(dE)
2
(dp
x
)
2
(dp
y
)
2
(dp
z
)
2
(1.1)
the rotations, velocity and force (acceleration) boosts leaving invariant the sym
plectic 2form and the line interval in the 8D phasespace are rather elaborate,
see [2] for details. These transformations can be simplied drastically when
the velocity and force (acceleration) boosts are both parallel to the xdirection
and leave the transverse directions y, z, p
y
, p
z
intact. There is now a subgroup
U(1, 1) = SU(1, 1) U(1) U(1, 3) which leaves invariant the following line
interval
(d)
2
= (dT)
2
(dX)
2
+
(dE)
2
(dP)
2
b
2
=
(d)
2
1 +
(dE/d)
2
(dP/d)
2
b
2
= (d)
2
1
F
2
F
2
max
(1.2)
where one has factored out the proper time innitesimal (d)
2
= dT
2
dX
2
in
(2.2). The proper force interval (dE/d)
2
(dP/d)
2
= F
2
< 0 is spacelike
when the proper velocity interval (dT/d)
2
(dX/d)
2
> 0 is timelike. The
analog of the Lorentz relativistic factor in eq(2.2) involves the ratios of two
proper forces.
If (in natural units h = c = 1) one sets the maximal properforce to be given
by b m
P
A
max
, where m
P
= (1/L
P
) is the Planck mass and A
max
= (1/L
p
),
then b = (1/L
P
)
2
may also be interpreted as the maximal string tension. The
units of b would be of (mass)
2
. In the most general case there are four scales
of time, energy, momentum and length that can be constructed from the three
constants b, c, h as follows
t
=
h
bc
;
l
=
h c
b
;
p
=
h b
c
;
e
=
h b c (1.3)
The gravitational constant can be written as G =
G
c
4
/b where
G
is a di
mensionless parameter to be determined experimentally. If
G
= 1, then the
four scales (2.3) coincide with the Planck time, length, momentum and energy,
respectively.
The U(1, 1) group transformation laws of the phasespace coordinates X, T, P, E
which leave the interval (2.2) invariant are [2]
2
T
= T cosh + (
v
X
c
2
+
a
P
b
2
)
sinh
(1.4a)
E
= E cosh + (
a
X +
v
P)
sinh
(1.4b)
X
= X cosh + (
v
T
a
E
b
2
)
sinh
(1.4c)
P
= P cosh + (
v
E
c
2
+
a
T)
sinh
(1.4d)
v
is the velocityboost rapidity parameter and the
a
is the force (acceleration)
boost rapidity parameter of the primedreference frame. These parameters are
dened respectively in terms of the velocity v = dX/dT and force f = dP/dT
(related to acceleration) as
tanh(
v
c
) =
v
c
; tanh(
a
b
) =
f
F
max
(1.5)
It is straightforwad to verify that the transformations (1.4) leave invariant
the phase space interval c
2
(dT)
2
(dX)
2
+ ((dE)
2
c
2
(dP)
2
)/b
2
but do not
leave separately invariant the proper time interval (d)
2
= dT
2
dX
2
, nor the
interval in energymomentum space
1
b
2
[(dE)
2
c
2
(dP)
2
]. Only the combination
(d)
2
= (d)
2
1
F
2
F
2
max
(1.6)
is truly left invariant under force (acceleration) boosts (1.4).
We explored in [5] some novel consequences of Borns reciprocal Relativity
theory in at phasespace and generalized the theory to the curved spacetime
scenario. We provided, in particular, six specic results resulting from Borns
reciprocal Relativity and which are not present in Special Relativity. These are
: momentumdependent time delay in the emission and detection of photons;
energydependent notion of locality; superluminal behavior; relative rotation of
photon trajectories due to the aberration of light; invariance of areascells in
phasespace and modied dispersion relations.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the curved 8D phase space (cotan
gent bundle) scenario within the context of the physics of a maximal proper
force and Borns reciprocal relativity. The 8D tangent bundle of spacetime
within the context of Finsler geometry and the physics of a limiting value of the
proper acceleration in spacetime [4] has been studied by Brandt [3]. General
ized 8D gravitational equations reduce to ordinary EinsteinRiemannian gravi
tational equations in the infinite acceleration limit. A pedagogical monograph
on Finsler geometry can be found in [11] where, in particular, Cliord/spinor
structures were dened with respect to nonlinear connections associated with
certain nonholonomic modications of RiemannCartan gravity.
3
The outline of this work is organized as follows. In section 2 the scalar
curvature of the 8D cotangent bundle is explicitly evaluated and a generalized
gravitational action in 8D is constructed that yields the observed value of the
cosmological constant and the BransDickeJordan Gravity action in 4D as two
special cases. It is found that the geometry of the momentum space can be
linked to the observed value of the cosmological constant when the curvature
in momentum space is very large, namely the small size of P is of the order of
(1/R
Hubble
). More general 8D actions can be developed that involve sums of 5
distinct types of torsion squared terms and 3 distinct curvature scalars R, P, S.
Finally in section 3 we develop a Borns reciprocal complex gravitational theory
as a local gauge theory in 8D of the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by
the semidirect product of U(1, 3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl
Heisenberg group involving four noncommutative coordinates and momenta.
