lEI P0WEk AN0 ENEk0¥ 5EklE5 33

Series Editors: Professor A.T. !ohns
Professor D.F. Warne
Cvervoltage
Protection of Low
voltage Systems
Second edition
0tber volumes in tbis series:
volume 1 Power circuit breaker tbeory and design C.H. Flurscheim (Editor)
volume 4 lndustrial microwave beating A.C. Metaxas and R.!. Meredith
volume 7 lnsulators for bigb voltages !.S.T. Looms
volume 8 Variable frequency AC-motor drive systems D. Finney
volume 10 5F6 switcbgear H.M. Ryan and C.R. !ones
volume 11 Conduction and induction beating E.!. Davies
volume 13 5tatistical tecbniques for bigb voltage engineering W. Hauschild and
W. Mosch
volume 14 Uninterruptable power supplies !. Platts and !.D. St Aubyn (Editors)
volume 15 0igital protection for power systems A.T. !ohns and S.K. Salman
volume 16 Electricity economics and planning T.W. ßerrie
volume 18 Vacuum switcbgear A. Creenwood
volume 19 Electrical safety: a guide to causes and prevention of bazards
!. Maxwell Adams
volume 21 Electricity distribution network design, 2nd edition E. Lakervi and
E.!. Holmes
volume 22 Artiñcial intelligence tecbniques in power systems K. Warwick, A.C. Ekwue
and R. Aggarwal (Editors)
volume 24 Power system commissioning and maintenance practice K. Harker
volume 25 Engineers' bandbook of industrial microwave beating R.!. Meredith
volume 26 5mall electric motors H. Moczala ETAL
volume 27 AC-0C power system analysis !. Arrill and ß.C. Smith
volume 29 Higb voltage direct current transmission, 2nd edition !. Arrillaga
volume 30 Flexible AC Iransmission 5ystems (FACI5) Y-H. Song (Editor)
volume 31 Embedded generation N. !enkins ETAL
volume 32 Higb voltage engineering and testing, 2nd edition H.M. Ryan (Editor)
volume 33 0vervoltage protection of low-voltage systems, revised edition P. Hasse
volume 34 Ibe ligbtning ñasb v. Cooray
volume 35 Control tecbniques drives and controls bandbook W. Drury (Editor)
volume 36 Voltage quality in electrical power systems !. Schlabbach ETAL
volume 37 Electrical steels for rotating macbines P. ßeckley
volume 38 Ibe electric car: development and future of battery, bybrid and fuel-cell
cars M. Westbrook
volume 39 Power systems electromagnetic transients simulation !. Arrillaga and
N. Watson
volume 40 Advances in bigb voltage engineering M. Haddad and D. Warne
volume 41 Electrical operation of electrostatic precipitators K. Parker
volume 43 Ibermal power plant simulation and control D. Flynn
volume 44 Economic evaluation of projects in tbe electricity supply industry H. Khatib
volume 45 Propulsion systems for bybrid vebicles !. Miller
volume 46 0istribution switcbgear S. Stewart
volume 47 Protection of electricity distribution networks, 2nd edition !. Cers and
E. Holmes
volume 48 Wood pole overbead lines ß. Wareing
volume 49 Electric fuses, 3rd edition A. Wright and C. Newbery
volume 50 Wind power integration: connection and system operational aspects ß. Fox
ETAL.
volume 51 5bort circuit currents !. Schlabbach
volume 52 Nuclear power !. Wood
volume 53 Condition assessment of bigb voltage insulation in power system
equipment R.E. !ames and C. Su
volume 905 Power system protection, 4 volumes
Cvervoltage
Protection of Low
voltage Systems
Second edition

Peter Hasse
The Institution of Engineering and Technology
Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom
First edition © 1998 TÜv-verlag CmbH, Unternehmensgruppe TÜv Rheinland/ßerlin
ßrandenburg, Köln
English translation © 2000 The Institution of Electrical Engineers
Reprint with new cover © 2008 The Institution of Engineering and Technology
First published 1998
English translation 2000
Reprinted 2003, 2008
This publication is copyright under the ßerne Convention and the Universal Copyright
Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research
or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and
Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any
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The Institution of Engineering and Technology
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While the author and the publishers believe that the information and guidance given
in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when
making use of them. Neither the author nor the publishers assume any liability to
anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether
such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all such
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The moral rights of the author to be identihed as author of this work have been
asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
8ritisb Library Cataloguing in Publication 0ata
Hasse, P. (Peter)
Cvervoltage protection of low-voltage systems. - Rev. ed.
(Power and energy series no. 33)
1. Cvervoltage 2. Low-voltage systems 3. Electrical apparatus and appliances
- Standards
I. Title
621.3'17
l58N (10 digit) 0 85296 781 0
l58N (13 digit) 978-0-85296-781-2
Printed in the UK by T! International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall
Reprinted in the UK by Lightning Source UK Ltd, Milton Keynes
Contents
1 Introduction 1
2 Damage due to lightning and surges 5
2.1 Damage statistics 5
2.2 Examples 10
2.2.1 Damage in hazardous areas 10
2.2.2 Damage to industrial plants 15
2.2.3 Damage to power supply systems 24
2.2.4 Damage to a house 27
2.2.5 Damage to aircraft and airports 36
2.2.6 Damage to wind power stations 38
2.2.7 Catastrophic damage 39
3 Origin and effect of surges 43
3.1 Atmospheric overvoltages 45
3.1.1 Direct and close-up strikes 45
3.1.1.1 Voltage drop at the impulse earthing resistance 48
3.1.1.2 Induced voltages in metal loops 49
3.1.2 Remote strikes 56
3.1.3 Coupling of surge currents on signal lines 57
3.1.3.1 Ohmic coupling 58
3.1.3.2 Inductive coupling 58
3.1.3.3 Capacitive coupling 59
3.1.4 Magnitude of atmospheric overvoltages 60
3.2 Switching overvoltages 61
4 Protective measures, standards 67
4.1 Lightning protection 69
4.1.1 Risk analysis, protection levels 74
4.1.2 External and internal lightning protection, DIN VDE
0185 Part 1, DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part
100) 78
4.1.3 Concept of lightning protection zones, DIN VDE
0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) 79
4.1.3.1 LEMP-protection planning 83
4.1.3.1.1 Definition of lightning protection levels 83
4.1.3.1.2 Definition of lightning protection zones 83
4.1.3.1.3 Room shielding measures 84
4.1.3.1.4 Equipotential bonding networks 90
4.1.3.1.5 Equipotential bonding measures for supply
lines and electric lines at the boundaries of
the lightning protection zones 92
4.1.3.1.6 Cable routing and shielding 94
4.1.3.2 Realization of LEMP protection 97
4.1.3.3 Installation and supervision of LEMP
protection 99
4.1.3.4 Acceptance inspection of LEMP protection 100
4.1.3.5 Periodic inspection 101
4.1.3.6 Costs 101
4.2 Surge protection for electrical systems of buildings, IEC
60364, DIN VDE 0100 103
4.2.1 IEC 60364-4-443/DIN VDE 0100 Part 443 104
4.2.2 IEC 60664-1/DIN VDE 0110 Part 1 105
4.2.3 IEC 60364-5-534/DIN VDE 0100 Part 534 109
4.3 Surge protection for telecommunications systems, DIN
VDE 0800, DIN VDE 0845 110
4.4 Electromagnetic compatibility including protection
against electromagnetic impulses and lightning,
VG 95 372 112
4.5 Standards for components and protective devices 112
4.5.1 Connection components, E DIN EN 50164-1
(VDE 0185 Part 201) 113
4.5.2 Arresters for lightning currents and surges 113
4.5.2.1 Arresters for power engineering, IEC
61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 113
4.5.2.1.1 Important data for arrester selection 119
4.5.2.1.2 Coordination of the arresters according to
requirements and locations 120
4.5.2.1.3 N-PE arrester, E DIN VDE 0675 Part
6/A2 121
4.5.2.2 Arresters for information technology,
IEC SC 37A/E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 122
4.5.2.2.1 Important data for arrester selection 124
4.5.2.2.2 Arrester coordination according to
requirements and locations 125
4.5.2.3 Arrester coordination 125
vi Contents
5 Components and protective devices: construction, effect and
application 127
5.1 Air terminations 127
5.2 Building and room shields 129
5.3 Shields for lines between screened buildings 138
5.4 Shields for cables in buildings 141
5.5 Optoelectronic connections 143
5.5.1 Optical fibre transmission system 144
5.5.2 Optocoupler 145
5.6 Equipotential bonding 145
5.7 Isolating spark gaps 150
5.8 Arresters 153
5.8.1 Arresters for power engineering 155
5.8.1.1 Surge arresters for low-voltage overhead lines,
class A 155
5.8.1.2 Lightning current arresters for lightning
protection equipotential bonding, class B 157
5.8.1.3 Surge arresters for protection of permanent
installation, class C 167
5.8.1.4 Surge arresters for application at socket outlets,
class D 174
5.8.1.5 Surge arresters for application at equipment
inputs 175
5.8.1.6 Application of lightning current arresters and
surge arresters 175
5.8.1.6.1 Graded application of arresters, energetic
coordination between surge arresters and
equipment to protect 178
5.8.1.6.2 Application of arresters in different system
configurations 182
5.8.1.6.3 Selection of arrester backup fuses 196
5.8.2 Arresters for information technology 206
5.8.2.1 Arresters for measuring and control systems 209
5.8.2.1.1 Blitzductor
®
CT: Construction and mode of
functioning 210
5.8.2.1.2 Blitzductor
®
CT: Selection criteria 223
5.8.2.1.3 Blitzductor
®
CT: Examples of application 228
5.8.2.1.4 Arresters for intrinsically safe measuring
and control circuits and their application 238
5.8.2.1.5 Arresters for cathodic protection systems 246
5.8.2.1.6 Arresters in Euro-card format 248
5.8.2.1.7 Arresters in LSA-Plus technology 248
5.8.2.2 Combined protective devices for power supply
inputs and information technology inputs 253
Contents vii
5.8.2.3 Protective devices for data networks/systems 255
5.8.2.3.1 Protective devices for application-neutral
cabling 255
5.8.2.3.2 Protective devices for token ring-cabling 262
5.8.2.3.3 Protective devices for Ethernet twisted pair-
cabling 265
5.8.2.3.4 Protective devices for Ethernet coax-cabling 267
5.8.2.3.5 Protective devices for standard cabling 271
5.8.2.3.6 Protective devices for data telecontrol
transmission by ISDN base terminal 277
5.8.2.3.7 Protective devices for data telecontrol
transmission by ISDN primary multiplex
terminal 284
5.8.2.3.8 Protective devices for data telecontrol
transmission by analogous a/b-wire
terminal 286
6 Application in practice: Some examples 293
6.1 Industrial plants 295
6.1.1 Fabrication hall 295
6.1.2 Store and dispatch building 296
6.1.3 Factory central heating 302
6.1.4 Central computer 307
6.1.5 European installation bus (EIB) 309
6.1.6 Other bus systems 313
6.1.7 Fire and burglar alarm system 313
6.1.8 Video control system 316
6.1.9 Radio paging system 318
6.1.10 Electronic vehicle weighbridge 320
6.2 Peak-load power station 323
6.3 Mobile radio systems 328
6.4 Television transmitter 334
6.5 Mobile telecommunication facility 339
6.6 Airport control tower 343
7 Prospects 351
Index 353
viii Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction
Business, industry and public institutions depend on electronic data
engineering. Electronic data processing (EDP) systems, measuring and
control systems, instrumentation and control as well as secondary tech-
nology are all part of a modern industrial plant. Data recording devices
at the production facilities are connected to office terminals and com-
puters by information networks ranging between buildings—together
making CIM (computer integrated manufacturing). Open networks,
where different types of computers and different operating systems
communicate, are often the basis for CIM. This rapidly expanding
business process is now approaching the CIE (computer integrated
enterprise) or CIB (computer integrated business); in other words, the
complete integration of all ranges of administration into a multi-EDP
system. The future lies in the computer-integrated factory or in
computer-integrated business and administration.
Everywhere, computers in local banks are connected to the computing
centre of the main bank. This ‘networked’ world, with its growing flow
of information, is, however, severely hindered by interference or damage
to the essential transmission systems in the telephone and data networks,
as well as at terminals (Figure 1 a). Dependence on electronic data
processing can quickly lead to catastrophe if the system fails.
An American study in 1987 highlighted the seriousness of the situ-
ation. According to this, banks will only be able to manage without EDP
for 2 days, sales-oriented enterprises will be able to manage for 3.3 days,
manufacturers for 4.9 days, and insurance companies for 5.6 days. An
investigation by IBM Germany disclosed that enterprises without
functioning EDP would be on the verge of ruin after about 4.8 days. In
many business sectors within the European Market this risk will certainly
continue to increase in the future.
Computer safety experts point out that nine out of ten enterprises will
close if the computer fails for two weeks. The most frequent reason for
the failure of such electronic systems is transient electromagnetic interfer-
ences that disturb the flow of data and destroy electronic equipment.
Risk can be controlled by electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) meas-
ures. This specifies conditions under which any kinds of electric equipment
do not disturb each other and also where electromagnetic phenomena,
for example, lightning discharges, will not disturb their function.
The European Community has declared EMC as a protection goal by
issuing the ‘Richtlinie des Rats vom 3. Mai 1989 zur Angleichung der
Rechtsvorschriften der Mitgliedstaaten über die Elektromagnetische
Verträglichkeit’ (Council Directive of 3 May 1989 to Harmonise Laws of
the Member Nations concerning Electromagnetic Compatibility). All
apparatus, facilities and systems that include electric or electronic
components must demonstrate sufficient ‘withstand’ levels against elec-
tromagnetic disturbances to guarantee proper operation of equipment.
The instructions of the Council especially mention the following facil-
ities: industrial equipment, telecommunication networks and equipment,
mobile radio sets, information technology equipment, private sound and
TV-radio-receivers, commercial mobile radio and radio-telephones, med-
ical and scientific apparatus and equipment, household appliances and
electronic household equipment, radio sets for navigation, electronic edu-
cation gear, transmitters for radio and television, and luminaires and
fluorescent lamps. These instructions were transferred into German law
on 9 November 1992 as the ‘Gesetz über die Electromagnetische Verträg-
lichkeit von Geräten (EMVG)’ (Law on the Electromagnetic Compatibility
of Devices (EMCD)) and was fully valid as from 1 January 1996. A change to
the EMVG was made on 30 August 1995. Violation of the EMC law, and
thus of the EMC general instructions, is deemed a summary offence.
Among the threats from the electromagnetic environment, lightning
discharge (Figure 1 b) is the most important and therefore this deter-
Figure 1 a Partial lightning currents propagate on lines and mains
2 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
mines to a great extent the protective measures that must be undertaken
in the framework of EMC. Therefore, modern lightning protection does
not only mean protection of buildings but especially the protection of
those devices covered by Section 2, item 4 of EMVG, meaning that a
lightning protection system also must be erected, even if it is not neces-
sary for the building, for the equipment it contains, in the sense of
Section 2, item 4 of EMVG.
This book presents proven lightning and surge protection measures,
taking into account the latest standards and engineering. The com-
ponents and devices that are used to achieve these protective measures
are explained in terms of their function and application by means of
practical examples.
Sources
SACHSE, CH.: ‘Computersicherheit – Tanz auf dem Vulkan’ (Management-
Wissen, 1987) No. 6, pp. 68–72
PIGLER, F.: ‘EMV und Blitzschutz leittechnischer Anlagen’ (Siemens AG,
Berlin u. München, 1990)
SCHWAB, A. J.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Springer Verlag, Berlin,
Heidelberg, New York, 1990)
BEIERL, O.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit beim Blitzeinschlag in ein
Gebäude’ (Fortschrittsberichte VDI, 1991) Reihe 21, Nr. 93 (VDI-Verlag
GmbH, Düsseldorf)
KOHLING, A.: ‘EG-Rahmenrichtlinie und Europäische Normen zur EMV’,
etz Elektrotech. Z., 1991, 12, (9), pp. 438–441
Figure 1 b Lightning discharge – a special electromagnetic source of interference
Introduction 3
GONSCHOREK, K.-H. and SINGER, H.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträg-
lichkeit’ (B. G. Teubner, Stuttgart–Leipzig, 1992)
HABIGER, E.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit. Grundzüge ihrer
Sicherstellung in der Geräte- und Anlagentechnik’ (Hüthig Buchverlag
GmbH, Heidelberg, 1992)
HABIGER, E.: ‘Handbuch Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Verlag
Technik GmbH, Berlin–München, 1992)
MEYER, H. (Ed.): ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Automatisie-
rungssystemen’ (VDE-Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, 1992)
DIN VDE 0870 Teil 1: ‘Elektromagnetische Beeinflussung (EMB)’ Begriffe.
(VDE-Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, July 1984)
Richtlinien des Rats vom 3 May 1989 zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften
der Mitgliedstaaten über die Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (89/336/
EWG). Brüssel: Amtsblatt der Gemeinschaft L 139/19 (23 May 1989)
Gesetz über die Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten (EMVG),
9 Nov. 1992. Bundesgesetzblatt Teil 1, Nr. 52 (12 Nov. 1992)
Erstes Gesetz zur Änderung des EMVG vom 30 August 1995 (1. EMVG ÄndG).
Bundesgesetzblatt Teil 1. Nr. 47 (8 Sept. 1995).
‘Guidelines on the Application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989
on the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States Relating to Electro-
magnetic Compatibility’ (Directive 89/336/EEC Amended by Directives 91/263/
EEC, 92/31/EEC, 93/68/EEC, 93/97/EEC)
SCHNITZLER, J.: ‘Rechtliche Aspekte für Planer, Errichter und Prüfer von
Blitzschutzanlagen’. 2. VDE/ABB-Fachtagung (6–7 Nov. 1997) Neu-Ulm:
Neue Blitzschutznormen in der Praxis
4 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Chapter 2
Damage due to lightning and surges
Damage to electronic installations is increasing due to the following
factors: (i) the increasing use of electronic equipment and systems,
(ii) the lower signal levels, which means higher sensitivity, and (iii) the
increasing use of networks that cover large areas. Although the con-
comitant destruction of electronic components is not often spectacular,
interruptions to operations in most cases are rather long. Thus, the con-
sequential damage is often considerably higher than the damage to the
hardware (Figure 2 a).
2.1 Damage statistics
One important electronic insurance company in Germany reported that
the costs of compensation for surge damage due to electromagnetic
Figure 2 a Computer board damaged by lightning surges
disturbances on electronic systems and equipment, such as communica-
tion systems, computers, measuring devices and medical appliances,
have quadrupled within a period of ten years (Figure 2.1 a). In 1984 8.5%
of all damage adjustments were caused by surges. In 1993 34.6%, in 1994
35.5%, in 1995 33% out of 11000 cases of damage and in 1996 26.6%
and in 1997 31.68% out of 8722 cases of damage were caused by surges
(Figure 2.1 b).
Figure 2.1 a Development of the percentage of damage due to surges compared
with the total damage sum
(Source: Württembergische Feuerversicherung AG, Stuttgart)
Figure 2.1 b Electronics sector: damage in 1997 (analysis of more than 9600
cases of damage)
6 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
In the former Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1990, damage
costs to electronic equipment and systems caused by surges may have
exceeded one billion DM. Surge damage analysis has shown that light-
ning discharges are the dominant disturbances, followed by those due to
switching operations in power technical systems. There are also dangers
caused by electrostatic discharge.
A statistic concerning lightning damage published for many years
by the Upper Austrian fire prevention authority (Table 2.1 a) shows
(additionally to the damage due to direct lightning strikes), indirect
damage caused by electromagnetic lightning disturbances. Such indirect
Table 2.1 a Damage statistics of the Fire Prevention Authority, Upper Austria
Damage due to lightning and surges 7
damage costs are far higher than those due to direct lightning. For
example, in 1993 there were 23646 indirect damage incidents amounting
to 86.2 million ÖS (Austrian schillings), compared to 64 direct damage
incidents for which 27.4 million ÖS had to be compensated.
There is now worldwide agreement that the danger radius around a
point struck by lightning is about 2km (Figure 2.1 c, a). Within this domain
electronic systems are affected by conducted and radiated disturbances
that may cause destruction (Figure 2.1 c, b). In the case of an electro-
Figure 2.1 c (a) Lightning discharge hazard 2km around the strike point
Figure 2.1 c (b) Electronic systems are interfered with or damaged by conducted
and radiated interference
8 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
magnetic disturbance by lightning, the hardware damage is only a
small part of the total impact. Consequential damage, such as factory
standstill due to the breakdown of computer systems or pollution due to
the failure of measuring and control systems in chemical plants, causes
the greatest proportion of the total loss, to say nothing of the possible
liabilities.
Insurers only compensate for hardware damage, and today they usu-
ally pay for the damage only if it is a first event. Thereafter, they will
demand installation of protective measures according to the level of
standardization and engineering technology, otherwise they will cancel
the insurance contract (Figure 2.1 d). It is a usual condition for the
Figure 2.1 d Text of a letter from the Liability Insurance Association of the
German Industry concerning ‘surge damage’
Damage due to lightning and surges 9
conclusion of new contracts that proof of existing relevant protective
measures be supplied.
2.2 Examples
Some examples of damage due to lightning discharge, switching
operations or electrostatic discharge now follow.
2.2.1 Damage in hazardous areas
The disastrous consequences of lightning strikes in hazardous areas will
be illustrated by the following five examples.
In 1965 a 1500m
3
solid-roof petrol tank in the DEA-Scholven refinery
in Karlsruhe was struck by lightning. The tank exploded and burnt out
completely (Figure 2.2.1 a). Figure 2.2.1 b shows the measuring equip-
ment inside the tank. The ohmic resistance of a nickel spiral with float
serves for measuring the temperature in the tank. As lightning struck the
tank there was a flashover from the tank to the wires of the measuring
cable which had the potential of the ‘remote’ earth. The explosive mixture
was struck and the tank burnt out.
A similar remarkable case happened ten years later in the Nether-
lands. A 5000m
3
kerosene tank exploded due to a lightning strike (Figure
2.2.1 c). The inner tank temperature was controlled by a thermoelement
connected to the control room by a 200m long measuring cable which
also had, as in the above-mentioned case, the ‘remote’ earth potential. As
Figure 2.2.1 a Burned out tank due to a lightning strike, Karlsruhe, 1965
(Source: DEA-Scholven, Karlsruhe)
10 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
one of the surrounding willow trees was struck by lightning, there was a
discharge from the roots of the tree to the earthing system of the tank.
The potential of the tank system increased in accordance with its
impulse earthing resistance. As a consequence, there was a sparkover to
the measuring line and due to this open sparkover, the kerosene-air–
mixture caught fire. An amateur photographer shot pictures of this
lightning strike and the following explosion (Figure 2.2.1 d).
A lightning strike with severe consequences also happened in a chem-
ical plant in Herne in August 1984 where an alcohol tank burnt out
(Figure 2.2.1 e). Here, TÜV experts managed to find out the reason for
Figure 2.2.1 b Measuring equipment to determine the temperature inside the tank
Figure 2.2.1 c Lightning strike to a kerosene tank, Netherlands, 1975
Damage due to lightning and surges 11
Figure 2.2.1 d (a)
Figure 2.2.1 d (b)
Figure 2.2.1 d (a, b) 250m high
explosion cloud after the lightning
strike to a kerosene tank
(Source: Brood, T.G.P.)
Figure 2.2.1 e Burning alcohol tank
due to a lightning strike, Herne,
1984
(Source: Kartenberg, H. J.)
12 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
the damage. Once again it was a measuring cable entering the tank with
the potential of the ‘remote’ earth that led to the burn out.
In October 1995 lightning struck the Indonesian oil refinery Pertamina
in Cilacap on the south coast of Java. The tank exploded and the burning
oil set fire to six neighbouring tanks (Figures 2.2.1 f and g). Again the
reason was incomplete equipotential bonding. Thousands of Cilacap
inhabitants and 400 Pertamina employees had to be evacuated for their
safety. There was a standstill for about 18 months for this refinery which
supplied 34% of Indonesia’s inland need. This meant that oil, petrol,
kerosene and diesel, worth about DM600000, had to be imported daily
for the supply of Java. Only in Spring 1997 was the company able to
restart its own production.
In June 1996 a lightning strike in New Jersey, USA, set fire to petrol
tanks containing 300000 gallons of petrol. About 200 people had to be
evacuated (Figure 2.1 h).
The reasons for these cases of damage are indicated as shown in Figure
2.2.1 i. Lightning hits an almost closed Faraday cage which has a hole. A
line coming from a distant building and which is earthed there enters this
hole. Between the lightning-struck Faraday cage and this ‘remote’ earth
a voltage drop develops that is caused by the lightning current at the
impulse earth resistance (e.g. in Figure 2.2.1 i, 100kV). Conventional
measuring line insulations, however, can only withstand impulse voltages
of some 100V; higher values will cause punctures with arcing.
Sources
v. THADEN, H.-W.: ‘Tankbrand durch Blitzeinschlag’ (Erdöl u. Kohle-Erdgas-
Petro-chemie, 1966), pp. 422–424
BROOD, T. G. P.: ‘Bericht über infolge Blitzeinschlag verursachte Brände in
zwei geschützten Tanks für die Lagerung von brennbaren Flüssigkeiten’. 13.
Intern. Blitzschutzkonf., Venedig (1976), Referat R-4.5
WESTDEUTSCHE ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG: ‘Herner Tank-Unglück –
Blitzschlag trotz einer Schutzanlage’ (4 Dec. 1984)
THE JAKARTA POST: ‘Cilacap fire won’t affect domestic fuel oil supplies’ (26
Oct. 1995)
THE NEW YORK TIMES: ‘Lightning starts fuel tank fire in New Jersey’
(12 June 1996)
SIRAITI, K. T., PAKPAHAN, P., ANGGORO, B., SOEWONO, S, ISKANTO, E.,
GARNIWA, I., and RAHARDJO, A., ‘An analysis of origin of internal sparks
in kerosene tank due to lightning strikes’. Lightning and Mountains ’97, June
1997, Chamonix Mont Blanc/France
ZORO, R., SUDIRHAM, S., and SASONGKO, D. (ITB Bandung, Indonesia):
‘Kerosene tank explosions due to lightning strikes in an Indonesian refinery
plant’. Lightning and Mountains ’97, June 1997, Chamonix Mont Blanc/
France
Damage due to lightning and surges 13
Figure 2.2.1 f, g Oil refinery Pertamina, Cilacap/Java, 1995. Seven tanks burned
out due to a lightning strike
14 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
2.2.2 Damage to industrial plants
Repeated and extensive surge damage was caused to Europe’s largest
computer-controlled lorry factory, Daimler–Benz AG, at Wörth, near
Karlsruhe. Often the production came to a standstill and, correspond-
ingly, extended production losses resulted from both direct and remote
lightning strikes. The factory halls are on a site with a length of 1.5km
and a width of 1km. In two shifts, 10000 workers produce 400 lorries per
shift. The material stock computers are connected with those in produc-
tion control by a DC data transmission system; this digital symmetric
transmission system works at ±350mV. At the beginning of the 1980s,
surges repeatedly damaged the linked equipment, each time bringing with
it a complete production standstill.
Figure 2.2.1 h Lightning strike sets petrol tank on fire, New Jersey, USA, 1996
Damage due to lightning and surges 15
In a textile mill in the former GDR the fire alarm system was activated
by the ionization detector following a lightning strike on the roof of a
high-bay warehouse. This activated the automatic sprinkler system. Con-
sequential water damage was about 1 million DM. The warehouse was
only equipped with an ‘external lightning protection system’.
A lightning strike to the roof was also the reason for a production
standstill in the cutting department of a ready-made clothes manu-
facturer in Dresden, in 1989. Here the central computer and machine
control were disturbed by the 80m long data cable. The so-called
‘external lightning protection system’ could not prevent this damage;
‘internal lightning protection’ measures were absent.
Systems with cables and lines crossing several buildings are especially
endangered. In the Leuna works, in 1989, thunderstorms caused a failure
of electronic control and supervision equipment causing a standstill in
production. Distributed sensors in the process system were connected
with the control room by cables the shields of which were bonded with
the equipotential bonding bar of the control room. Complete lightning
protection equipotential bonding, however, had been neglected and only
a few special cables were connected with protective diodes. The damage
loss exceeded 1 million DM.
A lightning occurrence in 1983 will now be described due to its
particular characteristics. The conclusions that are drawn are valid
even today. The case entails the administration tower of Klöckner–
Humboldt–Deutz in Cologne (Figures 2.2.2 a and b). This was struck by
lightning that was diverted to earth by the ‘external lightning protec-
tion system’. Because of the absence of an ‘internal lightning protection
Figure 2.2.1 i Lightning strike to the Faraday cage causes flashover to the line at
the ‘Faraday hole’
16 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
system’, about 100 terminals (Figure 2.2.2 c) and numerous computer
processors (Figure 2.2.2 d) in the computer centre (about 120m away)
were disturbed by this strike (Figure 2.2.2 e). Hardware damage alone
amounted to 2 million DM; the consequential loss due to the non-
availability of the computer systems was about 4 million DM. During
this particular thunderstorm other neighbouring industrial plants had
surge damage to their computers, telephone and telex systems. The
reasons for these types of damage can be explained by considering Figure
2.2.2 f. If lightning strikes building

