. Wells are made externally. The electrical procedures (electroosmosis) are also applied where the injection of chemical substances into silty and clayey soils is very difficult. near the foundation. and supplied with water. electrophysical procedures are used to force water to move through the soil voids from the anode to the cathode. there are also others meant to recreate the initial conditions into the ground. gravels and fissured rocks impervious. under the influence of electrical current (fig.Infrastructure consolidation The bitumen particles should be 25-35 times smaller than the average dimension of the ground particles to create an easy penetration of the emulsion in sands and gravels.12) [5. The raise of groundwater level is recommended to be applied to: • • existing wooden foundations in soils (in well conditions) could suffer degradations at water level lowering.5. where water is collected in wells and then removed by pumping.9]. The injection of emulsion and chemical substances used to break it in the ground is performed with equipments similar to the ones used for silicate grouting. Cold bitumen grouting can be applied either independently as a possibility to make sands. The procedure of raising the groundwater level implies the water infiltration into the pervious soil layers.

the checking being based on piesometric pipes. If the lowering of the groundwater level is due to the development of a deciduous vegetation. fig.12. Water infiltration can be performed by creating a system to supply wells with groundwater.13 [5. page 116 . its removal can lead to a return of the water level inside the ground The lowering of the underground water level can be applied for: • natural rock or brick foundations in soils where the process of chemical and/or mechanical degradation could be accelerated.Building Rehabilitation V ANODE 0 + x CATHODE .5.1].x=L a FLOW DIRECTION u γwz t1 b t2 t3 WATER PRESSURE AT DIFFERENT t i x=L _ c ELECTRODES PATTERNS + _ + Fig. Electroosmosis principle and electrode arrangements The level is checked by installing pipes displayed on the construction perimeter and monitoring is permanent.5.

Răileanu P. Bucureşti.. which can affect the general stability of the existing constructions on the slope. As regards the drain performance at the foundation level for the existing construction.5..2 Răileanu P. English translation by Nils Johanson and Richard D... 1976. Editura Tehnică. Minialov H.4 Nistor C. Ed. Teodoru M.F. 5.. Seifert.Infrastructure consolidation • urban slopes with an average to high instability risk due to sliding. Foundation Soil Improvement by electrosilication. Probleme privind patologia şi terapeutica construcţiilor. 5..A. Edvardsen. Bulletin of the Norwegian Building Research Institute. 1989 5. Universitz of Alaska Fairbanks. Editura Tehnică. Rotaprint Iaşi. 1996 5. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor. 1989 5...1 Knut I.12 Rising the groundwater level An accessible and often applied solution is to create a water drainage system to maintain the groundwater level in slope rehabilitation under control. Lungu I.3 Tologea S. Muşat V. 1995 page 117 . Balkema. Rotterdam. BIBLIOGRAPHY 5. by maintaining these drains in service.5 Silion T. with no consolidation works on the partially damaged foundation. each construction presents particularities that require an evaluation (difficult to make) of its behaviour improvement..6 Van Impe W.. Fundaţii în condiţii speciale. Soil Improvement. A. PIEZOMETRIC PIPE WATER INFILTRATION WELL Fig. Bucureşti. Muşat V. 1991. Troia L. Foundation retrofit & rehabilitation. Proceedings of the 10th Danube-European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering..

Stanciu A. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium-Grouting and Deep Mixing. Boţi N. Romania... Fundaţii. 1986 5.. Muşat V. Stanciu A. vol 1. Tokyo.. 2. Iaşi. Ed. Probleme Speciale de Geotehnică şi Fundaţii.Building Rehabilitation 5. Rotaprint Iaşi... Boţi N. 2002 page 118 . The use of the electrosilication method at the foundation consolidations for old architectural monuments in Iaşi. Geotehnică.. Lungu I.9 Lungu I. 1996 5. Geologie. Junimea.8 Răileanu P.7 Răileanu P..

6 BRICK AND STONE MASONRY STRUCTURE CONSOLIDATION 6. the masonry type. the main causes are: • material aging. ii. page 119 . stone brick dry masonry loam or lime mortar cement mortar plain masonry masonry with metallic elements masonry with reinforced concrete columns and belts the type of the join(t)ing material between the masonry stone the structural system: the foundation type Excluding the design and execution errors as a cause of masonry structure degradation. • • • iv. the following aspects must be taken into account: i. the age of the building.1 GENERAL ASPECTS When rehabilitating masonry structural systems. • • iii. • • • v.

which lead to the degradation of the materials used in the structural system. fig.2. fig. leakage from supply or sewage installations. • • • page 120 .a.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation • the lack of building maintenance and the occurrence of condensation.6. rise in ground-water level or their course deviation because of new construction. exceeding the bearing capacity of the foundation soil when building a new construction which is adjacent to an already existing construction.1 Masonry weakening caused by the local degradation of foundation soil • wall cracking under horizontal actions following diagonal direction (principal stresses) caused by exceeding the tensile bearing capacity. embrassure base cracking under horizontal actions. crazes and cracks in embrassure crossing due to the lack of joints to provide 3D interaction. foundation soil degradation due to rain water infiltration. fig.2.6.1. embrassure dettaching from lintels or the occurrence of oblique cracks above door and window openings caused by seismic action.b. DECREASED BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL AT PRESENT Fig. seismic action. • • • • The most frequently encountered damages of masonry structures are: • crazes and cracks in the masonry walls due to foundation soil degradation. other extraordinary actions like explosions.6.6.

failure under horizontal actions. b . iii.failure due to bending Fig. Fig. the removal of the possible causes of material degradation.6. avoiding changes in the structural system. fig.3.Building Rehabilitation • masonry displacement and partial failure in areas with stress concentrations. ii. The concept of masonry construction rehabilitation must include: i.3 Masonry displacement/failure in the support area of a beam Fig. iv. a. joining the contiguous vertical elements.6. 6.6.2 Wall cracking under horizontal actions a . b. improving the load transmission to foundations.4 shows the typical failure of a masonry structure without appropriate measures to protect the building during seismic action. page 121 .

achieving co-working between vertical structural elements.6. where this method is very frequently used (fig.6. crack fastening with steel dogs.5) [6. the front walls are preserved for the sake of the historical value of the construction. Fig. Fig. 1997 There are cases when. opening planking.4]. 6.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation v. [6.a shows the contour wall supporting system made of metallic frames arranged on the external contour utilised for the rehabilitation of a building in Manchester. Italy under the earthquake on 26th September. page 122 . crack and craze injection and caulking. partial concreting with concrete denticulations.4 The degradation of an old masonry building in Umbria-Marche.6. Two such examples are provided by two buildings in England. although the building is functionally obsolete.3].5.5. Fig. [6.2 GENERAL CONSOLIDATION PRINCIPLES Masonry structure rehabilitation can be achieved through [6.6. wall jacketing.6]: • • • • • • displaced masonry recovery.5].b presents the rehabilitation of a construction in Sheffield by means of a new framing system made of metallic frames.

joint deepening for 15-20 mm.5 Construction rehabilitation by front wall preservation a . b. Fig.a building in Manchester. page 123 . consisting of: • • • • the existing plastering removal. Once the preparation ends. the inadherent material removal by wire brush rubbing till the opening of the masonry stone pores. the use of metallic cover plates.6.Building Rehabilitation • • • • • corner area binding. the specific consolidation stage may proceed according to the chosen variant from the following ones. the air blast of the cleaned areas to remove the dust. cross-tie implementation. depending on the damage causes. b. the weakening mechanism and particularly on the condition of the building.a building in Sheffield The consolidation of a building may require the combination of the previouslymentioned procedures. a. composite material jacketing. horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete element placement. a very important stage is masonry preparation. aspects that will define the general consolidation concept of the structural system. Within the rehabilitation of any brick or stone masonry structure.

the use of other materials may deteriorate the aspect of the building.6.2. non-homogenous areas may appear. starting from the bottom. However. There are many examples when the use of cement mortar resulted in historical value depreciation. fig. page 124 .2. air blast. This principle is both structurally and architecturally important.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation 6.6.6. when it comes to an apparent masonry structure. cleaning the mortar area.2] 6. leading to concentration of tensions. all these aspects need to be analysed in the general context of structural consolidation. From an architectural point of view.6. Recovery of old masonry with cement mortar [6. When stronger materials need to be introduced.1 Displaced masonry recovery The areas with displaced masonry are rehabilitated by stripping the masonry down and recovering it with the same materials as those used in the initial structure.2 Partial concreting with concrete denticulations Partial concreting means replacing the masonry stone by concrete in the main cracked and crazed areas and consists of: • • • gradual removal of damaged bricks from the cracked areas. Fig.

5 cm deep and 1 m from one another along the crack to facilitate injection.4]. in the case of thick walls this operation is used only as a preliminary stage of the injection procedure. before pouring the concrete. page 125 • . fitting removal after the injection material has hardened and the areas have been repaired. The main stages of injection are: • • • • • removing the dust from the crack by means of a compressed-air jet.Building Rehabilitation • watering the bricks in the area so that they would not absorb the water from the concrete (the operation will be repeated and. Injection is used with the walls having isolated cracks and densely and irregularly networked cracks. which is used in concreting. a bottom to top injection with a pressure of maximum 3 atm. may be applied to all consolidation works that involving wet processing. When the injection material reaches this level. applying coating with a cement mortar layer on both sides of the cracked areas (crack caulking).6]. it needs time to dry to eliminate the exceeding water and open the pores of the masonry stone). introducing some fittings in the walls. The technology described above. Since it is difficult to achieve profound caulking.3 Crack and craze injection and caulking Large cracks and crazes can be caulked with cement mortar. [6. washing the crack with a water jet if injection is done with grouting or cement mortar. fluid cement mortar or epoxy reisin in the case of fine cracks. vertical injection is performed through the next fitting. • This procedure is recommended for the interior walls and only when it is difficult to re-sew the wall masonry [6. It can be done with grouting.2. concrete pouring. 6. This procedure is recommended together with introducing of vertical and horizontal new reinforced concrete elements (columns and belts) to create a better 3D interaction of the entire structural elements.

fig.6.5 Wall jacketing Wall jacketing is recommended for the highly damaged old buildings. It is performed with cement or concrete mortar on either one side or both sides of the walls and reinforcement is usually done with welded nets. The number of dogs depends on their cross-section and the bearing capacity of the masonry wall and will ensure sufficient anchorage length. Usually. Steel dogs are fixed on both sides of the crack. It is recommended that the dogs should be introduced on both wall sides if it is possible [6. masonry wall coating starts at the foundation level from a reinforced concrete belt.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation 6.2.6. reinforcements with independent bars made of plain steel should be used.7. flat steel dogs (plates) are also very frequent as they can be easier fixed in the wall by ordinary means.7. as perpendicular to it as possible in undamaged masonry areas. Wall jacketing is very frequently used in masonry structure consolidation. In this way. Flat steel strap 6. CRACK CONCRETING ZONE FLAT STRIP Fig. page 126 .2.1] In practice. where the bearing capacity of the structural walls is signifivantly diminished. the final/total loadings are transmitted to the foundation soil. To obtain ductile sections.4 Crack fastening seaming with steel dogs Linking with steel dogs is used in the case of isolated cracks. Generally. the steel dogs used are round and fixed in the holes with cement mortar.

6.6.8. The jacketing width will not be more than 4 cm in the case of mortar jacketing and will not exceed 10 cm if it is made of concrete. fig. The dogs may be fixed in holes that have been filled with mortar. but also on the execution technology (casting or injection). Fig.b.2. The jacketing width depends not only on the bearing capacity to be provided. framing the opening with metallic profiles. This can be achieved by fixing the reinforcement to the wall and ensuring that the material used for coating has good adherence to the wall. 6-8 cm in hook. Wall jacketing should be conceived so that good co-working with the existing masonry would be provided. framing the opening by means of a reinforced concrete structure.8. In the case of double jacketing. If the dogs are fixed by hammering. they should be located in the vertical joints. inclined with about 10-15º.Building Rehabilitation STEEL DOGS 10-15 20 cm O 20 c m a.6 Opening planking Opening planking can be done by: • • • placing the additional reinforcement around the opening embedded in jacketing. 15 cm long. They are made of plain steel and are 10 mm in diameter.8 Reinforcement fixing by means of dogs b.6. Jacketing reinforcement is fixed with chess-like vertically and horizontally positioned dogs at about 20 cm.6. page 127 . the dogs penetrate the wall and tie the reinforcements on both sides. sharp and bent at right corner under heating.a. fig.

Fig. The bars are additionally fixed in the wall by means of dogs. If possible.10. b.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation When reinforcement is used. additional bonds must be introduced in the corner areas.6. Consolidation of the corner areas provides actually a real 3D interaction of the jacketed structural elements.6. The nets are overlapped for at least 20 cm on both sides of the corner. 10 cm between them.9. on the opening contour at about 3-5 cm from its edge.9. Additionally. fig. DOGS A BOUNDING MEMBER A-A A-A A A 10 3-5 A REINFORCED RAMA DIN CONCRETE FRAME BETON ARMAT METALLIC FRAMING a. Opening framing with metallic profiles usually makes use of steel angle sections fixed in the masonry by means of round steel anchors 60-80 cm long disposed on the entire opening contour. Opening framing by means of a reinforced concrete frame is achieved by taking a brick row out. If the wall is thick. page 128 .6.6. 6.6.b. fig.c. three bars of 12 mm in diameter are fixed over the net by means of dogs at about 10 cm between them.a. pierced dogs should be used to ensure a better bonding between jacketing and the structure of the wall. the operation can be done separately for the interior and the exterior and. fig. the two frames can be bounded. it is added to the jacketing reinforcement and it will consist of at least 2 bars of 12 mm in diameter. fig.2.9 Types of opening planking c.7 Corner area binding To ensure a better element binding.9. if necessary.

3 m between them. 1 FRONT PLATE CROSSING MEMBER CRAMP CROSS-TIE CONNECTING NUT 1 CROSS-TIE 1. Cross-ties are usually made of round steel to enable nut tensioning. whatever the floor type. diagonal braces and vertical beams.8 Cross-tie use Cross-ties provide the space bonding of the masonry structures and they are used with buildings that do not have reinforced concrete belts.Building Rehabilitation 10 Fig.10. tie-belts can be obtained to improve the overall structural behaviour. By using two cross-ties on the interior and exterior sides. which can form upper and bottom belts.1 CROSSING MEMBER Fig.2. channel bar etc) with round bars at their ends are also in use.11 Tie-belt 6.6.11.9 The use of metallic cover plates Dry consolidation can also be achieved by means of metallic cover plates (channels or angle sections). Other types of sections (flat steel.2. The metallic profiles disposed on both wall sides are fixed with page 129 . Cross-tie ending fixing is done with plates or other metallic profiles.6. Corner area binding 6. which can provide stress distribution over a large wall area and can couple the corner area.6. cramp-spaced and bonded with reinforced concrete straps (beam traverse) at 1-1. fig.

Editura Tehnică.6. Tomul XXIV (XXVIII). Such works are very labour intensive.2. Bucureşti. Fasc. Negoiţă Al. Troia L.2 6. Tologea S. 6. 1992.. 1979.... Ionaşcu M. Editura Tehnică.Brick and stone masonry structure consolidation double-ended bolts. Buletinul I. Comportarea materialelor şi a construcţiilor din zidarie portantă din municipiul Iaşi. Dario Flaccovio Editore. University of Sheffield... Bucureşti. The Rehabilitation and Conservation of Old Masonry Historic Structures With the Use of FRPs.. Editura Tehnică. Hassapis S.3] BIBLIOGRAPHY 6. Degree of Master of Philosophy. page 130 .1 6. Bucureşti.3-4.6. Aur V. Soluţii de consolidare a construcţiilor avariate de cutremure. The reinforced concrete columns are introduced at wall and fixed with simple belts with connectors.100 cm CONNECTOR EXISTING MASONRY REINFORCED CONCRETE BELT Fig.10 The use of horizontal and vertical reinforced concrete element The use of reinforced concrete columns and belts is one of the most frequently met solutions as it provides good bonding between the horizontal and vertical structural elements. 1999. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor. 1997. one for each side of the wall). Budescu M. The result is masonry wall pre-stressing which improves structural behaviour 6..Iaşi.4 6. Voiculescu M. Restauro Antisismico.6 Arsenie C..12 or belts of the cover plate type (2 belts. 1991. Probleme privind patologia şi terapeutica construcţiilor. Teodoru M. as they require the removal of some parts of the masonry. Minialov H.12 Belt with connectors [6.3 Nistor C. 80 . Palermo. 1976.P. Pasta A.5 6. fig.. This is why they are mostly used with old buildings where mortar is less strong....

7 REHABILITATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES 7. The causes of degradation of reinforced concrete structures are not few. formwork removal or stressing of the structural element before reaching the required concrete strength. incorrect analytic modelling and calculus errors. incorrect disposal of the reinforcing bars in compliance with the execution project. failure to comply with the technologies when casting the concrete. page 131 . Sometimes the causes of degradation of reinforced concrete structures and of other types of structures as well may occur even from the design stage. Some of them are: • • loading underestimation related to the destination of the building or the change in its destination. Although these types of structures have a high degree of safety. The group of construction errors that may have unpleasant effects on the reinforced concrete structures also includes errors related to the quality of the adjacent works like jacketing. such as: • • • • • certain operations performed in cold or hot weather conditions without taking proper measures to ensure the quality of concrete. finishing etc.1 GENERAL ASPECTS Buildings with reinforced concrete structures are largely used in most countries. The most frequent damages are caused by defective performances during execution. the cases when intervention is needed to rehabilitate them are very frequent. use of low quality materials.

There are also other factors which. either by degradation in the foundation soil and water infiltration as leakage from water supply systems. or degradation at the hydro-and thermal level of coatings can make the structures lose their functioning capacity (e. Many old buildings. the loss of their capacity of retaining liquids in tanks or retaining water at dams) or local failures into the structure itself. However. such as the lack of plastic deformation capacity (nonductile sections) for the buildings situated in seismic areas. Most examples of this type are found in industry. accepting some inadequate structural systems suggested by the architects. which have been subjected to a relatively high number of earthquakes. technological operations that release aggressive chemical substances. Damages are often caused by technological actions or the improper maintenance of equipment and installations. where damage may be caused by: • • • • • • chemical agents. infiltration of chemical agents into the groundwater and infrastructure failure. sometimes accompanied by material aging. conceiving errors related to thermal coating/insulations and heating systems. 7. which lies at the basis of construction design in seismic areas.2 GENERAL REHABILITATION PRINCIPLES Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures may be achieved in several ways. However. interventions. have lost their bearing capacity because of material fatigue. such as: page 132 . accepts minor structural damages during earthquakes. which will require afterwards. excessive humidity and the absence of ventilation systems failure to comply with the climatic conditions (condensation) etc. The concept of ductile design itself.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures • • • structural errors. The causes of reinforced concrete structure degradation under seismic actions are very numerous. most structural damages occur in seismic areas.g. the performance of the new system is constrained by a series of factors. poor maintenance of installations producing vibrations.

girders or joints..7. iii. either locally. if necessary. iv.7. fig. iii. The analyses on the increase in the existing structures‘ performance particularly under seismic actions have resulted in a series of rehabilitation measures which restrain/condition the increase in bearing capacity and horizontal stiffness in relation with the increase in structural members’ ductility [7. using some adjacent structures.1. developing new devices to assess the new system’s performance and behaviour.7.Building Rehabilitation i. iii. using some adjacent structures. reinforced concrete jacketing on either one side or both sides of the existing walls (by shotcretting).b.1. achieving the best bonding possible between the two members (the new one and the old one) so that an effective loading transfer could be achieved.d. the correct modelling of the newly created system. involved in major structural areas. fig.1. the compatibility between the old system’s capacity of deformation and that of the system acquired by strengthening each structural member.a – the panels can be made of reinforced concrete or masonry. page 133 ii. leveling the behaviour of the building by diminishing the torsion effects etc.1.7.2. the rehabilitation principles are generally restricted to restoring the bearing capacity of structural elements by caulking and obliterate the fissures/cracks with mortar or epoxi resin injections. iv. perimetral planking and member joining on intersections.7. iv. For buildings on shear walls. For the reinforced concrete framed structures this can be done by several procedures: i. the following methods may be used: i. .c – they may have several roles. using some stiffening panels or increasing the bearing capacity of the existing ones. fig. fig. ii.1]. within the frames or generally. ii. In order to increase the bearing capacity. such as stiffening and decreasing the stress state within the structure. using some steel bracings. performing some new structural walls connected afterwards to the existing ones. fig. restoring the bearing capacity of the building by increasing the bearing capacity of structural elements: columns. (the new walls may be built on either one side or both sides of the existing walls).