The metric is complex and has symmetric real components and antisymmetric
imaginary ones. An action in 8D involving 2 curvature scalars and torsion
squared terms is presented.
2 Borns Reciprocal Gravity associated with
the 8D Cotangent Bundle of Spacetime
2.1 Gravity as Gauge Theory of Dieomorphisms
This introductory section is necessary to be able to construct the scalar cur
vature of the 8D Cotangent Bundle in the next section. The authors [6], [7],
[8], [9] have shown that m + ndim Einstein gravity can be identied with an
mdimensional generally invariant gauge theory of Diffs N, where N is an
ndim manifold. This can be shown as follows.
Locally the m+ndim space can be written as = MN and the metric
G
AB
can be decomposed as
G
AB
=
(x, y) + e
2
g
ab
(x, y) A
a
(x, y) A
b
(x, y) eA
a
(x, y) g
ab
(x, y)
eA
b
(x, y) g
ab
(x, y) g
ab
(x, y)
,
(2.1)
The connection A
a
A
a
a
,
a
a
L
A
= [ A
, ]
a
= A
b
b
a
b
b
A
a
.
(2.2a)
as follows
A
a
=
1
e
D
a
=
1
e
(
a
e [ A
, ]
a
). (2.2b)
g
ab
= L
g
ab
= [, g]
ab
=
c
c
g
ab
+ g
ac
b
c
+ g
cb
a
c
. (2.2c)
g
= L
= [, g
] =
a
a
g
. (2.2d)
In general, the Lie derivative L
X
T along the vector X = X
a
a
of the mixed
tensor T in the internal space is dened by [12]
L
X
T
a1a2.....an
b1b2.......bm
= ( X
c
c
T
a1a2.....an
b1b2.......bm
) +
m
i=1
(
bi
X
c
) T
a1a2......an
b1b2......c.....bm
i=1
(
c
X
ai
) T
a1a2......c.....an
b1b2...........bm
. (2.2f)
there is a key minus sign in the last term of (2.2f) relative to the rst two terms.
Using eq(2.1) the authors [6], [7], [8], [9] have shown that the curvature scalar
R
(m+n)
in m+ndim decomposes into the sum of several terms
R
(m+n)
= g
R
(m)
+
e
2
4
g
ab
F
a
F
b
+ g
ab
R
(n)
ab
+
1
4
g
g
ab
g
cd
[ (D
g
ac
) (D
g
bd
) (D
g
ab
)(D
g
cd
) ] +
1
4
g
ab
g
[
a
g
b
g
a
g
b
g
] (2.3)
plus total derivative terms given by (
det g
det g
ab
)
1
times
det g
det g
ab
 J
)
a
(
det g
det g
ab
 eA
a
) +
a
(
det g
det g
ab
 J
a
), (2.4)
with the currents:
J
= g
g
ab
D
g
ab
, J
a
= g
ab
g
b
g
. (2.5)
Finally, the EinsteinHilbert action in D = m+n dimensions can be rewritten
as
S =
1
2
2
d
m
x d
n
y
det(g
)
det(g
ab
) R
(m+n)
(x, y). (2.6)
5
where the expression for R
(m+n)
(x, y) is given by (2.3) plus the total derivative
terms (2.4). Therefore, Einstein gravity in D = m+n dimensions describes an
mdim generally invariant eld theory under the gauge transformations corre
sponding to the Dis N. Notice how A
a
, meaning
that the graviton is charged /gauged in this theory and also to the g
ab
elds.
The metric g
ab
on N can be identied as a nonlinear sigma eld whose self
interaction potential term is given by: g
ab
R
(n)
ab
.
The currents J
, J
a
are functions of g
, A
, g
ab
. The Ricci tensor of the
horizontal space is a gauged Ricci tensor meaning that it is constructed using the
gauge covariant derivatives
eA
a
a
. In the next section we shall display the
explicit expression for the gauged Ricci tensor when the 8D space is the cotan
gent bundle of the D spacetime. The contribution of the currents to the action
is essential when there are boundaries involved; i.e. the proyective/conformal
boundary of AdS spaces which is relevant in the AdS/CFT correspondence.
When the internal manifold N is a homogeneous compact space one can
perform a harmonic expansion of the elds w.r.t the internal y coordinates, and
after integrating the action (2.6) w.r.t these y coordinates, one will generate
an innitecomponent eld theory on the mdimensional space represented by
the x coordinates. A reduction of the Dis N, via the inner automorphims
of a subgroup G of the Dis N, yields the usual EinsteinYangMills theory
interacting with a nonlinear sigma eld. But in general, the theory described in
(2.3) is by far richer than the latter theory. A crucial fact of the decomposition
in (2.3) is that each single term is by itself independently invariant under Dis
N.
In the special case when g
(x) R
(m)
(x, y) still
retains its full dependence on both variables x, y.