1 , a partial lightning current will
flow into building

2 only because of the resistive coupling (Section
3.1.3 (a)) and thus cause damage there. Microelectronic components and
circuits can also be destroyed by electrostatic discharge (Figures 2.2.2 g).
False tripping of common ‘residual current circuit breakers’ (RCCB)
due to electromagnetic interference at lightning discharge in close sur-
roundings can occur. Reports such as: ‘Numerous animals killed because
of an indirect lightning strike. In an intensive animal breeding farm
14000 chickens suffocated as the ventilators failed because of false
tripping of a residual current circuit breaker, after an indirect lightning
strike’ are not unusual. It must be explained that in intensive chicken
breeding farms about 15000 chickens are reared within six weeks on
a surface area of about 1000m
2
(Figure 2.2.2 h). During this period,
the birds are fed automatically. But, besides food and water, the continu-
ity of air supply (Figure 2.2.2 i) is of obvious vital importance. If, for
example, the ventilation system is shut down by false tripping of the
Figure 2.2.2 a Lightning strike into the administration building of Messrs KHD,
Cologne, 1983
Damage due to lightning and surges 17
Figure 2.2.2 b Administration building behind the computing centre (Messrs
KHD)
Figure 2.2.2 c Computer terminals in the administration building (Messrs
KHD)
18 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 2.2.2 d Computing centre (Messrs KHD)
Figure 2.2.2 e Computer PCB damaged by lightning surge
Damage due to lightning and surges 19
Figure 2.2.2 f At a lightning strike to building

1 : Surge damage in buildings

1 and

2
Figure 2.2.2 g (a, b) MOS module damaged by electrostatic discharge.
(Source: 3M Deutschland GmbH, Neuss)
Figure 2.2.2 g (a)
Figure 2.2.2 g (b)
20 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 2.2.2 h Automatic feeding
Figure 2.2.2 i Ventilator in an intensive animal breeding building
Damage due to lightning and surges 21
corresponding residual current circuit breaker, the chickens will suffocate
within 20 minutes.
In 1987 a defect was to occur in the 20kV cable network of the town
Neumarkt while several switching operations were made. This gave rise
to switching surges in the 220/380V system, leading to flashover with
damaging arcs in the reactive-current compensation system of the local
abattoir (Figures 2.2.2 j).
There were several instances of damage of up to 70000DM each in a
combined building services and access control system with about 300
interconnected individual components. In the parts of the building
affected, the automatic access control only functioned after several days
of repair. In each of these cases the reason was a surge ‘incoupling’ into
external components, like code card scanners, due to lightning. All
external components of the control system are connected to a central
computer by station computers and bus connections. The printed boards
of the station computers and bus couplers were thus damaged by the
incoupling of the surges (Figures 2.2.2 k, a and b).
A loss of about 100000DM occurred as surges damaged the printed
boards of a printing press (Figure 2.2.2 l, a), (Figure 2.2.2 l, b). For
this production phase this was the only machine available (maximum
capacity machine). A longer standstill of production, due to some dif-
ficulties in obtaining spare parts for this machine, caused problems in
delivery and a great loss of income. The reason for the defective machine
Figure 2.2.2 j (a, b) Reactive current compensation system in a slaughter house
damaged due to switching surges, Neumarkt, 1987
Figure 2.2.2 j (a)
Figure 2.2.2 j (b)
22 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
was a cable fault in the 20kV power supply system, causing surges in the
low-voltage system.
Sources
HASSE, P., and PRADE, G.: ‘Das Auslöseverhalten von FI-Schutzschaltern
bei Gewittern. de/der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk’, 4
(1980), pp. 203–207
Figure 2.2.2 k (a) and (b) Surge damage in a building services control system
Figure 2.2.2 k (a) Figure 2.2.2 k (b)
Damaged interface card Damaged bus coupler
Figure 2.2.2 l (a) Surge damage at a printing press
Damage due to lightning and surges 23
GUGENBAUER, A.: Blitze–Feuerzauber der Natur. die österreichische
feuerwehr (1983) H. 7
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen. 3. aktualisierte
Auflage’ (Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Köln, 1993)
DAUSEND, A.: ‘Überspannungsschutz als Teil des betrieblichen Risk-
Managements’ Teil II: Schadenfälle aus der Praxis. In: HASSE, P. (Ed.): 5.
Forum für Versicherer ‘Blitz- und Überspannungsschutz – Massnahmen der
EMV’ (Dehn + Söhne, Neumarkt, 1994)
2.2.3 Damage to power supply systems
The public is alarmed sometimes by reports of lightning strikes to power
supply systems or even nuclear power stations. In 1983 lightning struck
the 110/20kV transformer substation of the town Neumarkt (Figures
2.2.3 a and b). There was considerable damage to the switching station
and a failure of the 220V direct voltage control. The 20kV surge arresters
were already damaged by the initial partial lightning strikes (Figure 2.2.3
c) and, thus, the subsequent lightning strikes could no longer be dis-
charged. Sparkover arcs occurred in one switchbay (Figure 2.2.3 d) which
ran along the bus bar and damaged other switchbays. Further short-
circuit arcs were generated on the 20kV overhead lines. Heavy conductor
rope vibrations made the ropes glow and tear. To add further to the
problems, the supplying 110kV transformer exploded during this thun-
derstorm (Figure 2.2.3 e) with the consequence that the whole town of
Neumarkt (about 30000 inhabitants) lost power for about six hours.
Figure 2.2.2.l (b) Damaged module of the printing press control
24 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 2.2.3 a Transformer substation 110/20kV, OBAG, Neumarkt
Figure 2.2.3 b Site plan of the transformer substation 110/20kV, OBAG,
Neumarkt


Damage due to lightning and surges 25
Figure 2.2.3 c Surge arresters destroyed by lightning strike
Figure 2.2.3 d Damage in 20kV switching bays due to lightning surge
26 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
DER SPIEGEL: ‘Blitz im Atommeiler’ (1983) No. 36, p. 15
NEUMARKTER TAGBLATT: ‘Kurzschluss in Kernkraftwerk’ (22 May 1985)
2.2.4 Damage to a house
Lightning strikes into unearthed aerials of houses (without lightning pro-
tection systems), such as the family house in Figure 2.2.4 a, occur fre-
quently. Figures 2.2.4 b to h show the damage caused by lightning current
Figure 2.2.3 e Exploded 110kV transformer due to lightning strike, Neumarkt, 1983
Damage due to lightning and surges 27
on its path of sparkovers and punctures through the electrical wiring of
the house. The lightning current flows over the aerial standpipe (Figure
2.2.4 b), feeding partial lightning currents into the power system, aerial
line, telephone line and water pipe. So, usually, all connected electrical
appliances and the telephone system will be damaged. In the case men-
tioned, the fuel oil pipe was also damaged, and oil leaked into the cellar.
In a circle of radius more than 1km, telephone systems failed due to this
lightning strike; the traffic-light systems of the town were also disturbed
and RC circuit breakers were tripped within a radius of about 3km.
Figure 2.2.4 a Site plan of a house damaged by lightning, Neumarkt, 1986
Figure 2.2.4 b Damage near the antenna-pole in the loft, Neumarkt, 1986
28 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
In 1994, during a thunderstorm burst, the radio aerial of a central taxi
station in Neumarkt was struck by lightning (Figure 2.2.4 i). The whole
radio system was destroyed (Figure 2.2.4 j). The electrical cables and
socket outlets were torn out of the walls and the entire electrical equip-
ment (TV and household appliances) was damaged so heavily that it
could no longer be used.
Figure 2.2.4 d Antenna line damaged by lightning strike
(a) Neumarkt 1986 (b) Similar case
Figure 2.2.4 c Punctures to concealed cables due to lightning strike
(a) Neumarkt 1986 (b) Similar case
Damage due to lightning and surges 29
Figure 2.2.4 e Distribution cabinets damaged by lightning strike
(b) Similar case (c) Similar case
(a) Neumarkt 1986
30 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 2.2.4 f Boiler damaged by lightning
strike, Neumarkt, 1986
Figure 2.2.4 h Puncture from the
power line to the metal oil pipe due to
lightning strike, Neumarkt, 1986
Figure 2.2.4 i (a, b) Lightning strike to the Lutter taxi central office, Neumarkt,
1994
Figure 2.2.4 g Telephone
system damaged by lightning
strike, Neumarkt, 1986
Figure 2.2.4 i (a)
Figure 2.2.4 i (b)
Damage due to lightning and surges 31
A pressure wave smashed windows and window frames. Tiles were torn
off the wall and there were cracks in the ceilings and the walls. Socket
outlets were torn out of the wall (Figure 2.2.4 k). Partial lightning cur-
rents were conducted along the telephone system and the power supply
system, thus causing other damage in the neighbourhood (Figure 2.2.4 l).
In the vicinity and wider surroundings this lightning strike caused
considerably more damage than listed here. In the office of the District
President, the district hospital, the inferior court, the municipal works
and the abattoir, as well as in industrial and commercial enterprises, the
computer systems and telephones were damaged. In the district hospital,
a church, an elementary school and a museum, the safety and fire alarm
systems were damaged (Table 2.2.4 a). In Figure 2.2.4 m, circles are
drawn, at a separation of 1km, around the lightning striking point
(marked by an arrow). The locations of the damage are marked by
bullets. Damage occurred, even at a distance of 3km from the point of
strike, for example, in the traffic-light system at the southern perimeter
road of the town. The Neumarkter Nachrichten duly reported on the
damage caused to telephone and cable television connections in 40
households and numerous individual TV sets.
Repeatedly, there are extended disturbances in telecommunication
sectors due to solitary lightning strikes. The Hamburger Abendblatt of
12 July 1995 reported on a thunderstorm two days previously when
25000 Telecom customers in the suburbs of Hamburg were concerned
by failures of cable TV. Some 50 microchip amplifiers had to be repaired
in Pinneberg, Wedel, Quickborn and Norderstedt. Underground cables
damaged by lightning currents reveal high interference energies.
Figure 2.2.4 j Damaged radio system Figure 2.2.4 k Damaged
electrical lines
32 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The reason for the above examples of damage is that electrical light-
ning interferences are conducted through power and data lines from the
point of strike over distances of several kilometres directly to the inputs
of electronic systems and equipment (Figures 2.1 c and 2.2.4 n). Tele-
phone systems, for example, are used in data processing and alarm
systems, making them susceptible.
Sources
NEUMARKTER NACHRICHTEN: ‘Blitzschlag zerfetzte Leitungen und hob
den Dachstuhl’ (2–3 Aug.1986)
NEUMARKTER NACHRICHTEN: ‘Unheil mit einzigem Blitzschlag’ (3 May
1994)
HAMBURGER ABENDBLATT: ‘Kabelfernsehen: Vom Blitz getroffen’ No. 160
(12 July 1995)
Figure 2.2.4 l Lightning damage (at Telekom systems) in the surroundings of
the point of strike
Damage due to lightning and surges 33
Table 2.2.4 a Consequences of a lightning strike to the Lutter Taxi Company
Neumarkt, 1994
34 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 2.2.4 a continued –
Figure 2.2.4 m Lightning damage in a radius of 3km around the point of strike
Damage due to lightning and surges 35
2.2.5 Damage to aircraft and airports
The following report from the Kölnischen Rundschau of 12 November,
1987, for example, describes the damage due to a lightning strike to an
airliner:
“Immediately after take-off, the Boeing 747 flying to Newark (New Jersey)
entered a thunderstorm zone. Within a few minutes, four lightning discharges
struck the plane with 225 passengers and 18 crew members on board. Autopilot,
weather radar and the radio connection to the tower were knocked out. Also the
manual control of the elevator was damaged so strongly that the pilot and
copilot had to use their whole strength to keep the Jumbo flying. A British
Airways jet flying in the same space followed the distress call of the struck
Boeing and piloted it on the correct glide path to the emergency landing. After
touchdown, Captain Richards – a former Phantom fighter pilot and Vietnam
veteran – stated that the braking thrust reversal of the four engines had also
failed. Only the landing gear brakes still worked. The plane was brought to a
standstill a few metres before the end of the runway. Later, in the Continental
repair hangar, more than a hundred instances of fire damage to the shell
and wings of the Jumbo were counted. Parts of the tail fin were missing. Chief
pilot Fred Abbott told: ‘I never saw a plane that was damaged so heavily by
lightning.’ ”
There are reports from the Public Information section of the German
Federal Ministry of Defence in January 1986 of an electrostatic accident
involving a rocket:
“The fire accident with a Pershing II motor stage happened on 11 January 1985
on the Waldheide near Heilbronn. During this accident, three members of the
US Army were killed, nine were injured. The accident investigation was finished
by the American investigation committee in December 1985. It confirms the
Figure 2.2.4 n Dangerous surges in neighbouring buildings
36 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 2.2.5 a Newspaper reports concerning lightning strikes to planes, the
control tower of the Frankfort/Main airport, the Changi airport
(Singapore) and the Düsseldorf airport
Damage due to lightning and surges 37
statement of the first accident report of 15 April 1985, that a discharge of static
electricity was the reason for the accident . . .” [The results are then elaborated]
From the evidence supplied, the report of 15 April 1985 concludes that a dis-
charge of static electricity caused a spark discharge in the propelling charge of
the motor stage, which was the cause for the fire accident.
On 14 November 1964 the space ship Apollo 12 and then the Saturn V
rocket were struck by lightning 36 seconds after lift-off from Cape Canav-
eral. The space ship was about 2000m above ground when a lightning
strike between the rocket and the launching platform on the ground was
noticed. The crew registered disturbances of the energy supply, a number
of other electrical disturbances and the response of some safety switches.
On 26 March 1987, a 78 million dollar Atlas Centaur rocket went out
of control 51 seconds after its launch from Cape Canaveral and had to be
destroyed over the Atlantic together with its freight, an 83 million dollar
Pentagon satellite. The reason for the loss of control was a lightning
strike to the nose of the rocket. A piece of fibreglass from the wreck
revealed a carbonized hole, having a diameter of about 5 cm, which was
very similar to the holes registered after lightning strikes to airplanes.
Owing to the strike, the main computer gave false commands to the
driving engines so that the rocket’s trajectory failed and it had to be
destroyed.
A lightning strike tripped the ignition mechanisms of three small
research rockets on 10 June 1987 which were ready for launch at the
NASA base on Wallops island, offshore Virginia. On board the rockets
were measuring devices for thunderstorm research. The rockets had a
common earthing system. According to eyewitness reports, they lifted
off ‘simultaneously’ as lightning struck. After a short flight, they fell into
the Atlantic without causing any damage.
Newpaper reports about lightning strikes to passenger planes and con-
trol towers at airports (Figure 2.2.5 a) show that the hazard can extend
beyond the immediate system that is damaged.
Sources
DOLOMITEN: ‘Blitzeinschläge in Flugzeuge’ No. 230 (2–3 Oct. 1993)
SONNTAG AKTUELL, STUTTGART: ‘Ein Blitz zerschlug die Radarnase des
Airbus – Passagiere wohlauf’ (3 Oct. 1993)
BLITZSCHLAG IN CHANGI AIRPORT/SINGAPUR (summer 1995)
2.2.6 Damage to wind power stations
The lightning protection of wind power stations is of current and future
importance in Britain, Germany and other European countries. Light-
ning damage, especially to rotor blades (Figure 2.2.6 a), greatly exceeds
38 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
what is expected, both in frequency and height. Cases are known where
insurance companies see no possibility of further insurance after a single
lightning strike, that is, until the operator or the producer provides an
adequate lightning protection system (Figure 2.2.6 b).
2.2.7 Catastrophic damage
At the 21st International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP),
S. Lundquist described an especially intense lightning storm in Skane,
Southern Sweden, on 1 July 1988. The fire brigade in the town of Lund
recorded 1400 alarms. There was a breakdown of the telephone exchange
and the mobile police radio was damaged. As an example of many
similar life-endangering cases, the situation in the municipal hospital was
described. As the 130kV system failed due to the lightning strike, the
hospital was deprived of power for 80 minutes. The lights went out,
elevators stopped and the appliances in the intensive care unit could not
work. The emergency power generator refused to start because the con-
trol computer was damaged; because of the failure of the telephone and
the central fire alarm, the technical staff could not be called. When they
had managed to start the emergency power generator by hand after half
an hour, it failed shortly afterwards due to overheating as the ventilator
was supplied by the unfused system. There was serious damage also to
the low-voltage mains distribution, the control room and the computer
terminals. This episode was particularly horrendous.
The consequences of lightning strikes into tall or extended buildings
become apparent from events reported from all over the world. Light-
ning strikes into large-scale buildings, such as office buildings and
department stores, cause current failures resulting in: stoppage of full
elevators, breakdown of the lighting, tripping of sprinkler systems,
flooding of rooms by protective gas, blocking of electronically secured
Figure 2.2.6 a Lightning damage to the rotor blade of a wind power generator
Damage due to lightning and surges 39
doors and garage doors, failure of air-conditioning systems as well as
breakdown of the telephone network (Figure 2.2.7 a) and the control
systems. Failures of this kind can lead to life-endangering situations and,
not least, panic.
What characterizes disturbances and failures due to a lightning strike
in a building is that safety-relevant systems may be involved at the same
time, as well as the infrastructure over a wide area that may also be dis-
turbed. During a thunderstorm with spatial and temporal distribution
of lightning, vast damage to vital infrastructure is possible. Catastrophic
events, as described by some examples, should not be tolerated. There-
fore, precautions must be taken to avoid personal danger. Safety must be
Figure 2.2.6 b Report from the Stuttgarter Zeitung, 25 March 1995
40 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
guaranteed for the power and information technology systems that are
absolutely necessary for vital infrastructure in special situations. These
include: airports, public transport, traffic guide and signal systems,
hospitals, power stations, above all nuclear power stations and switching
plants, high-power transmitters, signal and alarm systems for civil pro-
tection, meeting places, schools, kindergardens and mass sports facilities,
office and computing centres, buildings with extended safety systems,
systems for large-scale supervision of pollutants (including radioactivity)
in the air, water and ground, control and alarm systems for defence
purposes, telephone exchanges and satellite and relay stations.
Sources
LUNDQUIST St.: ‘Effects on the society of an intense lightning storm’,
Tagungsband 21. Internationale Blitzschutzkonferenz (ICLP), Berlin (22–25
Sept. 1992)
THÜRINGER ALLGEMEINE: ‘Ein Blitz legte Telefone “tot” ’ (29 June 1994)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Can you avoid disasters caused by light-
ning?’ DEHN Publication No. SD 261E, reprint from etz, 1993, 2, pp. 154–156
Figure 2.2.7 a Lightning strike causes collapse of the telephone network
(Source: Thüringer Allgemeine, 29 June 1994)
Damage due to lightning and surges 41
Chapter 3
Origin and effect of surges
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineering usually proceeds from
an interference model consisting of a source of interference (trans-
mitter), a coupling mechanism (path) and a potentially susceptible
equipment (receiver) (Figure 3 a).
Electrical systems with electronic devices as potentially susceptible
equipment are endangered by conducted interferences and interfering
radiation (Figure 3 b) from the following six sources of interference:
(i) Direct and close-up lightning discharges
Lightning electromagnetic impulse (LEMP): predominantly conducted
interference such as lightning currents and partial lightning currents,
potential increase of the struck system as well as interfering radiation.
(ii) Power technical switching operations
Switching electromagnetic impulse (SEMP): predominantly conducted
interference as well as magnetic interfering radiation.
(iii) Power technical system perturbation
Predominantly conducted interference with voltage distortions.
(iv) Electrostatic discharges
(ESD): predominantly conducted interference by spark discharge.
(v) Low and high frequency transmitters
Resulting in continuous interfering radiation.
Figure 3 a Interference model
(vi) Nuclear explosions
Nuclear electromagnetic impulse (NEMP): with a resulting impulse-shaped
interfering radiation.
The coupling between the source of interference and potentially suscep-
tible equipment can be realized by either conduction and/or radiation
(electric field, magnetic field or electromagnetic field). The coupling path
can be described in the equivalent circuit diagram by combinations
of resistances and/or capacitances and/or inductances.
Potentially susceptible equipment includes telecommunications engin-
eering systems (i.e. electrical systems with electronic equipment and facili-
ties). In lightning protection engineering, structural facilities, such as
meeting places and areas with fire and explosion hazards, are considered
to contain potentially susceptible equipment in the sense of EMC. Such
potentially susceptible equipment is found in (i) commercial areas (e.g.,
industry, trade, commerce, agriculture, banks and insurance buildings),
(ii) public areas (e.g., hospitals, meeting places, air traffic control facili-
ties, museums, churches and sports facilities), and (iii) private areas.
In the following Sections, lightning discharges and switching opera-
tions as sources of interference are described according to their priority.
Sources
DIN EN 61000 series. ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)’.
Figure 3 b Electronic system endangered by radiation and conducted
interference
44 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
3.1 Atmospheric overvoltages
Lightning, as a source of interference, affects buildings and indoor elec-
trical equipment and systems.
Surges of atmospheric origin (Figure 3.1 a) are basically due to either a
direct-/close-up strike or a remote strike. In the case of a direct strike
(Figure 3.1 a, case