2 Strengthening of reinforced concrete structural walls using new/adjacent walls page 134 .7. b.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures STIFFENING PANEL BRACING PANEL a.7. Since both the systems used and the damage affecting the reinforced concrete buildings are of various types. the interface connection between the old and the new elements is required to ensure their bonding and obtain a single homogeneous structural system. Fig. d. A CONNECTORS A A-A + + + + + + + + FLOOR CONNECTING BARS CONNECTORS OLD STRUCTURAL WALL A NEW STRUCTURAL WALL A Fig. it is difficult to decide which one is the best rehabilitation solution. STRENGTHENING OF THE JOINT ADJACENT STRUCTURE STRENGTHENING OF THE GIRDER STREGTHENING OF THE COLUMN c.1 Strengthening solutions for reinforced concrete framed structures Whatever the case.

girders and columns. masonry panels wedged within the frame border are used due to the simplicity of execution.2. in areas without window openings. at the same time. This device provides efficient interaction between the elements of the existing structure and the new elements. If possible.7. Connection can be made with reinforcing bars introduced in holes. the use of one procedure or another is imposed by technological and economic conditions. fig. thus preventing stress concentration at the corners of the reinforcing panels. page 135 . as each system represents a different case.Building Rehabilitation A A-A CONNECTORS FLOOR PLANKING ELEMENT OLD STRUCTURAL WALL CARCASS A Fig. which must be tied to the adjacent elements. Currently.7.5. which might penetrate the structural elements. fig.b. fig.4.3 Planking of structural walls Although researches and technical studies consider the rehabilitation thoroughly investigated and as very important. or with conexpand connectors. Wedging can be done with metallic pieces. In areas with windowpanes it is recommended to use reinforced concrete panels.7. the panels will be placed in door or window-free areas and. no best “recipes” can be given finally. Moreover. 7.a.4. vertical continuity should be kept not to create areas with sudden stiffness variations.7.1 Strengthening with reinforced concrete or masonry panels This procedure is used to stiffen and increase the bearing capacity of the structural system under lateral actions. or with leaning masonry elements.

5 Connecting procedures of the reinforced concrete panels within the frame border When the width of the girder is smaller than the width of the column. Both procedures mentioned above require efficient co-working between the initial structure and the new reinforcing panels so that higher stress could not push out the panel and stress concentration could be prevented in the panel-structure contact areas at corners. the reinforced concrete panel can be placed laterally to the girder.wedging with masonry A A-A GIRDER CONNECTORS A COLUMN CONNECTORS Fig. In some cases. fig.7. b . b. by tying at the floor level and connecting to the contiguous vertical elements or not.7. fig. page 136 .7. when reinforcing is performed in the outer area of the building. prefab panels with connector-type joints may be used and the joining are is filled with mortar.metallic piece.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures WEDGING WEDGING WITH MASONRY a. Fig.7.6.4 Wedging procedures for masonry panels a .7.

Building Rehabilitation A A-A CONNECTORS THROUGH THE FLOOR A COLUMN CONNECTORS Fig.6 Connecting reinforced concrete panels introduced laterally to the girder A A-A EXISTING STRUCTURE CONNECTOR FROM THE STRUCTURE SPIRAL PANEL CONNECTOR MORTAR STIFFENING PANEL A Fig.2. The bracing systems are metallic frames with bracings inside. fig. with conexpand connectors and mortar caulking. with connectors.8. The frame may be fixed in the frame opening in several ways: i.7. fig.7. spires and mortar.2. ii.2] 7. The main reason is related to the weight-stiffness ratio and some technological aspects.a.7 Connecting prefab panels [7. Strengthening with steel bracing systems Steel bracings are more and more used for the rehabilitation of structures made of reinforced concrete frames. page 137 .7.7.7.

4].8. The system can also be made of units joined with bolts.7. by means of metallic elements fixed on the opening edges with conexpands. by adhesion with epoxi resins. Recently.7.9 presents two metallic bracing systems utilised in Japan [7. b.7.b. with an intermediate element Fig. to which the bracing elements are linked with screws. page 138 . a. honeycomb-shaped bracing panels with metallic structure have been recommended.7. b. iv.10.7. Panel segmentation enables manual handling. a.7. c. The panels are made of a metallic plate with metallic profile reinforcement.c.4]. fig. fig. fig.a [7. Fig.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures iii.8 Coupling bracing panels with conexpands and joint caulking. fig. and c.b.8. thus enabling the introduction of elements to the stiffeners inside the building.10.

7.9. b. Bracing systems [4] a. classic bracing element with connectors and mortar. adhesion with epoxi resins a. b.Building Rehabilitation a.7. panel made of assembled boxes page 139 . b. Fig. ribbed panel.10 Bracing panels made of metallic sheet a. Fig. b.

f. girders. bridge piers. the procedure used in consolidating reinforced concrete structures is based on reinforced concrete jacketing.7]. fig. For columns. They can be introduced into the structure very fast and prevent the increase in building weight. [7. fig. the most frequently used local consolidation systems are [7.11.c. Apart from these consolidation systems. the space between the element and the box being injected with cement mortar.11.b. by coupling. • boxes made of sheet-metal. which can be applied to columns.7. fig. foundations etc. 7. piles. There are cases when joining adjacent buildings results in an ensemble whose characteristics are superior to the parts. page 140 .5].2]: • reinforced concrete jacketing. fig.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures 7. • hoop reinforcement with strips. fig.4 Strengthening achieved by increasing the bearing capacity of structural elements Most frequently. • hoop reinforcement with cables.11.7.7.7. The main aspects concerning the consolidation of columns and girders are presented below. Jacketing consists of widening the section of the construction element by providing on both sides reinforced concrete jackets intimately linked with the original member.2. In this way. • boxes made of metallic profiles.11.2. Various aspects related to consolidation devices are dealt with in the technical literature [7. fig.7.6]. • table sheets linked with epoxi resins.11.d.11. lateral stiffness may increase.7.a. Jacketing is used both to prevent further deterioration of a construction element and increase the initial bearing capacity.e. diaphragm walls.3 Strengthening by using adjacent structures This device is used only when the building needs expanding and the adjacent building may increase the capacity of the ensemble under lateral actions or may ensure a better behaviour under torsion effects. several other devices are currently used. among them those based on composite materials. [7.

To provide co-working between the new reinforcement and the page 141 . c.11.7]. e.7. reinforced concrete jacketing. cross-ties may be disposed by piercing the plate. f. boxes made of metallic profiles. BOXES MADE OF METALLIC PROFILES TABLE BOXES c. The most frequent procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders have flexible reinforcements.7. fig. table sheets stuck with epoxi resins To some of these devices shown in fig.3].12. hoop reinforcement with cables.7. care should be taken that the minimum diameter of the stirrups would be 8 mm and they would be disposed at 10-15 cm between them. Various procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete columns a.Building Rehabilitation HOOP REINFORCEMENT WITH CABLES TABLE SHEETSLINKED WITH EPOXI RESIN REINFORCED CONCRETE JACKETTING HOOP REINFORCEMENT WITH STRIPS a.c.12. e. Plate perforation can be done for groups of cross-ties. [7. When jacketing reinforced concrete girders.12.a and b. fig.7. supplementary linking with conexpand connectors can be done to improve the co-working between the jacketing system and the initial system [7. f. fig. Thus. b. Technical literature deals with these aspects in detail [7. table boxes and mortar injections. hoop reinforcement with strips. d. or the core of the girder. Some of the systems utilised for columns may be extended to reinforced concrete girders in the same way and the joints linking the consolidated areas of the columns to those of the girders must be specially detailed to provide proper jointing. b. whereas core perforation for independent cross-ties only. d.11. Fig.7.5].

[7. b. a.13. In this way.13 Procedures utilised in the consolidation of reinforced concrete girders by means of metallic profiles and boxes The metallic profiles.). conexpands etc. Devices used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders by means of reinforced concrete jacketing A “dry” consolidation device used with reinforced concrete girders contains metallic profiles or boxes fixed on the existing structure with threaded assembling elements (pins.5].7. fig. In order to provide the best contact between elements.Rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures already existing one in the girder binding will be done with welded cover plates disposed at 50-100 cm between them [7. fig.7.13.13. Fig.12.7. and the boxes.6]. The double-ended bolts are disposed in the same way as the cross-ties by piercing the plate. Fig. b. this system is often found in girder consolidation.c may be attached to the reinforced concrete girders with double-ended bolts and conexpands. which function as cross-ties as well. c.b.7.a the longitudinal elements made of angle sections placed on the lower part of the girder are attached and co-working is achieved by prestressed double-ended bolts alone.7]. a. In fig. [7. Since good co-working between concrete and metal can be achieved by sticking with epoxi resins. The solution is page 142 .7. injections with cement mortar can be made. all non-uniformities caused by the casting of the reinforced concrete element may be corrected. c.

In the third case....4 7. V. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Members in Damaged and Reconstructed Building.S. A. 1995.jp/takenaka_e/techno/7 Malganov. Nist.14. Editura Tehnică.5 7.2 7. 1995. A.I.a and the shear strengthening..14.S. NISTIR 5128.6 7.. J.. a. C.. L. Plevkov. www. Consolidarea şi întreţinerea construcţiilor.. M.14.R. D. Workshop on the Seismic Rehabilitation of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Frames. 1977. Teodoru. Troia. page 143 . and for mixed situations. Proceedings. 1991. Lew. 1993.I.co. L.. Editura Tehnică. June... H. Minialov. Nistor. Tomsk.b.c. fig.S.14...Building Rehabilitation used both to increase the independent flexural bearing capacity. Feb. Voiculescu. Seismic Upgrading of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Steel Elements. Soluţii de consolidare a construcţiilor avariate de cutremure. Building and Fire Research Laboratory.7. Workshop on the Seismic Rehabilitation of Lightly Reinforced Concrete Frames.7.3 7. Proceedings.. Strengthening Methodology for Lightly Reinforced concrete Frames – I. Jirsa.T. M. Arsenie.1 7. Ionaşcu. Goel. Polishchuk.takenaka. c. Fig. June. C. Gaithersburg. M. fig.. the vertical elements can be disposed continuously or discontinuously as tie plates to take over the shearing force.. Procedures used to consolidate reinforced concrete girders with metallic plates glued with epoxi resins BIBLIOGRAPHY 7. Bucureşti. Todd.7 Phan. 1989. b. fig. Gaithersburg.7. Use of Steel Elements in Rehabilitation of RC Frames. Bucureşti.7. G. H.O. Gaithersburg. This solution requires special preparation of the concrete contact area to ensure flatness and the decrease in thickness of adhesive layer.

2.1] and which can not always ensure safety during struture’s life. Besides the classical rehabilitation procedures. Base isolation mainly consists of uncoupling the foundation from the structure. in the last 20 years a series of new seismic isolation procedures were outlined and adopted widely in pracice. The economical evaluations showed that damaged structures repairing and rehabilitation imply significant costs that could be up to 30% of the cost of a new similar building [8. which were widely presented in the paragraph 1. increase in energy dissipation capacity. ii. Earthquakes can even lead to the collapse of structures if the design rules for earthquake resistance of structures are not met. buildings undergo numerous damages due to various causes. The structural rehabilitation is a complex task. design and execution of structures but to consider some new rehabilitation procedures for damaged structures. 8. it results in a sliding surface which allows the free motion of page 144 . more difficult than the design and execution of a new building. The conception and execution of the rehabilitation projects imply technical experts with important technical knowledge and practical experience. Among them. resulting in significant degradations in structures. such as: i. earthquake remains the most important. In this case the design engineer must pay attention not only to the accurate conception. base isolation. Thus.2 BASE ISOLATION The limitation of the energy induced in structures by earthquakes can be carried out by base isolation.8 NEW SYSTEMS OF STRUCTURAL REHABILITATION TO EARTHQUAKES 8.1 GENERAL ASPECTS During their life.

8. fig. sewage. ideal isolation. Consequently.2. This system anticipates numerous procedures of seismic isolation that exist nowadays or which are patented [8.Building Rehabilitation the foundation together with the ground. IDEAL BEARING BEARING a. The ball bearing has been afterwards simplified and replaced by ellipsoids placed between two plane surfaces. a certain quantity of energy is induced in the structure. In the last years various types of base isolation systems have been carried out.b. rolls in two directions etc.1. which is not achievable in practice. gas. ellipsoids. In 1870 French Jules Tonaillon submitted the application for a license to the Office of Inventions in San Francisco. due to the bearing stiffness. Fig.8.a. fig.2. a series of disadvantages affect the equipment in the structure due to large displacements between structure and foundation. pendulums. This modification has the same effect of up-lifting the structure page 145 .2. That is why bearing stiffness must be correlated with the other systems in the structure. b. 8.1 The behaviour of a base isolated structure a.b.a. springs. which allow the free movement of the structure with respect to the ground. b. such as water. which presents an isolation system with balls.8. real isolation In the case of an ideal bearing. electricity supply systems. The isolation system consists of devices. it is over one hundred years old.8.1 Kinematic bearings The idea of seismic isolation is not new. A series of other components for energy dissipation or displacement reduction are added to the bearing.8. fig. called bearings. heating system etc. balls. California.1.2]. were used to make the bearings. Elastomeric and sliding bearings. the structure being in rest due to its inertia. The most frequently used bearings are the elastomeric ones. This is correlated with the excitation characteristics and the dynamic characteristics of the new created ensemble (isolated system). A complete seismic isolation system could be done only in the case of an “ideal” bearing. fig.

8.3 Friction pendulum bearing The bearing consists of a spherical sliding surface and a articulated element covered with a high pressure resistant material. placed in cavities that allow the free rotation. balls. The length of the columns is equal to the level height. ellipsoids b. By the relative displacement of the two sliding surfaces.3. a. the pendulum bearings can be mentioned as well. page 146 .4]. ELEMENT DE SUSTINERE BEARING ELEMENT SPHERICAL SURFACE SUPRAFATA SFERICA SEAL ELEMENT DE ETANSARE GLISOR ARTICULATED SLIDER Fig. the occurrence of the gravitation force that will restore the structure equilibrium. Another kinematic system. was conceived and patented by Nazin [8.3].2 Kinematic bearings a. and consequently. [8.8. Romania. They are some reinforced-concrete cylinders with spherical ends. this system ensures the lifting of the gravity center of the building. the ends being introduced in a carcass to ensure the displacements’ limitation. Fig.8. An alternative to the ball bearing is the friction pendulum bearing.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes as the balls and to create the equilibrium between the inertia forces due to earthquake and the gravitational forces. fig.8. This type of structure that uses kinematic bearings was carried out in Iasi. b.4. fig. Among the kinematic bearings used in practice. similar to the short pendulum.

obtained by connections between molecular chains. Elastomers are made of long macromolecules. numerous synthetic elastomers are known: chloroprene. which form a spatial network after vulcanisation. that is Poisson’s ratio ν = 0.1) . Elastomers are materials that do not obey Hooke’s law for any stress level.8.Building Rehabilitation SUPRASTRUCTURE KINEMATIC BEARINGS FOUNDATION Fig. The mechanical movements produce translations of the network segments. the force-deformation curve is strongly influenced by the shape factor (the ratio of loaded area to force-free area of a single rubber layer). At present. The characteristic force-deformation relationship of elastomers for different types of loadings is shown in fig. Moreover.5.2.5 . except natural rubber. silicone rubber. polyurethane etc. The most used elastomer. The following relation exists between the shear modulus G of the elastomer and the instantaneous compression modulus E 0 of the bearing: G= E0 3 page 147 (8. elastomers exhibit mechanical properties similar to those of incompressible liquids.4 Kinematic bearings – short columns 8.8.2 Elastomeric bearings Elastomers are materials with a high degree of polymerisation. also known as neoprene.5]. For deformations less than 400%. apart from natural rubber. called vulcanization [8. is the chloroprene rubber. which lead to physical transformations at the molecular chain level.

5 Elastomer behaviour to different loads An elastomeric bearing is made of alternant layers of elastomer and steel plates. superstructure In general.8. ELASTOMER STEEL PLATE Fig. Because of the reduced damping capacity (the damping coefficient varies between 2% and 3% of critical damping).6 Elastomeric bearing (elastomer. fig.8.2]. The bearing behaviour to horizontal and vertical actions is presented in fig. foundation.7.8.8. steel plates).New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes P ∆ Fig. in 1975 in New Zealand a new type of elastomeric bearing was designed. The elastomer ensures large flexibility in horizontal direction and the steel plates prevent the transverse deformations and ensure large vertical stiffness of the bearing. In order to increase damping capacity. the elastomeric bearings need additional energy dissipating elements. the vertical stiffness of the bearing is about 400 times the horizontal stiffness [8.6. page 148 .

However. the superstructure slides by overpassing the friction between the Teflon plate fixed on the elastomeric bearing and the steel plate fixed on the superstructure. The addition of fine particles of black carbon increases damping.8 Lead plug bearing In order to eliminate the additional energy dissipating devices.Building Rehabilitation P F P P a.8.8. fig. Fig.8. Another type of elastomeric bearing is sliding bearing. page 149 . vertical load.7 Behaviour of an elastomeric layer (working zone) a. Considerable energy dissipation is ensured by the plastic deformation of the lead core. [8. horizontal load A lead plug was introduced in the centre of the bearing.6].8. b.5]. F u F u ∆ ∆ b. in 1982 Malaysian Rubber Producers Research Association in England developed a component of natural rubber with high energy dissipating capacity. friction characteristics depend on temperature and the relative sliding velocity of the surfaces in contact. The sliding process dissipates a significant amount of energy. so that the damping coefficient varies between 10-20% of critical damping. It was designed in 1977 in France and in 1978 in USA [8. LEAD CORE Fig. During strong earthquakes.

fabrication and installation of the isolation system are afforded.8. Some of the most representative base isolated buildings will be presented further on. Oakland City Hall in California. built in 1914 in Beaux Art style.10. where classical interventions for rehabilitation alter their historical character. Teflon. In the end.9 Sliding bearings (stainless steel. was the tallest building on the west cost of the USA at that time [8. being the tallest base isolated building at that time. Seismic isolation is used for structure rehabilitation when conventional rehabilitation procedures cannot be used. The structural system consists of steel frames filled with peripheral walls of non-reinforced masonry. Several repair and strengthening procedures were taken into account. The vast majority of the rehabilitation projects uses elastomeric bearings or lead core bearings for base isolation. sliding) Base isolation was used for the rehabilitation of structures made of stone and brick masonry with low ductility or nonductile reinforced concrete structures.8.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes STAINLESS STEEL TEFLON SLIDING Fig. It has 18 storeys and a surface of about 14214 m2. In the case of sliding bearings it is important that the sliding force should be correctly estimated so that the isolation system should begin sliding before significant degradations occur in the structure. page 150 . the solution of base isolation rehabilitation was chosen. fig. 8. it is used for structures where an important seismic protection is desired and significant costs for the design. Seismic isolation is not a rehabilitation procedure to be applied to all structures. The rehabilitation of the building started in 1992 and was finished in 1995. It is the case of historical buildings.7]. The damages caused by Loma Prieta earthquake in October 1989 imposed the seismic rehabilitation of this building.2.3 Structures rehabilitated through base isolation At present there are numerous seismically retrofitted structures using the base isolation systems mentioned above.

the isolators counting for about 2. The building has 5 storeys. The structural system is made of steel frames and non-reinforced brick masonry with granite cladding. b. Oakland City Hall. model of the rehabilitated building The isolation system consists of 110 lead-plug rubber bearings ranging from 737 mm to 940 mm. [8. The installation of the isolation system required shoring up and shortening the columns and transferring the loads to temporary supports.8. The columns were raised less than 2. the plan dimensions of 94 m x 124 m and a 91 m dome. Another structure rehabilitated through base isolation is San Francisco City Hall.5 mm during the lifting process. fig.11.8].5% of that number.Building Rehabilitation a. view. It was designed in 1912 to replace the initial structure that had been destroyed in 1906.10. The cost of the retrofit was about $84 million.8. The significant damages caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 required considerable repair and seismic retrofit. page 151 . The retrofit strategy adopted for the building was a base isolation system with superstructure strengthening using concrete shear walls. California a. Fig. b.

8.11 San Francisco City Hall. It is a boardshaped sculpture.10]. [8. Another use of base isolation was the protection of Rodin’s sculpture “Gates of Hell” at the National Museum of West Art in Tokyo. The elastomer used was a high-damping one. The isolation system used consists of a combination of 145 lead rubber bearings. the Parliament House is a five-storey masonry walled structure.4 m high. The diameter of the lead rubber bearing ranges between 155 and 190 mm. 230 rubber bearings and 42 sliding bearings. California The isolation system consists of 530 lead-plug rubber bearings and its installation was a complicated process of shortening. Many of the columns are shored by four bearings under a steel structure. Another important base isolated building is New Zealand Parliament House. Built in 1922.8.8. The seismic retrofit started in 1992 and was accomplished in 1994 with a total cost of $6 million [8.13. 3. shoring and installation. fig. The sliding bearings consist of Teflon and stainless steel surfaces fixed on highdamping bearings. 5.9 m wide and weighing 7 tons.9].12. The construction began in 1994 and was completed in 1998. Japan. page 152 .New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes Fig. All the bearings were roundly shaped with the diameter ranging from 480 to 580 mm. fig.