We have shown [13] that in this particular case the D = m+n dimensional
gravitational action restricted to AdS
m
S
n
backgrounds admits a holographic
reduction to a lower d = mdimensional YangMillslike gauge theory of dis of
S
n
, interacting with a charged/gauged nonlinear sigma model plus boundary
terms, by a simple tuning of the radius of S
n
and the size of the throat of the
AdS
m
space. Namely, in the case of AdS
5
S
5
, the holographic [13] reduction
occurs if, and only if, the size of the AdS
5
throat coincides precisely with the ra
dius of S
5
ensuring a cancellation of the scalar curvatures g
R
(m)
and g
ab
R
(n)
ab
in eq(2.3) [13] such that the scalar curvature (EinsteinHilbert Lagrangian) in
D = 10 becomes
R
(10)
=
e
2
4
g
ab
(y) F
a
(x, y) F
b
(x, y) g
(x) g
(x) +
1
4
g
(x) g
ab
(y) g
cd
(y) [ (D
g
ac
) (D
g
bd
) (D
g
ab
) (D
g
cd
) ]. (2.7)
plus total derivative terms (boundary terms). The gauge covariant derivative
6
D
g
ab
=
g
ab
+ [ A
, g
ab
]. (2.8a)
is dened in terms of the Liebracket above
[ A
, g
ab
] = (
a
A
c
(x
, y
a
)) g
cb
(x
, y
a
) + (
b
A
c
(x
, y
a
)) g
ac
(x
, y
a
) +
A
c
(x
, y
a
)
c
g
ab
(x
, y
a
). (2.8b)
and the YangMills like eld strength is
F
a
A
a
A
a
[ A
, A
]
a
=
A
a
A
a
A
c
c
A
a
+ A
c
c
A
a
. (2.9)
Eq(2.7) is nothing but the holographic like reduction of the D = 10dim
pure gravitational EinsteinHilbert action to a 5dim YangMillslike action (of
dieomorphisms of the internal S
5
space) interacting with a charged nonlinear
sigma model (involving the g
ab
eld) plus boundary terms. The previous ar
gument can also be generalized to gravitational actions restricted to de Sitter
spaces, like dS
m
H
n
backgrounds as well, where H
n
is an internal hyperbolic
noncompact space of constant negative curvarture, and dS
m
is a de Sitter space
of positive constant scalar curvature.
2.2 Scalar curvature of the 8D Cotangent Bundle
The scalar curvature of the 8D tangent bundle manifold in the anholonomic
frame adapted to the spacetime ane connection was given by [3] . The physics
underlying such construction corresponded to a maximal proper acceleration
principle in spacetime. In this section we shall evaluate, using a different
method than the one provided by Brandt [3] and [10], the scalar curvature of
the 8D cotangent bundle manifold based on the results of 2.1. The physics in
this case is that of a maximal proper force in spacetime which is associated
with Borns reciprocal relativity principle.
The symplectic geometry of the cotangent bundle, the Poisson brackets of
Hamiltonian systems, the nonlinear connection, the construction of torsion and
curvature, the Bianchi and Ricci identities, the geodesic equations, etc ......
associated with HamiltonCartan spaces has been thoroughly studied by [10].
The geometry of the tangent bundle and LagrangeFinsler spaces can also be
found in [10], [11]. There is a duality (via the Legendre map) between Lagrange
and Hamilton spaces and also between Finsler and Cartan spaces [10]. A recent
analysis of a LagrangianHamiltonian formalism for rst and higher order eld
theories (higher order tangent spaces) has been provided by [15]. In this work
we shall follow a different approach than the one presented in [10] to construct
the scalar curvature of the 8D Cotangent Bundle.
In an 8D at phasespace the innitesimal interval is
7
(d)
2
= (dt)
2
(dx)
2
(dy)
2
(dz)
2
+
1
b
2
(dE)
2
(dp
x
)
2
(dp
y
)
2
(dp
z
)
2
=
(d)
2
1 +
(dE/d)
2
(dp
i
/d)(dp
i
/d)
b
2
= (d)
2
1
F
2
F
2
max
(2.10)
where one has factored out the proper time innitesimal
g
dx
dx
= (d)
2
= (dt)
2
(dx)
2
(dy)
2
(dz)
2
(2.11)
in (2.10) . The proper force square interval (dE/d)
2
(dp
i
/d)(dp
i
/d) =
F
2
< 0 is spacelike when the proper velocity interval (dt/d)
2
(dx
i
/d)(dx
i
/d) >
0 is timelike.
In the following we shall denote the momenta variables as p
, = 1, 2, 3, 4.
Rigorously speaking, the momenta variables in the 8D cotangent bundle should
be denoted by p
(x, p)dx
) dx
(x, p) +
(x, p) A
(x, p) A
(x, p) A
(x, p)
(x, p)
A
(x, p)
(x, p)
(x, p)
(2.12)
A
dx
dx
b
2
(dp
+ bA
dx
) (dp
+ bA
dx
) =
g
dx
dx
b
2
(
dp
d
+ bA
dx
d
) (
dp
d
+ bA
dx
d
) (d)
2
=
(d)
2
1
F
2
F
2
max
; F
2
max
= b
2
(2.13)
after setting g
dx
dx
= (d)
2
and
F
2
= F
(
dp
d
+ bA
dx
d
) (
dp
d
+ bA
dx
d
) (2.14)
When all quantities do not have an explicit dependence on the momenta p
,
but they solely depend on the coordinates x
is taken to be dimensionless)
; b A
;
dx
d
p
m
; F
dp
d
+m
1
(2.15)
8
gives
F
2
g
(
dp
d
+m
1
) (
dp
d
+m
1
)
g
(
dp
d
+m
1
{
} p
) (
dp
d
+m
1
{
} p
) (2.16)
Therefore, eq(2.16) furnishes a correspondence from F
2
to the (spacelike)
proper force squared experienced by a particle of mass m in ordinary curved Rie
mannian spacetime, with metric g
}, when
(x, p), g
ab
(x, p); , =
1, 2, 3, 4; a, b = 1, 2, 3, 4. g
= g
+
1
4
g
[ (D
) (D
) (D
) (D
) ] +
1
4
b
2
[ (
p
g
) (
p
g
) (
p
g
) (
p
g
) ] (2.17)
plus (
det g
det
)
1
times the total derivative terms.