1 ), lightning strikes the protected building; but in
the case of a close-up strike, lightning strikes an extended system or a line
(e.g., a pipeline, data or power transmission line) leading directly into the
protected system. However, in the case of a remote strike (Figure 3.1 a,
case

2 ), for example, the overhead line is struck. ‘Reflected surges’
(travelling waves) are produced in transmission lines by cloud-to-cloud
lightning, and overvoltages are induced by lightning in the surrounding
area.
3.1.1 Direct and close-up strikes
Lightning current in a lightning channel and in the lines of the lightning
protection system (a) causes a voltage drop at the impulse earth resist-
ance of the earthing system (

1a in Figure 3.1 a) and (b) induces surge
voltages and currents in loops formed by installation lines inside the
structure (

1b in Figure 3.1 a). Owing to the voltage drop at the impulse
earth resistance, partial lightning currents also will be discharged by the
supply lines that have been connected as a measure of lightning pro-
tection equipotential bonding.
A lightning strike in the surrounding area causes induced surge vol-
tages and thus surge currents in installation loops especially due to its
magnetic interfering radiation. If lightning strikes a feeding overhead
Figure 3.1 a Reasons for surges at lightning discharges
Origin and effect of surges 45
line, there will be conducted surge voltages and currents on the incoming
power line. Lightning between thunderstorm cells in clouds generates
conducted surge voltages and currents on power lines and on other wide-
ranging line systems due to interfering electromagnetic radiation.
The parameters of lightning current components (first partial light-
ning surge current, subsequent lightning surge current and lightning long
duration current) are specified in the following standards: VG 95371 in
accordance with IEC 61024-1, DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE 0185 Part
100), IEC 61312-1 and DIN VDE 0185 Part 103 (Figure 3.1.1 a). Here
three protection levels are specified in accordance with IEC, or two
degrees of danger in accordance with VG (Table 3.1.1 a).
If an exact analysis is not possible or justified because of the expense,
the partial lightning currents on supply lines coming from a struck
building can be estimated in accordance with IEC 61312-1 and DIN
Figure 3.1.1 a Lightning current components (protection level I acc. to IEC
61024-1/ENV 61024-1 or degree of danger ‘high’ acc. to VG
96901
Table 3.1.1 a Lightning current parameters
46 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
VDE 0185 Part 103. As shown in Figure 3.1.1 b, it is assumed that 50%
of the lightning current flows into the earthing system of the structure
and 50% is distributed equally to the outgoing remote-earthed supply
systems (e.g., piping, power and communication lines). To make things
less complicated one assumes that the partial lightning currents in every
supply system will be distributed equally to the different conductors
(e.g., L1, L2, L3, and PEN of a power technical cable or four wires of a
data line).
In DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) annex C there is a
method to estimate the lightning partial currents discharged by the
incoming lines (for the case when lightning strikes the protected system).
Hence, the lightning current will be distributed to the earthing system,
the external conductive parts and the incoming lines (which are con-
nected directly or by arresters) now as follows:
The share I
t
of lightning current on every external conductive part and
every line depends on their number, their equivalent earth resistance and
the equivalent earth resistance of the earthing system:
I
t
=
Z × I
n
t
× Z + Z
t
where Z is the equivalent earth resistance of the earthing system, Z
t
is
the earth resistance of the external conductive parts or lines, n
t
is the
total number of the external conductive parts or lines and I is the light-
ning current according to the protection level.
If electrical or information technology (IT) lines are not shielded or
laid in metal conduits, every conductor carries a partial current accord-
ing to I
t
/n′ where n′ is the total number of conductors in these lines (Table
3.1.1 b).
Figure 3.1.1 b Estimation of the partial lightning currents on supply systems
(acc. to IEC 61312-1; VDE 0185 Part 103)
Origin and effect of surges 47
Sources
VG 95 371-2: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV) einschliesslich
Schutz gegen den elektromagnetischen Impuls (EMP) und Blitz’; Allgemeine
Grundlagen; Begriffe (Beuth Verlag, GmbH, Berlin), March 1994
IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General prin-
ciples’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva CH-1211, March
1990
DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen.
Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach), Aug.
1996
IEC 61312-1: 1995-02: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic
impulse. Part 1: General principles’. Central de la Commission Electrotech-
nique Internationale. Geneva CH-1211, Feb.1995
DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103: ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls.
Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’. (IEC 1312-1: 1995, modifiziert,) (VDE Verlag,
GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach) Sept. 1997
3.1.1.1 Voltage drop at the impulse earthing resistance
The maximum voltage drop û
E
arising at the impulse earthing resistance
R
st
of the affected building is calculated in terms of the maximum value î
of lightning current (Figure 3.1.1.1 a):
û
E
= îR
st
This voltage drop û
E
, however, is not dangerous for the protected system,
if the lightning protection equipotential bonding has been installed
effectively. National as well as international lightning protection stand-
ards presently call for a comprehensive lightning protection equipoten-
Table 3.1.1 b Equivalent earthing resistances Z and Z
1
depending on the earth
resistivity
48 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
tial bonding, where all lines (incoming or outgoing) are connected dir-
ectly or by spark gaps or surge protective devices to the earthing system.
In the event of a lightning strike, the potential of the whole system will
rise by û
E
, but, within the system, there will be no dangerous differences.
3.1.1.2 Induced voltages in metal loops
The maximum rate of lightning current rise, Δi/Δt, effective during the
period Δt, determines the peak values of electromagnetically induced
voltages in all open or closed installation loops which are in the vicinity
of conductors carrying lightning current.
The magnetically induced square-wave voltage, U, in a metal loop
during a period of Δt is given by (Figure 3.1.1.2 a):
U = M
΂
Δi
Δt
΃
where U is in V, M is the mutual inductance of the loop in H and Δi/Δt
the current rate of rise in A/s.
For the sizing of lightning protection systems, the maximum values of
the average front current rate of rise I/T
1
, effective during the front time
T
1
, of Table 3.1.1 a can be used.
To estimate what maximum induced square-wave voltages, U, have to
be taken into account in installation loops (e.g., in a building) it is
assumed that the loops are in the vicinity of infinitely extended, lightning
current-carrying down conductors.
For the square-wave voltage of a square loop formed by an infinitely
wide lightning current-conducting line and an installation line (e.g., the
protective conductor of the electrical installation, which is connected to
Figure 3.1.1.1 a Potential increase compared with the distant earth by the peak
value of the lightning current
Origin and effect of surges 49
the down conductor of the lightning protection system at the equipoten-
tial bonding bar), the following is applicable:
U = M
1
΂
Δi
Δt
΃
where U is in kV, M
1
is the mutual inductance of the loop in μH and Δi/
Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs.
M
1
depends on the side length a of the loop and the cross section q of
the lightning current conducting line. This can be taken from Figure
3.1.1.2 b. According to the requirements, Δi/Δt = I/T
1
can be taken from
Table 3.1.1 a (Figure 3.1.1.2 c).
For a square loop, formed by an installation line which is insulated
from an infinitely wide lightning current conducting line, the following is
applicable for the square-wave voltage:
U = M
2
΂
Δi
Δt
΃
where U is in kV, M
2
is the mutual inductance of the loop in μH and Δi/
Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs.
M
2
depends on the side length of the loop a and the distance s between
the loop and the lightning current conducting line. This can be taken
from Figure 3.1.1.2 d. Δi/Δt = I/T
1
is taken from Table 3.1.1 a, according
to the requirements (Figure 3.1.1.2 e).
Apart from the induced effects in wide loops, which are due to installa-
tion configurations, the induced effects in very small elongated loops
formed by parallel wires of unshielded, layer-wise stranded, cables in the
surroundings of lightning current conducting lines are also of interest.
Induced voltages arising between the wires are called ‘transverse volt-
Figure 3.1.1.2 a Induced square-wave voltages in loops by the rate of rise Δi/Δt
of the lightning current
50 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
ages’. They can be harmful especially to electronic equipment. For a
small elongated loop formed by the wires of an installation line and run
in parallel to an infinitely wide lightning current conducting line, the
following is applicable for the square-wave voltage:
U = M′
3
l
΂
Δi
Δt
΃
where U is in V, M′
3
is the wire length-related mutual inductance of the
loop in nH/m, l is the length of the installation line in m and Δi/Δt the
current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs. M′
3
depends on the distance of the wires b, and on the distance s between the
installation line and the lightning current conducting line. This can be
Figure 3.1.1.2 b Mutual inductance M
1
to calculate the square-wave voltages in
square loops, formed by lightning current-carrying conductor
and installation line
Figure 3.1.1.2 c Example
Origin and effect of surges 51
taken from Figure 3.1.1 2 f. Δi/Δt = I/T
1
is to be taken from Table 3.1.1 a,
according to the requirements (Figure 3.1.1.2 g).
For a small elongated loop, formed by the wires of an installation line
and run in a distance vertically to an infinitely wide lightning current
conducting line, the square-wave voltage is given by:
U = M′
4
b
΂
Δi
Δt
΃
where U is in V, M′
4
is the wire-distance-related mutual inductance of
the loop in nH/mm, b is the wire distance in mm and Δi/Δt the current
change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs. M′
4
depends on
the line length l and the distance s between the installation line and the
lightning current conducting line. This can be taken from Figure 3.1.1. 2
h. Δi/Δt = I/T
1
is to be taken from Table 3.1.1 a, according to the
requirements (Figure 3.1.1.2 i).
In contrast to the high voltage values in the case of wide loops, there
are only induced voltages up to about 100V in small, elongated loops.
But, keep in mind that these are transverse voltages on information
technology lines, which are operated by nominal voltages in the range
1–10V and which are connected to surge-sensitive electronic equipment.
In the case of lines with twisted wires and especially in the case of
electromagnetically shielded lines, the induced square-wave voltages will
be very much reduced compared to the values calculated according to
the above equations and the transverse voltage values are usually not
dangerous.
Figure 3.1.1.2 d Mutual inductance M
2
to calculate the square-wave voltages in
square loops, formed by installation line (an equipotential
bonding line, between the loop and the lightning current-
carrying conductor, does not have any influence on M
2
).
52 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 3.1.1.2 e Example
Figure 3.1.1.2 f Mutual inductance M′
3
to calculate the square-wave voltages in
two-wire lines (an equipotential bonding line, between the loop
and the lightning current-carrying conductor, does not have any
influence on M′
3
).
Figure 3.1.1.2 g Example
Origin and effect of surges 53
If a metal loop is short-circuited or its insulating distance punctured
due to the induced square-wave voltage U, an induced current i
i
flows in
the loop for which the following equation is applicable:
di
i
dt
+
1
π
i
i
=
M
L
΂
di
dt
΃
with τ =
L
R
where t is the time in s, τ is the time constant of the loop in s, R is the
ohmic resistance of the loop in Ω, L is the self-inductance of the loop in
Figure 3.1.1.2 h Mutual inductance M′
4
to calculate the square-wave voltages in
two-wire lines (an equipotential bonding line, between the loop
and the lightning current-carrying conductor, does not have any
influence on M′
4
).
Figure 3.1.1.2 i Example
54 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
H, M is the mutual inductance of the loop in H and i the lightning
current in the lightning current conducting line in A.
Formulas and examples to calculate the self-inductance L are indi-
cated in the ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’.
In the vicinity of the lightning channel or the lightning current
conducting lines, rapidly changing magnetic fields will arise due to the
extreme rate of increase of the lightning current. Surges of up to
100000V are generated by these fields within the building in wide ‘induc-
tion loops’ formed by the effects of installation lines, such as power and
information technology lines, water and gas pipings.
Figure 3.1.1.2 j, for example, shows a computer connected to the power
and the data system. The data cable is duly connected to the equipoten-
tial bonding bar after entering the building; then the cable goes through
the data socket outlet into the computer. The power cable is also con-
nected to the equipotential bonding bar by lightning current arresters
and supplies the computer through the power socket outlet. As the power
and the data cable are independently installed lines, they can form an
induction loop including a surface of 100m
2
. The open ends of this loop
are in the computer; here the surge, magnetically induced into the loop,
becomes effective. Not only in the case of direct lightning strikes, but also
in the case of strikes in closer proximity, surges of such intensity can be
induced into the loop, causing punctures in the equipment or sometimes
even fire.
The computer must be protected from these lightning surges ‘on the
scene’, meaning at the equipment itself or directly at its power and data
socket outlets (Section 5.8.2.3).
Figure 3.1.1.2 j Electronic equipment endangered by induced lightning
overvoltages
Origin and effect of surges 55
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag München; VDE Verlag, Berlin; 4th edn, 1993)
3.1.2 Remote strikes
In the case of remote strikes, travelling surges either propagate along the
lines (

2a and

2b in Figure 3.1 a), or lightning strikes (

2c in Figure 3.1 a)
in the vicinity of the protected systems, thereby generating electro-
magnetic fields which affect the system.
In particular, damage due to surges of atmospheric origin in the
1990s has shown that electronic installations, up to a distance of about
2km from the lightning point of strike, are susceptible to induced or
conducted surges and surge currents (Section 2.1). This wide area of
danger is due to the increasing sensitivity of high-technology equipment
to cables extending beyond the building and the growth in the use of
sensitive networks.
The maximum permissible length of data transmission lines connect-
ing equipment has increased dramatically with advances in technol-
ogy. For example, the interface V.24/V.28 (which was introduced during
the advent of electronic data processing techniques) specifies the elec-
trical characteristics of line drivers permitting a direct bonding up to
about 15m cable length. Today, however, there are line drivers and inter-
faces available on the market which allow a direct bonding over twisted
twin-core cables up to a length of about 1000m!
When lightning partial currents flow in cables they generate longi-
tudinal and transverse voltages (Figure 3.1.2 a).The longitudinal voltage
Figure 3.1.2 a Surges in a cable
56 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
u
l
generated between the wire and the metal cable shield creates stress
on the insulation of the connected device between its input terminals and
the earthed enclosure. The transverse voltage u
q
is established between
the wires and this exerts pressure on the input circuit of the connected
device. If the lightning partial current î
2
is known, the longitudinal
voltage û
l
can be calculated from the cable coupling resistance R
k
(Table
3.1.2 a).
3.1.3 Coupling of surge currents on signal lines
The following examples will demonstrate how surge currents can be
coupled ohmically, inductively and capacitively onto the signal lines of
extended systems. Consider the arrangement with device 1 in building 1
and device 2 in building 2. The devices are interconnected by a signal line.
Furthermore, we will assume that both devices are connected to the
Table 3.1.2 a Coupling resistances at lightning currents
Origin and effect of surges 57
respective equipotential bonding bar (PAS) in the buildings by means of
protective conductors PE.
3.1.3.1 Ohmic coupling
In Figure 3.1.3.1 a lightning strikes building 1, causing a potential differ-
ence of some 100kV at the ohmic earth resistance R
A1
. A voltage of this
magnitude is sufficient to sparkover the insulation distance in devices 1
and 2 so that an ohmically cross-coupled surge current can flow from
PAS 1, through device 1, along the signal line, through device 2, PAS 2
and R
A2
. The value of this surge current (it can have a peak value of
several kA) depends on the relative values of the ohmic resistances R
A1
and R
A2
.
3.1.3.2 Inductive coupling
As already shown, voltages are induced in metal loops by the inductive
fields of the lightning channel or the lightning current conducting lines.
Figure 3.1.3.2 a shows the two wire signal line between devices 1 and 2,
forming an induction loop. A transverse voltage of several kV will be
induced in this loop if lightning strikes building 1, giving rise to an in-
coupled current of up to several kA. These voltages and currents stress
the components at the inputs or outputs of the equipment.
Figure 3.1.3.2 b shows another possible example of inductive coupling.
The induction loop is formed by the signal line and the earth. If lightning
strikes building 1, a high voltage (some 10kV) will be induced in this loop
leading to a sparkover of insulation distances in devices 1 and 2 and to an
incoupled current of several kA.
Figure 3.1.3.1 a Ohmic coupling
58 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
3.1.3.3 Capacitive coupling
If lightning strikes the ground or a lightning conductor, the lightning
channel or lightning conductor will be raised to a high voltage (some
100kV) compared to the surroundings because of the potential differ-
ence at the earth electrode resistance R
A
.
The signal line between device 1 and device 2 in Figure 3.1.3.3 a
is capacitively coupled with such a lightning channel or lightning
Figure 3.1.3.2 a Inductive coupling: Induction loop between the wires of the
signal line
Figure 3.1.3.2 b Inductive coupling: Induction loop between signal line and
earth
Origin and effect of surges 59
conductor. The coupling capacities are charged and cause an ‘injected’
current (some 10A) which flows to the ground over the insulation dis-
tances in devices 1 and 2.
3.1.4 Magnitude of atmospheric overvoltages
Remote strikes initially cause surges of some 10kV. The generated cur-
rents are relatively low in value. Direct strikes, however, give rise to
lightning currents of far greater and more severe magnitude: currents of
200kA (protection level I) and voltage peaks of several 100kV can occur.
Low-voltage installations can usually only withstand impulse break-
down voltages of several kV and therefore are susceptible to damage, or
even destruction, by the tens of kV produced by remote strikes or 100kV
produced by direct strikes (Table 3.1.4 a). The withstand voltage of some
electronic devices can be as low as 10V. Hence, the values of voltages
occurring due to atmospheric discharges can be 100 to 10000 times
higher than the voltages that can be carried non-destructively by low-
voltage systems containing electronic equipment.
Therefore, these high values of overvoltages must be reduced to values
which are clearly below the permitted impulse breakdown/sparkover
voltages by means of protective measures or surge protective devices. To
guarantee protection, even in the event of direct lightning strikes, the
surge protective devices employed must also be able to discharge high
partial lightning currents non-destructively.
Figure 3.1.3.3 a Capacitive coupling
60 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin; 4th edn, 1993)
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’, (Verlag TÜV
Rheinland, Köln, 3 aktualisierte Auflage 1993)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin-Offenbach, 1994)
3.2 Switching overvoltages
Switching overvoltages in power plants can also affect low-voltage sys-
tems and secondary engineering systems, especially due to capacitive
coupling. In certain cases, these values can exceed 15kV. Examples of the
cause of these switching overvoltages are as follows:
(a) Disconnection of an open-circuit power line (or capacitors) (Figure
3.2 a). When the switch opens, the instantaneous value of the supply
voltage on the line results in a high potential difference between the
system and the disconnected line. The potential difference, which is
established in only a few milliseconds, can cause a flashback between
the switch contacts that are yet to close. The line voltage then
balances at a level equal to the instantaneous value of the supply
Table 3.1.4 a Impulse flashover voltages/impulse breakdown voltages
(1.2/50μs) in electrical systems and equipment up to 1000V
Origin and effect of surges 61
voltage and the arc between the switch contacts is quenched. This
process can occur several times. The switching overvoltage generated
by the equalization of the appropriate instantaneous value of the
supply voltage has the characteristic of a damped oscillation with a
frequency of several 100kHz. The initial amplitude of these switch-
ing surges always corresponds to the potential difference between the
switch contacts at the moment of the flashback and this amplitude
can be a multiple of the nominal supply voltage.
(b) Disconnection of an open-circuit transformer. If an open-circuit
transformer is disconnected from the network, its self-capacitance is
loaded by the energy of the magnetic field. The inductive–capacitve
circuit now oscillates until all of the energy in the ohmic resistance
of the circuit is converted into heat. The resulting switching over-
voltages can reach amplitudes of several times the value of the nom-
inal supply voltage.
(c) Earth fault in the floating (earth-free) network. If an earth fault
occurs at the outer conductor of a floating network, then the poten-
tial of the complete conductor system will be altered by the value of
the voltage of the affected conductor with respect to earth. If the
earth fault arc interrupts, the effect is similar to that of an open-
circuit conductor or capacitor being disconnected: switching over-
voltages will develop with damped oscillations.
In addition to switching overvoltages from power plants of this nature,
which capacitively influence low-voltage systems, rapid variations in cur-
rent can also generate surges in low-voltage systems by inductive coup-
ling. Such sudden current variations can be due to either the connection
or disconnection of a heavy load, or a short circuit, an earth fault or
double earth fault.
Switching overvoltages can also be generated within the low-voltage
systems themselves due to the following:

the disconnection of inductances connected in parallel with the source
of voltage, such as transformers, inductors or coils of contactors and
Figure 3.2 a Switching surges on disconnection of a capacitance
62 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
relays. (In this case, switching overvoltages are generated in a similar
way to that described above for the disconnection of an open-circuit
power transformer.)