12 New Zealand Parliament House Fig.8. page 153 . The bearings allow the free movement of the sculpture on the two horizontal directions. it was placed on a platform fixed on a base-isolation device. National Museum of Western Art.14.8.Building Rehabilitation Fig.13 Auguste Rodin’s The “Gates to Hell”. At the same time preservation work was carried out by replacing the steel frame and bolts that had deteriorated with age. Tokyo To prevent the sculpture from falling over in case of major earthquakes. The base isolation system contains five circular roller bearings and two dampers.8. fig.

so that all of them could move together.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes STRUCTURA SUPPORT REAR DE STRUCTURE SUSTINERE A LUCRARII SCULPTURE SCULPTURA PLATFORMA CU BAZA IZOLATA BASE-ISOLATED PLATFORM SISTEMISOLATION SYSTEM DE IZOLARE A BAZEI BASE UNDERGROUND SALA DE LECTURA LECTURE ROOM Fig. especially designed for that purpose. fig.15 Circular roller bearings The seismic retrofit was performed by Takenaka Corporation from December 1998 to March 1999.8.8. 8. They control a wide range of horizontal displacements from minor to major earthquakes.3 INCREASE IN ENERGY DISSIPATION CAPACITY The increase in energy dissipation is carried out by new elements that are added to the structure. The main aim of the energy page 154 . Fig.14 Base isolation retrofit mechanism A steel-reinforced joining material connects them.15. The dampers used are viscous dampers developed by Takenaka and Oils Corporation.8.

iv. iii. which can be replaced more easily than structural members. For stresses that are bigger than yield stress. they are all characterised by the capacity to transform the kinetic energy into another form of dissipative energy. The material behaviour in the inelastic range could be fragile or ductile. according to the type of energy dissipation mechanism [8. These energy dissipation systems can be classified in the following categories. irreversible structural modifications take place. v. viscoelastic dampers. 8. viscous dampers. dampers based on lead extrusion. In both cases the reduction of floor displacements and storey shear is intended. At present there are numerous energy dissipation systems that use various materials and procedures. The use of additional energy dissipation elements in structure is recommended for the following reasons: • • • these systems can increase the structural stiffness and damping.1 Dampers based on steel yielding The damping devices that proved to be the most economical and suitable for energy dissipation in structures are the yielding steel dampers. slip-friction dampers. structural degradations can be limited at the damper-level. energy dissipation in structure can be achieved only by additional dampers.Building Rehabilitation dissipation elements is to dissipate large amounts of the energy induced by the earthquake into the structure and reduce the relative displacements in structure.11]: i. There is no conceptual difference between the ductile design and the energy dissipation approach. Generally. The difference is that in the first case the energy dissipation function is assigned to the structural members and in the second case.3. To understand their behaviour it is necessary to examine the inelastic deformation process. new elements are added to the structure. dampers based on steel yielding. ii. page 155 .

The disposable elements should be designed so that yielding would occur prior to the development of plastic hinges in the structural members. The bracing system made of mild steel represents the most simple energy dissipation system based on inelastic metal deformation. The mechanical twinning consists of the reorientation of an area of a crystal under shear forces. torsion. iv. without a volume change. different types of devices based on bending. relative slippage of the crystals. yielding steel dampers ensure the structure high resistance. shear or their combination were developed. for which energy dissipation is carried out by disposable bars deformed by bending are shown in fig. Sliding is the fundamental mechanism of the cold inelastic deformation and represents the translation of a part of a crystal relative to another part.8.16. In addition. The advantages of yielding steel dampers lie in their stable behaviour in time. ii. sliding. Ductility (the material capacity to dissipate an important amount of energy through inelastic deformations) is produced by particle dislocation. mechanical twinning. The resistance force in dampers depends on the non-linear characteristics of material (stress-strain relation). which work at normal temperatures. page 156 . This irreversible displacement of atoms in crystals is caused by four elementary mechanisms: i. Starting from the general principles of steel behaviour. longterm reliability and good behaviour in environmental and thermal conditions. iii. stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. The first two mechanisms take place at high temperatures so they are not specific to hysteretic dampers.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes The ductile materials exhibit significant inelastic deformations before breaking. Other systems. creep by diffusion.

each cross-section yields simultaneously so the entire element dissipates energy. Fig.Building Rehabilitation STRUCTURE STRUCTURA STRUCTURE STRUCTURA ENERGY ELEMENTE DISSIPATION DISIPATOARE DEVICES DE ENERGIE Fig.8.8.15]. page 157 . [13] (structure.18. was introduced by Bethtel Power Corporation [8. fig.14].17.16 Yielding steel bracing system [12]. Due to its shape yielding takes place over the entire plate surface. Its shape leads to a constant curvature.8. energy dissipating elements) Another device. referred to as added damping and stiffness (ADAS) and consisting of multiple X-shaped steel plates.17 ADAS elements Later Tsai and Hong (1982) modified the ADAS system in the form of tapered or triangular (T-ADAS) elements [8.8. Typical hysteretic loops for the T-ADAS elements are shown in fig.

Lead extrusion devices have the following advantages: their load . This way the plastic deformations of lead and consequently energy dissipation take place. b. bulged-shaft type page 158 . Robinson first presented that device in 1987 as a passive energy dissipation device for base isolated structures in New Zealand [8.8.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 700 Pp Py 0 Py -360 Pp 360 Forta (kN) FORCE(KN) -700 -0. The process of extrusion consists of forcing a material to pass through a hole or an orifice. Fig.19 Lead extrusion damper a.18 0. they are insensitive to environmental conditions and ageing effects and have a long life and do not require replacing or repairing after an earthquake since the lead in the damper returns to its undeformed state after excitation. a.8.deformation relation is stable and not affected by the number of loading cycles.8.36 -0.00 ν (rad) 0. constricted-tube type. fig.18 0.36 PINNED ARTICULATIE CONNECTION Fig.2 Lead Extrusion Devices Another type of damper that utilises the hysteretic energy dissipation properties of metals is the lead extrusion damper.18 T-ADAS element and its hysteretic loops (hinge) 8.19. b.3.16].

The device consists of a cylinder. Friction devices have difficulty in maintaining their properties over prolonged time intervals because the metallic interfaces are susceptible to corrosion. the number of load cycles or variations in temperature. The device has self-centering capabilities. In 1993 Gregorian and Popov proposed a friction device that allows the slip in slotted bolted connections [8. these devices are activated even by small excitations.18]. These devices have high resistance to fatigue. as well. which indicate that the behaviour of friction dampers is similar to that of Coulomb friction. friction wedges and stops. In contrast to other frictional devices that exhibit rectangular hysteresis loop. normal loads on the sliding interface cannot be reliably maintained and some relaxation should be expected over time and permanent offsets may occur after an earthquake. The connection consists of two outer steel plates. page 159 . where evidence of a heavy abrasive wear was noticed. compression wedges.17]. which reduce permanent offsets when the structure deforms beyond the elastic range. Flour Daniel Inc.3 Friction dampers In the last years a variety of friction devices has been proposed and developed for energy dissipation in structures. a central slotted gusset plate and two shims fastened to the outer plates. their behaviour being relatively less affected by load frequency. The Energy Dissipating Restraint is the only friction device that generates nonrectangular hysteresis loops and the slip load is proportional to the displacement.3. and differ in their mechanical complexity and in the material used for the sliding surfaces. these devices have good performance characteristics. Generally. has developed a friction device called Energy Dissipating Restraint [8. The hysteretic loops are rectangular and stable after a large number of cycles compared to steel-to-steel interface. In this type of connection the brass shims were scratched whereas the steel plates remained undamaged. The sliding interface consisted of brass and steel.Building Rehabilitation 8. Most of these devices generate rectangular hysteretic loops. The Energy Dissipating Restraint mechanism consists of sliding friction through a range of motions with a stop at the ends of the cylinder. internal springs.

VISCOELASTIC MATERIAL MATERIAL VASCOELASTIC Fig. Viscoelastic devices can be used at the beam-column connection in braced frames.21]. The connection consists of two single-toothed devices symmetrically placed. being mainly oil dampers.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 8.4. The viscoelastic devices have the disadvantages of depending on excitation frequency and ambient temperature. The device consists of an outer steel case attached to the lower floor page 160 .8. they return to their initial shape after each deformation cycle and dissipate a certain amount of energy as heat [8. The viscoelastic materials exhibit combined features of elastic solid and viscous liquid when deformed.4. When mounted onto the structure.20 and can be installed on the bracing system [8.a Viscoelastic dampers Viscoelastic dampers have been used as energy dissipating devices in structures where the damper undergoes shear deformations. Sumitomo Construction Company in Japan has developed a viscous damping wall system [8.19]. The shear force is transferred through a shear pin so that the energy-dissipating device should be subjected to axial forces only. A typical viscoelastic damper consists of viscoelastic layers bonded to steel plates.e. fig. This system is designed to increase both damping and lateral stiffness of structure.4 Viscoelastic and viscous dampers 8.3.8.3. the relative motions between the center plate and the outer steel flanges produce shear deformations and consequently energy dissipation.20 Viscoelastic damper Another use of viscoelastic material is viscoelastic infill panels.3.b Viscous dampers Viscous dampers utilize the viscous properties of fluids.20]. i. 8.

it s is a four-storey historical building with a non-ductile reinforced concrete frame at the first level. which allows the operation of the device over a temperature range of –400 C and 700 C. On the other hand.5 Examples of rehabilitated structures using energy dissipating devices An important application of viscous dampers is the seismic retrofit of Hotel Woodland in California [8. compensates the flow through the orifice. 8.8. A passive bi-metallic thermostat.Building Rehabilitation and filled with a highly viscous fluid.21 [8.8. has manufactured this type of energy damper.21 Viscous damper (Taylor device) Fluid dampers are less sensitive to temperature changes and show stable behaviour over a wide temperature range. Within the steel case there is a moving steel plate hanging on the upper floor. page 161 . fluid dampers have the following disadvantages: they maintain seals for a long time and small motions in the structure may cause seals to wear and fluid to leak out. Built in 1927. Taylor Devices Inc.22]. These dampers possess linear viscous behaviour and are relatively insensitive to temperature changes. Using the damping devices. the increase in resistance to earthquake was obtained. fig. Fluid viscous dampers operate on the principle of fluid flow through orifices as well.23]. and at the same time the historical appearance of the building was preserved. The relative velocity between the two floors induces the viscous damping force. The device is filled with silicone oil and consists of a stainless steel piston with a bronze orifice head and an accumulator.3. Fig.

to be installed in 2002. 17-story building uses 60 dampers to dissipate seismic energy. Boise Airport. 3-storey multibuilding complex.22. The devices were added in chevron bracing elements in a steel sub-frame. fig. airport terminal building uses 8 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy to reduce demands on the structure.8.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes Compared to the conventional rehabilitation procedures (shear walls or braces). USA/Richmond: Retrofit of a 4. each one having a 450 KN output force. A number of 28 dampers were used to page 162 • • • • . USA/St. Louis: Large highway bridge over the Mississippi River uses 64 dampers to control longitudinal earthquake movement while allowing free thermal. Buddhist Headquarters.8. Poplar Street Bridge. Taiwan/Taipei: New construction.22 Seismic retrofit of Hotel Woodland. USA/San Francisco: New construction. USA/Boise: New construction.24]: • Genentech FRC II. the viscous dampers proved to be the most economical. viscous dampers are used both for new structures and for the rehabilitation of the old ones. Some of the rehabilitation projects using Taylor fluid dampers are [8. to be installed in 2002. uses 192 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy. to be installed in 2002. to be installed in 2002. Richmond-San Rafael Bridge.5 mile steel truss bridge designed in the 1950's. California using Taylor fluid viscous dampers Nowadays. 16 dampers were used. Fig.

10. vol.dis-inc. Contribuţii privind izolarea seismică a structurilor. 1983.3 Mayes.4 Nazin. Dominican Republic/Santo Domingo: New construction. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. Taşkent.com/sfhallbr.com/oakbrief.htm) 8.L. Tucker..V.6 Plichon. Nations Unies.M. • BIBLIOGRAPHY 8.3.htm) 8.9 New Zealand Parliament House (www. Experimental Testing of an Energy-Absorbing Base Isolation System. California. 1995 page 163 . Eng. 8. Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering.Building Rehabilitation dissipate seismic energy and allow the bridge to withstand a maximum credible earthquake. West Span-Suspension Bridge.13 Jurukovski.7 Oakland City Hall (www. Experimentalnîiezdania v Sevastopole na gravitaţionnîh sistemah seismoizolaţii s vkliuciaişcimsia suhîmtreniem. Proceedings Third National Concrete and Masonry Engineering Conference. K. J.htm) 8. 8. Seismostoikoe stroitelstvov Uzbekskoi SSR.5 Robinson. vol.1 *** Comment réparer les bâtiments endommagés par un seisme. Rakicevic. 1977..co. USA/San Francisco: Retrofit of suspension span between San Francisco and Yerba Buena Island. 2. (www. no.com/nzparlbr. Disposable knee bracing: improvement in seismic design of steel frames.. Teză de doctorat. A.. France. Z. 1995. to be installed 2002. New York.10 Protecting Rodin's Sculpture the "Gates of Hell" at the National Museum of Western Art Withstanding Earthquakes with Base Isolation Retrofit. Beucke. M. V. vol. Proceedings. Structures.jp/takenaka_e/news_e/pr9903/m9903_04.htm 8.E. 100 dampers were used to dissipate seismic energy. R.2 Budescu.dis-inc. Seismic isolation: When content protection is as important as the structure. A Lead – Rubber Shear Damper. D. 1975. nr. M.dis-inc... San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.takenaka.11 Kelly. D. 7 8. W. 8. M. to be installed in 2002.12 Aristizabal-Ochoa. • INTERCENTRO.. Petkovski. 8. UCB/EERC – 80/35. 8. Institutul Politehnic “Gh. Energy absorbing elements in regular and composite steel frame structures.8 San Francisco City Hall (www. Asachi” Iaşi.S.. 112. to be installed 2001/2002. Specialists Meeting on the Anti-Seismic Design of Nuclear Installations. Skinner. 44-story steel frame building uses 48 dampers to dissipate earthquake energy to reduce demands on the structure..G. C.. Paris.H... Hooped Rubber Bearing and Frictional Plates: A modern Antiseismic Engineering Technique. San Francisco. 1974.. 1977. 8. 8.

Cousins.22 8. 1992 Symans.J.. J.. Proceeding ATC-17-1 Seminar on Seismic Isolation. H. Recent developments in lead dampers for base isolation. Building Motion in Wind..J. Steel triangular plate energy absorber for earthquake-resistant buildings. 1986 Miyazaki. vol.16 8.. vol.K.. Constantinou.msm1.17 8.C. M. Mexico. R. 95. Design of a building with 20% or greater damping. Passive Energy Dissipation and Active Control...15 8. ASCE publication.pdf) Taylor.14 8.. New Zealand.23 8. Bulletin of New Zealand Society of Earthquake Engineering. (www. 2. J. 1993 Miyamoto. CA. ASCE. Applied Technology Council. Passive Energy Dissipation and Active Control.21 8. 1987 Grigorian. Seismic response of structures with supplemental fluid viscous dampers.C. 1993 Nims. Kelly. Structural dampers.H. M.com/dampers.M..20 8. M. Redwood City. Proceeding ATC-17-1 Seminar on Seismic Isolation. Proceedings of the 10th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering..com/pdf_files/HotelStockton.htm) page 164 . vol.P. Popov. vol. C. 1969 Mahmoodi. 1st World Congress on Constructional Steel Design. no. Richter... Journal of Structural Division. 2. 1977 Tsai. Seismic Rehabilitation of a Historic Concrete Structure Using Fluid Viscous Dampers. D. Hong. Keel. Y.J.K. M. P. Constantinou. NCEER Bulletin.18 8.A. P. K. Inaudi.. 2. CA.New systems of structural rehabilitation to earthquakes 8.24 Tyler. Application of the energy dissipating restraint to buildings. Proceedings.. 7. 4. Damping in building structures by means of PTTF sliding joints. 10. D.. W. E. W.. vol. P. C.. Applied Technology Council. Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 1992 Robinson. Performance of viscoelastic structural dampers for the Columbia Center Building..taylordevices.. vol. Madrid.E.19 8.C.P.. 1993 Mahmoodi. Redwood City.. Fluid Dampers for Applications of Seismic Energy Dissipation and Seismic Isolation. C. Mitsusaka. Slotted bolted connections for energy dissipation. (www.G.D.

environmental deterioration.12].13]. change in loading patterns and inadequate maintenance through the life of the structure [9.9 RC STRUCTURE REHABILITATION WITH ADVANCED POLYMERIC COMPOSITES 9. The existing infrastructure is in real need of renewal due to deficiencies existing in construction works such as: wear.12]. it is important to differentiate among repair. the use of substandard materials in initial construction. The “strengthening” (nonseismic) of a structural member is specific to those situations where the application of the FRP composite enhances the existing design performance level. The term “retrofit” (seismic) is mostly used as a generic term for rehabilitation especially in relation to the seismic upgrade of load-carrying members. When rehabilitation of civil infrastructure is discussed. ageing of structural components.1 INTRODUCTION Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are increasingly being utilised as alternatives to traditional construction materials for rehabilitation of infrastructure applications. insufficient detailing at the time of original design. page 165 . [9. strengthening and retrofit. such as a crack or a severely degraded element. It is important to use these terms correctly on the basis of structural functionality and also because the specifics related to the use of FRPs in conjunction with existing traditional materials have a significant effect on the selection of fibrematrix combinations [9. These three terms refer to different structural conditions: A composite is used in “repairing” when the FRP composite material is utilized to fix a structural or functional deficiency.

These unique properties provide significant impetus for their use in rehabilitation and restoration of historic construction without causing significant changes to the features of the original structures. Also their performance combined with their light weight enable their use in strengthening severely degraded structural members. FRP composites give the designer a wide range of material choices to meet some specific structural requirements.27]. in others are susceptible to rapid deterioration. strips or fabrics. In some cases design alternatives may be constrained by the current limitations of materials used. as well as in the modification of existing structures without egress on available headroom or open space [9.29]: • The inadequacy of longitudinal reinforcement in beams and columns.13]. [9. and. In other situations restraints such as dead load restrict the widening of current structures. high strength-to-weight ratio allowing their use in places and ways that are not available to traditional materials. page 166 . with the end of aim of facilitating functionality and greater structural and life-cycle efficiency. However they lack in longevity in some cases. 9.2 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCRETE STRUCTURES FOR STRENGTHENING OF Strengthening of old and/or deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) members is often required due to the following causes [9. leading to flexural failure. emphasizing the need for better grades of these materials or newer technologies. FRPs also have good corrosion resistance. They may have “tailored” properties derived from their anisotropy given by the arrangement of the fibre reinforcement in the polymeric resin. including the low cost of materials and construction. In all such (and other) cases there is a critical need for the use of new materials and technologies. Alternatively near-surface mounted strips or rods with the fibre direction parallel to the member axis can be utilised.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Traditional building materials and technologies are suitable in many situations and have a number of advantages. In a similar manner. for example the size of a column due to restrictions on design and minimum dimension needed. In such cases the bending capacity of concrete elements can be increased through the use of externally bonded FRP plates. the use of conventional materials is often not possible in cases of retrofit or may be deemed as ineffective in terms of functionality.

29]. Most key information about adhesives relevant to their use must be provided by the manufacturer. rheology. In this way more ductile responses can be developed and larger inelastic deformations can be sustained. To achieve such a purpose a good adhesion to the surfaces involved must be achieved and sustained [9. Debonding may occur once vertical cracks develop in the cover concrete and progresses with cover spalling. polymer chemistry. This mode of failure is usually accompanied by large inelastic flexural deformation. hence the FRP strengthening technique is not applicable if the structural intervention is aiming at increasing stiffness rather than strength or ductility [9. or in the direction of both the column and the beam direction in the case of beam-column joints. in the case of columns and beams. Poor detailing in the regions of flexural plastic hinges where the flexural cracking may be followed by cover concrete spalling.Building Rehabilitation • The inadequacy of transverse reinforcement. stress analysis and fracture mechanics. The shear capacity of concrete members can be enhanced by providing externally bonded FRP with the fibres oriented in the transverse direction to the member axis direction. By increasing the lap confinement with fibres along the column perimeter the flexural strength degradation can be prevented or limited. • • The use of FRP reinforcement cannot modify the stiffness characteristics of existing RC elements. which may have as effect brittle shear failure in structural members like columns.3 ADHESIVE MATERIALS FOR STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING OF RC ELEMENTS Adhesives are substances capable of holding two materials together by surface attachment. and buckling of longitudinal steel reinforcement or compressive crushing of concrete. shear walls and beam-column joints. the spalling of cover concrete is prevented and the buckling of the longitudinal steel bars is restrained. Poor detailing in lap splices. 9. The purpose of an adhesive is to produce a strong continuous bond between the surfaces of the adherends and to ensure that full composite action is developed by the transfer of shear stress across the thickness of the adhesive layer. The best results in structural strengthening page 167 . This mode occurs in columns in which the longitudinal steel reinforcement is lap spliced in the maximum bending moment regions near the column ends. beams. The science of adhesion demands a consideration of concepts regarding surface chemistry.9]. By adding confinement in the form of FRP jackets with fibres placed along the column perimeter. failure of transverse steel reinforcement.

thermal expansion. The principal requirements for bonding FRP composites to concrete and other structural materials are summarized in the following [9. which must include such provisions as mixing/application parameters and techniques.17]: • • • • • • • • • • • It should have good adhesion to the materials involved. A typical open time may be of the order of 30 minutes. pot life and open time. Depending on the specific application the adhesive may contain fillers.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites have so far been achieved by using two-parts epoxy adhesives specially developed for use in the construction industry. shelf life. [9. page 168 . Low shrinkage on curing. An ability to be applied in thicknesses of between 1 and 10 mm to accommodate irregularities of the adherends surface. surface preparation procedures. toughening additives and others. creep properties. Open time. softening inclusions. A pot life of at least 40 minutes at normal temperature and relatively high humidity. The unmixed shelf life is the period for which the individual (unmixed) components may be stored without undergoing significant deterioration. Strong bond between the adherends. Shear and tensile strength compatible to those of the adherends materials. The adhesive modulus should be high enough to avoid large creep but not excessively high to cause large stress concentrations. Acceptable fatigue performance over the use temperature range (-20 to +40oC). Three different time concepts must be considered when using epoxy adhesives.11]. Pot life is time interval in which one can work with the adhesive after mixing the components before it starts to harden in the mixture vessel. abrasion and chemical resistance. Two components of dissimilar colour to facilitate complete mixing. when the adhesive has been applied to the adherends is the time that one can have after the adhesive has been applied to the adherends and before they are joined together. Long-term durability to maintain the integrity of the system over the planned life span. Application of an epoxy adhesive system requires the preparation of an adequate specification. curing temperatures. Tolerance to slight variations in the resin and hardener mix proportions.

the most utilized in civil engineering applications offer several advantages over other polymers as adhesive agents [9. May be formulated to have a long open time.015 100 11-13 5 - Mild steel 7850 210 81 0. High cured cohesive strength.4 FLEXURAL STRENGTHENING OF BEAMS The need for methods of repair and strengthening of RC beams and girders has been imposed by: degradation due to corrosion of steel reinforcement. concrete and steel Property (at 20oC) Density (kg/m3) Young modulus (GPa) Shear modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio Tensile strength (MPa) Shear strength (MPa) Compressive strength (MPa) Ultimate tensile strain (%) Approximate fracture energy (J/m2) Coefficient of thermal expansion (10-6/oC) Water absorbtion: 7days-25oC(%w/w) Glass transition temperature (oC) Cold curing epoxy adhesive 1100-1700 0.5-20 0.1-3 45-80 Concrete 2400 20-50 8-21 0.1 Comparison of typical properties for epoxy adhesives.3 200-220 120-130 200-220 25 105-106 10-15 0 - 9.3-0. Able to accommodate irregular or thick bond lines. Can be made thixotropic for application to vertical and inclined surfaces.2-8 0.2 1-4 2-5 25-150 0.1 which also provides the same information for concrete and mild steel [9. cracking of page 169 . Low creep and superior strength retention under long term loading.4 9-30 10-30 55-110 0. Table 9. Some typical properties for cold cured epoxy adhesives used in civil engineering applications are given in Table 9.25].9]: • • • • • • • • High surface activity and good wetting properties.Building Rehabilitation Epoxy adhesives. Low shrinkage due to lack of by-products from curing reaction allowing the bonding of large areas with only contact pressure. May be toughened if a dispersed rubbery phase is included.5-5 200-1000 25-100 0.