After relabeling indices, making no dierentiation among , , ... and , , ,
the (horizontal) scalar curvature of the base space of the 8D cotangent bun
dle manifold
(h)
R in eq(2.17) is dened in terms of the horizontal symmetric
connection coecients
(x, p) given by
=
1
2
g
[ (
x
b A
) g
+ (
x
b A
) g
]
1
2
g
[ (
x
b A
) g
] (2.18)
9
= {
}
1
2
b g
[ A
+ A
] (2.19)
{
} =
1
2
g
[
x
+
x
] (2.20)
The (horizontal) scalar curvature of the base space of the 8D cotangent bundle
becomes
(h)
R = g
(
x
b A
(
x
b A
+
g
= R + (2.21)
where are the corrections from the ordinary scalar Riemannian curvature.
The (vertical) scalar curvature of the cotangent space (ber space) of the
8D cotangent bundle is
(v)
R =
b (
p
[
]
) +
(2.22)
where the antisymmetrization of indices is indicated. The vertical symmet
ric connection coecients
=
1
2
b
[
p
+
p
] (2.23)
The gauge eld strength is
F
= (
x
b A
) A
(
x
b A
) A
(2.24)
The gauge covariant derivative D
is dened
D
=
x
[ A
]. (2.25)
in terms of the Liebracket
[ A
] = b (
p
+b (
p
+ b A
(
p
). (2.26)
By analogy to ordinary gravity, a candidate geometrical (gravitational) ac
tion dened in the 8D cotangent bundle is of the form
S =
1
2
2
d
4
x d
4
p
det g
det

(8)
R(x, p) (2.27)
10
where
(8)
R(x, p) is given by eqs(2.172.26) and the domain of integration in
phasespace is denoted by . Using the natural units h = c = 1 and after
taking the curvature to have the canonical units of (length)
2
leads to the units
of (length)
1
(mass) for the coupling . One could add explicit torsion squared
terms to the action (2.27) as well, but for the moment we shall just focus on
the scalar curvature term and set the torsion (and nonmetricity) terms to zero.
The action is invariant under gauge transformations (dieomorphisms of the
momentum space) given by
A
= (
[ A
, ]
) (2.28a)
[, A
= b
p
A
b A
(2.28b)
= [, ]
= b
+b
+b
. (2.29)
g
= [, g
] = b
p
g
(2.30)
where g
(x, p) and
= [, F
= b
p
F
b F
(2.31)
The Lie bracket of a scalar Lagrangian density L =
detg
det L of weight
one and a vector eld =
p
is dened as
[ , L ] =
p
L + L
p
=
p
(
L) (2.32)
there is a second extra term in the r.h.s of (2.32), so that under the above
innitesimal gauge transformations the variation of the action S given by S =
[, L] =
p
(
=
and/or there are no boundaries in the integration domain of the p
variables
(the integration domain has compact support). Hence, the 8D action (2.27)
is invariant under gauge transformations (dieomorphisms of the momentum
space).
In the most general case, one could have directly recurred to the local expres
sions for the distinguished tensors of torsion and curvature given in [10]. There
are two dierent torsion 2forms [10] in phase space involving 5 distinguished
tensors T
, R
, C
, P
, S
, P
, S
(x, p),
(x, p)
are characterized by the system of dierential equations [10]
d
2
x
ds
2
+
(x, p)
dx
ds
dx
ds
= 0;
dp
ds
N
(x, p)
dx
ds
= 0 (2.33)
And the vertical (geodesic) paths at a point x
0
are characterized by the system
of dierential equations
x
= x
0
;
d
2
p
ds
2
1
b
(x
0
, p)
dp
ds
dp
ds
= 0 (2.34)
s is a parameter associated with the parametrized curves and one has inserted
the factor 1/b to match units in (2.34).