the disconnection of inductances in the series arm of the current cir-
cuit such as conductor loops, series inductors, or the inductances of
the actual conductors. (These inductances try to maintain the flow of
current, even if the circuit is interrupted. The magnitude of the switch-
ing overvoltages that arise depends on the value of the current at the
time of disconnection.)

intentional disconnection of circuits by means of switches, or un-
intentional disconnection brought about by the tripping of fuses or
circuit breakers, or by line discontinuity before the natural current
zero-axis crossing. (Rapid changes in current resulting from occur-
rences such as these give rise to switching surges, normally with
damped oscillations, which are a multiple of the nominal voltage of
the system.)

by phase control circuits, commutation effects in brush collector
systems, and by sudden unloading of machines and transformers.
Extensive measurements taken in different low-voltage networks have
shown that the most remarkable surges have been caused by interfering
radiation of arcs generated in switchgear.
Electromagnetic interference by switching in power technical systems
is usually more frequent than lightning interferences.
For conducted, broadband interference a difference is made in the
EMC standards between high and low energy impulses or pulses depend-
ing on the type of switching operation. It is possible that switching inter-
ference is generated outside a building and enters through the power lines
or it can be generated internally. This is either defined analogously to the
lightning interference as combined surge voltage and surge current inter-
ference or as impressed surge voltages.
In part the broadband, high energy, conducted interference of switch-
ing processes is equated to the conducted lightning interference inside the
building (with a duly carried out lightning protection equipotential
bonding). So interference for different types of environment with corre-
spondingly adjusted peak values is defined in the VG standards (Tables
3.2 a and 3.2 b).
An impressed surge voltage due to disconnection processes or overcur-
rent protective components is defined in DIN VDE 0160. The surge
voltage 0.1/1.3ms (0.1ms rate of rise, about 0.15ms front time) with a
peak value u
N/max
will be superimposed on the peak value u
N/max
of the
alternating current voltage.
Broadband, low energy switching voltage interference, (i.e. bursts)
are shown in DIN VDE 0847 Part 4-4. These impressed voltage impulses
5/50ns (5ns rate of rise, about 7.4ns front time) with peak values
Origin and effect of surges 63
depending on the severity of testing are supplied as pulse packages into
power and communication lines through coupling capacities.
Apart from conducted interference, considerable interfering radia-
tion can also be due to the switching processes themselves (e.g.
arcs generated by the withdrawing of disconnectors) inducing more con-
ducted interferences.
Sources
FGH MANNHEIM: ‘Transiente Überspannungen’, Fachberichte der FGH
Mannheim, etz-a Elektrotech. Z., 1976, 97(1), pp. 2–27
MENGE, H.-D.: ‘Ergebnisse von Messungen transienter Überspannungen in
Freiluft-Schaltanlagen’, etz-a Elektrotech. Z., 1976, 97(1), pp. 15–17
Table 3.2 a Lightning interference ‘1.2/50μs’
Table 3.2 b Lightning interference ‘10/700 μs’
64 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
LANG, U., and LINDNER, H.: ‘Überspannungen in Hochspannungsschaltan-
lagen – Schutz von Sekundäreinrichtungen’, Elektrizitätswirtschaft, 1986, 22,
pp. 680–683
SCHWAB, A. J.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Springer Verlag, Berlin,
Heidelberg, New York, 1990)
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’, 3. aktualisierte
Auflage (Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Köln, 1993)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin-Offenbach, 1994)
VDEW: ‘Hinweise für die Messung von transienten Überspannungen
in Sekundärleitungen innerhalb von Freiluft-Schaltanlagen’ Vereinigung
Deutscher Elektrizitätswerke – VDEW e. V., Ausgabe Oct. 1975
DIN EN 61000-4-5 (VDE 0847 Teil 4-5): 1996-09: ‘Elektromagnetische Ver-
träglichkeit (EMV)’. Teil 4: Prüf- und Messverfahren. Hauptabschnitt 5:
Prüfung der Störfestigkeit gegen Stossspannungen (IEC 1000-4-5: 1995);
Deutsche Fassung EN 61000-4-5: (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach,
1995)
DIN EN 61000-4-4 (VDE 0847 Teil 4-4): 1996-03: ‘Elektromagnetische Ver-
träglichkeit (EMV)’. Teil 4: Prüf- und Messverfahren. Hauptabschnitt 4:
Prüfung der Störfestigkeit gegen schnelle transiente elektrische
Störgrössen/Burst; EMV-Grundnorm (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach,
March 1996)
DIN VDE 0160: 1988-05: ‘Ausrüstung von Starkstromanlagen mit elektro-
nischen Betriebsmitteln’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, May 1988)
DIN-VDE-Taschenbuch 515: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit 1. DIN-
VDE-Normen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, 1991)
VG 96 903 Teil 76/08.89: ‘Schutz gegen Nuklear-Elektromagnetischen
Impuls (NEMP) und Blitzschlag’. Prüfverfahren, Prüfeinrichtungen und
Grenzwerte. Verfahren LF 76: Prüfung mit Direkteinspeisung eines Span-
nungsimpulses 1,2/50s und eines Stromimpulses 8/20s (Beuth-Verlag,
GmbH, Berlin, Aug. 1989)
Origin and effect of surges 65
Chapter 4
Protective measures, standards
For a considerable time increasingly refined methods have been used
worldwide to measure lightning currents at high towers, HV overhead
lines and in lightning trigger stations. Field measuring stations also
register the radiated electromagnetic interference fields of lightning
discharges. From the results of research, lightning as a source of inter-
ference is understood and defined with regard to the present protection
problems. It is also possible to simulate lightning currents with their
extreme values in the laboratory; this is a prerequisite for testing protective
installations, components and devices. Also lightning interference fields
can be simulated for the testing of information technology equipment.
Because of such wide ranging basic research and the development of
protection concepts, such as the concept of lightning protection zones as
organizing principle of an EMC, as well as suitable protective measures
and devices against field generated and conducted interference due to
lightning discharges, we now have the necessary conditions for protecting
systems in such a way that the final risk of failure can be kept extremely
low. Thus, it can be guaranteed that the essential infrastructure can
be maintained and catastrophes avoided in cases of extraordinary
atmospheric threats.
The necessity of standardizing complex EMC-oriented lightning pro-
tection measures, containing also so-called surge protection measures,
has been realized. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
as well as the European (Cenelec) and national standards committees
(DINVDE, VG) produce standards on the following:

Electromagnetic interference of lightning discharge and its statistical
distribution as a basis for the assignment of interferences to protection
levels

Methods to estimate the risk of determining the protection levels

Measures to discharge the lightning current

Measures for screening electromagnetic lightning fields

Measures to discharge conducted lightning interference

Requirements and tests for protective components

Protective concepts within the scope of an EMC-oriented manage-
ment plan
When designing a protection system, it is first necessary to decide
whether to protect the device or installation solely against destruction or
against interference as well. The effects of interference are normally
covered by ‘classical’ considerations of the electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) of a device; and the possible destruction of devices is the most
important consideration in surge protection analysis.
In contrast to normal electromagnetic interference, lightning discharges
and nuclear explosions are relatively rare and of very short duration.
Hence, system design is usually limited to avoiding the destruction of
devices by surges. Short-term signal fluctuations can be accepted. This,
for example, is the procedure in standard low-voltage systems in wide
ranges of industrial measurement and control installations and in tele-
communication and electronic data processing systems. In certain special
cases, however, such as the control systems of nuclear power stations,
alarm systems and military installations, there must be no error signals
even in the case of a lightning discharge or nuclear explosion. Some
installations require a combination of lightning protection, switching
surge protection, electrostatic discharge protection and protection
against nuclear electromagnetic pulses.
The protective measures described in the following paragraphs, such as
external and internal lightning protection, shielding, and surge limita-
tion, are methods which partly overlap and also complement one
another. If possible, they should be considered at the initial stages of
construction of structural systems and electrical consumer installations,
but sometimes they can be realized subsequently.
On passing of the law on the electromagnetic compatibility of devices
(‘Guidelines on the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3
May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States rela-
ting to electromagnetic compatibility’), the ‘equipment’ must have a suf-
ficient immunity also against lightning interference. The word ‘equip-
ment’ does not only mean all electric and electronic devices but also
installations and systems which contain electric or electronic modules. To
secure, for example, the protection of complex power and information
systems of a building in the case of a direct or close-up lightning strike,
extensive analysis by a lightning protection expert is necessary. With an
EMC analysis, convenient planning for a building and reliable cooper-
ation of all electronic building functions at normal operation can be
secured. With priority system planning, the EMC measures of lightning
protection are realized so that safe, interference-free operation is pos-
sible; likewise for the case of direct lightning interference.
68 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’ (Verlag TÜV
Rheinland, Köln, 3. aktualisierte Auflage, 1993)
HASSE, P.: ‘Blitz-/Überspannungsschutz – Stand der Normung’, 5. Forum für
Versicherer (Dehn und Söhne, Nürnberg, Oct.1994)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Lightning protection for fulfilling the principles
of EMC’, DEHN publication No. SD 321E, reprint from etz, 7, 1995, pp.12–13
HASSE, P.: ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen – 1’, VDE/ABB-
Blitzschutztagung, 1996, 11, pp. 960–964; 1996, 12, pp. 1107–1112
4.1 Lightning protection
According to national and international lightning protection engineering
and standards, a lightning protection system for buildings requires the
protection of the whole system against the effects of lightning. This
consists of external lightning protection and internal lightning protec-
tion. External lightning protection involves the air termination systems,
the down conductors and the earthing system. Internal lightning protec-
tion involves all additional measures preventing magnetic and electric
implications of lightning current in the volume to be protected. Above all
else, there is lightning protection equipotential bonding which reduces
the potential differences caused by lightning current.
According to the international lightning protection standard, the ‘pro-
tected volume’ is the structural system that is to be protected by a light-
ning protection system. The primary task of lightning protection is to
intercept lightning by an air termination system, to discharge the light-
ning current through a down conductor system to the earthing system
where it will be dissipated into the ground. Furthermore, the ohmically,
capacitively and inductively ‘incoupled’ interference must be reduced to
harmless values in the protected volume.
In Germany, DIN VDE 0185 Parts 1 and 2 have been enacted since
1982 for the erection, planning, extension and alteration of lightning
protection systems. This VDE guide, however, does not include details of
whether a lightning protection system has to be provided for a building
or not. Building regulations of the German Federal Countries, national
and regional regulations and specifications, instructions and directions
of the insurance companies and the danger characteristics for lightning
protection systems in the immovables of the German Federal Armed
Forces can be used as decision makers.
If a lightning protection system for a structural system or building is
not made a prerequisiste by the building regulations of an individual
country, it is entirely up to the building supervisory board, the owner or
the operator to decide upon its necessity. Should there be a decision for
Protective measures, standards 69
the installation of a lightning protection system, it must be carried out in
accordance with the corresponding standards or relevant regulations. As
an accepted rule of engineering, however, a standard or regulation only
stipulates the minimum requirements at the time of coming into force.
Developments in the field of engineering and related latest scientific find-
ings may be registered from time to time into a new standard or regula-
tion. Thus, the presently valid DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 and 2 only reflects
the state of engineering of about twenty years ago. In the interim years
there have been important changes in building services management
systems and electronic data processing. Thus, a building lightning protec-
tion system planned and installed according to the state of engineering
twenty years ago will no longer be sufficient. Damage statistics of the
insurance companies clearly confirm this fact (Figures 2.1 a and 2.1 b).
However, the latest results of lightning research and engineering are
reflected in the internationally agreed lightning protection standards.
Technical Committee 81 (TC81) of the IEC has international com-
petence, Technical Committee 81X (TC81X) of the Cenelec has European
(regional) competence and Committee K251 of the German Electro-
technical Commission (DKE) has national competence in lightning pro-
tection standardization. Table 4.1 a shows the current state as well as the
future tasks of the IEC standardizing work in this field. Through Cenelec,
IEC standards are transferred into European Standards (ES) (sometimes
modified): for example, IEC 61024-1 in ENV 61024-1. But Cenelec also
works out its own standards: for example, EN 50164-1 to 4 (Table 4.1 b).
Figure 4.1 a illustrates the mechanism for the development of an IEC
standard through Cenelec to the DKE using the example of IEC 61024-1:
Figure 4.1 a Lightning protection standards: International (IEC), regional
(CLC), national (DKE)
70 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
T
a
b
l
e
4
.
1
a
S
t
a
n
d
a
r
d
s

w
i
t
h
i
n

I
E
C

T
C

8
1

IEC 61024-1: 1990-03 ‘Protection of structures against lightning.
Part 1: General principles’ has been valid worldwide since March
1990.

The European draft standard ENV 61024-1: 1995-01 ‘Protection of
structures against lightning. Part 1: General principles’ has been in
force since January 1995.

This draft standard (translated into the national languages) will be
tested in the European countries (for about three years); in Ger-
many, for example, as DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part
100) ‘Gebäudeblitzschutz. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (with
national annex). (‘Lightning protection of buildings. Part 1: General
principles’)

After final consideration at Cenelec, there will then be the binding
standard EN 61024-1 for all European countries.

In Germany this standard will be published as DIN EN 61024-1
(VDE 0185 Part 100).
In August 1996 the German draft standard DIN V ENV 61024-1
(VDE V 0185 Part 100) was published (Figure 4.1 b). During the tran-
sitional period until the final standard, either this draft standard or the
standard DIN VDE 0185-1 (VDE 0185 Part 1): 1982-11 ‘Blitzschutzan-
lage, Allgemeines für das Errichten’ can be applied.
ENV 61024-1 is based on the latest technical state. Its application
guarantees safe protection of the structure. Therefore, application of
ENV 61024-1, including the national annex, is recommended in order to
obtain a more effective protection, on the one hand, and to gather
experience in the application of the later exclusively valid European
Standard, on the other hand.
Table 4.1 b Cenelec-standards ‘Lightning Protection’
72 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Lightning protection measures for special systems DIN VDE 0185-2
(VDE 0185 Part 2): 1982-11 will be treated in a later standard. Until then
the standard DIN VDE 0185-2 (VDE 0185 Part 2): 1982-11 is valid.
These special systems can be carried out according to ENV 61024-1;
additional requirements in DIN VDE 0185-2 (VDE 0185 Part 2): 1982-
11 must be taken into account.
A lightning protection system planned and installed according to
the draft standard ENV 61024-1 will rather prevent damage at the
structure. Persons are protected inside the structure, and they will not be
endangered by damage to the structure (e.g., fire).
The protection of extended electrical power and information engineer-
ing installations in and at the structure cannot be guaranteed by the very
measures of lightning protection equipotential bonding according to
ENV 61024-1. In particular the protection of information technology
equipment (communications technology, instrumentation and control,
computer networks etc.) requires special protective measures on the basis
of IEC 61312-1: 1995-02 ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic
impulse. Part 1: General principles’ because of the low admissible
voltages.
The standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103), with the
regulations of IEC 61312-1, has been valid since September 1997 (Figure
4.1 c).
To estimate the damage risk due to a lightning strike, standard IEC
61662: 1995-04 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’
with Amendment 1: 1996-05 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due
to lightning’, Annex C ‘Structures containing electronic systems’ is
applicable.
Figure 4.1 b Use of the European Draft Standard (ENV) in Germany
Protective measures, standards 73
Sources
DIN VDE 0185: ‘Blitzschutzanlage. Teil 1: Allgemeines für das Errichten. Teil
2: Errichten besonderer Anlagen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach,
Nov. 1982)
IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General
principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève, March 1980
DIN V ENV 61024-1(VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen.
Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Aug.
1996)
E DIN EN 50164-1(VDE 0185 Teil 201): ‘Blitzschutzbauteile. Teil 1:
Anforderungen für Verbindungsbauteile’. Deutsche Fassung prEN 50164-1:
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, May 1997)
IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Part 1:
General principles’. Centre de la Commission Electrotechnique Internation-
ale Genève, Feb. 1995
DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Teil 103): ‘Schutz gegen elektromag-
netischen Blitzimpuls. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’, (IEC 1312-1: 1995,
modifiziert) (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Sept. 1997)
IEC 61662: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’. Bureau
Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, April
1995
Amendment 1: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning, Annex C:
Structures containing electronic systems’. Bureau Central de la Commission
Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, May 1996
4.1.1 Risk analysis, protection levels
Basically new in these lightning protection standards are methods for the
assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning and the subdivision of
the protective measures into protection levels.
Figure 4.1 c New German Lightning Protection Standards
74 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The assessment of the risk of damage due to a lightning strike into a
structure helps the lightning protection planner to decide whether or not
a lightning protection system is to be recommended and to choose
suitable protective measures. The purpose of choosing a sufficient pro-
tection level is to reduce the risk of damage due to direct lightning strikes
to below an acceptable value. The selection of a sufficient protection
level for the lightning protection system can be based on the expected
number of direct strikes (N
d
) and on the accepted number of strikes (N
c
)
that will cause damage.
The flow diagram for the selection of the lightning protection sys-
tems, is shown in DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) in Figure
4.1.1a.
Figure 4.1.1 a Flow diagram for the selection of a lightning protection system
Protective measures, standards 75
Proceeding from a lightning density N
g
(lightning strikes per km
2
and
year), which is applicable for the region where the building stands, the
average annual number N
d
of lightning strikes to be expected for
the building/surface A
e
can be determined by means of the equivalent
surface A
e
(in km
2
). That is
N
d
= N
g
A
e
The equivalent surface A
e
will be determined according to Figure 4.1.1 b.
The equivalent surface A
e
takes into account that lightning strikes in
the direct vicinity of a structure have the same consequence as direct
strikes.
According to the national annex NB of this standard the following is
specified:
N
c
= A B C
where N
c
is the accepted strike frequency, A is the building construction
component (type of construction, material), B is the component dealing
with the use and contents of the building, and C is the component con-
sidering consequential damage.
To determine these components, the following are taken into account:

Component A (building construction): construction of the walls, roof
construction, roof covering, and roof superstructures.

Component B (building utilization and contents): utilization by
people, nature of building contents, value of building contents, and
measures and installations for damage reduction.
Figure 4.1.1 b Determination of the equivalent collection area A
e
for an
individual building
76 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Component C (consequential damage): danger to the environment
due to the building contents, failure of important public services sup-
plied by the building installations, and other consequential damage.
The value of the accepted strike frequency N
c
must be compared with
the actual number of annual strikes N
d
. The comparison allows a deci-
sion—whether a lightning protection system is necessary or not, and, in
the affirmative, what version has to be chosen:
If N
d
< N
c
, a lightning protection system is not necessary.
If N
d
> N
c
, a lightning protection system with efficiency
E ≥ 1 −
N
c
N
d
in accordance with the protection level of Table 4.1.1 a should be installed.
After calculation of E, the protection level must be derived from the
following:
E > 0.98 protection level I with additional protective measures
0.95 < E ≤ 0.98 protection level I
0.90 < E ≤ 0.95 protection level II
0.80 < E ≤ 0.90 protection level III
0 < E ≤ 0.80 protection level IV
E < 0 lightning protection not necessary.
Additional protective measures, for example, include those to reduce
the contact and step voltages, those to avoid the spreading of fire, and
those to reduce voltages in sensitive installations induced by lightning.
By the protection level the following is stipulated:

efficacy of the lightning protection system (Table 4.1.1a)

radius of the rolling sphere, protective angle, mesh size (Table 4.1.1 b)

lightning characteristics (Table 4.1.1 c)
Table 4.1.1 a Relation between protection level and efficiency
Protective measures, standards 77

factor k
i
to determine the safety distance between the lightning pro-
tection system and metal installations/electrical and information
technology equipment

clearances between the down conductors

minimum lengths of the earth electrodes

inspection intervals.
4.1.2 External and internal lightning protection, DIN VDE 0185
Part 1, DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100)
DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) as well as DIN VDE 0185
Part 1 essentially deal with (Figure 4.1.2 a): air termination system, down
conductor system, earthing system, lightning protection equipotential
bonding, and safety clearances (at proximity points).
Table 4.1.1 b Assignment of angle of protection, rolling sphere radius and mesh
size to the protection levels
Table 4.1.1 c Assignment of the lightning current parameters to the protection
levels
78 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The lightning protection system consists of both external and internal
lightning protection. External lightning protection consists of the air
termination system, the down conductor system and the earthing system.
Internal lightning protection includes all additional measures to avoid
electromagnetic interference due to lightning current in the protected
volume.
Lightning protection equipotential bonding is that part of the internal
lightning protection which reduces the potential differences caused by light-
ning current. Lightning protection equipotential bonding is realized by
bonding the conductors of the external lightning protection system with the
metal frame of the structure, with the metal installations, with the external
conductive parts, and with the power and information technology equipment
in the volume to protect.
Bonding measures include: equipotential bonding lines, if the con-
tinuous electric conductivity is not achieved by the natural connections;
and arresters, if direct connections with the equipotential bonding lines
are not allowed (Figure 4.1.2 b).
Lightning protection equipotential bonding must be carried out in
accordance with DIN V ENV 61024-1.
4.1.3 Concept of lightning protection zones, DIN VDE 0185-103
(VDE 0185 Part 103)
Since September 1997 the international standard IEC 61312-1 ‘Pro-
tection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1: General
principles’ is also valid in Germany as DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185
Figure 4.1.2 a External and Internal Lightning Protection according to IEC
61024-1/ENV 61024-1
Protective measures, standards 79
Part 103): 1997-09 ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls. Teil
1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’.
This standard became necessary because of the increasing use of many
kinds of electronic systems including computers, telecommunication
facilities, control systems etc. (called information systems in this stand-
ard). Such systems are used in many fields of commerce and industry,
including the control of production facilities with high capital value, wide
dimensions and great complexity, where failures due to lightning strikes
are very undesirable for cost and safety reasons. A risk analysis which
focuses on the LEMP hazard to electronic equipment is indicated in IEC
61662, Amendment 1 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to light-
ning’, Annex C ‘Structures containing electronic systems’.
With regard to general principles of protection against lightning strikes
DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) is applicable; however, it
does not treat the protection of electric and electronic systems. The
standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) is concerned with
the lightning electromagnetic impulse and its interfering fields and there-
fore is a basis for the protective system.
The general principles for protection against the electromagnetic
lightning pulse (or LEMP: lightning electromagnetic impulse) are
described in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103). Here it is shown
how a structure can be subdivided into several lightning protection zones
(in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) called LPZ: lightning
protection zone) according to the concept of lightning protection zones,
and how the equipotential bonding has to be carried out at the zone
interfaces (Figure 4.1.3 a).
The protected volume (or ‘volume to protect’) will be subdivided into
lightning protection zones. The different protection zones are formed by
Figure 4.1.2 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding for incoming services
80 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
building screens, shielded rooms and devices using existing metal
structures. The individual protection zones are characterized by obvious
changes of the fieldborne and conducted lightning interference at their
boundaries. When a metal supply system passes a zone boundary and
thus the electromagnetic screen of a zone, this supplying system must be
treated at the interface. For passive conductors (pipes, cable sheaths) this
is done by conductive connections to the zone screen; for electrical lines
by the use of arresters that discharge the interfering energy.
Figure 4.1.3 a Example for the subdivision of a building into several lightning
protection zones (LPZ) and sufficient equipotential bonding
Protective measures, standards 81
In the standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103):