22). One of the conventional methods for external strengthening implies the addition of adhesive-bonded steel plates on the tension side of the RC beams. The procedure is quite slow and needs more setup. in many cases. The composite plate is prefabricated and cured (using pultrusion or another manufacturing procedure) and then bonded onto the concrete substrate page 170 . In general. spalling of concrete cover. Complex profiles are difficult to be shaped with steel plates.4. that can be carried out with no or little disruption in use.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites concrete due to excessive carbonation. polymeric composites can be applied in three ways as described in the following section. Wet lay-up. The length of individual steel plates is restricted to 8-10m to enable handling and even at these lengths it may be difficult to erect them due to pre-existing service facilities. In buildings the materials deterioration and changing needs for building occupancy imposes. freeze-thaw action. The efficacy of the method depends mainly on the appropriate selection of the composite material and on the efficiency and integrity of the bond between the composite and the concrete surface. The use of epoxy-bonded steel plates is very frequent in Europe and the United States but it suffers from a number of disadvantages: • • Steel plates are heavy and difficult to transport. glass or aramid fibres. handle and install. Durability and corrosion effects remain uncertain. In this procedure the polymeric resin is applied to the concrete substrate and layers of fabric made of carbon. Adhesive-bonding.13]. The composite and bond are formed at the same time. the strengthening of existing beams. Expensive falsework is required to maintain steel plates in position during bonding. Contaminants on structural members prior to bonding. effects of alkali-silica reactions and changing in loading patterns [9. • • • • • • Composites fabricated either through wet processes on-site or prefabricated in strips and then adhesively bonded to the concrete surface provide an efficient means of strengthening. In case of bridges the need for increasing their load carrying capacities requires the adoption of a cost-effective technology that will not distress the traffic significantly. Steel plate thickness at least 5 mm to prevent distortion during blasting operation. and then impregnated in place using rollers (see fig. Surface preparation including the priming systems.

The polymeric resin is infused into the assembly under vacuum with compaction taking place under vacuum pressure.9. FRP plate bonding technique is generally applied into three strengthening patterns [9. Fig. c.typical tension face strengthened RC beam.Building Rehabilitation using an adhesive material. b. Fibre direction e.9. Fibre direction d. c-tension and shear surfaces strengthening.1 Strengthening with adhesively bonded prefabricated composite plates: a-tension face strengthening.1. In a variant the outer layer of fabric in contact with the vacuum bag is partially cured prior to placement in order to assure a good surface. e-typical shear surfaces strengthened RC beam Vacuum infusion. Reinforcing fabric is placed over the area under consideration and the entire area is encapsulated in a vacuum bag. page 171 . It is a much slower procedure than the previous ones with significant setup time needed. d.4. a. b-shear surfaces strengthening. shear surfaces strengthening and tension and shear stress tensioning methods as shown in fig.14]: tension face strengthening. This is a closed process (see fig.27).

RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites The bond between the composite and concrete whether established through the use of an adhesive or through the use of the same resin system (used in the wet hand lay-up) of the composite itself. The preparation is intended to achieve a good surface preparation by removing the weak surface layer of the concrete. failure of the composite-concrete bond interface.b.1 Methods of flexural strengthening 9. If conducted in an appropriate manner.1. fig.1 Unstressed soffit plates Flexural strengthening of simply supported RC beams using FRP composites is mainly achieved by bonding a FRP plate to the soffit of the beam. 9.4. Mechanical anchors. Before application of the composite plate. page 172 . exposing the concrete aggregate and providing an even surface for an efficient bond to the FRP plate. the soffit of the RC beam must be carefully prepared.2. such as steel bolts.9. c. Test results show that the use of external composite reinforcing reduces drastically the ductility at initial failure. the resulting stress and strain conditions and in the presence of moisture. limits on capacity increase related to yielding of steel reinforcement.27]. The bond must also be capable of providing an adequate response under temperature.9. FRP end anchorage strips can also be formed by wet lay-up and they can be completely or partially wrapped around the RC beam near the ends of the plate. fig.a. must be able to perform under ambient conditions. metallic jigs and prefabricated U strips can be installed to prevent debonding at the ends of the soffit plates. or the use of an appropriately factored. d. Experimental works have proved that mechanical anchors may prevent or at least delay the onset of debonding [9. the external application of composites to concrete beams and slabs can result in significant enhancement of load-carrying capacity and flexural and shear strength of the original structural member. There are a number of variations of the basic procedure. equivalent energy-based design approach.4. with a sudden drop in strength when the composite fails through catastrophic fracture. Care must be taken to ensure that the rehabilitation design addresses the possibility of elastic failure of the system.

e .1. Improves durability and serviceability due to reduced cracking.concrete. Other important benefits are [9.Building Rehabilitation 1-1 a f 1 a. The main advantage of prestressing the FRP strip is that the bonded strip contributes to the load bearing capacity before additional loading is applied to the structure. [9. 1 2 c 2-2 b a c f b. 4 g b Fig. page 173 . 2 3 3-3 b e a d f c. Improves the shear resistance of the RC member as the whole concrete section will resist the shear provided the concrete remains uncracked.adhesive layer 9.29]: • • • • • Provides a stiffer behaviour as at early stages most of the concrete is in compression and contributing to the bending moment capacity. f . c-anchor bolts. Crack formation in the shear span is delayed and the cracks when they appear are more finely distributed.2 Prestressed FRP soffit strips In certain applications it may be advantageous to bond the FRP strips to the beam soffit in a prestressed state. 3 4 4-4 a b f d. d.6].9.4.2 Strengthening of RC beams with FRP soffit plates a. Closes cracks in RC elements with pre-existing cracks. b-FRP plate.elements of the metallic jig.

A greater structural efficiency can be obtained since the neutral axis remains at a lower level in the prestressed case than in the unstressed one. The equipment needed to push the FRP strip to the soffit must be kept in place until the adhesive layer has become hard enough. a. Fig. c-end anchorage and FRP plate release upon hardening of the adhesive. d-active anchorage [9.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites • • • • Smaller areas of FRP strips are required to achieve the same strengthening effect.3 Strengthening of RC beams with prestressed FRP plates: a-prestressing. The yielding of the steel reinforcement commences at an increased load compared to that of a non-stressed RC member.3. The duration of the process is longer. b. c. some disadvantages: • • • It is more expensive due to the lager number of operations and equipment that is required by the process of prestressing.9.6] page 174 . b-bonding. d. Some failure modes associated with peeling-off at cracks at the ends of FRP plates can be avoided. The concept of applying a prestressed FRP plate is illustrated in fig. This technique has.9. however.

5.29]. Concrete CFRP strip Bonding agent Fig.3 Near surface mounted FRP reinforcement inside slits The use of FRP bars or strips bonded into grooves near the surface of a concrete element is a relatively new technique for strengthening structures. A schematic illustration of typical failure modes identified in experimental tests is summarized in fig.30]. FRP strips with a thickness of 2 mm and a width of 20mm are bonded into these grooves. fig.4 FRP strips glued into slits [9.9. traction forces and vandalism. page 175 .5] are: • The reinforcement is buried beneath the surface of the element and therefore is protected from damage due to accidental impacts.4.2 The failure modes of the reinforced concrete beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded FRP strips may be divided into two classes: those where full composite action of concrete and FRP is maintained until the concrete crushes in compression or the FRP fails in tension and those where composite action is lost prior to the previous class failure. There is no need for extensive for extensive preparation as required for externally bonded plates and the surface undulations and roughness are more easily accommodated.9. NSM reinforcing elements give more aesthetically pleasant solutions.6] The main benefits of using near surface mounted (NSM) reinforcement over those existing for an externally bonded reinforcement solution [9. Failure modes of RC beams strengthened in flexure • • 9. [9.4. These slits are cut into the concrete structure with a depth smaller than the concrete cover.Building Rehabilitation 9.1.4. [9.9.

Debonding f. FRP end shear Fig.9. FRP fracture c.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites a. e-debonding in flexural crack. Concrete crushing b. Debonding e. b-FRP fracture (steel yields before concrete crushes). Debonding g. f-debonding at the intermediate shear crack. ddebonding at the outermost crack. c-concrete crushing (no steel yielding). g-FRP end shear page 176 . Concrete crushing d.5 Failure modes of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP in flexure: a-steel yielding and concrete crushing (steel yields before concrete crushes).

[9. mechanical characteristics of FRP and tensile strength of concrete.24]. Concrete Debonding in concrete Adhesive FRP reinforcement Debonding between concrete and a d h e s i v e Debonding in adhesive Debonding between adhesive and FRP Debonding line along embedded reinforcement Debonding line near the surface Concrete Adhesive FRP reinforcement Fig. Bond failure may occur at different interfaces between the concrete and the FRP reinforcement as illustrated in fig. Mode (g) can be analyzed by studying the shear capacity at the FRP plate ends. the influence of FRP strips bonded to the soffit for flexural strengthening may be ignored in predicting the shear strength of the beam. the shear strengthening of the respective beam has to be considered. Debonding failure modes (d)-(f) require the determination of the anchorable forces based on the bond length.6. It has been realized that the FRP bonded to the soffit of a RC beam does not modify significantly the shear behaviour from that of the unstrengthened beams. [9.6 Different interfaces for bond failure [9.9.5 SHEAR STRENGTHENING OF BEAMS When a RC beam is deficient in shear.Building Rehabilitation Modes (a)-(c) may be treated by standard cross section analysis. hence bond failure modes must be taken into account properly.9.6] 9.8]. assuming that the FRP strip behaves elastically to failure. Therefore. Bond is necessary to transfer forces from the concrete into the FRP. or when its shear capacity is less than the flexural capacity after flexural strengthening. page 177 .

Fig.21]-[9.9. Shear forces in a beam may be reversed under reversed cyclic loading and fibres may be thus arranged at two different directions to satisfy the requirement of shear strengthening in both directions. In a beam application where an integral slab makes it impractical to completely wrap the member. [9. b-U jacketing.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Strengthening solutions. c.1].FRP bonded to the web sides only.e.7 Shear strengthening schemes with FRP composites a. The shear effect of FRP external reinforcement is maximized when the fibre direction coincides to that of maximum principal tensile stress. c-complete wrapping The contribution of externally bonded FRP reinforcement to the shear capacity of RC beams depends on several parameters: the stiffness of the FRP reinforcing products. the strengthening pattern and the orientation of fibres. completely wrapping the section is the most efficient. followed by U-wrap.26]. b. a. fig. Completely wrapping of FRP system around the section on all four sides is the most efficient wrapping scheme and is used where access to all sides of the member is available. For the most common case of structural members subjected to transverse loads (loads perpendicular to the member axis) the maximum principal stress trajectories in the shear-critical zones form an angle with the member axis which may be taken about 45o. sometimes it is more practical to attach the external FRP reinforcement with the principal fibre direction. perpendicular to the axis direction.9. the type of resins. Various bonding schemes of FRP strips have been utilized to improve the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams. However.7. Because FRPs are strong in the direction of fibres only their orientation is recommended to control the shear cracks best.1. the shear strength can be improved by wrapping the FRP system around three sides of the member (U-wrap) or bonding to the two sides of the member. [9. Various bonding schemes have been used to increase the shear resistance of RC beams. page 178 .9. the compressive strength of concrete. fig. Although all three schemes improve the shear strength of the member.

3. the most effective. Fibre orientations: • First fibre/strip orientation. savings in material are possible. uniform adhesive layers can be achieved.a • U=U jacketing (the use of three separate plates is unacceptable). β (0o ≤β< 180o) • Second fibre/strip orientation.c The S configuration is the easiest to apply. type of loading (monotonic or reversed cyclic). U jacketing is moderately effective. When plates/sheets are utilized the site application is ease and the RC is protected from further environmental degradation if fully covered.Building Rehabilitation Bonding to two sides of the beam only is the least efficient scheme.9.8. but the system is labour consuming. availability of FRP materials and economic considerations.7. less vulnerable to debonding and acts as mechanical anchors for flexural strengthening. 1. fig. According to bonding configurations the following categories can be differentiated: • S=side bonding . fibre orientations and fibre distributions can result in many strengthening schemes. Bidirectional sheets/strips (mostly 0o/90o or 45o/135o) are the most effective in shear crack control. but not possible if at least one side of the beam is not accessible. The combination of different bonding configurations.7. page 179 .b • W=wrapping around the cross section. but require more reinforcing fibres.7. fig. but is vulnerable to debonding and the least effective. They can not be applied for U jacketing and wrapping using unidirectional sheets and wide strips. In all wrapping schemes. 2. amount of increase required in shear capacity. However. the FRP system can be installed continuously along the span length of the beam or placed as discrete strips. Fibre distributions can be symbolized as: • S=strips • P=plates/sheets The distributions in strips has more flexibility in controlling the amount of FRP.27]. An attempt to organize the notation of shear strengthening schemes is presented in [9. the amount of FRP cannot be easily controlled and the uniform adhesive layers are more difficult to be achieved. φ (0o ≤φ<180o) Vertical fibres (β=90o) are the easiest to apply and effective for strengthening in case of reversed shear. needs the least amount of FRP for a small increase in shear capacity. The inclined fibres (β = 45o) are more effective for shear crack control.9. fig.9. but less effective than inclined fibres/strips for shear crack control. Wrapping is the least vulnerable to debonding. The main factors contributing to the selection of strengthening scheme are: accessibility of the site. effective for strengthening for reversed shear. fig.9.

9. UK is presented in fig. page 180 .RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Shear strengthening of beams Orientation of fibres Possible bonding procedure on cross-sectionof RC beams h β=90º SS 90 h US90 WS90 0º≤β <180º SSβ h USβ WSβ φ 0º≤β <180º β 0º≤φ <180º SSβ/φ USβ/φ WSβ/φ h β=90º SP 90 UP90 WP90 h 0º≤β <180º SPβ UPβ WPβ h 0º≤β <180º 0º≤φ <180º SPβ/φ UPβ/φ WPβ/φ Fig. realized at the University of Sheffield.9.8 Various FRP shear strengthening schemes [9.9. A complete plate-bonding and shear strengthening scheme.27] It must be emphasized that the technique for shear strengthening of RC beams using FRP composites is still at its early development.

Building Rehabilitation Fig. University of Sheffield) There is still considerable uncertainty concerning the total shear capacity of an RC beam with externally bonded FRP shear reinforcement. since the amount of internal steel in both directions differs only slightly.9 FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam ready for testing (CCC. page 181 . the force distribution in each direction is determined by the ratio of the stiffnesses and the ratio of the spans in both directions.6 STRENGTHENING OF RC SLABS In general. and the largest part of the load will be taken by the shortest span. When the stiffness in both directions is equal.27]. Once the force distribution is known. The distribution of the corresponding forces in the plate then only depends on the ratio of the spans.7]. the plate is called “isotropic” [9. Therefore care must be taken in practical design and expert advice or experimental verification should be sought wherever necessary [9. the calculation of the amount of internal or external reinforcement is identical to the design of reinforced concrete beams subjected to bending.9. A reinforced concrete plate can be considered as isotropic. 9.

Where preexisting slabs have to be cut for the installation of a liftwell during changes in building use. In that way. The repair of this deficiency can be easily performed through the use of adhesively bonded pultruded composite strips and through wet lay-up of unidirectional fabrics. However when FRP strips are utilised. which often suffer rapid deterioration due to salt-induced cracking. Since reinforced concrete plates are much thinner than concrete beams the lever arm from the resulting concrete compressive force to the external reinforcement is much larger than the lever arm to the internal steel reinforcement. A common conventional method is the complete reconstruction of the damaged area. the external FRP composite reinforcement will repair the area damaged by punching shear and will also prevent the opening of the existing cracks. This means that the active tensile stresses in the external FRP reinforcement can be much higher than in the internal steel reinforcement and the high resistance of the FRP reinforcement can be efficiently utilised. The use of composite strips provides an efficient mechanism for repair where installation of liftwells in buildings results in cutting through existing steel reinforcement to form a cutout. and to provide the means for redistribution of the loads and resulting stresses. since the contribution of the externally bonded reinforcement to the plate stiffness is relatively small. If the repair scheme is designed properly. the strengthened concrete plate remains isotropic. very often at significant cost and with distress to traffic. efflorescence of concrete and corrosion of steel reinforcement. Similar schemes can be applied for the strengthening and repair of floor slabs of parking garages. the deformations might be unacceptable. which means that the relative force distribution will not change. Therefore FRP laminates can often be used more effectively for strengthening concrete plates than for strengthening concrete beams.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites The advantage of the thin FRP strips is the fact that they can be applied in both directions. This application is considered mainly for deficient structures where local punching shear failures are seen. The strengthening of RC slabs is expanding but the results obtained from the application of composites to beams cannot be directly extrapolated to application of slabs. FRP composites can easily be applied without any disruption of traffic. conventional methods would result in the construction of page 182 . Composite strips or bands can be easily applied externally to make up the lost reinforcing capacity. especially as related to the selection of the form and positioning of the external reinforcement.

b.Building Rehabilitation deep supporting beams. 9.6. enclosure walls. These alternatives use valuable space and result in significant cost and extended inconvenience to the inhabitants.10. Fig. b.9.9.11 FRP strengthening of a two-way slab: a. b.9.9. Elevation Cross-Section RC slab FRP strip FRP strip a. fig.11.10 FRP strengthening of one-way simply supported plate: a.1 Strengthening of simply supported plates When the RC plates are simply supported the one-way plates are strengthened by bonding FRP strips to the soffit along the required direction.cross section b.elevation. Figure 9. fig. thereby ensuring gradual failure. For twoway plates strengthening must be applied for both directions. Appropriate design can assure that failure is through delamination at the level of cover concrete with local level decreasing to that of the yield response of the slab with a cutout. by bonding FRP strips in both directions. Fig.11.a. and the FRP page 183 . The possible collapse mechanism of a two-way slab suggests that the strengthening of such a plate can be concentrated in the central region. The FRP composites thus provide not only a means for strengthening and repair but also an effective change in occupancy or use of structures while allowing rapid and nonintrusive reconstruction. or columns to support the resulting weaker structure.slab soffit.cross section Cro ss-Sectio n RC slab FRP strip FRP strips a.

the anchorage of FRP strips may be achieved by extending the FRP strips to the inside slab for a sufficient length. fig. Supporting wa ll FRP composites Concrete slab FRP composites strip Supporting wall Epoxy mortar Concrete slab a. if the wet lay up process is adopted. as the part of the slab without bonded FRP strips has enough ductility for the formation of yield lines.6.a.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites strips can be terminated far away from the edges [9. The load capacity of such strengthened plates can be predicted by a yield line analysis.9.12.27]. fig. 9. Cantilever slab Supporting beam or wall c. If the slab is cantilevered from a wall.9. For continuous cantilever plates.12. Inserting of FRP strips into slots predrilled in the wall provides a sound anchorage. Cantilever slab Cantilever span b. fig. b-insertion of FRP strip in slots in the wall.b.anchorage for continuous cantilever slab page 184 .9. the strips may be bent and bonded onto the wall surface.c.12.12 Fixed end anchorages for cantilever slabs: a-simple bonding of FRP on the wall. and therefore the FRP strips can not be terminated before the fixed end.9.2 Strengthening of cantilever RC plates In case of the cantilever plates the end support is subjected to the largest bending moment in the slab. c. Fig.