(x, p),
Dp
d
4
p
det

(v)
R =
p
b
2
P
2
b
2
P
4
P
2
= b
2
P
2
(2.33)
one has taken into account that the volume
p
of a compact momentum domain
region D
p
is proportional to P
4
. Inserting this contribution
(v)
R inside the
remaining spacetime integral of eq(2.27) and equating it to the cosmological
constant term in the action gives
1
2
2
d
4
x
det g
 b
2
P
2
=
1
16G
N
d
4
x
det g
 2
4
L
2
P
b
2
P
2
2
1
R
2
Hubble
; G
N
= L
2
P
= (m
P
)
2
(2.34)
12
inserting into eq(2.34) the following values (given in terms of the Planck mass
m
P
)
b m
2
P
, m
P
P
1
R
Hubble
(2.35)
lead to the observed value of the extremely small cosmological constant when
the size of the momentum space domain is extremely small and given by P
1
R
Hubble
. If one assigns the Planck length scale L
P
as the minimal scale, by
Borns reciprocity one should have a corresponding minimal momentum scale
that one may set to be P
1
R
Hubble
. One may envision the compact momen
tum space region of integration as a bounded Cartan homogeneous domain like
the ones studied by [14] in describing curved phase spaces. Noncompact domain
regions, like a de Sitter hyperboloid in momentum space, with constant momen
tum curvature proportional to P
2
and a conformally at metric in momentum
space,
(p)
1 (p
/P
2
)
(2.36)
will yield an infinite volume. For this reason it is desirable to choose compact
regions in momentum space or choosing eld congurations that vanish at inn
ity (compact support) such that the 8D action S in eq(2.27) is finite. Despite
that the size of P (1/R
Hubble
) is small does not mean that the rate of change
of the momenta (the forces) have to be small. For example, electrons inside the
atom are conned to a small region but have large velocities. Other range of
values for and P are possible. If m
P
= = P, the size of the momentum
space region is now very large, all the way to the Planck momentum scale, but
one gets a huge value for the cosmological constant in this case (L
P
)
2
instead of (R
Hubble
)
2
. This large value of the cosmological constant is compat
ible with a Planck size universe. A dynamical value of the cosmological constant
over time is also an appealing possibility when
(v)
R plays the role of a variable
and eective cosmological constant. As the universe expands, the value of the
cosmological constant decreases from a very large initial value (L
P
)
2
to the
present day one (R
Hubble
)
2
.
To sum up, we have seen how the geometry of the momentum space can be
linked to the observed value of the cosmological constant when the curvature
in momentum space is very large, namely the small size of P is of the order of
(1/R
Hubble
). BransDickeJordan Gravity type of actions can also be recovered
from the 8D action in the special case that
A
= 0;
(x, p) = (x)
=
1
(x)
; det(
) =
4
; g
= g
(x)
(2.37)
inserting these values (2.37) into the terms of the action (2.27) gives
(v)
R =
0; F
= 0; ... and
(h)
R = R (ordinary Ricci scalar curvature). After performing
the momentum integral leads to a BransDickeJordan Gravitylike action, up
13
to numerical constants
V (D
p
)
2
2
d
4
x
det g
2
R 3 g
(2.38)
where V (D
p
) =
Dp
d
4
p is a measure of the momentum space region. The
scalar does not have the correct canonical dimensions in 4D. One may scale
= giving the following action in terms of the canonical scalar eld
V (D
p
)
2
4
d
4
x
det g
2
R 3 g
(2.39)
hence, when the measure of the momentum space region obeys (V (D
p
)/2
4
) =
(1/16) one recovers the BransDickeJordan action with the coupling parame
ter =
3
4
and after the change of variables =
2
is performed
1
16
d
4
x
det g
R
1
g
(2.40)
The EinsteinHilbert action for gravity is obtained when =
1
G
N
.
In the most general case, the equations of motion associated with the 8D
action (2.27) associated with the geometry of the cotangent bundle are obtained
by performing a variation
S
g
= 0;
S
= 0;
S
A
= 0 (2.41)
with g
(x, p),
(x, p), A
2
(
X
a
l
i
P
a
p
);
Z
a
=
1
2
(
X
a
l
+ i
P
a
p
); a = 1, 2, 3, 4. (3.1)
Notice that we must not confuse the generators X
a
, P
a
(associated with the
ber coordinates of the internal space of the ber bundle) with the ordinary
base spacetime coordinates and momenta x
, p
= x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
;
p
= p
0
, p
1
, p
2
, p
3
. To properly match the dimensions we shall scale the momen
tum variables by the maximal properforce b so that all coordinates have the
dimensions of length. We denote the coordinates of the 8D phasespace collec
tively by Y
M
, M = 1, 2, 3, ...., 8 where the rst four coordinates correspond to
x
/b.
The Hermitian generators Z
ab
, Z
a
,
Z
a
, I of the U(1, 3) algebra and the deformed
WeylHeisenberg algebra obey the relations
(Z
ab
)
= Z
ab
; (Z
a
)
=
Z
a
; I
= I; a, b = 1, 2, 3, 4. (3.2)
The standard Quaplectic group [2] is given by the semidirect product of the
U(1, 3) group and the unmodied WeylHeisenberg H(1, 3) group : Q(1, 3)
U(1, 3)
s
H(1, 3) and is dened in terms of the generators Z
ab
, Z
a
,
Z
a
, I with
a, b = 1, 2, 3, 4. A careful analysis reveals that the complex generators Z
a
,
Z
a
(with Hermitian and antiHermitian pieces) of the deformed WeylHeisenberg
algebra can be dened in terms of the Hermitian U(1, 4) algebra generators
Z
AB
, where A, B = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; a, b = 1, 2, 3, 4;
AB
= diag (+, , , , ), as
follows
Z
a
= (i )
1/2
( Z
a5
iZ
5a
);
Z
a
= ( i )
1/2
( Z
a5
+ iZ
5a
); Z
55
=
I
2
(3.3)
15
the Hermitian generators are Z
AB
E
B
A
and Z
BA
E
A
B
; notice that the position
of the indices is very relevant because Z
AB
= Z
BA
. The commutators are
[E
b
a
, E
d
c
] = i
b
c
E
d
a
+i
d
a
E
b
c
; [E
d
c
, E
5
a
] = i
d
a
E
5
c
; [E
d
c
, E
a
5
] = i
a
c
E
d
5
.