the execution of the protective measures on the basis of the concept
of lightning protection zones is shown from concept planning to its
acceptance

primary lightning interferences are specified

generator circuits are indicated for the simulation of lightning currents

the timing functions of the lightning current components are shown
for calculation analyses

measures of lightning protection equipotential bonding are treated

electromagnetic building and room screening is described

the application of arresters is determined.
The LEMP-protection management for new buildings, as well as for
far-reaching alterations in the execution or use of structures, is described
in this standard (Table 4.1.3 a). In the following sections the tasks that
must be fulfilled by the different management steps are described and
practical examples are given.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV-Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
HASSE, P.: ‘Blitzschutz-Management – Planung und Organisation’.
Tagungsband 1. VDE/ABB–Blitzschutztagung ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und
Elektrische Anlagen’. (Kassel, 29 Feb.–1 March,1996)
Table 4.1.3 a LEMP-protection management for new buildings and for
comprehensive alterations in development or utilization of existing
buildings
82 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
HASSE, P.: Neu: DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103: ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen
Blitzimpuls’. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze – Anwendung in der Praxis – (I).
de (der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk), 1997, 14, pp. 1352–
1356, 17, pp. 1552–1558, 18, pp. 1691–1693
IEC 61662, Amendment 1: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to light-
ning, Annex C: Structures containing electronic systems’. Bureau Central de
la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, May 1996
4.1.3.1 LEMP-protection planning
The LEMP-protection planning for the system to protect must be carried
out by a lightning protection expert (who has well-founded knowledge of
EMC) in close coordination with the owner, the architect, the installer of
the information system, the planners, and other relevant institutions and,
if necessary, with the subcontractors. The planning should begin with
definition of the lightning protection levels.
4.1.3.1.1 Definition of lightning protection levels By analysing the risk in
accordance with DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100), annex F, or
according to DIN IEC 61662 (VDE 0185 Part 101), where the structure’s
site, the building construction, its use, content, and possible subsequent
damage are considered, the adequate protection level for the structure to
protect can be determined as described in Section 4.1.1.
4.1.3.1.2 Definition of lightning protection zones As shown in Figure
4.1.3 a, the volume to protect will be divided into protection zones. The
different protection zones will be created by the screening of the build-
ing, the rooms, and the equipment by using the existing metal com-
ponents such as metal facades, reinforcements and metallic enclosures.
Numbering of the protection zones is according to their damping of the
electromagnetic lightning fields. The undamped environs will be defined
as lightning protection zone 0 which will be subdivided into the
following:

lightning protection zone 0
A
, where direct lightning strikes occur

lightning protection zone 0
B
, where direct strikes are prevented by the
air-termination system (in accordance with the effectivity of the light-
ning protection level).
The definition of lightning protection zones and the determination of
their boundaries in the case of complex systems usually will be developed
step-by-step, while the lightning protection expert regularly consults the
main involved and responsible parties concerning construction and
operation, in order to reach an optimally balanced overall concept by
using all structural (technical and economical) realities.
At this point, it should be emphasized that on defining the protec-
tion levels and on determination of the lightning protection zones the
Protective measures, standards 83
essential basic data for the total costs of the lightning protection system
to be planned and installed are fixed. So it is, for example, quite usual to
attribute different protection levels to the individual buildings of an
extended industrial plant (as shown in Figure 4.1.3.1.2 a) by means of
a risk analysis.
Depending on the actual requirements, the air terminations, down
conductors and earthing systems can be executed as ‘isolated’, ‘partly
isolated’, or ‘building integrated’, as shown in Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b. Figures
4.1.3.1.2 c to e show the execution in practice.
Best positioning of the air terminations is made possible by means of
the rolling sphere method: either in a drawing (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f a) or
using a scale model (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f b). Only those parts of the building
that are touched by the rolling sphere (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f c), need air
terminations.
In the following planning step, room shielding measures will be
specified.
4.1.3.1.3 Room shielding measures Of special importance for the plan-
ning of building and room shields for the lightning protection zones are
the existing metal components of the building (e.g., metal roofs and
facades, steel reinforcements in concrete, expanded metals in walls, metal
lattices, metal supporting structures, metal piping) forming an effective
electromagnetic shield, if there is an intermeshed connection. Already by
this stage of planning it must be specified (and agreed upon by the con-
struction companies) that:

all steel reinforcements in ceilings, walls, and floors must be inter-
connected and bonded with the earthing system (at least every 5m)
(Figures 4.1.3.1.3 a)
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 a Lightning protection zones (LPZ) with protection levels (PL)
84 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b (a) Lightning protection zones in case of an ‘isolated’
lightning protection system
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b (b) Lightning protection zones in case of a ‘partly isolated’
lightning protection system
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b (c) Lightning protection zones in case of a ‘building-
integrated’ lightning protection system
Protective measures, standards 85
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 c Example of an ‘isolated’ lightning protection system
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 d Example of a
‘partly isolated’ lightning protection
system
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 e Example of a
‘building-integrated’ lightning protection
system
86 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f (a–c) Positioning of an air-termination system by means of
the rolling sphere method
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f (a) Planning by drawing
Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f (b) Using a model Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f (c) Surfaces
marked are touched by the rolling
sphere
Protective measures, standards 87
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (a)
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (b)
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (c)
88 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (d)
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a Effective electromagnetic shielding by: (a, b) Steel mats on
the roof; (c, d) Bonding of reinforcements in floors, walls and
ceilings; (e, f ) Application of fixed earthing terminals for
bridging of expansion joints or bonding of reinforcements of
prefabricated concrete parts
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (e) Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (f)
Protective measures, standards 89

metal facades will be turned into shields by connecting them with the
earthing system (every 5m or less) (Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a g)

lost sheet metal forms in floors, ceilings, and walls must be intercon-
nected and bonded with the earthing system (at least every 5m)

steel constructions must be connected to the earthing system

steel reinforcements of the foundations must be connected to the
earthing system (at least every 5m) (Figure 4.1.3.1.3. a h).
4.1.3.1.4 Equipotential bonding networks Provision must be made, even
at the planning phase, that all metal installations entering a lightning
protection zone must be connected. This connection must be either dir-
ectly, or over disconnection spark gaps, or over arresters, to the lightning
protection equipotential bonding bar.
Such installations include:

earth electrodes (telecommunication earth electrodes, earth electrodes
in accordance with DIN VDE 0141 (directly or over disconnection
spark gaps), auxiliary earth electrodes, measuring earth electrodes (over
disconnection spark gaps), and earth-contact shielding conductors).

electric lines (metal sheaths and armour of cables as well as shields of
lines, communications cables (telecommunication and data cables),
aerial cables, and power cables (under consideration of DIN VDE
0100 Parts 410 and 540)).
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (g)
90 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

non-electric lines (water pipes, heating pipes, gas pipes, ventilation and
air-conditioning ducts, fire extinguishing pipes, and piping of cathodi-
cally protected systems or such with stray current protection measures
(over disconnection spark gaps)).
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (g–h) Bonding of the continuous interconnected metal
façade with the earthing system; (h) Internal surface earth
electrode realized by floor slab reinforcement, which is
bonded by hot-galvanized steel strips (in raster 5 m x 5 m)
Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a (h)
Figure 4.1.3.1.4 a Lightning protection equipotential bonding bar
Protective measures, standards 91
In the case of extended technical communication systems, the equi-
potential bonding bar for the lightning protection must be planned in
such a way (approximately at ground level inside the building) that it can
take over the function of the ‘earth bus’. Then it usually will be laid as
an ‘earth ring bus’ inside the building (Figure 4.1.3.1.4 a). It is required
that this ring-equipotential bonding bar be connected to have a low
impedance with the earthing system and the zone screen.
In the case of protection measures using the concept of lightning
protection zones, the planner is free to decide between a mesh-like or
star-type configuration of the equipotential bonding system. Usually a
mesh-like functional equipotential bonding system (Figure 4.1.3.1.4 b)
will be planned. The devices in a protection zone shall be interconnected
by lines (as many as possible and as short as possible), with the metal
parts of the protection zone and the protection zone screen. Also here
the planner will employ the already existing metal components of a
building, such as the reinforcement in the floor, the walls and the ceiling,
the metal grates in double bottoms and (non-electric) metal installations,
such as ventilation pipes and cable racks. Typically, a meshing of at least
one metre mesh size will be desired. Figure 4.1.3.1.4 c shows the bond-
ing of two meshed protection zones, whereby the shields are integrated
into the equipotential bonding system. Figure 4.1.3.1.4 d illustrates that
rather complex zone structures may be planned. Protection zones nested
within each other and local protection zones of different equipotential
bonding concepts are interconnected here.
4.1.3.1.5 Equipotential bonding measures for supply lines and electric
lines at the boundaries of the lightning protection zones As soon as the
lightning protection zones for the system to protect have been deter-
mined in agreement with all parties concerned, the interfaces for all
metal supply systems including the electric lines must then be clearly
defined. Wherever a supply system penetrates a zone boundary and,
thus, the electromagnetic screen of a zone, this supply system must be
treated. For supply systems and lines that do not conduct voltages and
currents, this is realized by an electrically conductive connection; live
lines will be equipped with arresters that discharge the interfering ener-
gies in the case of lightning-induced overvoltages from the lines to the
earthed zone screen.
Figure 4.1.3.1.5 a, for example, shows the interfaces of supply systems
which come from lightning protection zone 0
A
into lightning protection
zone 1 on ground level, and overhead lines coming from lightning protec-
tion zone 0
A
or 0
B
into lightning protection zone 1. It is the same with
all supply systems inside the protected volume: if they lead from one
lightning protection zone into another, they must also be treated at the
interfaces.
In the case of a lightning strike, the lightning current will not only be
92 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 4.1.3.1.4 b Meshed functional equipotential bonding system in a lightning
protection zone
Figure 4.1.3.1.4 c Bonding of lightning protection zones with the correspondingly
meshed functional equipotential bonding
Figure 4.1.3.1.4 d Bonding of lightning protection zones with meshed and star-
shaped functional equipotential bonding at a complex zone
structure
Protective measures, standards 93
discharged over the earthing system, but a rather considerable part also
over the supply systems entering the lightning protection zone 1 from
outside ground. At their points of entry, these systems are bonded with the
screen of lightning protection zone 1. If the planner does not make any
detailed calculations, it may be assumed, in accordance with DIN VDE
0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103), that 50% of the whole lightning current
(with its parameters in Table 4.1.1 c defined according to the protection
level) must be discharged over the outgoing supply systems. It may be
further assumed that the lightning current will be distributed equally to all
metal and also electric line systems (Figure 4.1.3.1.5 b). When a line system
consists of several component conductors, for example (e.g., outer con-
ductor and protective conductor, a power technical line or several cores of
an information technology line) it may be assumed that again the light-
ning partial current will be distributed equally to the different conductors/
cores of a line system. In the worst case, shields are counted as component
conductors. For a closed outer cable shield and copper braid shield, a
considerably higher share can flow over the shield than over the inner
conductors. Here the current distribution (particularly that depending on
the coupling resistance) must be determined individually.
It is also possible, in a close-up lightning strike as shown in Figure
4.1.3.1.5 c, that a considerably higher lightning current can be led to the
interface at lightning protection zone 1 by one single supply system
than would have been the case, according to the above estimation, for a
direct strike. This must also be taken into account when the determin-
ations for planning of the equipotential bonding measures are made.
4.1.3.1.6 Cable routing and shielding Two local, spatially separated light-
ning protection zones can be turned into one lightning protection zone
Figure 4.1.3.1.5 a Interfaces at lightning protection zone boundaries
94 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
by means of a bonding line screen (a metal cable conduit, a shielded
cable route or outer cable shields) (Figure 4.1.3.1.6 a). Easy handling
calculation principles for the planner are given in the ‘Handbuch für
Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Handbook for Lightning Protection and Earth-
ing). Figures 4.1.3.1.6 b (a and b) show cable ducts, the reinforcement of
Figure 4.1.3.1.5 b Partial lightning current on external supplying systems in case
of a direct strike into the lightning protection system
Figure 4.1.3.1.5 c Partial lightning current on external supplying systems in case
of a close-up strike
Protective measures, standards 95
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 a Line shield bonded with building-shields
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 b (a) Basic structure
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 b Cable duct with continuously interconnected reinforcement
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 b (b) Practical realization
96 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
which is bonded to a screen. The welded duct reinforcement, with a mesh
size of typically 15cm and a rod diameter of typically 6mm, which is
continuously connected in the longitudinal direction by means of clamps,
can be connected directly to the building foundation reinforcement.
Within lightning protection zones 1 and higher, electromagnetic-
ally shielded cables shall be used for information technology purposes. At
least both ends of the shields must be bonded. Then, the shields will also
be effective within the scope of the meshed functional equipotential
bonding as equipotential bonding lines. Alternatives to shielded cables
can be either metal, closed, and continuous cable stages, or metal pipes,
or shielded cable conduits.
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 c shows how, by parallel routing of power and infor-
mation technology lines, the surface of the induction line loop can be
reduced. As an additional measure the lines can be laid in line shields
(e.g., conduits). The ends of the conduits must be bonded with the cor-
responding terminal. However, it is also possible to turn the enclosure of
the devices into local lightning protection zones which are either con-
nected with unshielded lines, and must then be protected at the zone
interfaces, or with shielded lines forming a common protection zone for
lines and devices.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach; fourth edn, 1993)
4.1.3.2 Realization of LEMP protection
This step of the LEMP-protection management process, coming after the
LEMP-protection planning, includes the following:

preparation of survey diagrams and descriptions

working out of tender specifications

making of detailed drawings and flow diagrams for the installation.
These works can be carried out by an electrotechnical engineering office.
Here, for example, it will be specified how the connection of the incom-
ing metal piping to the reinforcement, at the interface of lightning
protection zones 0
A
and 1, has to be carried out to conduct lightning
current and be EMC-compliant. Or, it will be indicated how metal stages,
cabinets, enclosures and cable racks are to be included into the meshed
functional equipotential bonding in rooms containing information tech-
nology systems and equipment (Figure 4.1.3.2 a). Cable lists (and types),
number of wires, handling of the shield, electrical and mechanical inter-
face configurations, operating voltages, transmission frequencies, backup
fuses etc., have to be indicated. Also, the test values of the arresters used
Protective measures, standards 97
for the bonding of lines at the interfaces of the lightning protection zones
must be stipulated (Table 4.1.3.2 a).
The arresters provided within a scheme using the concept of lightning
protection zones are connected in series in the respective cable run.
Therefore, the output levels of the arresters must be stipulated in such a
way that the coordination with the downstream arrester or device or
system (characterized by its basic strength) is guaranteed, and that the
prospective system short-circuit currents can be controlled.
Figure 4.1.3.1.6 c Measures of shielding and optimal cable routing
98 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Basically, the planner is free to determine how best to use and coordin-
ate the arresters and devices or systems, as long as it is guaranteed that
interference will be reduced to levels below the basic strength of the
devices or systems to protect in the respective lightning protection zones.
4.1.3.3 Installation and supervision of LEMP protection
Essentials of this step of LEMP-protection management are:

quality assurance at the installation

documentation

revision of detailed drawings.
Figure 4.1.3.2 a Meshed functional equipotential bonding at a cabinet entry
Table 4.1.3.2 a Typical test values of arresters installed at the line interfaces of
lightning protection zones
Protective measures, standards 99
It is here that system builders, lightning protection experts, engineering
officers, and the supervising authority cooperate or liaise.
If, for example, structural steel mats are bonded by means of hot-
galvanized steel strips, steel wires and clamps (Figure 4.1.3.3 a), control is
easily possible by inspection and photodocumentation.
In the case of lightning current arresters for power technical systems
(installed at the interface of lightning protection zone 0
A
and 1, Figure
4.1.3.3 b), care must be taken to carry out professional installation (e.g.,
for expulsion arresters a sufficient separation must be maintained between
neighbouring live bare parts). In the case of lightning current arresters
for information technology lines, special attention must be paid to the
separate installation of the lines coming from lightning protection zone
0
A
and those leading into lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 4.1.3.3 c).
In larger systems it is useful to install protection cabinets (Figure
4.1.3.3 d) as a central interface between two lightning protection zones.
4.1.3.4 Acceptance inspection of the LEMP protection
An independent lightning protection expert or a supervising authority
will carry out the control and documentation of the system state at the
acceptance inspection stage of the LEMP protection.
Figure 4.1.3.3 a Floor
reinforcement with support-
reinforcement bonded by
wires/strips and clamps
Figure 4.1.3.3 b Lightning current arresters
for the power technical line at the transition
from lightning protection zone O
A
into lightning
protection zone 1
100 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
4.1.3.5 Periodic inspection
To safeguard the reliability performance of the protection system it is
necessary that lightning protection experts or supervising authorities
make periodic inspections. The standard draft DIN VDE 0185 Part 110:
1997-01 ‘Blitzschutzsystem. Leitfaden zur Prüfung von Blitzschutzsys-
temen’ (‘Lightning protection system. Guide for testing lightning protec-
tion systems’) describes the kind of tests, test turns, test measures and
the documentation involved.
Sources
DIN V VDE V 0185-110 (VDE V 0185 Teil 110):1997-01: ‘Blitzschutzsysteme.
Leitfaden zur Prüfung von Blitzschutzsystemen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/
Offenbach, Jan. 1992)
4.1.3.6 Costs
The requirement that information technology electronic systems must
not be damaged by electromagnetic interference due to direct or close-up
lightning strikes has led to a new quality and dimension of lightning
Figure 4.1.3.3 c Lightning
current arresters for the
information technology line
(lightning protection zone
O
A
→lightning protection
zone 1)
Figure 4.1.3.3 d Protective cabinet with
connected cable shields and arresters
Protective measures, standards 101
protection engineering. The correspondingly developed concept,
embodied in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103), lightning protec-
tion zones (Figure 4.1.3.6 a) has turned out to be a very efficient man-
agement method in complex and manifold problems; it has also been
proven as a universal organizing principle: for example, computing
centres, administration buildings, control and instrumentation technical
systems, power plants including solar and wind power plants, telephone
central offices, radar systems and main transmitters.
Also the costs of EMC-compliant lightning protection can be calcu-
lated from the many existing projects. In the case of newly-built large-
scale projects, about 0.5% max. to 1% of the gross building cost must be
allocated to achieve an effectiveness of protection of about 99%. In sub-
sequent installation and retrofitting, the costs will increase by a factor of
10 and the effectiveness of protection reduces to 95–90%.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Requirements and tests for EMC-oriented
lightning protection zones’, etz, DEHN publication, reprint from 1990, No. 21,
pp. 1108–1115
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach; 4. Auflage, 1993)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
HASSE, P., WIESINGER, J., ZAHLMANN, P., and ZISCHANK, W.: ‘A future-
Figure 4.1.3.6 a Concept of lightning protection zones
102 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
oriented principle for the coodination of arresters in low-voltage systems’,
DEHN publication, reprint from etz, 1995, No. 1, pp. 20–23
HASSE, P.: ‘Blitzschutz-Management – Planung und Organisation. 1st VDE/
ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’
(29 Feb.–1 March 1996, Kassel)
WETTINGFELD, J.: ‘Was ist neu in ENV 61024-1/01.95 (DIN VDE 0185 Teil
100)? 1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elek-
trische Anlagen” ’, (29 Feb.–3 March 1996, Kassel)
STEINBIGLER, H.: ‘Verfahren und Komponenten des Gebäudeblitzschut-
zes. 1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elek-
trische Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb.–1 March 1996, Kassel)
WIESINGER, J.: ‘Was ist neu in IEC 1312-1/02.95 (DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103)?
1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische
Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb.–1 March 1996, Kassel)
KERN A.: ‘Blitz-Schutzzonen mit Schirmungen und Schnittstellen. 1st VDE/
ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’
(29 Feb.–1 March 1996, Kassel)
PUSCH, H., and RAAB, V.: Gebäudeblitzschutz – Neue Europanorm. TAB,
1996, 12, pp. 69–73
HASSE, P.: ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen – 1’, VDE/ABB-
Blitzschutztagung, 1996, 11, pp. 960–964; 1996, 12, pp. 1107–1112
MÜLLER, K.-P.: ‘Neue Blitzschutznormung’, Elektropraktiker, 1996, 6
DIN VDE 0185: ‘Blitzschutzanlage – Teil 1: Allgemeines für das Errichten –
Teil 2: Errichten besonderer Anlagen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/
Offenbach, Nov. 1982)
IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General
principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Genève, March 1990
IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Part 1:
General principles’. Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internation-
ale, Genève, Feb. 1995
IEC 61662: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’. Bureau
Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, April
1995
DIN V ENV 61024-1(VDE V 0185 Teil 100): 1996-08: ‘Blitzschutz baulicher
Anlagen. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (IEC 61024-1: 1990, modifiziert)’
(VDE Verlag GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Aug. 1996)
DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Teil 103): 1997–09: ‘Schutz gegen elektro-
magnetischen Blitzimpuls (LEMP). Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze. Identisch
mit IEC 81(Sec)44’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Sept. 1997)
4.2 Surge protection for electrical systems of buildings, IEC
60364, DIN VDE 0100
A detailed treatment of the surge protection of buildings is given in
IEC/TC 64. Corresponding international standards in IEC 60364 are
provided in chapter 44 of the publication. Part 440 is the relevant chapter
in the national standard series DIN VDE 0100.
Protective measures, standards 103
Chapter 44 of the above document is divided as follows:
Chapter 44 Protection in case of surges
Section 441 General
Section 442 Protection of low-voltage systems in case of earth
faults in systems with higher voltage
Section 443 Protection against surges due to atmospheric influences
Section 444 Protection against electromagnetic interference in
systems of buildings.
Also relevant from IEC 60364 (chapter 53) is the following section:
Section 534 Selection and installation of surge protection facilities.
4.2.1 IEC 60364-4-443/DIN VDE 0100 Part 443
The current document IEC 60364-4-443: 1995-04 ‘Publication 364: Elec-
trical installations of buildings; Part 4: Protection for safety; Chapter 44:
Protection against overvoltage; Section 443: Protection against overvolt-
ages of atmospheric origin’/ DIN VDE 0100 Teil 443 ‘Errichten von
Starkstromanlagen mit Nennspannungen bis 1000V Schutzmassnahmen
Schutz gegen Überspannung infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse’ contains
the following statement:
“These standard requirements are provided for describing measures
which limit transient overvoltages, in order to reduce the risk of faults in
the system and the connected equipment, to an acceptable dimension.
This procedure is in agreement with the principles of the insulation
coordination in the Publication IEC 664 ‘Insulation coordination in low-
voltage systems and equipment’.
“Overvoltage categories are intended for distinguishing different
degrees of availability of the equipment. Availability of equipment is
differentiated according to the demands concerning continuity of oper-
ation and acceptable risk of faults, damage and failures. In connection
with the preferred surge resistance level of the equipment, they allow a
suitable insulation coordination of the whole system to be achieved,
which reduces the risk of faults/failures to an acceptable level/limit and
are a basis for a surge protection (regulation).
“A higher reference number of the overvoltage category indicates a
higher specific surge resistance of the equipment, and means at the same
time a wider choice of surge regulation/protection methods.”
In the above standard, environmental conditions AQ 1 to AQ 3 are
defined upon which the application of surge arresters depends. Classifi-
cations with regard to the effect of lightning are:

AQ 3: direct effect of lightning (cross reference to IEC 61024-1)

AQ 2: indirect effect of lightning, danger from the supply system

AQ 1: negligible effect of lightning.
104 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
IEC 60364-4-443: ‘Electrical installation of buildings – Part 4: Protection for
safety (chapter 44): Protection against overvoltages (Section 443): Protec-
tion against overvoltages of atmospheric origin or due to switching’. Bureau
Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, April
1987
E DIN VDE 0100 Teil 443: 1987-04: ‘Errichten von Starkstromanlagen mit
Nennspannungen bis 1000 V. Schutzmassnahmen; Schutz gegen Über-
spannungen infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse. (Identisch mit IEC
64(CO)168’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, April 1987)
4.2.2 IEC 60664-1/DIN VDE 0110 Part 1
IEC 60664-1 ‘Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage
systems. Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests’ became valid in 1992.
In Germany DIN VDE 0110-1 (VDE 0110 Part 1) is valid: 1997-04
‘Isolationskoordination für elektrische Betriebsmittel in Niederspan-
nungsanlagen. Teil 1: Grundsätze, Anforderungen und Prüfungen (IEC
60664-1: 1992, modified).’ In this standard the insulation coordination
for equipment in low-voltage systems is specified. It is valid for equip-
ment having a rated alternating voltage up to 1000V, with nominal
frequencies up to 30kHz, or a rated direct voltage up to 1500V.
Therein are defined the following:
(a) Insulation coordination: Reciprocal classification of the insulation
characteristics of electrical equipment, under consideration of the
expected microenvironmental conditions and other important
stresses.
(b) Surge withstand voltage: Maximum value of the surge voltage of
conventional shape and polarity which does not lead to puncture or
sparkover of the insulation under specified conditions.
(c) Rated surge voltage: Value of a surge withstand voltage, indicated by
the producer for an equipment or a part of it, indicating the specified
withstand capability of the respective insulation with regard to
periodic peak voltages.
(d) Overvoltage category: A numerical value that specifies a surge with-
stand voltage. Note: Overvoltage categories termed I, II, III, and IV
are used.
(e) State of limited overvoltage: State within an electric system where the
expected transient overvoltages remain limited to a specified height.
In this standard the principles of the ‘insulation coordination’ are
specified as follows: Insulation coordination comprises the selection of
the electrical insulation characteristics of a piece of equipment, regard-
ing its application and its surroundings. Insulation coordination can only
Protective measures, standards 105
be achieved if the rating of the equipment is based on the stress to which
it will be exposed during its probable lifetime.
With respect to ‘transient overvoltages’ it points out that insulation
coordination regarding transient overvoltages is based on a state of
limited overvoltages. There are two kinds of limitation:

In-system limitation. The state within an electrical system where,
due to the characteristics of the system, it can be assumed that
the expected transient overvoltages remain limited to a specified
height.

Protective limitation. The state within an electrical system where, due
to the use of special overvoltage limiting means, it can be assumed
that the expected transient overvoltages will be limited to a specified
height.
Note 1: Overvoltages in large and complex systems, such as low-voltage
systems that are exposed to multiple and changing influences, can only be
judged on a statistical basis. This applies especially for overvoltages of
atmospheric origin, as well as if the limitation is achieved due to an
in-system limitation, or to a protective limitation.
Note 2: An examination concerning the probability as to whether an
in-system limitation exists or whether a protective limitation will be
necessary, is recommended. This examination requires knowledge of
the electrical system data, of the keraunic level, the height of the
transient overvoltage etc. (This examination procedure is applied in
IEC 60364-4-443 for power systems in buildings which are connected to
low-voltage systems.)
Note 3: The special overvoltage limiting means may contain com-
ponents for storage or discharging of energy and are able to safely
discharge the energy of the overvoltages expected at the place of
installation.
To apply the principle of insulation coordination, two different kinds
of transient overvoltages must be considered:

Transient overvoltages originating from the system to which the
equipment is bonded by its terminals.

Transient overvoltages originating from the equipment.
This basic safety standard explains to ‘technical committees’ (i.e., those
who are responsible for the standardization of different equipment) how
the insulation coordination can be achieved. For the purpose of sizing
equipment in accordance with the insulation coordination, such tech-
nical committees must specify an overvoltage category according to the
probable use of the equipment, under consideration of the system
parameters for the connection of which it is provided.
The overvoltage categories are a means of maintaining the operation of
106 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
devices in accordance with the necessary requirements, and differentiat-
ing between the degrees of availability with regard to a possible risk of
failure. In connection with special values of the ‘surge withstand voltage’
for devices, the categories enable a suitable insulation coordination in the
whole installation; they are the basis for the limitation of overvoltages so
that the risk of failure can be reduced to an acceptable value. A higher
numerical value of the overvoltage category indicates a higher ‘surge
withstand capability’ of the device and offers a wider choice of methods
of surge limitation.
The principle of the overvoltage categories is applied for equipment
that is directly supplied by the low voltage system. Application of over-
voltage categories is based on the surge protection requirements con-
tained in IEC 60364-4-443. (Note: Atmospheric overvoltages mostly are
not weakened in the course of the installation.) Examinations have
shown that a probability oriented concept is suitable as described in the
following:
Determination of an overvoltage category for directly supplied system
equipment must be realized on the basis of the following general
description:

Overvoltage category I equipment is intended for connection to the
fixed electrical installation of a building. Outside the device measures
have been taken, either in the fixed installation or between the fixed
installation and the device, in order to reduce the transient overvolt-
ages to the respective value.

Overvoltage category II equipment is intended for connection to
the fixed installation of a building. (E.g., devices include household
appliances, portable tools and items of similar loading.)

Overvoltage category III equipment is part of the fixed installation,
and other devices, where a higher degree of availability is expected.
(E.g., devices include distribution boards, circuit-breakers, distribu-
tions (IEV 826-06-01, including cables, bus bars, distribution cabinets,
switches, socket outlets) in the fixed installation and devices for indus-
trial use, as well as other devices, such as stationary motors with
permanent connection to the fixed installation.)

Overvoltage category IV equipment is intended for use at or near
the feed into the electrical installation of buildings, and that from
the main distribution into the direction of the system. (E.g., devices
include electricity meters, overcurrent circuit-breakers and ripple-
control units.)
The rated surge voltage of the equipment is given in Table 4.2.2 a
according to the determined overvoltage category and the rated voltage
of the equipment. (Note that equipment with a special rated surge volt-
age, having more than one rated voltage, may be suitable for different
overvoltage categories.)
Protective measures, standards 107
For equipment that can generate overvoltages at the terminals of the
equipment (e.g., switchgear) the rated surge voltage means that the
equipment must not generate overvoltages exceeding this value; that is, if
it is operated in accordance with the respective standard and the instruc-
tions of the producer. (Note that there is always a residual risk that
overvoltages may be generated that exceed the value of the rated surge
voltage, depending on the conditions of the circuit.)
Equipment operating under the conditions of a higher overvoltage
category is allowed provided that a suitable surge limitation is enforced.
Suitable surge damping can be attained by using:

a surge protective installation

a transformer with separated windings

a distribution system with a multitude of branches (which are able to
discharge the energy of surges)

a capacitance which is able to charge up to the energy of surges

a resistance or similar damping elements which are able to discharge
the energy of surges.
It should be taken into account that every surge protective installation
within the system or the equipment might have to discharge more energy
than a surge protective installation at the connection point of the system,
if the latter has a higher operating voltage.
Table 4.2.2 a Rated impulse voltage for equipment (energized directly from the
low-voltage mains)
108 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
4.2.3 IEC 60364-5-534 / DIN VDE 0100 Part 534
During the preparation of this book (starting in January 1997) both
standard drafts:

E DIN IEC 64/867/CDV (VDE 0100 Part 534):1996-10 ‘Electrical
installations of buildings – Selection and Erection of electrical equip-
ment – Switchgear and controlgear – Devices for protection against
overvoltages (IEC 64/867/CDV: 1996)’

E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Part 534/A 1):1996-10 ‘Elec-
trical installations of buildings – Selection and Erection of electrical
equipment – Switchgear and controlgear – Devices for protection
against overvoltages – Amendment A1 (proposal for a European
standard)’
were available. The aforementioned IEC standard draft has now been
refused by the German DKE subcommittee UK 221.3 ‘Protection
Measures’ on the grounds that its aim no longer meets the current
technical state and is, therefore, of no assistance in the erection of
surge-protective installations.
The main reason for this refusal is the fact that the surge protection
must not only consider switching operations and remote lightning strikes
(IEC 61024/61312-1), but also it must consider close-up or direct light-
ning interference (IEC 61024/61312-1). Thus, it is necessary to cater for
in a single standard not only the selection and installation of arresters for
lightning protection, but also surge protection.
Today, the accepted state of engineering is such that a complex
lightning/surge protection system requires more than one type of arrester.
Taking this requirement into account, three arrester types (classes I, II
and III) with different protection capacities are standardized in the rele-
vant product standard DIN IEC SC 37A/44/CDV (VDE 0675 Part 6A1).
A multistage protective concept, realized by means of these different
types of arresters, includes not only surge protection but also protection
against direct lightning strikes.
A second standard draft, prepared by the German UK 221.3, is
proposed for the development of the above-mentioned IEC paper. The
suggested main section 534 of ‘Einrichtungen zum Schutz bei
Überspannungen’ treats, on the one hand, the selection and the installa-
tion of protective equipment for the surge protection due to indirect
atmospheric discharges and switching operations according to IEC
60364-4-443 (according to DIN VDE 0100-443 (VDE 0100 Part 443) )
and, on the other hand, the selection and the installation of protective
equipment due to lightning currents and surges in connection with direct
lightning strikes and lightning strikes in the vicinity of buildings accord-
ing to IEC 61024-1 and IEC 61312-1.
Thus, the regulations for the selection and the installation of the
Protective measures, standards 109
protective equipment and their compatibility with the protective meas-
ures against electric shock applied in the system are presented in one
principle section of the erection standard for low voltage systems. These
standard drafts, however, are not under discussion and so they will not be
considered further. Nevertheless, the description of the different applica-
tion possibilities of arresters in the power technical system (given in
chapter 5.8.1.6.2) refers to this German draft.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach; Fourth edn, 1993)
E DIN IEC 64(Sec)675 ( VDE 0100 Teil 443/A3): ‘Errichten von Starkstroman-
lagen mit Nennspannungen bis 1000V – Schutzmassnahmen. Schutz bei
Überspannungen infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse und von Schaltvorgän-
gen’, Oct. 1993
IEC 60364-4-443: ‘Electrical installation of buildings – Part 4: Protection for
safety (chapter 44): Protection against overvoltages (Section 443): Protec-
tion against overvoltages of atmospheric origin or due to switching’, April
1995
E DIN IEC 64/867/CDV (VDE 0100 Teil 534): ‘Elektrische Anlagen von
Gebäuden – Auswahl und Errichtung elektrischer Betriebsmittel – Schalt-
geräte und Steuergeräte – Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen. (VDE
Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct 1996
E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Teil 534/A 1): Elektrische Anlagen von
Gebäuden – Auswahl und Errichtung von Betriebsmitteln – Schaltgeräte und
Steuergeräte – Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen – Änderung A1 (Vor-
schlag für eine Europäische Norm). (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach,
Oct. 1996)
DIN VDE 0110-1 (VDE 0110 Teil 1): Isolationskoordination für elektrische
Betriebsmittel in Niederspannungsanlagen. Teil 1: Grundsätze, Anforderun-
gen und Prüfungen (IEC 664–1: 1992, modifiziert) (VDE Verlag, GmbH,
Berlin/Offenbach, April 1997)
4.3 Surge protection for telecommunications systems, DIN VDE
0800, DIN VDE 0845
DIN VDE 0800 Part 1: 1989-05 ‘Fernmeldetechnik – Allgemeine
Begriffe, Anforderungen und Prüfungen für die Sicherheit der Anlagen
und Geräte’ (‘Telecommunications – General concepts, requirements
and tests for the safety of facilities and apparatus’). The scope of appli-
cation of this VDE regulation refers to the safety of the facilities and
apparatus of telecommunication engineering (in the following: telecom-
munication systems and telecommunication devices) with regard to the
prevention from danger to life or health (of people and animals) and
110 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
things. This standard is also applicable for the safety of information or
data processing systems for which no other standards are valid.
DIN VDE 0800 Part 2: 1985-07 ‘Erdung und Potentialausgleich in der
Fernmeldetechnik’. (‘Telecommunications; earthing and equipotential
bonding’.) The following is quoted regarding the treatment of ‘line
shields’ (i.e., a shield out of conductive material which accompanies the
lines in a certain geometric form) and the integration of steel construc-
tions or reinforcements:

In the version as an electromagnetic screen (according to DIN IEC
60050 Part 151: 1983-12, section 151-01-16) the line shield can con-
tribute to equipotential bonding, as both of its ends are connected to a
reference potential.
Integration of steel constructions and reinforcements into the earth-
ing system. If there are particularly high demands on the earthing
system of a building regarding the function, in order to avoid poten-
tial differences between different points of the building and thereby
cause equalizing currents, measures should be taken to include the
steel construction and the reinforcement into the earthing system.
For this purpose the reinforcement shall be connected with the earth
bus bar, if the components of the reinforcement are continuously
connected.

Equalizing currents in the reinforcement, in parallel with equipotential
bonding conductors between points of different potential, can lead to
interference in the telecommunication system if, because of excessive
impedance, an inadmissible coupling with telecommunication circuits
occurs, or contact resistances are submitted to fluctuations. The
continuous connection of the reinforcement, for example, can be
realized by welding or careful lashing. If, owing to the statics, welding
is not possible, additional steel structures should be put in place, which
must be welded to each other and lashed to the reinforcement. The
continuous connection of the building reinforcement is (even in the
case of buildings made out of prefabricated parts) only possible
during the erection of the building. Equipotential bonding by steel
constructions and reinforcement must therefore already be taken
into consideration at the planning stage of the foundations and the
building construction.
DIN VDE 0845 Part 1: 1987-10 ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen
Blitzeinwirkungen, statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus
Starkstromanlagen – Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’.
The scope of application is quoted as follows:

This standard is valid for measures against dangerous or interfering
surges in telecommunication systems. These surges are caused by elec-
tromagnetic interference or by lightning effects or static charges.
Protective measures, standards 111
Thereby also the devices and transmission lines belonging to the tele-
communication system are taken into consideration.
For external lightning protection (the interception and down-
conduction of lightning currents) DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 is applicable,
and for aerial systems DIN VDE 0855 Parts 1 and 2.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’
(Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach; Fourth edn, 1993)
DIN VDE 0800 Teil 1: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. Allgemeine Begriffe, Anforderun-
gen und Prüfungen für die Sicherheit der Anlagen und Geräte’ (VDE Verlag,
GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, May 1989)
DIN VDE 0800 Teil 2: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. Erdung und Potentialausgleich’
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, July 1985)
DIN VDE 0845 Teil 1: ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen Blitzeinwirkun-
gen, statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen.
Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/
Offenbach, Oct. 1987)
4.4 Electromagnetic compatibility including protection against
electromagnetic impulses and lightning, VG 95 372
The standard VG 95 372: 1996–03 gives a survey of the VG standards for
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) including protection against elec-
tromagnetic impulses (EMP) and lightning. A tabulated list for EMC is
given in Figure 4.4 a.
Source
VG 95 372: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV) einschliesslich Schutz
gegen den Elektromagnetischen Impuls (EMP) und Blitz – Übersicht’. (Beuth
Verlag, GmbH, Berlin, March 1996)
4.5 Standards for components and protective devices
International (IEC) as well as regional (Cenelec) standardizing work
on components for lightning protection systems and surge protective
devices has now progressed. National (DIN VDE) standards and drafts
with testing authorization are also available. These standards shall be
considered in the following only as far as it is necessary for the under-
standing of the mode of function and the possibilities of using these
components and protective gear.
112 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
4.5.1 Connection components, E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Part 201)
For lightning protection components (terminals, connectors) the stand-
ard draft E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Part 201) ‘Lightning protection
components. Part 1: Requirements for connection components’ has been
available since May 1997. This specifies the requirements and tests for
lightning current conductive connection components. This standard will
eventually replace the national DIN-regulation DIN 48 810/8.86.
The standard draft E DIN EN 50164-1 is currently under revision by
the European Standardizing Committee (Cenelec). In addition to
conditioning/ageing considerations (simulation of corrosion stress aris-
ing in practice) the standard also includes a test by lightning currents
(10/350 μs), which is as follows:
Corresponding to their classification indicated by the producer, the
connection components are classified as H and L and tested accordingly:
H (high loading) test current 100kA (10/350μs)
L (normal loading) test current 50kA (10/350μs)
Criteria for the passing of the lightning current tests are, for example, a
sufficiently low contact resistance, no perceptible damage, deformation
or loose parts as well as requirements for the release torque of the screwed
connection parts.
4.5.2 Arresters for lightning currents and surges
A difference is made between lightning current arresters (tested by
surge currents of wave shape 10/350μs) and surge arresters (tested by surge
currents of wave shape 8/20μs).
4.5.2.1 Arresters for power engineering, IEC 61643-1/E DIN
VDE 0675 Part 6
The German standard draft E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 ‘Surge arresters for
use in AC supply systems with nominal voltages ranging from 100 V to
1000V’ has been available since 1989.
In March 1996 E DIN VDE 0675-6 A1 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A1)
‘Amendment A1 to the draft DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Part 6)’ with
testing authorization was published and in October 1996 E DIN VDE
0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A2) ‘Amendment A2 to the draft DIN
VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Part 6)’. Also in October 1996 DIN IEC 37A/
44/CDV (VDE 0675 Part 601) ‘Surge protective devices for low-voltage
distribution systems. Part 1: Performance requirements and testing
methods (IEC 37A/44/CDV: 1996)’ was introduced. This later IEC stand-
ard was valid in February 1998 as IEC 61643-1 ‘Surge protective devices
connected to low-voltage distribution systems, Part 1: Performance
Protective measures, standards 113
requirements and testing methods’. The activities of the IEC SC 37A
committee which is competent for the international standardization of
arresters are shown in Figure 4.5.2.1 a.
The yellow printed E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 is based on the draft
DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/1989-11. The categories and classifications of the
arrester types have been mostly retained. These arresters are subdivided
into four requirement classes:
114 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Class A. Arresters which are installed in low voltage overhead lines
and at places where they cannot be touched. Testing is made with
surge currents of wave shape 8/20μs (Figure 4.5.2.1 b).

Class B. Arresters installed for the purpose of lightning protection
equipotential bonding and controlling direct lightning strikes. These
arresters are tested by a simulated lightning test current I
imp
of wave
shape 10/350μs (Figure 4.5.2.1 b).

Class C. Arresters installed for the purpose of surge protection in the
fixed installation, for example, in the distribution area. These arresters
are tested by the nominal discharge surge current i
sn
of wave shape
8/20 μs (Figure 4.5.2.1 b).

Class D. Arresters installed for the purpose of surge protection in the
fixed or mobile installation, especially in the socket outlet area or
before terminals. For testing this arrester group, a hybrid generator
Figure 4.4 a Survey of the VG-standards for EMC including protection against
EMP and lightning
Protective measures, standards 115
(with an apparent interior resistance 2 Ω) generating an open-circuit
surge voltage 1.2/50μs and a short-circuit surge current 8/20μs is used.
The open-circuit voltage U
oc
of the hybrid generator, used for testing,
is indicated as a parameter for these arresters.
The tests/amendments in Part A1 concern above all the electrical
requirements and test procedures, which will be briefly explained in the
following as far as it is relevant for the user:
Figure 4.5.2.1 a Standardization in IEC SC 37A ‘Low-voltage surge protective
devices’
Figure 4.5.2.1 b Comparison of test currents for surge protective devices (SPDs)
116 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
(a) Lightning test current (I
imp
) for class B arresters
The lightning test current I
imp
(10/350μs) replaces the former lightning
test current of wave shape 8/80μs (Figure 4.5.2.1 b).
I
imp
is determined by the following parameters: peak value (I
peak
),
charge (Q), specific energy (W/R), and wave shape (10/350μs).
For the wave shape the value 10 indicates a front rise time of
10μs and 350μs the time to the half-value in a wave tail of 350μs of
the lightning wave. The lightning test current I
imp
of the wave shape
10/350μs conforms most closely with the first surge current of
natural lightning discharges and is used worldwide for lightning
simulation.
(b) Determination of the measured limiting voltage: Protection level U
p
The testing procedure to determine the measured limiting voltage
is subdivided according to the type and class of the arrester. The
measured limiting voltage is the highest value from differently
carried out tests. The protection level, which has been determined
with reference to the insulation coordination, must not be exceeded
by the measured limiting voltage.
(c) Conditioning and operating duty test, discharge capacity
Here the performance of the arresters regarding their discharge
and follow-current quenching capacity is tested (see Figure 4.5.2.1
c). Now that the interior structure of the arrester is known, a
source of voltage corresponding to its follow current is chosen
(Table 4.5.2.1 a) and conditioned in accordance with its require-
ment class:
A, B and C ⇒ 15 surge currents 8/20μs with i
sn
D⇒ 15 combined surges 1.2/50μs /8/20μs with U
oc
/2Ω
On testing the operating duty, the arrester will be submitted to five
surge currents, according to its class, in steps up to the maximum
value, whereby its thermal stability will be controlled:

A, C surge currents up to I
max
(maximum discharge surge cur-
rent 8/20μs)

B surge currents up to I
imp
(lightning test current 10/350μs)

D combined surge up to U
oc
/2Ω
(d) Disconnecting device for arresters and thermal stability of arresters
On testing the disconnecting device and the thermal stability of
arresters, a difference is generated, whether a spark gap covered
arrester or an arrester based on a varistor is concerned. The differ-
ence is generated to obtain a practice-like simulation of possible
causes of fault:

Arresters based on varistors. It is assumed that, over the course
of years, the leakage current will increase due to repeated surge
Protective measures, standards 117
current loadings. This leads to a heating or increased power
loss in the arrester. This ‘thermal drift’ is simulated in the dis-
connection test. The disconnecting device must separate the
arrester from the system before the enclosure becomes too hot
which might present a fire hazard.