Building Rehabilitation

9.7 STRENGTHENING OF RC COLUMNS 9.7.1 General

Conventional strengthening measures for RC columns range from the external confinement of the core by heavily reinforced external concrete sections to the use of steel cables wound helically around the existing column at close spacing that are then covered by concrete and the use of steel jackets welded together in the field confining the existing columns, [9.2], [9.3]. Some of these methods are effective but they have some disadvantages [9.13]: • • • • • They are time consuming and labour intensive; Can cause significant interruption of the structure functioning due to access and space requirements for heavy equipment; Rely on field welding, the quality of which is often questionable; Susceptible to degradation due to corrosion; Introduce changes in column stiffness, influencing the seismic force levels.

The strengthening of existing RC columns using steel or FRP jacketing is based on a well established fact that lateral confinement of concrete can substantially enhance its axial compressive strength and ductility [9.15]. The most common form of FRP column strengthening involves the external wrapping of FRP straps. The use of FRP composites provides a means for confinement without the increase in stiffness (when only hoop reinforcing fibres are utilised), enables rapid fabrication of cost effective and durable jackets, with little or no traffic disruption in most cases. In FRP-confined concrete subjected to axial compression, the FRP jackets are loaded mainly in hoop tension while the concrete is subjected to tri-axial compression, so that both materials are used to their best advantages. As a result of the confinement, both the strength and the ultimate strain of concrete can be enhanced, while the tensile strength of FRP can be effectively utilized [9.3]. Instead of the brittle behaviour exhibited by both materials, FRP-confined concrete possesses an enhanced ductility [9.28]. For FRP wrapped, axially loaded columns the design philosophy relies on the wrap to carry tensile forces around the perimeter of the column as a result of lateral expansion of the underlying column when loaded axially in compression, [9.18], [9.19]. Constraining the lateral expansion of the column confines the concrete and, consequently increases its axial compressive capacity. It should be underlined that passive confinement of this type requires significant lateral expansion of the concrete before the FRP wrap is loaded
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and confinement is initiated. In case of columns rectangular or square in cross section the confinement is effective at the column corners only with negligible resistance to lateral expansion being provided along the flat column sides [9.16]. 9.7.2 Methods of strengthening

A number of different methods (based on form of jacketing material or fabrication process) have been tested at large or full-scale many of which are now used commercially all over the world. A suitable classification of FRP composite jackets is given in fig.9.13, [9.12], [9.13], [9.27].

a.

b.

c.

d.
a.

e.

f.

Fig.9.13 Methods of FRP strengthening for RC columns: wrapping of fabric; b.partially rapping with strips; c.prefabricated jakets d. spiral rings; e. automated winding; f. resin infusion. page 186

Building Rehabilitation

Wrapping. The most common technique for column strengthening using FRP composites has been in situ FRP wrapping. In this technique woven fabric sheets or unidirectional fibre sheets are impregnated with polymer resins and wrapped around the RC column. In the wet lay-up process the main fibres are orientated in the hoop direction, with cure taking place, generally, under ambient conditions. A column can be fully wrapped with FRP sheets in single or multiple layers, fig.9.13.a. It can also be partially wrapped using FRP straps in a continuous spiral, fig.9.13.b, or discrete rings. This method is very flexible in coping with different column shapes, ease in site handling and does not require special equipment. It is the most labour intensive and enables the least quality control. Filament winding. In filament winding, fig.9.13.e, the process is automated but essentially follows the same patterns with the difference being that the ensuing jacket has a nominal prestress due to the use of winding tension. The process can be automatically controlled using a computer controlled winding machine. A FRP membrane with imposed thickness, fibre orientation and fibre volume fraction can be achieved in this process. The use of prepreg tows has the advantage of using standardized and uniform materials that are easy for the structural designer to specify and it also presents the opportunity for elevated temperature cure. An improved quality control and reduced on-site labour are among the advantages of this technique. However this method has less flexibility in coping with different column shapes and requires special equipment. Prefabricated shell jacketing. In case of adhesively bonded shells, prefabricated single or dual-section jackets can be assembled in the field through bonding and layering. The shells are fabricated in half circles, fig.9.13.c, or half rectangles and circles with a slit or in continuous rolls prior to field installation, so that they can be opened and placed around the column. For effective FRP confinement to be achieved, a full contact between the column and the FRP jacket is needed. This can be achieved by bonding the shell to the column using adhesives or injecting shrinkage-compensated grout or mortar into the space between the shell and the column [9.4], [9.20]. The process affords a high level of materials quality control due to prefabrication of the elements under factory conditions, requires least on-site labour, enables column shape modification but as in the case of external strengthening relies on the integrity of the adhesive bond and has limited flexibility in coping with different column shapes. For rectangular columns to be strengthened by wrapping, their corners must be rounded. This rounding is needed to reduce the detrimental effect of the sharp corners on the tensile strength of FRP wraps and to enhance the effectiveness of confinement. If rectangular prefabricated shells are used, the shells are generally
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slightly oversized and their corners are rounded, with the small gap between the jacket and the concrete core filled with expansive cement grout. One or more vertical joints generally exist in the FRP whether wrapping or prefabricated shell jacketing is used. These joints should be made strong enough so that joint failure does not become the strength controlling failure mode, as otherwise the strength of the FRP is not fully utilized. When a FRP shell with a vertical slit in each layer is used, either an additional FRP strip should be bonded over the vertical seam, fig.9.14, [9.2] or the slits should be staggered (in case of shells consisting of a large number of FRP layers.
Reinforced Concrete Column Adhesive

FRP Strip Composite Jacket

Fig.9.14 Prefabricated FRP square jacket with additional strip

In most cases the FRP confinement obtained is passive in nature, with hoop tensile stresses in the FRP developing as the concrete expands. Active confinement methods with FRP jackets have also been applied [9.20].

BIBLIOGRAPHY 9.1 9.2 9.3 ACI 440.2R-02. Guide for the design and construction of externally bonded FRP systems for strengthening concrete structures. Reported by ACI Committee 440, 2002. Budescu, M., Ciongradi, I., Taranu, N., Gavrilas, I., Ciupala, M.A. Lungu, I. Reabilitarea constructiilor. Ed. Vesper, Iasi, 2001. Ciupala, M.A., Pilakoutas, K., Taranu, N. FRP seismic strengthening of columns in frames. Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on FRP Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, Singapore 8-10 July, 2003, 1117-1126. Ciupala, M.A., Pilakoutas, K., Mortazawi, A., Taranu, N RC Lateral prestressing with composites. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). Proceedings of the Second
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9.4

K. V. 107-116.13 9. 2001.. Lau. No 8. Mays.. P. V. Rametta. Guildford. Constr. T. Mater. J.18 International Conference. 9: 221-247. Hollaway.B. 2003. M.14 9.G.15 9.. 1999. Woodhead Publishing Limited. L. Hutchinson. Hollaway. and Build. ASCE. Mat. J.B. Park. K. 2000. and Leeming.. Fiber reinforced composites-advanced materials for renewal of civil infrastructure. 1-13. Can. Eng. Appl. Shear behaviour and design of FRP RC beams. Comp.5 9.. Farmer. Modarelli.11 9. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC).. L. “Adhesives in civil engineering”. Near surface mounted reinforcement for strengthening-UK experience and development of best practice. Shrive N. “Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC structures”. In “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures”. Mander. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Innovative Materials and Technologies for Construction and Restoration. 365378.10 9. 2004. 21. A. Appl. M. Gale. Yuan. Manni. CRC Press.R. Journ. “Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures”. Cambridge University Press. L.12 9. Zhou. L. Tse. Federation International du Beton (FIB). Brosens. Confinement of RC columns with FRP materials: a critical comparison between ACI and CEB-FIP design guidelines.P. Bulletin 14. ASM International. 18041826. S. M.. N. Cambridge. M. UK. C. 2002.. R. Woodhead Publishing Limited. CRC Press. A. Applications of composites. G. eds.6 9. Lausanne.16 9.8 9. 2002. M. J. Cambridge. 1992. and Leeming. Size effect in axially loaded squaresection concrete prisms strengthened using carbon fibre reinforced polymer wrapping. UK on 20-22 April 2004 pp 659-666. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Innovative Materials and Technologies for Construction and Restoration. R. Hollaway. M. ”Materials”. 2001. held at the University of Surrey. 114. In: Composites Vol.9 9. L.J. Karbhari. Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete. 31. Cambridge.7 9. and Hutchinson. The University of Sheffield. Ohio. UK on 20-22 April 2004.. 1999. 2004. Masia. Eng. T.M... O. 95-124.17 9. Strengthening of concrete constructions with externally bonded reinforcement.B. and Quinn. June 6-9. of Struct.J. C. Priestley. V. PhD Thesis. The evolution and the way forward for advanced polymer composites in the civil infrastructure. 17... R.. Lecce. Comp.N. Civ. page 189 .. 1988.. P. Ignoul. Seible. Guildford. C. optical fibre sensors and smart composites for concrete rehabilitation: an overview. Mater.. Design concepts and case studies.C.M. F.N. 7. Civil Infrastructure Applications. Vol. held at the University of Surrey.C. Gemert. Guadagnini. Karbhari. D. 195-202.Building Rehabilitation 9. Proceedings of the Second International Conference.

29 Triantafillou. 2.T. of the Polytechnic Inst of Iasi. June 6-9 2004.. 227-234. Fiber reinforced polymer shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with transverse steel reinforcement. Proceedings of the International Workshop. Lulea University Printing Office. Ltd. 16-17 May.. Winnipeg. 2001.RC structure rehabilitation with advanced polymeric composites Lecce. New York. FRP –Strengthened RC Structures. UK on 20-22 April 2004. 9.G... 9. Chen. In Proceedings of the International Conference “CONSTRUCTIONS 2003”. Chap.24 Pilakoutas. New York . July 20-21. 9.G. C. Lam.26 Taranu.. page 190 . G. 3-4. Oprisan.. Fasc. In Composites in Construction a Reality. L. T. 9. 2001. 9...A. 2003. 2002.20 Mortazavi.22 Oprisan.. Design Manual No 4...21 Neale. C. C. C. Strengthening reinforced concrete structures with externallybonded fibre reinforced polymers. Vol. Rodopoulos. F. 6. Understanding and modeling the compressive behaviour of FRP confined concrete. July 20-21. 97-106. E. 2001. 2003. Saftiuc.A.19 Monti. Guadagnini M.. Taranu. Proceedings of the International Workshop.. 285-297. Composites as Strengthening Materials of Concrete Structures. Pilakoutas and C. pp 89-100. Cluj-Napoca. B. 9. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). 73-88. 9.. T.30 Triantafillou. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. I. Lulea. 9. N. Entuc.. J. Eds. Smith. Guildford. held at the University of Surrey. Tom XLIX. Capri. 9. Modena. 9 from “Failure Analysis of Industrial Composite Materials”..28 Teng. J. Budescu. 104-111. of comp. N.23 Pellegrino.. 2003. Capri. University of Sheffield. L. Saftiuc. 213-222. 2000. 9. ISIS Canada. Lam. C. Proceedings of the Second International Conference. “FRP strengthening of existing concrete structures. Confining reinforced concrete with FRP: behaviour and modeling. K. Guildford.. 173-182..25 Taljsten. McGraw Hill . Behaviour of concrete confined with lateral pretensioned FRP.27 Teng. Shear of FRP RC: a review of the state-of— the-art. UK on 20-22 April 2004.E. Preliminary evaluation of structural response of RC beams strengthened with FRP composites. 9. Gdoutos. Strengthening of reinforced concrete beams with carbon fibre reinforced polymer plates. M. S. G. 2002. John Wiley & Sons. In Bull. In Composites in Construction a Reality. for constr.G. K. Journ. PhD Thesis. C. 9. 2003. Design guidelines” Second edition. In: Advanced Polymer Composites for Structural Applications in Construction (ACIC). K. Upgrading Concrete Structures Using Advanced Polymer Composites. J. held at the University of Surrey.

which include the general characters like paternity and chronology. Its use was continuous up to the present time.4].10 REHABILITATION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES 10. and the peculiar characters as environmental factors. for example). mainly in the form of roofs and floors. The heritage of timber structures we belong is immense and the oldest specimens date back to millennia ago. to the loss of their structural integrity and serviceability. also the most complete before steel was available. The load bearing capacity of a new considered timber structure needs in certain cases to be improved through appropriate structural consolidation. page 191 . failure. in order to comply with increased performance requirements (modifications in use of the structure.1. Due to the fact that old timber structures account for a large part of our architectural heritage. some of them still in good shape and performing their duties. in the absence of appropriate maintenance interventions. with rough stone. Ancient timber load-bearing structures are the ancestors of the modern framed structures therefore they deserve special attention and careful conservation. The acquaintance of an ancient timber structure is an extensive analysis. and regimen of the loads [10. a reliable. because it can be solicited both to compression and to tension. from its ideation to the present conditions. quality. is the oldest building material the man used. defects and decay of the materials. innovations.1]. therefore to bending. But the consequences are even more when the structures are parts of historical and/or artistic buildings because their cultural evidence also could be endangered or completely lost. Load bearing timber structures are exposed during their life to some degradation factors which lead. effective and economic procedure for their in situ evaluation is particularly needed [10. construction technique and process. configuration and loading. INTRODUCTION Timber.

the team duty is to derive accurate information concerning to the properties. reaching six times higher than that of steel. deputed to fulfil a given task. whether old or new. architects and possibly other experts co-operating to check the condition of each structural element. connections). reveal easily which is the organization that has been given to the elements. The aims of investigation are to determine the general and the particular characters. must periodically undergo a thoughtful inspection and evaluation of their safety and serviceability.Rehabilitation of timber structures Timber originally has considerable advantages as a structural material. the implementation of which requires a multi-disciplinary approach. and also to determine realistic boundaries within which the page 192 . Further. Also. no two identical situations exist in damaged timber structures. therefore restoration works and repairs need to be chosen. in other words they allow the understanding of the pre-established relations. designed and implemented case by case [10. the evidence of the hierarchy of the components present (structural units. structural systems. In general. engineers. its great use for decreasing global warming effect is well known. performance and condition of the material. timber scores high with the strength ratio for the same weight.3]. their position. the relations between the same components and the other parts of the buildings (which may occasionally give a contribution to the balance and to the stability of the structure if not to the strength). In particular. For timber structures the accomplishment of this difficult task implies the involvement of different experts: wood technologists. On the other hand. thus lightening the weight of a building could be attempted. Timber structures. evaluate the serviceability of the whole structure and prevent future degrade. as a structural material. The repair and strengthening of timber structures is a more comprehensive intellectual. Structure is a system of members with assigned relations. some of them are designed to carry loads and ensure stability to buildings. technical and scientific activity (including the concern and the search for cultural implications in the ideation of the structure) to collect all the necessary data to allow the formulation of a judgment on the reliability of the structure to perform its bearing function in safe conditions. Conservation and rehabilitation of existing timber structures is a relatively new idea. The geometry designed by elements which occupy a limited and well defined part of the three-dimensional space. the stiffness and deformation capacity of moment resisting joints has never been calculated decisively without a full-scale experimental process. Through a careful examination of each structural member and joint. quite a few issues are remained to be solved partly because timber is a natural material and its material characteristic is easily changed due to its surrounding environment.

INSPECTION AND EVALUATION 10. performed.2. bay. shape and position in the space of the members. Other important elements to determine are the relations of the timber structural complex with the other structural systems present in the building as the bearing walls for a covering. stability to the architectural organism [10. 10. The member components and the connections must be identified. the kind and the entity of the stresses which are responsible for the deformations detected. floor) as part of a structural system is an abstract concept related to the geometry of the mechanical device and of its components (as span.1].2. also to fulfil physiological conservation requirements. mainly because of the property of the visco-elasticity that wood belongs. Timber structures. these are started. it carries its most exclusive and characterizing features. the workings. This means to recognize and to classify the various structural systems present in a building and to determine the relations between them. the degradations occurred etc. truss. equilibrium. The constituting materials are usually left in sight. page 193 . hence it is possible to perceive the botanic species. the members and the connections present. more than those made of other materials. and degree of movement freedom they allow to the concurring members. joints. is the essence of the structure. Therefore often it is difficult to assess the cause. the soil for a timber framed construction. Indeed the configuration. It is essential to determine design. The configuration is devised to bear a given system of forces and withstand the foreseen actions thus ensuring strength. Configuration of a structural unit (frame. height. due to the nature of the tissues and the longitudinal position of the fibres. the units.1 Objectives of the inspection Essential aims when studying a timber structural complex is the identification of the kind of hierarchic organization existing between the systems. the result of an ideation activity. the connections of various nature between the members. connections are other very important elements of the structure and of the configuration. number.Building Rehabilitation designer shall make his calculations. in an accentuated way if compared to other materials. Bearing. settled by the external ties. it is the element that deserves deeper investigation and more careful conservation. which determine the relations between the elements and any other structural system connected. show a very complicate rheologic (deformational) behaviour. nature. dimensions and ratio between them).

although in a statistic and probabilistic way. exposure. humidity and temperature because of the dimensional variations they produce. the mechanical and biotical decay. embedding. anyhow. loss of stability at the general level of the system. presence of water-proof and insulated covering or caps of the structures as well as occasional condensations. irregularities of the direction of the fibres. elongation. The assessment of the strength of the materials. predisposing to fracture. lack of aeration and ventilation as well as scarce use of the room. brittle heart are the most common defects of the wood. a defect of the timber when this is used as a construction material because their presence reduces the mechanical strength of the member. Knots too big. contraction. piling up). the position of the piece in the shaft. splitting. loss of equilibrium etc. of course. at the unit level. They become. investigations must be carried out. For each member. the predisposition to biotic attacks. the effects of the shrinkage and other damage). rotations. too numerous in a restricted area. The most important and recurring are semi-permanent or permanent deformations (twisting or lateral buckling. the variations in the same strength of the wood. ring-shakes. disconnections. heating systems and conditioning are responsible of damages. the defects. The shrinkage of the wood. is a process which starts internal tensions and produces solutions in the continuity that are called checks or shakes. ill-formed tissues. is one of the most difficult tasks because it is not possible to deduce one or more members from an ancient structure from direct testing on structural scale samples. the grain. that need detection and survey. tear. dilatation. Mathematical instrument can help considerably with verifications of the strength of the material in the most solicited sections of the members. the peculiar characters as the botanic species.Rehabilitation of timber structures The environment has great influence on the conservation of a timber structure. which occurs because of the hygroscopicity of the tissues when the rate of internal humidity decreases. sagging. deformation (changes in geometry. the workings. humidity in the bearing walls of a covering. The most relevant factors are pollution and. of the stability of the whole system. folding). crack at the level of members. as it would be advisable. also to the metallic components of the structure. These are not a defect of the wood. Natural defects must be assessed also. The detection of the mechanical deformations of the structure is a fundamental task: the manifestations must be looked for with the maximum care. Occasional factors as malfunctioning of the gutters. the quality of the timbers (with specification of the ring thickness. of the balance of the units. crushing. displacements (translations and rotations) at the member and unit level. rupture. page 194 . sinking. dead and loose knots.

and others. Timber structures belong on peculiar aesthetic values such as: bi. to acquaint the acknowledgement of the cultural values they carry and. proportions of the members. which may need specific reinforcement. All these values are to be investigated and recorded. to detect existing decay or damage suffered in service. the inspection of an existing timber structure has the following main objectives: • to provide the information needed by the structural engineer in order to assess if the strength and the stiffness of members and of connections are satisfactory for structural safety in the intended use. the extension of the decay. Failure of the structures can also occur because of the progressive malfunctioning of the connections. substitution. decorations. and which may affect it in the future. and attempts are to be made to imagine and give. including defects and anomalies. also interpreted. drawings. When the structure is in poor conditions further analyses are requested to ascertain whether the failure is still active or it is extinguished. weight. the members and the joints affected. page 195 . the period in which it occurred. Generally. • • • The means to achieve these objectives (concerning all load-bearing elements) are the following: • • to assess the timber quality: ascertain the wood species and its main physical and mechanical properties. at the same time. twisting or breaking of the ends of the members are the usual disconnections. the look that the structure had at the beginning of his life. by means of restoration (descriptions. to point out parts. a primary measure of safeguarding. a disease which can affect every element of the hierarchic organization. and also to the absence or presence of decay agents such as beetles and fungi. shear.Building Rehabilitation The cracks of the members are quite different according to the nature of internal stresses caused by compression or tension or bending. Loosening of the joints. or other types of intervention. the factors of decay or failure. colour. audiovisuals etc. or torsion.or tridimensional geometry.). to evaluate decay factors which may have affected the structure. the mechanical processes of failure. the measures taken etc.