(3.4)
and [E
5
5
, E
a
5
] = i
5
5
E
a
5
.... such that now I(= 2Z
55
) no longer commutes with
Z
a
,
Z
a
. The generators Z
ab
of the U(1, 3) algebra can be decomposed into the
Lorentzsubalgebra generators L
ab
and the shearlike generators M
ab
as
Z
ab
1
2
(M
ab
iL
ab
); L
ab
= L
[ab]
= i (Z
ab
Z
ba
); M
ab
= M
(ab)
= (Z
ab
+Z
ba
),
(3.5)
one can see that the shearlike generators M
ab
are Hermitian and the Lorentz
generators L
ab
are anti Hermitian with respect to the ber internal space
indices. The explicit commutation relations of the Hermitian generators Z
ab
can be rewritten as
[L
ab
, L
cd
] = (
bc
L
ad
ac
L
bd
bd
L
ac
+
ad
L
bc
). (3.6a)
[M
ab
, M
cd
] = (
bc
L
ad
+
ac
L
bd
+
bd
L
ac
+
ad
L
bc
). (3.6b)
[L
ab
, M
cd
] = (
bc
M
ad
ac
M
bd
+
bd
M
ac
ad
M
bc
). (3.6c)
Dening Z
ab
=
1
2
(M
ab
iL
ab
), Z
cd
=
1
2
(M
cd
iL
cd
) after straightforward
algebra it leads to the U(3, 1) commutators
[ Z
ab
, Z
cd
] = i (
bc
Z
ad
ad
Z
cb
). (3.6d)
as expected, and which requires that the commutators [M, M] L otherwise
one would not obtain the U(3, 1) commutation relations (3.9d) nor the Jacobi
identities will be satised. The commutators of the (antiHermitian) Lorentz
boosts generators L
ab
with the X
c
, P
c
generators are
[L
ab
, X
c
] = (
bc
X
a
ac
X
b
); [L
ab
, P
c
] = (
bc
P
a
ac
P
b
). (3.7a)
Since the Hermitian M
ab
generators are the reciprocal boosts transformations
which exchange X for P, in addition to boosting (rotating) those variables, one
has in
[M
ab
,
X
c
l
] =
i
p
(
bc
P
a
+
ac
P
b
); [M
ab
,
P
c
p
] =
i
l
(
bc
X
a
+
ac
X
b
)
(3.7b)
such that upon recurring to the above equations after lowering indices it leads
to
1
1
These commutators differ from those in [2] because he chose all generators X, P, M, L
to be antiHermitian so there are no i terms in the commutators in the r.h.s of eq(3.7b) and
there are also sign changes
16
[ Z
ab
, Z
c
] =
i
2
bc
Z
a
+
i
2
ac
Z
b
1
2
bc
Z
a
1
2
ac
Z
b
[ Z
ab
,
Z
c
] =
i
2
bc
Z
a
+
i
2
ac
Z
b
+
1
2
bc
Z
a
+
1
2
ac
Z
b
. (3.7c)
In the noncommutative Yangs phasespace algebra case [17], associated with
a noncommutative phase space involving noncommuting spacetime coordinates
and momentum x
, p
, p
] =
ih
, N] = ihx
/R
2
H
and
[x
, N] = iL
2
P
p
/h. L
P
, R
H
are taken to be the minimal Planck and maximal
Hubble length scales, respectively. The Hubble upper scale R
H
corresponds to
a minimal momentum h/R
H
, because by duality if there is a minimal length
there should be a minimal momentum also.
Yangs [17] noncommutative phase space algebra is isomorphic to the confor
mal algebra so(4, 2) su(2, 2) after the correspondence x
L
5
, p
L
6
,
and N L
56
. In the deformed Quaplectic algebra case, it is in addition to the
I generator, the M
ab
generator which plays the role of the exchange operator
of X with P and which also appears in the deformed WeylHeisenberg algebra
leading to a matrixvalued generalized Planckconstant, and noncommutative
ber coordinates, as follows
[
X
a
l
,
P
b
p
] = i
h
(
ab
I+M
ab
); [X
a
, X
b
] = (
l
)
2
L
[ab]
; [P
a
, P
b
] = (
p
)
2
L
[ab]
;
(3.8)
One could interpret the term
ab
I + M
ab
as a matrixvalued Planck constant
h
ab
(in units of h). The deformed (noncommutative) WeylHeisenberg algebra
can also be rewritten as
[Z
a
,
Z
b
] =
h
(
ab
I + M
ab
); [Z
a
, Z
b
] = [
Z
a
,
Z
b
] = i Z
[ab]
= L
ab
.
[Z
a
, I] = 2
Z
a
; [
Z
a
, I] = 2 Z
a
; [Z
ab
, I] = 0. I = 2 Z
55
. (3.9)
where [
Xa
l
, I] = 2i
Pa
p
; [
Pa
p
, I] = 2i
Xa
l
and the metric
ab
= (+1, 1, 1, 1) is
used to raise and lower indices . The deformed Quaplectic algebra obeys the
Jacobi identities. No longer I commutes with Z
a
,
Z
a
, it exchanges them, as
one can see from eq(3.9) since Z
55
= I/2.