Arresters with spark gaps or spark gaps in series. Here the assumed
fault is that there are too frequent and too high discharge currents
or too many follow-current quenching processes.The electrodes
of the integrated spark gaps are welding and a short circuit is
generated. On testing, this fault will be simulated by short-
circuiting spark gaps with a copper conductor. The maximum
Figure 4.5.2.1 c Flow diagram ‘operating duty test’
118 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
backup fuse certified by the producer must disconnect the arrester
from the system before there is noticeable damage at the arrester
or fire hazard due to the arrester.
Sources
IEC 61643-1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power
distribution systems, Part 1: Performance requirements and testing
methods’. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internation-
ale, Genève, Feb. 1998
4.5.2.1.1 Important data for arrester selection

Rated voltage U
c
. The value U
c
indicates the maximum operating volt-
age the arrester is rated for and at which the certified performance data
are met.

Protection level U
p
. This parameter characterizes the ability of an
arrester to limit interference to a non-dangerous voltage value U
p
. The
required protection level of the arrester depends on the place of instal-
lation (overvoltage category) and/or on the electric strength of the
device to be protected.
Table 4.5.2.1 a Power frequency source of voltage for arrester conditioning:
u
c
: continuous operating voltage of an arrester/rated voltage;
I
F
: follow-current of the arrester; I
p
uninfluenced short-circuit
current
Protective measures, standards 119

Discharge capability. This parameter is of decisive importance if the
arrester must be selected according to the arising hazards (direct light-
ning strike, remote strike, induced surges).
This value characterizes the real performance of the arrester and indi-
cates the lightning test currents/surge currents/combined surges that can
safely be discharged without disturbing its function considerably. This
indication is also reflected in the arrester classification:
Lightning test currents, I
imp
⇒ Class B
Surge currents, i
sn
or I
max
⇒ Class A, C
Combined surge, U
oc
⇒ Class D

Breaking capacity/follow-current quenching capability I
F
. This item is
important for spark-gap based arresters. It indicates the limit at which
the system follow-current will be quenched automatically by the
arrester.

Disconnecting device/back-up fuse. These data are always of import-
ance. This is particularly so if the arrester is overloaded or wrongly
conceived, or aged due to a large number of discharges. Arresters
designed according to E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 are proving able to turn
into a safe fault state in the case of an overload/defect on testing of the
disconnecting device and thermal stability.
4.5.2.1.2 Coordination of the arresters according to requirements and
locations. Figure 4.5.2.1.2 a and Table 4.5.2.1.2 a show the coordination
of the arresters:
Figure 4.5.2.1.2 a Application possibilities of arresters in the IEC-overvoltage
categories
120 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Class B arresters (lightning current arresters). The location of the
lightning current arresters is the area of the house supply where high
lightning partial currents may arise.

Class C arresters. The typical location of these surge arresters is in the
subdistribution. This is where the residual voltages of the lightning
current arresters and surge currents (8/20μs) in the kA range must be
safely controlled.

Class D arresters. These arresters are located either between the dis-
tributor and the terminal or at socket outlets.
With regard to the requirement for class D, rather than proceeding from
an impressed surge current, the concern is for the voltage liable to cause
danger U
oc
; this will be limited to a low value. Typical values of danger-
ous voltages (arising at the terminal inputs, socket outlets) are in the
range 2.5–4kV.
4.5.2.1.3 N–PE arrester E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2. In E DIN VDE
0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A2): 1996–10 ‘Surge arresters. Part 6:
Application in AC supply systems with nominal voltages ranging from
100 to 1000V. Amendment A2 for the draft DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE
0675 Part 6)’ N–PE arresters are standardized. These will be installed
between the neutral conductor (N) and the protective conductor (PE).
What is the task of such N–PE arresters? For reasons of personal
protection, class B and C arresters are usually installed (in energy flow
direction) before a fault current circuit-breaker (also see chapter
5.8.6.1.2). To safeguard the disconnection of a faulty arrester by the
back-up fuse in the TT-system, a ‘3 + 1-circuit’ is used. The three outer
Table 4.5.2.1.2 a Selection help and assignment of arresters
Protective measures, standards 121
conductors L
1
, L
2
and L
3
are connected to arresters and then with the
neutral conductor N. Between the neutral conductor N and the pro-
tective conductor PE, the N–PE arrester is installed. In the case of a
defective (short-circuited) arrester (at the outer conductor), a short-
circuit current is generated between the concerned outer conductor L
and the neutral conductor N which can be disconnected by the backup
system fuse in the time provided. If the arresters were installed between
L and PE, the current flowing in a TT-system over the defective arrester
between L and PE would not be sufficient to trip the system fuse (fur-
ther details in chapter 5.8.1.6.2.2). N–PE arresters must be able to con-
duct the sum of the interference currents of L
1
, L
2
and L
3
, towards N.
For N–PE arresters the requirements listed in Table 4.5.2.1.3 a are
valid.
4.5.2.2 Arresters for information technology, IEC SC 37A / E DIN
VDE 0845 Part 2
Since October 1993, the German standard draft DIN VDE 0845 Part 2
‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs- und Telekom-
munikations-technik gegen Blitzentladung, Entladung statischer Elek-
trizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen’. (‘Protection of
Data Processing and Telecommunication Equipment Against Lightning
Discharge, Electrostatic Discharge and Surges from Power Plants’) has
been available.
In this standard draft a difference is made between the following surge
protective devices:
Table 4.5.2.1.3 a N–PE arrester. Voltages and currents in accordance with E
DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2
122 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

gaps, including: (i) surge arresters, gas-filled (or gas discharge tube);
(ii) creeping discharge arresters/air spark gaps; (iii) disconnecting
spark gaps; and (iv) quenching spark gaps

semiconductor protective elements and varistors

surge limiters

protecting and isolating transformers, including reduction trans-
formers.
As this list shows, the standard draft DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 covers
components as well as surge protectors (surge limiters).
In the international standardization (IEC), components and pro-
tectors are treated in separate standard drafts (Figure 4.5.2.1 a):

The specifications of the components (Components for low-voltage
surge protection devices) are just being worked out by committee
SC 37 B. At present there are four drafts:
Draft IEC 61647-1: Specifications for gas discharge tubes (GDT)
Draft IEC 61647-2: Specifications for avalanche breakdown diodes
(ABD)
Draft IEC 61647-3: Specifications for metal oxide varistors (MOV)
Draft IEC 61647-4: Specifications for thyristor surge suppressors
(TSS).

The specifications for surge protection devices are currently being
worked out by the committee SC 37 A / WG4. This is entitled:
IEC 61644-1: Surge protection devices connected to telecommuni-
cation and signalling networks.
There are plans to work out a second part, describing the selection and
the application of surge protectors.
As the standardizing work is developed by committee SC 37 A, the
requirements concerning tests of arresters for information technology
and arresters for power technology will be ensured and coordinated with
regard to their classes of requirement and the conditions of application.
The yellow printed E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 specifies requirements
and tests made for surge protection devices to be used in installations of
data processing and telecommunication technology.
The user-relevant electrical requirements and tests for surge limiters
are briefly explained later.
For surge limiters, the standard draft identifies a difference between
type 1 and type 2: namely, that type 1 surge limiters are provided for use
against transient overvoltages (for example, caused by lightning), and
that type 2 surge limiters are provided for locations where additional AC
interference lasting up to 0.5s must be taken into account.
Protective measures, standards 123
Source
Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informations-
verarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen,
Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstroman-
lagen. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrich-
tungen’. (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct. 1993)
4.5.2.2.1 Important data for arrester selection

Nominal voltage U
N
. The nominal voltage of an arrester serves for type
characterization and is usually identical to the nominal voltage of the
system where the arrester will be used.

Rated voltage U
c
. The value U
c
indicates the maximum operating volt-
age for which the arrester is rated, and where its specified performance
data are met. This value is a support for the user in selecting an
arrester for the maximum operating data of a system or equipment.

Nominal current I
N
. The nominal current is the maximum admissible
operating current that may be carried over a current path of an arrester.

Operating frequency range. In the operating frequency range the
arrester shows an insertion loss of 3dB or less. As the arresters usually
have a low pass characteristic, the operating frequency range is
described by the cut-off frequency f
G
.
For use in digital transmission systems a special data transmission
speed v
s
is required instead of an operating frequency range. The possible
data transmission speed for an arrester is associated with the trans-
mission procedure used in the system. This procedure determines the
necessary cut-off frequency in a system with a low pass characteristic. In
telecommunication engineering V
s
= 2f
G
, or practically, for example,
v
s
= 1.25 × f
G
.

Current carrying capacity/discharge capability. Here the same criteria
are valid as for arresters for power engineering (see section 4.5.2.1a).
The standard draft E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 does not state any
requirements for lightning current arresters (lightning test currents I
imp
).
In the present state of engineering there are also arresters for informa-
tion technology equipment which are lightning current conductive (see
chapter 5.8.2).

Protection level U
p
. In the standard draft E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 this
value is also called the ‘maximum residual voltage’. This parameter
characterizes the maximum voltage that can arise at the terminals of
the arrester for the specified loadings. When selecting an arrester it
must be borne in mind that this value is below the destruction limit of
the subsequent device.
Further selection criteria are described in chapter 5.8.2.
124 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Source
Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informations-
verarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen,
Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstroman-
lagen. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrich-
tungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct. 1993)
4.5.2.2.2 Arrester coordination according to requirements and locations
A detailed coordination of the arresters for information technology
equipment according to the requirements and locations is not given
in the standard draft E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2. Only a subdivision
into loading classes according to their current carrying capacity has
been made. A practicable coordination of the arresters into classes of
requirements and locations is described in chapter 5.8.2.
Source
Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: 1993-10: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Infor-
mationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzein-
wirkungen, Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus
Starkstromanlagen. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspan-
nungsschutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach)
4.5.2.3 Arrester coordination
Now that classes of requirements and locations of the lightning current
and surge arresters are known, the user or the project organizer must
ensure the coordination of the arresters with regard to the devices to be
protected. This is the only way to achieve optimally harmonized protec-
tion for systems and devices. In chapter 5.8.1.6.1, consideration is given
to the graded use of arresters; the principle of energetic coordination will
also be explained.
Sources
HASSE, P., and ZÄUNER, E.: ‘Ableiter für Blitzströme und Überspannungen’,
Neue VDE-Bestimmung, Auswahlhilfe für den Praktiker. de, 1996, H. 15 and
16, pp. 1397–1400
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’ (Verlag TÜV Rhein-
land, Köln, 3. aktualisierte Auflage, 1993)
E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wech-
selstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100V und 1000V’ (VDE
Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Nov. 1993)
Protective measures, standards 125
E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Teil 201): ‘Blitzschutzbauteile. Teil 1:
Anforderungen für Verbindungsbauteile. Deutsche Fassung prEN 50164-1’
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, May 1997)
E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A1): ‘Überspannungsableiter zur
Verwendung in Wechselspannungsnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen
100V und 1000V. Änderung A1 zum Entwurf DIN VDE 0675–6 (VDE 0675 Teil
6)’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, March 1996)
E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A2): ‘Überspannungsableiter. Teil 6:
Verwendung in Wechselspannungsnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen
100V und 1000V. Änderung A2 zum Entwurf DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil
6)’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct.1996)
E DIN IEC 37A/44/CDV (VDE 0675 Teil 601): ‘Überspannungsschutzgeräte
für den Einsatz in Niederspannungs-Verteilungsnetzen. Teil 1: Anforderun-
gen an ihr Betriebsverhalten und Prüfmethoden (IEC 37A/44/CDV: 1996)’
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct. 1996)
E DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2 (VDE 0845 Teil 2) ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der
Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzein-
wirkungen, Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus
Starkstromanlagen. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungs-
schutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, Oct. 1993)
126 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Chapter 5
Components and protective devices: construction,
effect and application
In this chapter components and protective devices used for surge control
and/or the realization of the EMC-oriented lightning protection zone
concept will be introduced with particular regard to construction, mode
of functioning and fields of application. These include:

Air terminations for the erection of air-termination systems; in particu-
lar, the protection of electrical installations on flat roofs against direct
lightning strikes and thus assessing the lightning protection zone 0
B
.

Materials and components serving for the erection of building and
room shields for lightning protection zone 1 and higher.

Materials and components by means of which it is possible to realize
the shielding of power and telecommunication lines connecting neigh-
bouring buildings.

Shields for lines within lightning protection zone 1 and higher.

Optoelectronic bondings.

Components for equipotential bonding systems.

Protective devices to discharge lightning currents and to limit over-
voltages. Power and telecommunication lines, for example, are pro-
tected at the interfaces of the lightning protection zones by lightning
current arresters, installed at the interface of lightning protection
zones 0
A
and 1. Protective gear is also to be installed, for example,
directly at the inputs of systems and devices, if they have their own
(local) protection zones.
5.1 Air terminations
Air terminations are fixed points for likely lightning strikes used to avoid
uncontrolled strikes and to prevent the volume to be protected from
direct strikes. Air terminations comprise air-termination rods and air-
termination wires. The latter may be laid as a meshed network. The
location of air terminations is usually defined by the ‘rolling sphere’
method (Figures 4.1.3.1.2 f a, b and c). This means that a certain radius
of rolling sphere will be assigned to every protection level in accordance
with DIN ENV 61024-1 (Table 4.1.1.b).
Finally, air terminations form a system of protection for structures on
the roof (such as ventilators and air-conditioning systems). On flat roofs
‘partly isolated’ lightning protection systems are usually installed as
described in chapter 4.1.3. This air-termination system is spatially separ-
ated from lightning protection zone 1, so that there is a lightning protec-
tion zone 0
B
between the air-termination system and lightning protection
zone 1 (Figures 4.1.3.1.2 b and d). For smaller roof structures this pro-
tection can be achieved by individual or a combination of several air
termination rods. For larger roof structures protection by means of air
termination rods is not often possible as the rods would be too high and
thus there is danger of leaning. As an alternative an isolated air termin-
ation is the best solution. The distance between air terminations and struc-
tures on the roof must at least comform to the calculated safety distance.
Air-termination networks must form a protective volume including all
structures on the roof.
Figures 5.1 a and b show examples of roof superstructures in light-
ning protection zone 0
B
.
Figure 5.1 a Roof-ventilation cowl protected by an air-termination rod
128 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
DEHN u. SÖHNE Druckschrift: DS 626/0598 ‘Isolierte Blitz-Fangeinrichtun-
gen’ (Dehne + SÖHNE, Neumarkt), May 1998
5.2 Building and room shields
Extended metal components (e.g., metal roofs and facades, steel
reinforcements in concrete, expanded metals in walls, lattices, metal
supporting constructions, piping) which form an effective electro-
magnetic shield (see chapter 4.1.3, Figure 4.1.3.1.3 a) by their meshed
interconnection (according to DIN VDE 0800 Part 2, DIN VDE 0185
Parts 1 and 103, DIN VDE 0845 Part 1) are especially important for
shielding magnetic fields and for the creation of lightning protection
zones.
Figure 5.2 a shows how, in principle, a steel reinforcement and the
metal window and door frames can form an electromagnetic cage (hole
screen). In practice, however, it is not possible to weld or clamp every
nodal point for large structures. The achievable shield attenuation or
shielding factors of steel reinforcements are shown in Figure 5.2 b for the
especially interesting frequency range of lightning interference from
Figure 5.1 b Structures of air-conditioning systems protected by a mesh network
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 129
100Hz to 1MHz. The damping indicated in this Figure is applicable for
the case when a plain magnetic field influences the shield out of steel
reinforcement. For estimation of the magnetic field strength at any point
inside a lightning current-carrying cage structure, an approximation
Figure 5.2 a Room shield by means of steel reinforcement
Figure 5.2 b Shielding effect of the reinforcement steel
130 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
formula is indicated in the draft of IEC 61312-2. The magnetic field
strength depends mainly on the mesh size of the shield and on the dis-
tance from the shield (Figure 5.2 c).
Figure 5.2 d shows how structural steel mats (e.g., concrete steel mats
Q 377) in concrete are interconnected for shielding purposes by means of
suitable clamps (Figures 5.2 e). Often, hot-galvanized steel conductors
(round 10mm dia. or flat 30mm × 3.5mm) are used for bonding the
reinforcements (Figures 5.2 f and g). Thus, control (shortly before filling
in the concrete) is easier.
For bridging expansion joints or bonding the reinforcement of pre-
fabricated concrete parts, fixed earthing terminals, shown in Figures 5.2 h
and i, are provided. To such fixed earthing terminals or projecting
bonding conductors (Figure 5.2 j) the ‘earth bus ’ or ‘earth ring bus’ (ring
equipotential bonding bars) are connected (Figure 5.2 k). Metal facades
(Figures 5.2 l and m) are also used for shielding purposes; the facade steel
sheets, being interconnected, are to be bonded to the metal subconstruc-
tion and to the reinforcement (Figure 5.2 n).
Some of the above-mentioned shielding measures can also be applied
to the establishment of room shields (lightning protection zone 2 and
higher). In particular this concerns the use of steel reinforcements (in
floors, walls and ceilings), expanded metal (in walls and ceilings) and
lattices.
Smaller shields for lightning protection zones 2 and higher, or shields
Figure 5.2 c Magnetic field strength as function of the wall distance and the mesh
size of a grid structure
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 131
Figure 5.2 d (a)
Figure 5.2 d (a, b) Building shield out of interconnected structural steel mats
and reinforcing rods
Figure 5.2 d (b)
132 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.2 e (a–d) Bonding of (overlapping) structural steel mats and
reinforcing rods
Figure 5.2 e (a) Figure 5.2 e (b)
Figure 5.2 e (c) Figure 5.2 e (d)
Figure 5.2 f Floor reinforcement bonded with support reinforcement by wires
and clamps
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 133
Figure 5.2 g (a–d) Clamps for the connection of bonding wires with the
reinforcement
Figure 5.2 g (c) Figure 5.2 g (d)
Figure 5.2 g (a) Figure 5.2 g (b)
Figure 5.2 h (a and b) Fixed earthing terminal with connection to the
reinforcement
Figure 5.2 h (b)
Figure 5.2 h (a)
134 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.2 i Fixed earthing terminals for bridging the expansion joints
Figure 5.2 j Brought out bonding wire of the reinforcing mats for connection
to a ring equipotential bonding bar
Figure 5.2 k ‘Earth bus’ (according to DIN VDE 0800 Part 2)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 135
Figure 5.2 l Metal façade of an office building
Figure 5.2 m Metal subconstruction for metal façade (Source: H. Neuhaus)
Figure 5.2 n Down conductor system with connection to the air-termination
system and to the earthing system with effective electromagnetic
shielding
136 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
of local lightning protection zones, are usually formed by the enclosures
(sheet steel cabinets, sheet steel covered racks, sheet steel enclosures) of
telecommunication systems and devices (Figures 5.2 o and p).
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
Figure 5.2 o Structure of an electronic cabinet
Figure 5.2 p Connection of the baseframes for the electronic cabinets to the
reinforcement of the building
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 137
MÜLLER, K.P.: ‘Wirksamkeit von Gitterschirmen, z.B. Baustahlgewebemat-
ten, zur Dämpfung des elektromagnetischen Feldes’. VDE-Fachbericht 52:
Neue Blitzschutznormen in der Praxis (VDE Verlag Gmbh, Berlin/Offenbach,
1997)
5.3 Shields for lines between screened buildings
In chapter 4.1.3.1.6 (Figure 4.1.3.1.6 a) it was shown how two spatially
separated lightning protection zones can be changed into a single light-
ning protection zone by means of a line shield. The shields used will be
introduced here as follows:

Shielding of cables in metal conduits or closed trays which are con-
nected on both sides at the building input (Figures 5.3 a and b).