Essentially.Rehabilitation of timber structures • • to assess the risk of decay or damage in the future. the other sets presented and the structural complexes of a different nature like the soil. simply. the elasticity of the members and also the ductility of the connections. all the aforesaid investigations must have a statistic character.2. the mathematical models have no deterministic value. There are two methods of investigation which are used individually or together. The investigation range. Due to the number of members in a structure. the cited relations are the transmitted strains and the reactions to them. to assess the effective cross section(s) and their strength and stiffness. instrumental analysis. Mathematical calculations and models follow. those eases the first assessments and allow planning the following instrumental analyses. the methods. unavoidably.2. it is advisable to examine analytically the structural units. During the inspections. The acquaintance of the timber structure is progressively achieved with inspections in situ. The further phase is the determination of the relations between the units. which are the real basic reference of every further investigation. the methods and the level of investigation vary considerably. Therefore deformations. The same progression of investigation is completely modified when the decay and the structural failure are severe and the risk of sudden collapse is high. dislocations could be essential symptoms of a general disease of the structure or. the first concern is for stability and configuration. they can put it in a critical situation. The high level of deformability of the timber structures.1 Visual analysis It is of fundamental importance to recognize that the visual analysis approach is the most important. is mainly due to two factors. once the structural units have been determined. due to the statistic methods used to collection the data. 10. These methods are: • • visual analysis. more than the others. In the most general cases. 10.2. the instruments and the same number of tests varies accordingly. It is also page 196 .2 Investigation methods According with the aim of the research. in a professional approach. observations and analyses are made. the masonry bearing structures and similar.

on wood. In the last decades the method of the elastic waves has been widely tested and extensively applied for the grading of new timber.Building Rehabilitation possible to maintain. which cuts down the strength of the wood affected and even alters the character of the cracks.1]. Several non-direct methods have been proposed so far and used for the determination of the mechanical strength of the timber. in a very approximate way. mostly the fungal attacks hit the parts which are in contact with wet masonry walls or other elements of the building where the ambient page 197 . Forecasting the whole behaviour of the member and the real position of the cracks can be disturbed by biotic decay. that the more deformed the members are the more they are stressed.2. The concavities are evidenced by means of skimming or grazing light side-light and rulers.2 Instrumental analysis Application of the instrumental analysis (exact methods) of the wood anatomy on small samples must follow the visual determination. the new approach is by means of Radiography. especially fungal. With the latter. many applications have also been made to the ancient structures. that the more deformed members are more stressed than others of the same size but less deformed. The use of this method is well attested for the study of the paintings. Present favourable circumstances as the availability of small size portable equipment give many opportunities to develop the study of the connections. to find out the status of them and the species. as application to wood of the sclerometer-type instruments (Pylodin) [10. In the timber structures. About the design of the connections. 10.2. the static one is deduced. besides. specially. On the other hand the presence of severe deformations in some regions of the member is enough to foretell that breakings will occur and that this will happen in those regions. with close observation of the tissues. and finding out discontinuities. the strength to compression of the wood is deduced by the depth reached by the probe. using the Scanning Electronic Microscope which allows. even only roughly and in a general way. The depth and the shape of the internal surfaces are measured with needle-probes. they are based on the measurement of the superficial hardness of the wood or the superficial resistance to penetration. with the aim of determining a dynamic modulus of elasticity from which.

engineers) and of the carpenters. starting from the parts of the structure which show higher moisture content. location and quantification of mechanical damages and residual load bearing cross-sections. 10. with adequate instruments. Safety assessment of the structure and design of the restoration plan could be performed on the basis of the collected data. page 198 . connecting joints. external constraints or connections. After the repair works the original timbers may fulfil: • • • the same structural functions they were originally assigned. wooden species. steel or concrete. such as substitution timbers. The step-by-step analysis requested relies on experimental observations with models and on mathematical modelling. it is necessary to carry out inspections planned on a probabilistic ratio.3. Repairs may basically deal with one or more of the following levels of the structure [10. The whole set of data is compiled in tabular form and/or graphic representations by using colour or black and white codes and symbols in order to facilitate and speed up the subsequent work of the technicians (architects.2. structural units. the material’s historical authenticity. whole structure. besides in the depth of the connections.3]: • • • • • individual structural timber member. Evaluation of the existing timber structure Evaluation is the final report. an improved structural function. including information about structure typology and dimensions. strength grade.Rehabilitation of timber structures moisture produces condensation water. Therefore the parts affected are not always in sight so that they are not detectable. although in conjunction with newly added members. the structural functions being totally fulfilled by other load bearing members.

All pertinent documentation. fungal and insect attacks. take into account the great variety of actions and treatments required for the preservation and conservation of these heritage resources. Historic timber structures refer here to all types of buildings or constructions wholly or partially in timber that have cultural significance or that are parts of a historic area. wear and tear. recognise the vulnerability of structures wholly or partially in timber due to material decay and degradation in varying environmental and climatic conditions.1 Inspection. the Burra Charter and related UNESCO and ICOMOS doctrine. and information about relevant traditional skills and technologies. fire and other disasters. take into account the various species and qualities of wood used to build them. recording and documentation 1. Groups of Buildings and Sites. as well as all materials used in treatments. the principles: • • • • recognise the importance of timber structures from all periods as part of the cultural heritage of the world. recognise the increasing scarcity of historic timber structures due to vulnerability. For the purpose of the preservation of such structures. including characteristic samples of redundant materials or members removed from the structure.Building Rehabilitation 10. misuse and the loss of skills and knowledge of traditional design and construction technology. catalogued. • • • And make the following recommendations: 10.3 PRINCIPLES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC TIMBER STRUCTURES [2] (Adopted by ICOMOS at the 12th General Assembly in Mexico. light. should be collected.3. caused by humidity fluctuations. October 1999) The aim of this document is to define basic and universally applicable principles and practices for the protection and preservation of historic timber structures with due respect to their cultural significance. take into account the great diversity of historic timber structures. securely stored and made page 199 . The condition of the structure and its components should be carefully recorded before any intervention. note the Venice Charter. in accordance with Article 16 of the Venice Charter and the ICOMOS Principles for the Recording of Monuments. and seek to apply these general principles to the protection and preservation of historic timber structures.

10. including structural members. 7. measurements of physical conditions and nondestructive testing methods. page 200 . In certain circumstances. roofs. weather-boarding. Problems should be solved according to relevant conditions and needs with due respect for the aesthetic and historical values. physical inspection and analysis. In the case of interventions. The protection should also include surface finishes such as plaster. minimum intervention can mean that their preservation and conservation may require the complete or partial dismantling and subsequent reassembly in order to allow for the repair of timber structures. The primary aim of preservation and conservation is to maintain the historical authenticity and integrity of the cultural heritage. and the physical integrity of the historic structure or site. and d) not hinder the possibility of later access to evidence incorporated in the structure.3. if necessary. if technically possible. floors.3 Interventions 4. Each intervention should therefore be based on proper studies and assessments. doors and windows. 10.2 Monitoring and maintenance 3. The documentation should also include the specific reasons given for choice of materials and methods in the preservation work. and. the historic structure should be considered as a whole. This should not prevent necessary minor interventions and emergency measures. as much as possible of the existing material should be retained. or c) at least not prejudice or impede future preservation work whenever this may become necessary.Rehabilitation of timber structures accessible as appropriate. etc. paint. The minimum intervention in the fabric of a historic timber structure is an ideal. 6. 5.3. 2. Any proposed intervention should for preference: a) follow traditional means.. wall-paper. b) be reversible. all material. A coherent strategy of regular monitoring and maintenance is crucial for the protection of historic timber structures and their cultural significance. The diagnosis should be based on documentary evidence. In principle. in-fill panels. coating. etc. should be given equal attention. A thorough and accurate diagnosis of the condition and the causes of decay and structural failure of the timber structure should precede any intervention.

so that they can be identified later. where appropriate. the original materials. Where possible. duplicate the originals. this should also include similar natural characteristics. Nails and other secondary materials should. by carving. The establishment and protection of forest or woodland reserves where appropriate timber can be obtained for the preservation and repair of historic timber structures should be encouraged. if appropriate. 11. The aim of restoration is to conserve the historic structure and its load bearing function and to reveal its cultural values by improving the legibility of its historical integrity. 8. as indicated in articles 9 – 13 of the Venice Charter. or. if appropriate and compatible with structural requirements. 10. and where it is an appropriate response to the need to replace decayed or damaged members or their parts. The moisture content and other physical characteristics of the replacement timber should be compatible with the existing structure.3.3. techniques and textures should be duplicated as far as possible. grading as in the members being replaced. its earlier state and design within the limits of existing historic material evidence. Removed members and other components of the historic structure should be catalogued. with better. traditional woodwork joints should. replacement timber can be used with due respect to relevant historical and aesthetical values. New members or parts of members should be made of the same species of wood with the same. including the use of dressing tools or machinery. If a part of a member is replaced. be used to splice the new and the existing part.Building Rehabilitation If it is necessary to renew or replace surface finishes. and characteristic samples kept in permanent storage as part of the documentation. 10. by marks burnt into the wood or by other methods. correspond with those used originally. Institutions responsible for the preservation and page 201 .4 Repair and replacement 9. Appropriate traditional or welltested modern methods may be used to match the colouring of the old and the new with due regard that this will not harm or degrade the surface of the wooden member.5 Historic forest reserves 12. where possible. or to the requirements of restoration. Craftsmanship and construction technology. It should be accepted that new members or parts of members will be distinguishable from the existing ones. should. In the repair of a historic structure. 10. New members or parts of members should be discretely marked. To copy the natural decay or deformation of the replaced members or parts is not desirable.

V-shaped cross sections. Contemporary materials. preservation and conservation of historic timber structures are encouraged. and should be used only where there is an assured benefit. The operations have to be repeated in several sections. Regeneration of values related to the cultural significance of historic timber structures through educational programs is an essential requisite of a sustainable preservation and development policy. The programs should address all relevant professions and a trade involved in such work. The use of chemical preservatives should be carefully controlled and monitored. Such training should be based on a comprehensive strategy integrated within the needs of sustainable production and consumption. 10.3. conservators. such as structural steel reinforcement. Utilities. and. The close observation of the solutions of continuity aims to recognize cracks from checks or shakes. national. 10.3. concavity of all the external surfaces (fig. The checks are identified by the elements of the formation process mentioned before: long and continuous line along the grain even if with some transitions to other fibres. should be installed with due recognition of the historic and aesthetic significance of the structure or site. where public and environmental safety will not be affected and where the likelihood of success over the long term is significant.4 EXAMPLES OF DETERIORATION The thickness of the rings. 14.2). may be with the help of some samples (transversal cores. and include programs at the local. the defects of the wood are generally recognized with simple observation. and techniques. such as epoxy resins. regional and international levels.10. page 202 . fig. engineers. the position in the shaft. With the checks also the grain and its irregularities can be detected. should be chosen and used with the greatest caution and only in cases where the durability and structural behaviour of the materials and construction techniques have been satisfactorily proven over a sufficiently long period of time.1. 10. The establishment and further development of training programs on the protection.Rehabilitation of timber structures conservation of historic structures and sites should establish or encourage the establishment of stores of timber appropriate for such work. in particular. architects.6 Contemporary materials and technologies 13.10. Education and training 15. and fire detection and prevention systems. crafts persons and site managers.7. such as heating. especially for the rings). the grain.

show manifestations which are peculiar to the hierarchic level and to the configuration.1 The aspect of a beam of chestnut affected by several ring shakes (from Macchioni and Mannucci. fig.10. Fig.10.4] Failures of the structures. 1999) [10.2 Inside view of the roof structure: lateral view of one of the outermost trusses (all the ties are concealed by a service wooden floor supported by the ties located all over the roof base) [10.10.Building Rehabilitation Fig. from complexes to single members.10.1] Fig.3 The evidence of localized water penetration over time in timber structures page 203 .2.

the cracks in the more advanced phases of the degradation. Fig. the loss of strength at the heads of the connections caused by rottenness when wood is encased into the masonry or cups. http://www.4 The trusses typical failure manifestations: cracks in the members with sliding ABLE-ROOFCARE Co. even bigger than that of the chord. the disorder of the coating. that means depression of the ridge and of the joists./houseproject/overview) page 204 .Rehabilitation of timber structures Symptoms of bad conditions are the sinking of the top and the slopes of the roof.10. with consequent rotation of the rafter in the vertical plane and deviation of joists and small joists..10. the rotation of the rafter-ends on the bearings.html Fig. when the collar-ties are missing or not in the right position. the sliding of the rafter along the chord. the disconnection of the joints (especially those rafter-chord).10.roofcare.co.5 Timber-framing: posts and beams are too rotten to repair (http://www. fig.. of the gutters etc.com/.4.3. the sagging of the chord combined with its sliding along the masonry seat and rotation. fig. In the frames and the trusses typical failure manifestations are the loss of planarity and verticality (rotation on the horizontal axe passing trough the bearings).thisoldhouse. what means that rain water enters under the coating of the roof and in the walls: the probable affection of the timber carpentry by biotic attacks is to be detected looking for the presence of spots.10.za/problems.

figure.Building Rehabilitation Symptoms of failure of the structure are the loss of elasticity of the whole unit. The arch-braced roof. often botanic species too. at the side sections of the centrings. Fig. size. the sinking of some parts. fig. fig. a popular late medieval form for the open hall. fig. where bending is inverted. can be affected by “brittle heart” and undergo “size effect” cracks.6 Typical rot damage with consequent building settlement and ineffectual repairs attempted over the years (photo shows Marlowe Restorations) Beams of large and very large section. In very ancient structures.10.10. working. visco-elastic deformations can have occurred. In these cases the investigation must be enlarged to include also the iron fittings and the other elements of connection to the ancient members and the results are to be put in the general frame page 205 . is caused by the small section of the centrings and the high number of joints with progressive loosening. Besides. made with lathing kept in the desired shape by ribs of packaged boards. the deformation of the principal and secondary members which can be caused by insufficient dimensions in relation not only to the loads acting but also to the span or the bay.7. is also ease damaged by extra loads or modification of roof coverings. Addition and replacement timbers are recognizable by differences in colour.10.5.6. some breakings at the extrados of the boards may occur. some ruptures of the wood members. quality. depressions at the key along with longitudinal cracks are rather frequent and are the effect of the deformability of the board centrings which.10. In the light vaults. usually of mature wood obtained by old trees.

the silvering which is usually the result of exposition to UV radiations. perceptible as it happens for the attacks by beetles. are the signs also. the white colour is due to the taking away of all the components of the wood included the lignin). as the whitening (white rot. the change to brown combined with the formation of “cubes” on the surface of the wood. the presence of white mycelium in the shape of felts of fluffy filaments etc. in general.Rehabilitation of timber structures for appropriate.10.8.lookingatbuildings. Fig. Their importance. The fibrous appearance of the wood.org.7 Timber arch-braced roof http://www. fig.1 Repair by means of traditional joints Decayed or badly damaged segments may be replaced by new parts made of solid wood.uk/ The decay of the materials is.5.5. However. Manifestations of fungal attacks are the changes in colour. is given by the information they can supply on the past behaviour and failures of the structure. connected by means of traditional joining or repairing techniques. Appearance and authenticity of original material are lost. TIMBER STRUCTURE REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING METHODS 10. extensive interpretation. 10. page 206 . Only traditional methods and material are used.10. the presence of lachrymal drops. detection is made possible by the presence of emergence holes and of the bore dust or by the special noise made by some insects. original strength may seldom be fully recovered. in general. the change to pink or to grey in the softwoods. the evident loss of strength to compression.

b. b.9 are presented some procedures developed by companies which are using these techniques (http://www.8 Replacement of inefficient segments of original members by means of traditional joints [3]: a. c.5. nailed spliced bevelled joint.uk/): a new pre-treated softwood page 207 . d. splice joint covered by bolted wooden plates.Building Rehabilitation a. In fig. e.2 Repair by gluing new parts Decayed or badly damaged segments (often beam ends) may be replaced by newly added parts usually connected by glued rods made of steel or fibreglass. splice joint covered by bolted steel plates. shear reinforcement with nails or steel clamps 10. f.10. f.10.timber-repair. c. Fig.co. e. bolted end joint with steel channel. d. reinforcement with nails or steel clamps.

in the case of timber joist ends affected by rot. and being cleaned out with an auger. before or after the end was cut off. being finally aligned. is attached to the end of the damaged piece via slots. with the “connectors” factory fitted. II – Slot cut from floor joist. Principally.3 II III IV page 208 .2 II III IV I Technological procedure no. which are filled with the epoxy grout in different manners.Epoxy pouring grout used to fill the slot.Rehabilitation of timber structures piece. the procedure steps are: • • • • I – Floor joist ends affected by rot. III – Timber-Resin Splice unit fitted with face sealant in place. I Technological procedure no.1 II III IV I Technological procedure no. IV .

6 II III IV Fig. Therefore.4 III II IV I Technological procedure no.9 – Timber Resin Splice.10.Building Rehabilitation I Technological procedure no.10.5 II III IV I Technological procedure no. the modified structure requires verifications and the execution must be realised under the designer co-ordination.3 Repairing by using tie-rods Steel cable or rods may be used in order to strengthening or stiffening timber individual members or trusses. page 209 .uk/) 10. This method improve the strength structure by prevent de turnbuckles. fig. excessive deflections or to adjust the tension.co. In this case special attention must be accorded to the structural conception which may be different.timber-repair.10.5. a patented technology for timber repairing (http://www.

b.10.10.10. a. replacement with side metal truss page 210 . timber beam strengthening using tie-rods [7]. Fig.Rehabilitation of timber structures 10. Structural conception is altered. fig. b.5. b. b.10 Tie-rods replacing: a. timber truss with tie-rod a. Fig.11 The replacements of inefficient timber beam ends: a.4 Repairing by changing the wood beam ends Decayed beam ends are moved to locations where timber is sound. Appearance and authenticity are partially lost. replacement with wood pieces. this may also result in reducing the span of the beams. The decayed beam end is cut and replaced by additional load-bearing member (side steel truss or timber member).11.

Design-Details and Structural Systems. Voiculescu M.. 10.. . Mannucci M. Ed.ndt.. . Mannucci M. P. Netherlands..5 Macchioni N. et all.4 Lauriola M. editors . “Gh. BIBLIOGRAPHY 10. P..Building Rehabilitation 10. 6th International Conference on "Non Destructive Testing and Mycroanalysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage" (ART'99).. Rome 17-19 May 1999. including those which have undergone recent or earlier repair work. Centrum Hout.net/article/wcndt00/papers/idn.Inspection techniques for ancient wooden structures: state of the art and research needs.EUROCODE 5 : Timber Engineering-Step 2. Paris 5-9 July 1999.. should be considered a major threat to the conservation of timber structures. Lourenço. The action of potential deterioration agents should be anticipated and prevented [10. 10. Ionascu M. Choo B.6 MAINTENANCE AND CONSERVATION MEASURES Maintenance work should always carry out with a view to the continued conservation of the structure.).Non-destructive evaluation of ancient wooden structures.1 Tampone G. page 211 . in its forms and origins. 10.B... Aune P.org/ 10.J. Asachi”. Bucuresti.Acquaintance of the ancient timber structures in Historical Constructions.icomos. Editura Tehnica. Mannucci M. http://www. – Solutii de consolidare a constructiilor avariate de cutremure.8 Isopescu Dorina – Timber Structures.A reliable inspection procedure of existing timber structures: the case of Guarini's Towers roofs Racconigi Castle (Italy).3].2 International Council and Monuments and Sites. 117.. Moisture. .. Documentation Centres UNESCO-ICOMOS – Principles for the preservation of Historic Timber Structures (1999). Zanuttini R. 161. 2155-2165.S. http://www. 1995. 10. Macchioni N.6 Macchioni N. Oschi M. Roca (Eds. 2001. 1997.international. 2nd International Congress on "Science and technology for the safeguard of cultural heritage in the mediterranean basin". Iasi.3 Blass H. . Special case should be taken to ensure the proper execution of recommended repair or prevention works.7 Arsenie G. 10. Guimarães. 2002. 10.

10% through the roofing structure. skylights and external doors. 5. the surface and structure of the envelope. The application of efficient solutions to limit heat loss during the exploitation of buildings requires knowledge of heat transfer ways from rooms towards the outside during cold seasons .. 20. [11.11 HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS 11..... 5..2]: • a lower thermal insulation capacity of closure elements requires higher thermal energy consumption in exploitation to maintain the hygrothermal page 212 ..10% through the basement floor toward the ground.25% through the opaque zones of external walls.1]. the number of storeys.. the size and thermal insulation qualities of different component zones. There must be a direct connection between the thermal insulation qualities of building elements and energy consumption for heating in order to achieve thermal comfort in rooms [11. heat losses towards the exterior in winter are released in the following proportions: • • • • • 40. as well as on the intensity of air exchange between rooms and environment.25% through windows.1 GENERAL ASPECTS In order to ensure the best temperature values inside the buildings in cold periods thermal energy is required to compensate for the heat loss through the closure elements. dependent on their insulating capacity.50% by air exchange between the rooms and the exterior.. In the case of ordinary buildings. This repartition depends on the form. 10. as well as of the weight of the attached energy of these ways in the overall heat loss.. structure and plane sizes of building.