The complex frame E
a
M
which is no longer a square matrix and transforms
under the fundamental representation of U(1, 3) is dened as
E
a
M
=
1
2
( e
a
M
+ if
a
M
);
E
a
M
=
1
2
( e
a
M
if
a
M
). M = 1, 2, 3, ......, 8.
(3.10)
The complex Hermitian metric is given by
G
MN
=
E
a
M
E
b
N
ab
= g
(MN)
+ig
[MN]
= g
(MN)
+iB
MN
. (3.11)
17
such that
(G
MN
)
=
G
NM
= G
MN
;
G
MN
= G
NM
. (3.12)
where the bar denotes complex conjugation. Despite that the metric is complex
the innitesimal line element is real
ds
2
= G
MN
dY
M
dY
N
= g
(MN)
dY
M
dY
N
, because i g
[MN]
dY
M
dY
N
= 0.
(3.13)
The (deformed) Quaplecticalgebravalued antiHermitian gauge eld (A
M
)
=
A
M
is given by
A
M
=
ab
M
Z
ab
+
i
L
p
( E
a
M
Z
a
+
E
a
M
Z
a
) +i
M
I . (3.14)
where a length scale that we chose to coincide with the the Planck length scale
L
P
has been introduced in the second terms in the r.h.s since the connection A
M
must have units of (length)
1
. In natural units of h = c = 1 the gravitational
coupling in 4D is G = L
2
P
. Decomposing the antiHermitian components of the
connection
ab
M
into antisymmetric [ab] and symmetric (ab) pieces with respect
to the internal indices
ab
M
=
[ab]
M
+i
(ab)
M
. (3.15)
gives the antiHermitian U(1, 3)valued connection
ab
M
Z
ab
= (
[ab]
M
+i
(ab)
M
)
1
2
(M
ab
i L
ab
) =
i
2
[ab]
M
L
ab
+
i
2
(ab)
M
M
ab
(
ab
M
Z
ab
)
=
ab
M
Z
ab
. (3.16)
since (Z
ab
)
= Z
ab
The deformed Quaplectic algebravalued (antiHermitian) eld strength is
given by
F
MN
=
M
A
N
N
A
M
+ [A
M
, A
N
] =
F
ab
MN
Z
ab
+i (F
a
MN
Z
a
+
F
a
MN
Z
a
) + F
MN
I =
i
2
F
(ab)
MN
M
ab
i
2
F
[ab]
MN
L
ab
+i (F
a
MN
Z
a
+
F
a
MN
Z
a
) + F
MN
I (3.17)
after decomposing Z
ab
=
1
2
(M
ab
iL
ab
). The components of the curvature
twoform associated with the antiHermitian connection
ab
M
=
[ab]
M
+ i
(ab)
M
are
i F
[ab]
MN
=
M
[ab]
N
N
[ab]
M
+
[ac]
[M
[cb]
N]
(ac)
[M
(cb)
N]
+
1
L
2
P
E
a
[M
E
b
N]
+
1
L
2
P
E
a
[M
E
b
N]
. (3.18)
18
i F
(ab)
MN
=
M
(ab)
N
N
(ab)
M
+
(ac)
[M
[cb]
N]
+
(bc)
[M
[ca]
N]
+
1
L
2
P
E
a
[M
E
b
N]
+
1
L
2
P
E
b
[M
E
a
N]
(3.19)
where a summation over the repeated c indices is implied and [MN] denotes
the antisymmetrization of indices with weight one. Notice the presence of the
extra terms EE in the above expressions for the deformed eld strengths due
to the noncommutative [Z
a
, Z
b
] = 0, and which in turn, modifies the Weyl
Heisenberg algebra due to the Jacobi identities. In the undeformed ordinary
Quaplecticalgebra case these terms are absent because [Z
a
, Z
b
] = 0, ... and,
furthermore, there is no M
ab
term in the ordinary WeylHeisenberg algebra.
These extra terms E
a
E
b
, .... in eqs(3.18,3.19) are one of the hallmarks of the
deformed Quaplectic gauge eld theory formulation of the deformed Borns
Reciprocal Complex Gravity.
The components of the torsion twoform are
F
a
MN
=
M
E
a
N
N
E
a
M
i
[ac]
[M
E
c
N]
+i
(ac)
[M
E
c
N]
2i
E
a
[M
N]
. (3.20a)
F
a
MN
=
M
E
a
N
N
E
a
M
+i
[ac]
[M
E
c
N]
i
(ac)
[M
E
c
N]
+2i E
a
[M
N]
. (3.20b)
The remaining eld strength has roughly the same form as a U(1) eld
strength in noncommutative spaces due to the additional contribution of B
N
i
N
M
+
1
L
2
P
E
a
M
E
b
N
ab
1
L
2
P
E
a
M
E
b
N
ab
=
i
M
N
i
N
M
+
1
L
2
P
( G
MN
G
NM
) = i
[MN]
+i
2
L
2
P
G
[MN]
(3.21)
after recurring to the commutation relations (for
h
= 1) in eqs(3.8,3.9) and
the Hermitian property of the metric
G
MN
=
E
a
M
E
b
N
ab
= [
ab
E
b
N
E
a
M
]
= (G
NM
)
(G
MN
)
= G
NM
.