This is what is called thermal rehabilitation. inversely. solar radiation. the assurance of thermal comfort in rooms using reduced energy consumption can be achieved quite easily by means of a correct design. These problems may be solved by applying some adequate technical actions. the less energy reserves available for various reasons. which suffered a diminution of thermal insulation qualities of external protection elements during exploitation. as early as the initial design phases. a radical technical intervention which must take into account all the ways in which the building loses heat. Besides that. are generally characterized by thermal insulation capacity below thermal comfort requirements. The option for one or the other of the two variants is first determined by economical. Old buildings. the more insulation qualities of envelope may be diminished. the thermophysical degradations and depreciation of installations conveying the thermal agent determine excessively high heat losses on the route in cold weather. there is also the problem of the low efficiency of their physically and morally worn out heating systems. along with the inherent subjectivity in estimating the microclimate conditions by various categories of people. or at least that of the main structural elements with inadequate thermal qualities. • the higher the energy reserves. inversely. both toward exterior and interior unheated spaces. because of cumulated cyclical action of some environmental factors (high temperature and moisture variations. based on technical prescriptions that stipulate high standardized values for the thermal protection of envelope components in order to provide them with an adequate level of thermal insulation . freeze-thaw phenomenon etc. the more decrease in heat loss is required by ensuring higher thermal insulation qualities of external closure elements. as well as by the effect of the connection between the physical factors that characterize the interior of rooms and comfort. meant to increase the thermal insulation capacity of existing envelopes. which are often unsuitable for modernization. a higher thermal insulation degree of building envelope allows the obtainance of the same thermal effects with lower energy consumption.) as well as of improper exploitation conditions. energetical and environment protection reasons. the heating system having the dominant role. In the case of old buildings.Building Rehabilitation parameters of interior climate at the level of comfort values. In the case of new buildings. Simultaneously with heat loss diminution it is important to have in view some measures to fight the negative effects due to page 213 .

highly qualified labour. as regards the way of air exchange it is necessary to limit the air flow decrease for hygiene and sanitary reasons.). the improvement of natural lighting etc. From a hygrothermal point of view this means a minimum flow of energy losses required. Consequently.2]. ventilation rehabilitation can also be mentioned. which must be accepted unconditionally. The overall thermo-physical rehabilitation presupposes high consumption of efficient materials. [11. in favour of the hygrothermally untreated or insufficiently treated ways. the partial rehabilitation results in the change of the repartition of heat losses through the component zones of the closure elements and through the air exchange between rooms and the exterior. if the thermal qualities of closure elements can be improved up to very high performance levels to diminish heat transmission. However. it is necessary to approach and treat all the ways the building loses heat in winter very seriously. the diminution of excessive air change. even if a first analysis points that some areas on the envelope are less involved in thermal exchange with the environment than others. These limitations are determined by their functional role as well as by the thermal qualities of materials utilized. If the interventions to improve the thermal insulation are not applied to the entire envelope of the building. the notion of thermophysical rehabilitation can be defined. the amount of heat losses due to air exchange increases.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings vapour diffusion trough closure elements. long execution duration as well as a page 214 . and the least possible heat losses from rooms in cold periods [11. mainly condensation.3]. Even though the opaque closure elements may be ensured high performances of thermal resistance. which are thermally less effective and thus considered to be more important. the increase in insulation performances of some component zones (like glazed elements) is limited. Besides the thermal component of hygrothermal rehabilitation. Consequently. That leads to the hygrothermal rehabilitation of old buildings. if the heat lost through the closure elements is low. If there are also other physical aspect which may be solved along with the interventions for supplementary thermal protection (e. and require some specific interventions in order to ensure the overall comfort and hygiene conditions in the existing buildings. they must be accepted up to the level corresponding to the minimum hygiene and health requirements. that is the rationalization of air exchange between the rooms and the exterior to ensure normal hygiene and sanitary conditions. Thus. who thus become preferential ways for thermal transmission.g.

11. as well as of some microclimatic factors in the rooms. and influences other sides of hygrothermal behaviour as well as the energy consumption during exploitation. or at least to the most important ones is very difficult to carry out in unfavourable economic conditions. the elements making the building envelope. iii.Building Rehabilitation considerable financial effort.1 The decrease in thermal insulation qualities of materials During exploitation.2 THE NEED FOR THERMO-PHYSICAL REHABILITATION After a certain exploitation period. the increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation degree. particularly the exterior walls and the roofs. recurrent frost-thaw. are subjected to the cyclic action of environmental factors. iv. the thermal aspect will be further dealt with in detail. Temperature represents the main stimulant for the thermal regulator system of the human body. the hygrothermal rehabilitation of some elements making the envelope of the buildings with thermal comfort problems in cold periods may become necessary due to: i. These actions determine the diminution of thermal characteristics of the component materials in time and implicitly of the thermal insulation degree of elements.In this case. page 215 . it is recommended that the buildings whose exploitation is absolutely necessary should take priority over the others. Therefore. the modernization of some existing buildings.2. the increase in exigencies level concerning the hygrothermal comfort. infiltration of rainfall water. Another rational thermal rehabilitation manner of a great number of buildings is to phase the works on categories of envelope elements in order of degradation condition and their importance within the assemblyso that the building could continue to be exploited in adequate conditions. That is why such an action performed on a large scale to all hygrothermally damaged buildings. 11. ii. The climatic factors that determine the degradation of materials in time are: • • • temperature variations. the decrease in thermal insulation qualities of component materials.

increasing the thermal insulation qualities of the closure elements. the carbonic acid and the nitric acid. the dynamic loading of exploitation. or sometimes because of some changes occurred in the destination or functional requirements of the building. In order to satisfy the increased requirements of hygrothermal comfort. such as sulfuric acid. certain acids. two types of interventions meant to reach the optimal values for the physical parameters of the microclimate in rooms may be applied: • • supplementary energy input necessary for heating the rooms. the action of rodents and microorganisms.2. In addition to these climatic factors.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • solar radiations. due to the repeated frost-thaw phenomenon. 11.3 The increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation degree The increase in exigencies concerning the thermal insulation of the elements of the envelope has become necessary as a result of the world energetic crisis. which are formed from some pollutant substances in combination with water vapors in the air also have destructive chemical effects.2 The increase in exigencies concerning the hygrothermal comfort After a certain period of exploitation. which can settle the materials. the level of exigencies concerning the hygrothermal comfort in rooms may increase.2. which combined with the low temperatures gradually leads to the depreciation of materials with capillary-porous structure. The water accumulated in materials determines the increase in their thermal conductivity . At present the increase in energy consumption to heat the rooms in buildings is not possible on a large scale. Other less important factors determining the diminution of the qualities of thermal insulation are: • • • the vibrations during the earthquakes and those caused by the wind. 11.The only viable solution remains the hygrothermal rehabilitation by technical measures meant to improve the thermal insulation qualities of the building elements forming the envelope. as well as page 216 . which damage some organic insulation materials. Degradation may also be caused by some interior microclimatic factors like the condensation of exfiltrated water vapors through the exterior building elements in cold periods.

. values that are 2. which will ensure the diminution of heat losses up to an acceptable level. lightweight concrete etc. some increased standardized values of thermal insulation may be foreseen for Romania as well. mineral wool. For these elements. made of reinforced concrete ribs..5. the tendency to rationalize the energy consumption requires that the closure elements of buildings should be apparently thermally oversized. which proved to be rational and efficient.3 m2 K/W – for the opaque parts of exterior walls and • 3. The closure elements of these buildings had very low values of standardized thermal resistance. whose adoption was based on economic criteria that seem completely irrational nowadays. The tendency towards increasing the comfort level by consuming the lowest amount of energy possible will certainly determine the alignment to the practice of the developed countries. with extended networks of thermal bridges. most buildings in exploitation were built betwwen 1960 and 1980. In the advanced countries.4 The modernization of some existing buildings The necessity to modernize some existing older buildings. values like 3-4 m2K/W for thermal resistance are very frequent. The current wall systems applied to these buildings contain large prefabs panels or monolith reinforced concrete diaphragms. which are economically unacceptable. that is up to: • 2. with an insulating core made of less thermally efficient water-sensitive materials (cellular concrete.).Building Rehabilitation of the recent preoccupations to reduce the air pollution caused by classic fuel burning. 11. satisfying the requirements of thermal comfort as well.. This orientation will further result in the execution of new buildings with low energy consumption in exploitation and the appliance of thermal rehabilitation measures to the old buildings. as they allow excessive heat losses..2. may also constitute an opportunity for the application of page 217 . The low level of thermal insulation of the closure elements determines extremely high energy consumption for heating the rooms as well as considerable decrease in hygrothermal comfort inside rooms in cold periods.5 m2 K/W – for flat-roofs. In Romania.3 times higher than the current standardized values.. determined by various reasons mentioned below. These types of walls are thermally inadequate nowadays.5.. Therefore.

installation rehabilitation etc. Numerous buildings. it is necessary that along with the thermo-physical rehabilitation general technical revisions should be carried out. In these cases. particularly those that have been exploited for a log time. functional. even if at a certain point the financial effort seems difficult to accept. If required.. improvement works should be performed on structural elements and installations. some environmental and inner microclimatic factors. In order to ensure the harmonious framing within a modern building assembly. with minimal specific interventions. restoration works etc. have suffered from the negative effects of some earthquakes. architectural. particularly on those that will to be concealed by thermo-physical rehabilitation works. they may also physically and mechanically protect other closure elements. they may coincide to a large extent with the works destined to improve the aesthetic aspect of the building. The general thermal rehabilitation works on the existing older buildings are usually time-consuming and expensive. • • • Normally. extension etc. corresponding to new exigencies or functions. Therefore. functional reasons may determine the need for new division and distribution of rooms. For the same reasons it seems rational to combine the thermo-physical rehabilitation with other rehabilitation works. At the same time. except in some special situations. floor addition. they should be preceded by a minute technical and economical analysis. some older buildings may require aesthetic rehabilitation works. the suitability of hygrothermal rehabilitation works on the closure elements of the existing buildings is also sustained by the following reasons: • the structural and auxiliary works required are not different from those corresponding to the main objective. as it generally includes only the cost of the thermal insulation. page 218 . whch have been rehabilitated for other reasons. meaning numerous other technical operations besides finishing works. maintenance.. such as mechanical. the increase in overall cost due to the supplementary rehabilitation works is reasonable.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings some thermal rehabilitation measures. as well as alterations occasioned by repairs. which have affected their mechanical strength and insulation capacity.

Fig. by applying addtional thermally insulating layers made of highly hygrothermally efficient and durable materials. the structure of closure and separation elements. sandwich wall made of concrete and thermal insulation.Building Rehabilitation 11. page 219 . c. protection and decoration elements etc. masonry wall. the zones with untight joints etc.1 The principle of thermal rehabilitation using supplementary insulation layers a. In order to apply the hygrothermal rehabilitation solutions to the existing buildings. such as the glazed portions.. thermal rehabilitation may be performed according to other principles as well.4] consists of increasing their thermal resistance.11. a. fig.11.. depending on the extent of the envisaged rehabilitation action. b. or independently.1. the following aspects should be taken into account: • constructive particularities of the analyzed building: framed structure. compact flat-roof For the envelope areas that have a special structure.3 THE PRINCIPLE OF HYGROTHERMAL REHABILITATION BY INCREASING THE INSULATION CAPACITY The general principle of thermal rehabilitation measures applied to the closure elements of buildings [11. c. as well as of finishing. but always pursuing to decrease heat losses and preserve thermal energy inside the rooms. which have become inadequate in time. b. corresponding to the envisaged standardized performance exigencies. These solutions can be applied either as part of a general rehabilitation.

mechanic.11. functional and maintenance aspects. technological. page 220 .1. having the same thermal effect. hygrothermal conditions etc.a Rehabilitation on the inner face The application of new insulation layer on the inner face of the wall is recommended for buildings like hostels. 11.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • specific conditions of the area: the likely seismic action. exploitation and maintenance manner.3. fixed by soldering with adhesive or/and mechanical fastening and properly protected or finished against physical and mechanical actions during exploitation. as well as for small buildings or those that are being only partially rehabilitated.2. and of efficient masonry walls in Botosani and Suceava.3. the conditions of exploitation. which will be discussed below. Dwellings of shear walls (monolith concrete walls) were rehabilitated in Iasi and Bacau. 11. rehabilitation on inside face was applied in the 1970s and 1980s with remarkable thermal effects for some dwellings made of prefab concrete panels situated in the towns of Baia Mare and Cluj. • • • The application of the general thermal rehabilitation principle presented above to various closure elements forming the envelope of a building brings about some solutions for several categories of elements. hotels and schools. air movement etc. The application of thermal insulation on the external face is the most frequently chosen variant due to some advantages compared to other variants. specific to the building: the number of occupants. In Romania. economic and social factors. which are not exploited for long periods of time. wind intensity and other dynamic actions. economic. the preponderant age category. life styles..1 Rehabilitation in the opaque zones of external walls The thermal improvement of the opaque zones of external walls should be performed by attaching an additional thermally insulating layer. technical. typical climatic conditions of the area: air temperature and temperature differences. The new thermal layer may be applied on any side of the wall. fig. The choice of best way to apply thermal insulation is determined by hygrothermal. aesthetic. solar radiation.. technological.

Building Rehabilitation a. These negative effects have diminished the interest in this variant. mainly moisture and mould stains caused by condensation on the edges of the additional thermal insulation system. However. Fig. b. 11.1. ii. this solution also has some secondary effects. additional thermal insulation made of expanded polystyrene plates. c. as well as the sensitivity of the expanded polystyrene to shocks.3. stucked with adequate glue paste directly on the inner face of the wall and finished with vapourproof tapestry.b Rehabilitation on the exterior face The application of the supplementary thermal insulation on the exterior face of page 221 . limiting its use to isolated cases. a thermally insulating layer made of expanded polystyrene plates.11.2 Application of an additional thermally insulating layer to rehabilitate the opaque zones of exterior walls a. on both faces The solutions adopted for the rehabilitation works consisted of: i. iii. a simple plaster layer made of mortar with polystyrene or other light granules. fixed on the wall surface by melted bitumen. covered with water vapour barrier made of bituminous cardboard then protected by mortar plaster reinforced with wire net. c. on inside face. on outside face. b.

c.1. the best results can be obtained by increasing the number of thin air layers (1. on the existing window frames or on supplementary frames..Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings exterior walls. as well as by reducing the intensity of air exchange through the untight joints of joinery [11.2. since a great amount of heat is lost through these zones (about 25%). For ordinary windows. polyethylene etc on the existing jambs. fig. 11.6]. An advantageous variant from the economic and technical viewpoint in winter time only is obtained by sticking or mechanically fastening thin transparent sheets made of cellophane.. entrap some air spaces. is the most preferred solution due to its significant hygrothermal.2. institutions with offices.3. 11. Another case would be when thermal insulation has already been applied to one side. In this case technical.3.2 Rehabilitation in the glazed portions of the exterior walls Thermal transmission in the glazed zones of the exterior walls may be diminished by decreasing the direct heat transmission corresponding to the transparent portions and the opaque elements. 11. which prevents maintenance.c Rehabilitation on both surfaces The application of the supplementary thermally insulating layer on both surfaces of the walls.. which. together with the window panes. The possibilities of improving the hygrothermal performances of external glazed joinery are still limited and relatively reduced compared to the opaque zones of walls due to their functional and structural particularity.3. hostels etc. closed between the glass panes. fig.2. It is suitable mainly for blocks of flats.a Thermal rehabilitation of transparent zones The thermal improvement of the transparent zones of exterior walls is absolutely necessary as part of the general rehabilitation of a building. economic and protection reasons make the application of insulation on one side of the wall seem unreasonable. technological and social advantages.b. characterized by monotonous façades and large surfaces.11.5 cm). may be a good solution when the additional thermal resistance needed requires thick thermal insulation. Although the thermal resistance of the glazed zone increases by at least 40% for only one additional air layer. hospitals. the application of thermal rehabilitation by using more supplementary window panes is limited because of both increase in window weight and the difficult access between the glasses.11. thus doubling the thermal insulation page 222 . as thickening the glass panes on the existing frames does not produce a significant thermal effect.

the thermal rehabilitation of these components would consist of attaching the thermal insulation material. They are repaired by: completion wits wood slates. fittings of adhesive bands made of expanded plastic materials or thick textile materials and fixed in the profiles of the jambs. special fittings made of rubber. which must also contain a thermally insulating layer. which have thermal insulation and bituminous waterproof covering [11. As the joinery of older buildings often presents degradations and deformations caused by the utilization manner.3. as well as by environmental factors. 11. The existing joinery needs overhauling to remedy the deformed or degraded elements. 11.3 Flat-roof rehabilitation Most buildings requiring thermo-physical rehabilitation works are equipped with compact flat-roofs.3.Building Rehabilitation capacity of ordinary windows. enabling the normal maintenance of the glass panes.3]. The interventions for rehabilitating these solutions can be applied only to their upper part. 11. Therefore. and the effects that could be obtained by applying some technical solutions are reduced and are not really worth the effort. neopren or other elastic materials etc. In warm periods. It is also possible to apply some tightening systems without the risk of air exchange diminution below the limit imposed by hygiene requirements. completing or replacing the affected tightening systems (putty cordons.3. slats. page 223 . The solution is more expensive but it is necessary if the old structure is very damaged or permits the accumulation of water produced by condensation or infiltrations. their rehabilitation must also take into account the decrease in air exchange through joints. replacing some components.b The thermal rehabilitation of frames The thermal rehabilitation of frames is more difficult to do to ordinary windows. the thermal rehabilitation of a building must also include technical measures meant to decrease the air exchange through the leakness of the windows. Such systems might be covering slats on the joints. partly because of economic reasons. which is usually bigger than hygiene conditions require because of the degradations of the tightening systems and the wear of the closure systems. whose dimensions are established in accordance with the thermal protection requirements. the transparent sheets can be removed or rolled. with intense and frequent unfavourable effects on the last floor.a Flat-roofs rehabilitation by thorough replacement This rehabilitation consists of replacing the entire structure on the last floor with a new structure. Theoretically. fixing systems and devices) etc.3.2.

4 Rehabilitation of floor over basement The floor over basement of most buildings erected between 1960 and 1980.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 11.b Flat roof rehabilitation by using additional layers The rehabilitation solution consists of keeping the entire structure and increasing the thermal resistance of the roof using a supplementary thermally insulating layer. which thus becomes a supplementary water vapour barrier. with a low garret. the thermal improvement may also be done by using average quality thermally insulating materials. 11. This allows high heat losses from the rooms on the ground floor towards the unheated spaces in the basement and hence to the soil or outwards.3. 11. This type of rehabilitation also requires the verification of the load bearing capacity of the last storey. the exterior basement walls of the existing buildings are not endowed with thermal insulation. Since heat losses through the basement floor are far lower than through walls or the roof. 11. As the air temperature in the basement spaces is decisive for the heat losses from the rooms situated on the ground floor. applied directly on the existing waterproof system of the roof.3. such as plates of foamed concrete.c Rehabilitation of roofs using roof trusses The solution consists of making a small classic roof. well protected against various factors.3.5 Rehabilitation of basement walls Like the basement floor. This variant of rehabilitation excludes all the shortcommings of compact flat-roofs. particularly the condensation risk within the structure and the negative effects of microclimatic factors due to the efficient evacuation of water vapours.3. that is it does not produce water accumulations over the evacuation capacity or thermal insulation moistening over the admissible values.3. it seems page 224 . especially those of blocks of flats.3. This rehabilitation alternative is advisable when the qualities of the materials included in the existing roof are well preserved and condensation is slow. lightweight concrete or semirigid mineral wool plates and even granular materials (placed below the floor layers). is not equipped with thermal insulation. The verification of the load bearing capacity of the last floor is necessary in this case as well. previously improved thermally with a supplementary insulating layer. a light roof truss and a continuous covering or one made of plates.

In addition to the high material consumption. b. Applying a vapourproof protection on the inner side of the thermal insulation the works would become even more expensive without obtaining a significant hygrothermal effect. with thermally insulating layer below the floor layers A radical solution for rehabilitating the basement walls thermally and physically is thermal insulation of the entire inside surface with adequate plates made of insulating material.11.11. b. 11.Building Rehabilitation obvious that the aim is to ensure that the heat transmission through the closure elements of the basement is as low as possible by thermally insulating them as efficiently as possible. it is essential to choose the right thermal insulation materials. Fig. A more economical and hygrothermally rational variant is to treat the exterior basement floor only on the zone situated over the ground.4 THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS FOR THE THERMOPHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS In order to perform efficient and durable hygrothermal rehabilitation works.3 Thermal rehabilitation of floor over basement a. with rigid thermal insulation resistant to specific actions and properly protected. at least on the colder zone of the wall over the ground.11.b. a. using thermally insulating layer below the concrete floor.4. which determines a high cost of work. taking into account some special conditions and requirements concerning: page 225 .a. an important disadvantage is the risk of condensation under the additional thermally insulating layer. fig. fig.4.

technical weight should also be as low as possible. The thermal rehabilitation of basement walls a. so that the load added to the structure by the additional layers would be as small as possible. b. thus becoming advantageous from both mechanical. such page 226 .Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings a. from outside. It is advisable to use closed pore materials or with low water permeability. b. b. Fig.4. technical and economic viewpoint. to provide high durability. the possibility of safe fastening on the existing structure. to make the necessary hygrothermal protection systems as simple and light as possible. the finishing and protection systems of the additional thermal insulation. from inside. the optimal thickness required for the insulation layers. on the portion over ground • • • • the thermo-physical qualities and their preservation in time. technical and economic analysis specific to works performed long after the execution of the building and in different conditions. c. good behaviour to recurrent freeze-thaw. low sensitivity to water action. The choice of materials for thermal rehabilitation works must be preceded by a qualitative. thermal conductivity λ should be as low as possible so that the additional thermally insulating layers would be as thin as possible.11. The main exigencies that should be taken into account when choosing the materials necessary for the thermal rehabilitation works are presented below: a. d.

g. the real values of the overall thermal resistance of the elements to be rehabilitated (R0. [11. rompan.Building Rehabilitation as: • • • expanded polystyrene. taking into account the role. asbestos-cement plates. plates with metal sheet faces. by the protection and finishing systems or the wind (the case of exterior walls). assuming steady conditions. page 227 . settlements etc. foam glass. h. high strength and stiffness to bear the loads brought by other layers (the case of flat-roofs). At the same time it is important to know that the inexpensive solutions often bring about important subsequent expenses. particularly dwellings. The necessary thickness of the additional thermally insulating layer will be established by hygrothermal calculus.1].5]. as they require more frequent repair and maintainance works later. the economic aspect would come second when choosing the best materials and solutions. good resistance to fire. f. due to moisture. polyalpan). low sensitivity to temperature variations.ef). the importance and the position of the closure elements to be improved thermally [11. meaning very low linear thermal dilatation coefficients (α) to avoid the deformation of the protective elements with negative effects on tightness. convenient cost in accordance with the financial possibilities of the users of old buildings. These calculations will be made having in view the following parameters: i. without releasing noxious substances and without high deformations to affect their thermo-physical qualities. as well as some casual mechanical impacts (the case of the socle) without high deformations. azbopan. Since thermal rehabilitation works are performed after long time periods and are quite expensive. plastic plates (veral. stability and aesthetics of rehabilitation systems. which are calculated by taking into account the diminution of the thermal qualities of the component materials in time. PVC foam etc. or the compound structures with high tightness to water and vapour like: • • • e. tbal. temperature variations.

) directly on the inner surface of the existing wall. the level of the surface finishing economic reasons etc.5 TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS FOR REHABILITATION OF BUILDINGS THE THERMO-PHYSICAL 11. the following variants may be regarded: • by sticking the thermally insulating layers made of light efficient materials (polystyrene. by sticking the additional thermally insulating layers with bitumen or adhesive paste and ensuring them with stainless wire.a Exterior wall – opaque zone If the supplementary thermally insulating layer is applied to the inner surface of the wall. if its rigidity/stiffness and the condition of the surface are adequate. imposed by comfort. which may have other functions as well (the solution can be applied especially to the exterior walls of buildings with imperfections and/or which are subjected to various hygrothermal and mechanical actions in time. As a rule. the position of the surface of the element (horizontal or vertical).g.1 The application of additional thermal insulation The application of supplementary thermal insulation. necessary to correct the insulation deficiency. energy. economic and environment protection conditions. depending on [11.2]. [11. mineral wool etc. fixed on steel bolts page 228 • . may be achieved in various ways. • 11.4]: • • • • • • the type of thermal insulation material utilised. polyurethane. the exposure of the surface to be treated with insulation (inner or outer). 11. e. by fixing on an intermediate structure with supporting role. gypsum-aracet or highly adhesive mortar.5. the condition of the elements. prepared beforehand with a view to ensure the adherence.5.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings ii. the supplementary thermal insulation for rehabilitation may be applied in two ways: • by sticking directly to the surface of the treated element. by means of adhesive paste.1. the stipulated level (Rn) of the overall thermal resistance of elements after the application of the rehabilitation solution.

cement:aracet:sand). • 11. in the following ways: • sticking the insulation layer by means of a paste of adhesive mortar (1:0. being practically a supplementary new window. fixing may also be done by sticking or mechanical attachment. or other adhesive pastes resistant to the actions of environmental factors. which prevents the risk of water accumulation due to condensation.Building Rehabilitation introduced in the wall beforehand. bolts.5 . where the anchorage of the insulation layer and its protective system with metallic connectors is also recommended by mechanical fixing of supplementary thermally insulating layer with metallic elements.b The exterior wall – glazing zone The supplementary glass panes necessary to make some closed unventilated air spaces with thermal insulation qualities may be fastened to the windows in the following way: • on the existing frames.5. by using some wooden spacers. or various types of plates. screws). attached to the wall by metal systems (clips. on their own new frame. If the supplementary thermally insulating layer is applied to the outer surface of the wall. • by fixing on a wooden slates net. Therefore.5. due to the very reduced slope of the surfaces that will be treated with supplementary thermal insulation (p < 8%) there is no need for special fixing measures. fixed with nails and putty or with triangular wooden slats. and the air space between the thermal insulation and the wall allows vapour migration and their release inside the room. which usually sustain the protection system of the insulation layer as well. fixed on the same bolts.5:1.1. thus enabling the drying.1. the fastening on the existing frames would require expensive transformation works. 11. attached to the existing jamb. it is better to use new frames. • For the rehabilitation of glazed zones with special window-panes having high thermal insulation qualities (like the termopan).c The flat-roof Whether rehabilitation includes or not the complete or partial restoration of roof structure. the finishing may be reinforced plaster on steel net. page 229 . this solution permits the access between the panes of glass for maintenance.

to efficiently evacuate the water vapour infiltrated up to the thermal insulation.5.5.11.e The basement exterior wall If placed on the outside face. Thus the cover becomes a barrier against water vapours. fastening is done in accordance with the type and weight of the thermal insulation material. fixing consists of plain laying. which is hung on the floor by stainless steel wire connected to metallic bolts fixed beforehand in the concrete floor. In the case of thermal insulation made of blocks or heavier plates (light concrete etc.5 Thermal rehabilitation of basement floor 11.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings • if rehabilitation is performed by maintaining the existing structure.6 mm steel bars net. together with the weight of the covering layer.5. by replacing the thermal insulation.1. If the insulation layer is applied to the lower part of the floor. by sticking it with adhesive paste and/or by upholding it with φ5.11. fig. the sticking the supplementary thermally insulating plates on the support with melted bitumen.d The floor over the basement If the insulation layer is applied to the upper part of the floor. its stability is ensured by the weight of the layers above. One of the simplest rehabilitation solution consists of applying the thermal plates directly on the existing covering system by discontinous sticking. a linear foundation element is required at the base of the wall to uphold the page 230 .1. stability being ensured by the weight of the floor layers. adhesive mortar or other paste and ensured with metallic connectors on the wall. if the flat-roof is completely or partially restored. the thermally insulating plates are fixed by sticking with bitumen. provide good fixing. Fig. at least every one m2. • In all these cases it is recommended to use vapour evacuation devices every 80…100 m2 of roof surface..). 11..

11.c. 11. To hinder water vapour infiltration in the rooms and to ensure the normal hygrothermal behaviour of the treated element it is absolutely necessary to have a vapour barrier made of bitumen cardboard or cloth.11. This kind of finishing is very suitable in the case of additional thermal insulation made of expanded polystyrene plates. its surface position and the insulation type and structure. fig. just like for the exterior walls.11. the technical solutions for protecting the supplementary insulation layer may be the following: page 231 .a. with important advantages for the rehabilitation works.5.11. fig. industrial wood etc.a Exterior walls In the case of supplementary thermal insulation on the inner face of the wall.. the supplementary insulation is achieved by fixing the insulation plates with adhesive paste and/or with local metallic connectors.11. This variant allows the prefabrication of the insulation-protection-finishing ensemble. the following solutions may be applied: • reinforced plaster on steel net bars.7.5. fig.2. or plastics sheets. which has been rectified beforehand with gypsum-aracet layer or other adhesive paste.b. with tapestry etc. whose surface is treated to act as a vapour barrier (by painting. fig. having high vapour tightness. depending on the element that will be rehabilitated. fixed on the wall with stainless steel wire and connectors.6.).2 The protection of the supplementary thermally insulating layer The protection systems of supplementary thermal insulation are different. without holes and with well tighten joints.Building Rehabilitation weight of thermal insulation as well as that of the protection and finishing system. They are fixed on the thermal insulation by sticking and ensured with mechanical devices. lacquering. Theoretically. plates made of reinforced gypsum. From inside.7. washable tapestry with synthetic support.7. applied by sticking with adhesive directly on the surface of supplementary thermally insulating plates. the protection of the supplementary thermal insulation of vertical elements may be achieved in two ways: with plaster or with plates. • • If the supplementary thermal insulation is applied on the outer face of the exterior walls.

11. treated industrial wood. fig. clips for fixing the slates. plastics. 2.11. thin compound structures).8. asbestos. supplementary thermal insulation. which communicates with the exterior through the joints between plates or through air orifices. and applicable to both inside face and exterior surface.11. 1. with plates. collects the water vapour and efficiently throws it outside..11. 6.2.. thin light plates (aluminium.b. and fastened to the wall with stainless wire or connectors. 11.8. very thin plaster (4. 9. rigid plastics bars and metal profiles.c..b The basement walls The protection of supplementary thermal insulation applied on any face of basement walls may be achieved in the following variants: • fixed on the wall like in the previous cases. b.6 Solutions for the thermal rehabilitation of walls a. adhesive mortar. protection plates.a and fig. fig. 5. • • The air layer between plates and thermal insulation.a.5 cm) made of water-proof mortar.6 mm). decreasing the risk of condensation inside the thermal insulation. with plaster.6. fig. page 232 .5.. which resists to physical and chemical actions and reinforced with a thin net of glass or carbon fibre. applied on a wire net support fixed on a steel bars net. steel reinforcement. exterior wall.8. 3. 7. clips for the plates • thick plaster (3.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings Fig. 8. made of cementfree paste. slates. 4. fixed on a sustaining net of wooden slates.11. finishing layer.

4. with plates page 233 . b. wire anchor. 2’. steel bar net. b. thin plaster. existing structure. Fig. precast lightweight plate. – with tapestry. 8.11. – with lightweight plates 1. c. b. slates. 4’. with thick plaster. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3’ 4’ 1 2 5 6 2. c. steel bar net. 10. b. Fig. 4. slate net. glass fiber. 2. 3’.11. plaster.7 The protection of supplementary thermal insulation applied on the outer face of exterior walls a. with thin plaster. adhesive paste. 3. 5. supplementary thermal insulation .8 The protection of thermal insulation applied on the outside face of the prefab concrete panels a. c. 3 3 10 8 9 3 4 5 6 7 existing structure. tapestry. supplementary thermal insulation. 5. 7. 9. – with plaster. 6. thin wire net. plywood plates a. thick plaster. finishing system a. 6. 3. c.Building Rehabilitation 1 2 1 2’ 10 1 2’ 3 2’ 1.

[11. reinforced plaster concrete plates.9 Protection solutions for the supplementary thermal insulation applied to basement walls: on the inside face (a. Fig. 4.6] Two thermal insulation protection categories can generally be adopted: • classical protection. c. • 11. prefab concrete plates finished with mosaic. 5. resistant to moisture and mechanical actions.2. This solution may be applied on any face of the basement wall. covering system based on plane or corrugated sheets or plates made of varied materials.3 Modern hygrothermal rehabilitation systems for exterior walls At present there are numerous new thermal insulation materials as well as modern technologies. fixed on the exterior face. existing wall. if we take into account the succession of the layers if execution is correct and materials have proper qualities [11.11. page 234 . • 11. protection masonry. 6. from outside (a. by ordinary bituminous water-proof insulation or using modern water-proof systems. 3.5.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 1 2 1 2 4 3 5 6 6 6 1 2 1.5. which constitutes a low height roof. metal connectors a. disposed on lightweight structure. on the over ground area of the basement wall. b. applied on cement mortar support. which are easy to apply and enable efficient rehabilitation works. thermal insulation.c The flat-roof The protection of the flat-roof hygrothermally rehabilitated with a supplementary thermally insulating layer does not raise any special technical problems. c) • masonry layer made of clay bricks or other blocks with various aggregates (except for the cellular light concrete. by means of metal anchors. b).3]. b. which is water sensitive). 2.

attributed to the Swiss company ALUSUISSE.11.b. polyurethane etc. aluminium) or plastics. 11. which ensure the fixing of the protective system usually at some distance from the thermal insulation to create a slightly ventilated air space. 11.5.b The ALUCOBOND system. This is a good occasion to improve the thermal insulation performances of certain elements.Building Rehabilitation In other countries. is applied in Germany and France by the LOBA company. M-EL. having the French technical agreement.8. C-EL. fig.a The LOBA system (VS. whose thickness corresponds to insulation requirements. with 3…4 mm mesh.11.).3. without special finishing. there are also many situations necessitating the modernization of old buildings. This solution consists of thermally insulating plates made of very efficient materials (polystyrene.5. They are fixed on the outside surface of exterior masonry or concrete walls of the new or already existing buildings by means of an adhesive paste made of cement or polymeric resins.a and fig. protected against the alkalis. This material consists of two 0. Rehabilitation works are usually performed on the exterior. building rehabilitation is not an action of large proportions. stuck directly to the exterior face of the wall and protected with plane or special panels made of a composite material called ALUCOBOND. Protection by thick plaster is not usual but it has been applied and the variant with very thin plaster reinforced with thin carbon or glass fiber net is also used.3.6. avoiding the humid processes and following the well known principle: supplementary thermal insulation attached to the wall and protected by plates or thin plaster. is different in the manner supplementary thermal insulation is achieved. reinforced by a thin glass fiber net. The protection of the thermal insulation consists of a thin cementfree paste with mineral components and synthetic binder or with cement and special polymeric additions. Three of the most frequently used protection systems in several European countries will be presented below. Some of them have been applied experimentally in Romania as well. Mécanique) for thermal insulation on the façades of older buildings. exterior walls in particular. since the initial execution of buildings has been based on high exigencies towards comfort requirements and the thermal insulation of closure elements. metal profiles (steel. This system is based on expanded polystyrene plates.5 mm aluminium sheets glued on page 235 . Most systems use a net made of wood. However.

k ⎝ 0 .the number of the degrees-hours for the locality the building is situated in. These panels. ' ' R0 . The annual net energy savings that can be obtained by improving the thermal insulation qualities of closure elements having the areas S k and whose initial ' average overall thermal resistances R0.5. room climate parameters may rise to a satisfactory level of comfort and energy is saved .5.4].4 The economic effects of hygrothermal rehabilitation of buildings 11. 11. 11.95 r = 0.k are the corresponding thermal resistances. thus: r = 0. The outer face can be treated in various manners and colours.k = 1 K 0 .k have increased to R0.k ⎞ ⎟⋅ Sk ⎟ ⎠ 1 E = ⋅ Nt ⋅ r where: (11. which are finished on both faces with aluminium sheets.k ) ⋅ S k ′ K 0 .k = 1 K 0 . N t .k and R0 . are easily fixed with nails on a wooden slates net against the wall.k may be established with the relations: E= l ⋅ Nt ⋅ r ∑ ⎛ 1 1 ⎜ − ⎜ R0 . page 236 .k are the average thermal transfer coefficients of the distinct zones with different envelope structure before and after rehabilitation.1) ∑ (K ′ − K 0 . attributed to the German company with the same name differs from others in the protection of the thermally insulating layer applied on the wall by means of rigid polyurethane panels.two important advantages [11.k R ' 0 .c The POLYALPAN system. r – the efficiency of heating installations.a Energy savings due to thermal rehabilitation By applying some of the hygrothermal rehabilitation measures presented above (by supplementary insulation).85 – – heating by thermal station.3. having special profiles on the long vertical sides. which also ensures the air space required to collect and eliminate the water vapour.4. heating by personal thermal installation.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings the faces of a 2…7 mm polyethylene core.5.k and K 0 .

as well as from the sum of the opaque zones (frames. In order to evaluate the primary energy savings ( E p ) it is necessary to take into account the efficiency of the distribution network ( rd ) as well as that of the thermal station ( rc ). the flow of the air exchange between the joints after rehabilitation being ( J a ). coal or methane gas heating. so that: Ep = 1 1 ⋅ ⋅E rd rc (11. for the connection zones ( S i ) and ( K i ). – the average thermal transfer coefficient on the entire wall may be calculated as: K p0 = or: R p0 = ∑ K .. for the current zones ( S c ) and ( K c ) etc.S ∑S k k k = ∑K = k .99 r = 0. whose overall surface area is ( S p 0 ) and which consist of distinct zones with ( S k ) areas. for the thermal bridge zone ( S p ) and ( K p ).0 )respectively.0 ) and ( R v . To evaluate energy savings.. the thermal resistance ( Rv .2) The values of the outputs (rc) and (rd) are found by using the data in the technical literature or the information provided by the producers.K k (11. wood.Building Rehabilitation r = 0. 0 ) and the thermal characteristics ( K v .Sk S p0 S p0 1 = Sk K p0 Rk ∑ ∑S S p0 k . made of transparent zones with ( S v .g.3) • for glazed zones.65.t ) area and thermal transfer coefficient ( K v . having the thermal transfer coefficients ( K k ) – e. the average hygrothermal characteristics of the component elements of envelope ( K k . R 0 .k ) may be selected in the following way: • for the opaque zone of exterior wall. jamb) with the overall area ( S v .t ) respectively. whose overall area is ( S v ).t ). the average equivalent thermal page 237 .0.85 – – electric heating.

( d k ) thick and having the thermal conductivity coefficients (λi) and quality coefficients ( bk ).4) Sv 1 = S v. which consists of zones of variable thickness. with the overall area (St). ρ a (11.med k ⋅ λk 1 Kt = Rt • (11. the average thermal transfer characteristics can be adopted considering average thickness values ( d k . med ) for the component variable layers.k + 1 αe (11.5) for the basement wall.t .t S Kv + v. adding the supplementary thermal resistance of the rehabilitation layers (∆R): page 238 .t + K v.i ). using the equation: R0 = 1 + αi ∑b dk + k ⋅ λk 1 K0 = R0 ∑R a. 0 ) + c a . For the envelope elements or zones consisting of several layers of different materials. 0 • for the flat-roof.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings transfer coefficient is calculated with one of following relations: Kv = Rv = 1 ⋅ (K Sv v. S v. S v. J a . 0 . the total thermal transfer resistance is the sum of thermal transfer resistances. with the overall over ground surface area ( S s ) and the average characteristics ( K s ) and ( R s ). These characteristics can be computed also using the initial values ( R0. J a . k ) are resistances of air layers that may be in the structure of the envelope element to thermal permeability.t R v. ρ a R v.6) where ( Ra . so that: Rt = 1 1 + + αi α e ∑b d k. 0 + c a . calculus is done just like for the opaque zones of exterior walls of the building.

the interior volume of the building (m3). 11. calculated for the initial state of the building ( G0 ) and after the execution of hygrothermal rehabilitation works ( Gr ): E= 1 ⋅ N t ⋅ (G r − G 0 ) ⋅ V r (11.s ∑R biz ⋅ λiz a.the total area of the building envelope (m2).the air exchange rate per hour of the building (h-1). c a = c p ⋅ ρ .9) where: R0. The annual net energy savings (E) may be also evaluated by means of the overall heat loss coefficient of the building ( G ). n .5.7) ∆R = ∆R = d iz. The net energy savings obtained through rehabilitation can be evaluated with the relation: page 239 . V . . from: G = 1 R0 M ⋅ S + ca ⋅ n V (11.for glazed zones. considering all the expenses required by the execution of afferent works.i + ∆R K0 = where: 1 R0 (11.h/m3K).s .b The retrieve period of the investment in case of thermal rehabilitation In the case of the partial rehabilitation. M is the average thermal resistance of the envelope.Building Rehabilitation R0 = R0 . less the finishing upkeep works in the ulterior exploitation period.8) where the overall heat loss coefficient of the building (the total thermal insulation coefficient) G is calculated for the overall heat loss.for opaque zones. the value of the total investment (I) needed for the hygrothermal rehabilitation of a building or of a building envelope element is established according to the current norms and estimated prices. S .4.the specific heat capacity of the air (W.

corresponding to the heating type and to the valid prices at the time of execution. C. * * *. (coordonator).the updating coefficient of the investment funds (%).1 11. Fizica construcţiilor. Iaşi. (11..12) R −Y where: R . I. Elemente de fizica construcţiilor.2 11. Iaşi.10) where: E is the annual net energy saved for that particular building as a consequence of the application of thermal rehabilitation measures p – the cost of the net energy unit at the beneficiary (ROL/W. In order to evaluate the expenses retrieve period.P.11) The updating coefficient of the investment funds (Y) is expressed by: Y = ( i − j ) / (1 + j ) The retrieve standing (in years) of the investment for the thermal rehabilitation of a building (n) may be calculated using the relation: R n = ln ln (1 + Y ) (11. Reabilitarea acoperişurilor clădirilor civile. the social expenses associated to the immobilized investment funds as well as the estimated future increase in energy cost need to be calculated.the coefficient of the annual increase in energy price (%). 1998.4 11.is the ratio between the estimated annual energy savings and the investment value: (11. I. 1999.. Iaşi. STAS 6472/3-89. .13) R=E /E BIBLIOGRAPHY 11. Fizica construcţiilor. Protecţia termică a clădirilor. Editura Experţilor Tehnici. Editura Cermi. Elemente de specializare. Tipar Rotaprint. Termotehnica.5 Bliuc.h). Iaşi.Hydrothermal rehabilitation of buildings E = E⋅ p (lei/an) (ROL/year) (11. Reabilitarea higrotermică a clădirilor. I. Calculul page 240 . 2000.3 11. I. Velicu. Editura Cermi. The following coefficients are thus established: i j . Gavrilaş. Gavrilaş. depending on price policy and the fuel utilized.. 1993.

6 termotehnic al elementelor de construcţii ale clădirilor. page 241 . 1996. IRS.Building Rehabilitation 11. Iaşi. Bucureşti. * * *. 1989. Volumul Simpozionului „Reabilitarea termică a clădirilor”.

C C Colectia: CONSTRUCTII CIVILE ISBN 973-7962-26-5 .

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