(3.22)
where stands for (bar) complex conjugation.
The curvature tensor is dened in terms of the antiHermitian connection
[ab]
M
+i
(ab)
N
as
R
Q
MNP
1
4
( F
[ab]
MN
+ i F
(ab)
MN
) (E
Q
a
E
bP
+
E
Q
a
E
bP
+ E
Q
a
E
bP
+
E
Q
a
E
bP
).
(3.23)
19
where the explicit components F
[ab]
MN
and F
(ab)
MN
can be read from the dening re
lations (3.18, 3.19). Note that both values of values of F
[ab]
MN
and F
(ab)
MN
are purely
imaginary such that one may rewrite the complexvalued F
ab
MN
eld strength
as (F
(ab)
MN
+iF
[ab]
MN
) for real valued F
(ab)
MN
, F
[ab]
MN
expressions. The contraction of
indices yields two dierent complexvalued (Hermitian) Ricci tensors.
R
MP
= g
KN
g
QK
R
Q
MNP
=
N
Q
R
Q
MNP
= R
(MP)
+i R
[MP]
; (R
MP
)
= R
PM
(3.24)
and
S
M
= g
KN
g
KQ
R
Q
MNP
= S
(MP)
+ i S
[MP]
; (S
MP
)
= S
PM
(3.25)
due to the fact that
g
KN
g
QK
=
N
Q
and g
KN
g
KQ
=
N
Q
. (3.26)
because g
KQ
= g
QK
. The position of the indices is crucial. There is a third
Ricci tensor Q
[MN]
= R
Q
MNP
P
Q
related to the curl of the nonmetricity Weyl
vector Q
M
[19] which one may set to zero. However, in the most general case
one should include nonmetricity.
A further contraction yields the generalized (realvalued) Ricci scalars
R = (g
(MP)
+i g
[MP]
) ( R
(MP)
+ i R
[MP]
) =
R = g
(MP)
R
(MP)
B
MP
R
[MP]
; g
[MP]
B
MP
. (3.27a)
S = (g
(MP)
+i g
[MP]
) ( S
(MP)
+ i S
[MP]
) =
S = g
(MP)
S
(MP)
B
MP
S
[MP]
. (3.27b)
The rst term g
(MP)
R
(MP)
corresponds to the usual scalar curvature of the
ordinary Riemannian geometry. The presence of the extra terms B
MP
R
[MP]
and B
MP
S
[MP]
due to the antisymmetric components of the metric and the
two dierent types of Ricci tensors are one of the hallmarks of the deformed
Born complex gravity. We should notice that the inverse complex metric is
g
(MP)
+ ig
[MP]
= [ g
(MP)
+ ig
[MP]
]
1
= (g
(MP)
)
1
+ (ig
[MP]
)
1
. (3.28)
so g
(MP)
is now a complicated expression of both g
(MP)
and g
[MP]
= B
MP
. The
same occurs with g
[MP]
= B
MP
. Rigorously we should have used a dierent
notation for the inverse metric g
(MP)
+ i
B
[MP]
, but for notational simplicity
we chose to drop the tilde symbol.
One could add an extra contribution to the complexgravity realvalued
action stemming from the terms iB
MP
F
MP
which is very reminiscent of the
BF terms in Schwarz Topological eld theory and in Plebanksis formulation
of gravity. In the most general case, one must include both the contributions
20
from the torsion and the i B
MP
F
MP
terms. The contractions involving G
MP
=
g
(MP)
+ iB
MP
with the components F
MP
(due to the antisymmetry property
of F
MP
= F
PM
) lead to
i B
MP
F
MP
= B
MP
(
M
P
P
M
) 2 B
MP
B
MP
=
B
MP
MP
2 B
MP
B
MP
. (3.29)
where we have set the length scale L
P
= 1 for convenience. These BF terms
contain a masslike term for the B
MP
eld. When the torsion is not constrained
to vanish one must include those contributions as well. The realvalued torsion
twoform is (F
a
MN
Z
a
+
F
a
MN
Z
a
)dY
M
dY
N
and the torsion tensor and torsion
vector are
T
P
MN
= F
a
MN
E
P
a
;
T
P
MN
=
E
P
a
F
a
MN
; T
MNP
= g
PQ
T
Q
MN
;
T
MNP
=
T
Q
MN
(g
PQ
)
=
T
Q
MN
g
QP
; T
M
=
N
P
T
P
MN
;
T
M
=
T
P
MN
N
P
.
(3.30)
The (realvalued) action, linear in the two (realvalued) Ricci curvature
scalars and quadratic in the torsion is of the form
1
2
2
2
8
d
8
Y
 det (g
(MN)
+iB
MN
)  ( a
1
R+a
2
S +a
3
T
MNQ
T
MNQ
+a
4
T
M
T
M
+c.c).
(3.31)
 det (g
(MN)
+iB
MN
)  =
det (g
(MN)
+iB
MN
) det (g
(MN)
iB
MN
)
(3.32)
where one must add the complex conjugate (cc) terms in order to have a real
valued action.
2
2
is a suitable coupling introduced to render the action dimen
sionless. The action (3.31) is invariant under innitesimal U(1, 3) gauge trans
formations of the complex tetrad E
a
= (
a
b(1)
+ i
a
b(2)
)E
b
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