Use of buried cables with conductive shield which will be connected at
the building input (Figures 5.3 c and d). For protection against direct
lightning strikes it may be useful to incorporate superimposed earth
ropes.
Figure 5.3 a Shielding of cables in metal conduits or closed trays
138 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.3 b Steel conduits and metal pull boxes form a closed line screen
Figure 5.3 c Shielding of underground cable routes by conductive screens and
surface laid copper-ropes
Figure 5.3 d Cable with external ‘lightning protection’ screen, core pair screen
and pairing
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 139

Erection of cage-shaped reinforced cable ducts, if a multitude of con-
ventional cables (e.g., between two buildings) is laid (Figures 5.3 e
and f). This cable duct reinforcement must be bonded to the building
reinforcement.
Expansion joints in continuously reinforced cable ducts must be
bridged analogously to the building expansion joints. Similarly, duct
Figure 5.3 e Screening of underground cable routes by cages
Figure 5.3 f (a, b) Practical execution of a cable duct with continuously
interconnected reinforcement steel
Figure 5.3 f (a)
Figure 5.3 f (b)
140 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
connectors underneath or between adjacent buildings must be bridged.
Also, with regard to cable ducts, it must be ensured that the maximum
admissible voltage loadings on the cables laid or on the connected
equipment will not be exceeded. Even so, depending on the assumed
partial lightning current on the cable duct and on the cross section of the
cable duct and, thus, on the number of longitudinal reinforcement rods,
there may still arise voltage gradients from some 10V to over 100V
per metre length of the cable duct.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
KERN, A.: ‘Blitz-Störschutz als Massnahme der EMV am Beispiel einer
ausgedehnten Industrieanlage. 2. Forum für Sachverständige (Dehn u.
Söhne, Nürnberg, Nov. 1995)
5.4 Shields for cables in buildings
Cables shall be run near the equipotential bonding lines. These are parts
of the steel construction, reinforced walls, cable supporting structures,
cable trays or other electrically conductive parts which are connected to
the equipotential bonding system at least at both ends. In principle,
shielded cables should be used (Figure 5.4 a). This applies for electronic
or data cables as well as for higher voltage levels. Pair-twisted signal
Figure 5.4 a Connection of cable screens to a local equipotential bonding bar
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 141
cables are to be preferred. For related lines of one signalling circuit a
twisted pair each is to be used, so that the incoupled transverse voltage
on cable runs must be neglected. The limitation of the incoupled series
voltage determines the protection measures.
To lessen surges by overcoupling, power and signalling cables must be
consequently separated, if possible by using cable supporting structures
which are included in the equipotential bonding (Figures 5.4 b and c).
Different separations are needed depending on the cable parallel running
length. Thus:
Figure 5.4 c Line screen out of continuous metal cable racks and metal coverings
with pipe bends removed (Source: H. Neuhaus)
Figure 5.4 b Cable support constructions
142 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
for l < 5m distance at random
for 5m < l < 20m distance > 10 cm
for l > 20 m distance > 20 cm.
Also in existing systems it may become necessary to shield the cable
routes (subsequently). For this purpose a retrofit set is shown in Figures
5.4 d (a and b), consisting of shielded sleevings (yard goods) provided
with a closing system in the longitudinal direction. Tests for this set have
demonstrated a shield damping of about 50dB.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
KERN, A.: ‘Blitz-Störschutz als Massnahme der EMV am Beispiel einer
ausgedehnten Industrieanlage’ 2. Forum für Sachverständige. (Dehn
u. Söhne, Nürnberg, Nov. 1995)
BROCKE, R., FRENTZEL, R., and ZAHLMANN, P.: ‘Schirmung von Kabel-
trassen gegen Blitzeinkopplungen.’ etz 1996, No. 20
5.5 Optoelectronic connections
In systems of great transmission bandwidth and extra sensitive electronic
components, apart from the specific use of surge protection devices, cir-
cuit parts or component conductor systems will be opened by the inser-
tion of optoelectronic coupling gaps (Figure 5.5 a). Before detailing the
application possibilities and limitations of optoelectronic components
from the viewpoint of surge protection, these components and devices
will be introduced separately as follows.
Figure 5.4 d EMC-retrofit assembly for cable screening: (a) Components of
screening tube (yard goods) bonding set and terminal clamps
(b) Two samples bonded
Figure 5.4 d (a) Figure 5.4 d (b)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 143
5.5.1 Optical fibre transmission system
An optoelectronic connection consists of a transmitter, optical fibre and
receiver. The transmitter converts an electrical signal into an optical sig-
nal which is then transmitted to a receiver by an optical fibre. The optical
signal is then converted back to an electrical signal in the receiver. Light-
emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes are used in the transmitters. The
optical fibre conductors are usually made of glass fibre although plastic
fibres are sometimes used. Individual fibres have diameters ranging
between 100 and 150μm. A single complete conductor can comprise
between 10 and 100 fibres. Photodiodes, phototransistors, photothyris-
tors or other photoelectronic devices are used in the receivers. Figure
5.5.1 a shows the principle of an optoelectronic system for data transmis-
sion over long distances.
Optical fibre transmission systems have the following advantages over
traditional conductor systems: there is no crosstalk between two lines;
they have high transmission capacities in a system of low mass; and they
are very space-efficient in the installation.
If the optical fibre is of pure glass, there are further advantages with
regard to surge protection: namely, optimal electrical insulation between
transmitter and receiver, and insensitivity to incouplings. However, it
must be taken into account that optical fibre cables often have a metal
sheath for damage protection which can be heated by lightning to such a
degree that the cable will be damaged.
The components introduced so far are used for the construction of
optical fibre systems for data transmission over long distances. If, how-
ever, a potential separation of elements of an electronic system is
required, then optocouplers are used.
Figure 5.5 a Subdivision into component conductor systems
144 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.5.2 Optocoupler
The optocoupler is a combination of radiation emitting (input) and radi-
ation sensitive (output) components. Light transmission between these
two components takes place across a thin layer of optical medium which
simultaneously isolates the input from the output (Figure 5.5.2 a). Opto-
couplers are available having a voltage withstand of some 100V to 10kV
between input and output. However, this voltage only indicates the insu-
lation strength between input and output. Semiconductor components
with known surge sensitivity are connected between the terminals of the
optocoupler; this means that special attention must be paid to a sufficient
limitation of differential-mode overvoltages when using them in trans-
mission systems. Furthermore, these semiconductor components, namely
the diode and the phototransistor, can be thermally destroyed by low,
long-duration overvoltages and this may reduce the voltage strength of
the insulation gap between input and output.
Optocouplers are used as optoelectronic coupling elements for signal
transmission in cases where galvanic separation is required in sensitive
system elements (Figure 5.5.2 b). Their function is thus comparable with
that of transmitters being primarily used for blocking low common-mode
voltages. They cannot, however, be used for protection against voltages
higher than their transmitter/receiver surge withstand capability.
Most optoelectronic systems are supplied with mains current. There is,
therefore, another galvanic coupling through the mains supply which
also is susceptible to the danger of entering overvoltages. Surge protection
devices should thus be incorporated.
Source
TRAPP, N.: ‘Die Optimierung des Inneren Blitzschutzes durch den Einsatz
optoelektronischer Baugruppen’. 16. Internationale Blitschutzkonferenz,
Szeged, 1981, Beitrag R-5.04
5.6 Equipotential bonding
Lightning protection equipotential bonding of a ‘volume to protect’
includes all incoming metal installations as explained in Section
Figure 5.5.1 a Fibre-optic transmission system: basic circuit diagram
(Source: Siemens)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 145
4.1.3.1.4. Figure 5.6 a shows an equipotential bonding bar which is used
for the main equipotential bonding according to DIN VDE 0100 Parts
410 and 540, as well as for lightning protection equipotential bonding
according to DIN VDE 0185.
In the case of extended telecommunication systems, a duly shaped
lightning protection equipotential bonding bar (installed at ground level
inside the building) also functions as an ‘earth bus’ and is usually
installed as an ‘earth ring bus’ inside the building (DIN VDE 0800 Part
2). The ‘earth ring bus’, a ring equipotential bonding bar, is a copper bar
having a minimum cross section of 50mm
2
for surface mounting at a
Figure 5.5.2 a Optocoupler: Function diagram
Figure 5.5.2 b Connection of input and output lines to a data processing system
by optocoupler
146 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
distance of some centimetres from the wall. At distances of about 5m it
should be bonded to the foundation earth electrode (DIN VDE 0800
Part 2) (Figures 4.1.3.1.4 a and 5.2 j). This bonding can also be realized
over the reinforcement. An equipotential bonding bar such as that in
Figure 5.6 a can be sufficient for small local systems.
If the discharge system consists of plain metal components which
constitute an effective electromagnetic shield (Figure 5.6 b), the equi-
potential bonding bars can be directly bonded with the shield. A low-
impedance coupling of the external conductors and their shields is
required for lightning protection equipotential bonding at the interface
between lightning protection zones 0 and 1. Equipotential bonding
is, therefore, often carried out using a bonding plate with multiple
radial or even coaxial connections of the conduits or line shields (Figure
5.6 c).
Equipotential bonding is not only for the protection of electronic
systems but it must also fulfil special functions. A low-impedance equi-
potential bonding system, that is, an entity formed of interconnected
equipotential bonding lines including the metal parts of the electric sys-
tems (such as enclosures, racks, cable trays etc. Figures 5.6 b, 5.2 o, 5.4 b)
and the building (e.g., reinforcement in floors, walls and ceilings, support-
ing structures between floors) is possible using a meshed, plane or
space-covering formation. Such a meshed overall building equipotential
bonding system is the best way to reduce overvoltages in telecom-
munication systems and is the basis for the coordinated use of arresters
(surge protection devices, filters etc.).
Different types of functional equipotential bonding systems as needed
for telecommunication facilities and systems, are described in section
Figure 5.6 a Equipotential bonding bar (acc. to DIN VDE 0618) with snap-on
terminals for conductor cross sections 25 to 95mm
2
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 147
4.1.3.1.4. Metal supports, cabinets, enclosures, cable racks etc. in rooms
with telecommunication facilities and systems must be included in the
meshed functional equipotential bonding, as Figures 5.6 b, 5.2 o, 5.4 b
and 5.6 d show.
Another possibility for achieving functional equipotential bonding
is to create an equipotential bonding network by means of the metal
supporting structures between floors. It is useful to install a local ring
equipotential bonding bar, as shown in Figure 5.2. j, which then is
connected to the ‘earth ring bus’ several times (also over the steel
reinforcement or the protection zone screen) (Figure 5.6 e).
Figure 5.6 b Connection of air terminations, equipotential bonding, earthing and
installation to the reinforcement (Source: Frentzel, R., TÜV South
Germany)
Figure 5.6 c Connection of piping entries to the reinforcement (Source: Frentzel,
R., TÜV South Germany)
148 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Above all else, functional equipotential bonding shall include:

metal enclosures and racks of the telecommunication systems

conductors of electrical systems which do not carry operational volt-
ages and/or currents.
In the latter case, these include: (i) the protective conductors (PE) of
the power system, (ii) the earth electrode conductors of the telecommuni-
cation system, (iii) the outer shields of the telecommunication cables, and
if necessary, the chassis terminals of the electronic devices and systems.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
DIN VDE 0800 Teil 2: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. Erdung und Potentialausgleich’
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, July 1985)
Figure 5.6 d Wall bushing of cable racks in meshed functional equipotential
bonding
Figure 5.6 e Equipotential bonding bar for communication technology room
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 149
5.7 Isolating spark gaps
Enclosed spark gaps which can carry test currents of 10/350μs (Section
4.5.2 b) without being destroyed are known as isolating spark gaps.
Up to their sparkover voltage, these spark gaps provide the electrical
separation of two metal installations. Once the nominal spark-over
point is reached, they create an electrical bonding path for the light-
ning current. This coupling is reset after the decay of the lightning
current. Isolating spark gaps (Figure 5.7 a) are used at clearances
between the lightning protection system and other earthed system
parts in order to avoid uncontrolled arcing or puncturing at these
points. They are used to incorporate metal installations, for example,
into the lightning protection equipotential bonding system in cases
where these installations cannot be interconnected due to corrosion
effects (Figure 5.7 b).
High specifications must be fulfilled for explosion-protected isolating
spark gaps (Figure 5. 7 c). These are used to avoid open sparking in the
event of a lightning strike in hazardous areas, for example, for bridging
the insulation flanges in pipelines. The lightning impulse sparkover
voltage 1.2/50 of such spark gaps should be not higher than 50% of the
50 Hz sparkover AC voltage (effective value) of the insulating flange to
be protected.
The impulse sparkover voltage of a spark gap depends on the rate of
rise of the generated overvoltage wave. The steeper the wave, the shorter
the time during which failure can occur. This voltage–time relationship is
clearly shown by the impulse characteristic.
Figure 5.7 d shows the impulse characteristic of the explosion-
protected spark gap in Figure 5.7 e. It is extremely flat: hence, the spark
gap limits rapidly rising overvoltage impulses to almost constant values
of about 2kV.
‘Sparkover voltage’ is not the only relevant factor in the design of a
parallel-connected isolating spark gap. After the tripping of the isolating
spark gap, a voltage with peak value û = L(di/dt)
max
is generated at the
insulating part. L is the loop inductance and di/dt the rate of rise of
current (Figure 5.7 e).
From an equation supplied in the ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und
Erdung’, the maximum value of inductance may be calculated for a
square loop of length 300mm, and a rope cross section of 25mm
2
Cu (r =
2.8mm). This is L = 0.16μH.
After a direct strike the lightning current flows to both sides of a
pipeline and a maximum rate-of-rise of current of (di/dt)
max
= 40kA/μs
can be assumed. For an impulse wave of 4/10μs, this corresponds to a
peak value of 120kA.
From the above data, the peak value of the voltage û = 6.4kV for
a loop length of 300mm, and isolating spark gap elements with an
150 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
effective sparkover voltage of more than 5kV (i.e., peak value û = 5kV √2
≈7kV) can be connected in parallel without any further testing.
Maximum requirements are for isolating spark gaps. At the instant of
the lightning strike, the gaps should be capable of carrying the lightning
current through a protective insulation and afterwards retain the full
insulating strength (cf. Sections 6.4 and 6.5). High-current spark gaps
of this nature, type HSFS (Figure 5.7 f ), must therefore be capable of
Figure 5.7 c Explosion-protected isolating spark gap
Figure 5.7 a Isolating
spark gap
Figure 5.7 b Isolating spark gap for isolating metal
systems of different potentials
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 151
conducting especially high lightning currents without being destroyed
and, during normal operation, they must offer the same high reliability
as normal insulation components.
This spark gap type HSFS has been proven in military applications
and is in compliance with the requirements and tests of VDE specifica-
tions and DIN VDE 0800 Part 9. Figure 5.7 g shows such a high-
Figure 5.7 d Impulse voltage–time curve of the explosion-protected isolating
spark gap (Figure 5.7 c)
Figure 5.7 e Voltage drop û caused by (di/dt)
max
152 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
efficiency spark gap under test conditions with a laboratory simulated
lightning current. The unit blows the arc through special openings
during discharge of the surge currents. This type of spark gap is housed
in an enclosure which is equipped with baffle plates (Sections 6.4
and 6.5).
Sources
HASSE, P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz
elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen. (Verlag TÜV
Rheinland, Köln, 3. aktualisierte Auflage, 1993)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
DIN VDE 0800 Teil 9: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. KU-Werte sicherheitsbezogener
Bauelemente und Isolierungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach, May
1989)
5.8 Arresters
According to their ranges of application, surge protective devices (SPDs)
for power engineering and for information technology can be subdivided
into two kinds: namely, lightning current arresters and surge arresters (cf.
Section 4.5.2.1 and 4.5.2.2).
SPDs are internationally standardized in IEC 61643-1:1998-02 ‘Surge
protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems.
Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods’. In this standard
the SPDs are distinguished according to test classes (I, II, III). It is
Figure 5.7 f High-current spark gap,
type HSFS
Figure 5.7 g High-current spark gap,
type HSFS tested by laboratory
simulated lightning current
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 153
somewhat difficult for the user to understand this classification because it
is primarily meant for the producer of the SPDs.
A rather user-convenient SPD standardization is included in the
German DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/6A1 and 6A2 (Table 5.8 a). As
the requirements and tests of the German standard are more severe than
the international standards, the German standard is taken as a basis for
arrester classification.
Lightning current arresters must be able to discharge (high energy)
lightning currents or considerable parts of them non-destructively. They
are dimensioned and tested in accordance with IEC 61643-1/E DIN
VDE 0675 Part 6 and Part 6/A1 (Figure 5.8 a). Surge arresters only serve
limiting overvoltages at relatively low-energy surge currents.
Figure 5.8 a

1 Test current impulse (10/350μs) for lightning current
arresters;

2 Test current impulse (8/20 μs) for surge
arresters according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1
Table 5.8 a
E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 IEC 37A/447/CDV
Arresters class B, for lightning protection
equipotential bonding purposes according to DIN
VDE 0185 Part 1
Arrester: ‘Class I’
Arresters class C, for surge protection purposes in
the permanent installation, especially for use in
surge withstand category (surge category) III
Arrester: ‘Class II’
Arresters class D, for surge protection purposes in
the mobile/permanent installation, especially for
use in surge withstand category (surge category) II
Arrester: ‘Class III’
154 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.1 Arresters for power engineering
As explained in chapter 4.5.2, arresters for systems and equipment in
power engineering are subdivided into requirement classes A, B, C and
D according to IEC 61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 and Part 6 A1
(Figure 5.8.1 a and Tables 5.8.1 a and b).
Class A arresters are used in low-voltage overhead lines. Class B, C
and D arresters are used in permanent building installations. The highest
requirements for discharge capability are for class B arresters. These
are lightning current arresters used in the scope of lightning- and surge-
protection at the interface of lightning protection zones 0
A
/1. Such
arresters must be able to carry lightning partial currents with wave shape
10/350μs non-destructively for several strikes. The task of these lightning
current arresters is to prevent destructive lightning partial currents from
penetrating the electrical system of a building. According to the latest
‘Technical Supply Conditions’ of German power supply companies,
lightning current arresters may also be installed before the meter.
Surge arresters are installed (at the boundary of lightning protection
zones 1/2) for protection against surges arising between the active con-
ductors L
1
, L
2
, L
3
and N as against the protective conductor PE. These are
class C surge arresters with a discharge capacity of some 10kA (8/20μs).
The final link in lightning and surge protection for power engineering
systems is the terminal protection (boundary of lightning protection
zones 2/3). The main task of the class D arresters used is to protect
against surges arising between L and N. These are mainly switching
overvoltages.
5.8.1.1 Surge arresters for low-voltage overhead lines, class A
Surge arresters for use in low-voltage overhead lines (Figure 5.8.1.1 a) are
usually constructed as a series connection of spark gap and voltage-
dependent resistor (Figure 5.8.1.1 b) designed for a nominal discharge
surge current of 8/20μs with 5 kA peak value (Table 5.8.1.1 a). Such a
loading occurs in cases of remote lightning striking into the power sup-
ply system. In the case of a direct lightning strike the spark gap welds
and the non-linear resistor fuses. A disconnector separates the defective
arrester from the system (e.g., indicated by a detached indicator sleeve).
Figure 5.8.1.1 c indicates the voltage U
M
arising between overhead line
and ‘earth’ on discharging a 5kA (8/20) surge current. U
M
is composed of:

the protection level U
P
(about 2kV)

the voltage drop at the earth conductor inductance (at a 5kA 8/20
surge current, (di/dt)
max
is about 1 kA/μs, therefore the voltage drop
peak value is about 10kV)

the voltage drop at the impulse earth resistance R
E
(peak value about
50kV).
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 155
The total of these (time-related) potential gradients results in the
curve U
M
= f (t) in Figure 5.8.1.1 c, b, with a peak value U
M
of
about 55kV. Hence, these arresters, when used in low-voltage over-
head lines, cannot effectively protect the connected consumer installa-
tions (Figure 5.8.1.1 c, a) in discharging the nominal discharge surge
current. Primarily, they protect the low voltage overhead line systems
themselves.
Figure 5.8.1 a Application of arresters in a power technical network
Table 5.8.1 a Requirement classes of arresters for power technical systems in
accordance with E DIN VDE 00675 Part 6 and E DIN VDE 0675
Part 6/A1
156 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.1.2 Lightning current arresters for lightning protection equipotential
bonding, class B
Lightning current arresters have to meet the requirements in Table
5.8.1.2 a. There may be a (computer based) calculation of the required
lightning current-carrying capability according to the respective installa-
tion factors.
According to IEC 61312-1:1995-02: ‘Protection against lightning
electromagnetic impulse. Part 1: General principles’ the distribution
shown in Figure 5.8.1.2 a may be assumed concerning the distribution of
Table 5.8.1 b Assignment of the arrester gear
Figure 5.8.1.1 a Arrester hooked
into the overhead line (Source:
Siemens)
Figure 5.8.1.1 b Structure of the arrester
in Figure 5.8.1.1 a: (1) fusible point, (2)
fusible strip, (3) indicating sleeve, (4) non-
linear resistor disc (silicon carbide), (5)
spark gap (Source: Siemens)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 157
the lightning and lightning partial currents at a lightning strike into the
air-termination system. The lightning current arrester loading can be
estimated as follows. A lightning current of 200kA (10/350 μs) is the
maximum loading for protection level I (according to Table 5.8.1.2 b).
According to Figure 5.8.1.2 a this lightning current is distributed as
follows: (a) 50% (100kA, 10/350 μs) is discharged through the earthing
system, and (b) 50% (100kA, 10/350 μs) is discharged by the connected
supply systems (power system, information technical system, metal pip-
ing etc.). If, in the worst case, there is only the power system, it will be
loaded by 50% of lightning current. Considering the worst case of only
two conductors (L and PEN), there will be a loading of 50kA (10/350μs)
each per conductor. For this worst case scenario the loading of a one-
pole lightning current arrester will have the following parameters: a peak
value 50kA (10/350 μs), a charge of 25As and a specific energy of
0.625MJ/Ω.
Lightning current arresters for such high demands are mostly air-
gliding spark gap structures which are able to extinguish the flowing
mains follow-current automatically after having been activated (Figure
5.8.1.2 b). Such leakage current-free gliding spark gaps are often a con-
struction of rotationally symmetric electrodes with a spacing insulating
layer which has an arc-exhausting effect. Their ‘breakwater function’ is a
major advantage of such spark gap arresters. Wave shape 10/350μs light-
ning currents are shortened to surge currents of wave shape < 8/20μs
which are compatible for downstream installed surge arresters.
Figure 5.8.1.2 c shows four such practice-proven lightning current
arresters. The DEHNport
®
lightning current arrester (Figure 5.8.1.2 d) is
equipped with a capacitively-controlled tandem gliding spark gap. It
consists of three rotationally symmetric electrodes with spacers made out
of different insulating materials. Thus, a high discharge capacity of
75kA (10/350μs) at a low protection level of 3.5kV (1.2/50μs) is
achieved. This arrester exhausts hot gases when discharging lightning
currents. Therefore other bare, live metal parts must be kept in minimum
distances as shown in Figure 5.8.1.2 e.
Table 5.8.1.1 a Arresters – class A
158 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Usual types of lightning current arrester based on spark gaps are able
to extinguish mains follow-currents of up to 4kA
eff
(50Hz) automatically.
The spark gap in the lightning current arrester must establish a ‘counter
voltage’ (arc voltage) in the range of the supplying system voltage in
order to obtain a better follow-current extinguishing capability. There-
fore, a completely new function principle had to be developed for the
required follow-current-limiting spark gap. This is based on optimized
arc cooling by radial and axial blowing. The necessary cooling gas is
Figure 5.8.1.1 c Protective effect of arresters installed at overhead lines
(a) Spatial arrangement (b) Voltages at discharging a5 kA
(8/20μs) impulse current
Figure 5.8.1.1 c (a)
Figure 5.8.1.1 c (b)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 159
Table 5.8.1.2 a Arresters – class B
Table 5.8.1.2 b Lightning current parameters acc. to IEC 61024-1 resp. IEC
61312-1 (ENV 61024-1)
Figure 5.8.1.2 a Assumed distribution of the lightning current
160 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
generated under the influence of the arc by the surrounding plastic
material. Owing to the forced blowing, the arc voltage will be increased.
Figure 5.8.1.2 f shows the principle of a radially and axially blown arc
(RADAX-flow technology). The cooling gas released under the influence
of arc streams radially (from all sides) towards the arc and ‘compresses’
it. Owing to the reduced cross section of the arc pillar, the arc resistance
will rise and the arc voltage increase. The gas heated by the influence of
the arc is finally exhausted by an axial gas streaming through an expul-
sion nozzle. For RADAX-flow spark gap technology, the follow-current
(let-through current) actually flowing through the arrester will be limited
to a very low value, independent of the possible mains short-circuit
current (section 5.8.1.6.3).
The use of RADAX-flow technology in series bays of usual dimensions
(Figure 5.8.1.2 g) has led to a completely new generation of lightning
current arresters combining a high surge current discharge capability
with the breaking performance of a circuit breaker: The problem of
false tripping of fuses due to mains follow-currents is solved. Because of
these excellent operating characteristics, lightning current arresters in
RADAX-flow technology are especially suitable for installation in the
sealed part of a consumer system (mains distribution system).
DEHNbloc
®
and DEHNbloc
®
NH contain a pressure-controlled
encapsulated gliding spark gap (Figure 5.8.1.2 h, a). The encapsulation of
the spark gaps prevents the ‘blowing’ of these lightning current arresters.
Thus, the spacing problem (safety distances) is solved (Figure 5.8.1.2 h,
d). The discharge capacity of these encapsulated gliding spark gaps is
about 25kA (10/350μs) and the protection level is lower than 4kV (1,2/
50μs). Owing to the pressure-controlled arc quenching, the mains follow-
current will be safely controlled. The leakage-current-free encapsulated
gliding spark gap is embedded into a special insulating material with arc-
quenching characteristic. The pressure arising at the activation of the
spark gaps enforces the quenching effect of the insulating material.
Figure 5.8.1.2 b Behaviour of a lightning current arrester based on a spark gap
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 161
Figure 5.8.1.2 c Lightning current arrester (from left to right):
(a) DEHNport
®
, (b) DEHNport
®
Maxi, (c) DEHNbloc
®
,
(three-pole design), (d) DEHNbloc
®
NH
Figure 5.8.1.2 c (c) Figure 5.8.1.2 c (d)
Figure 5.8.1.2 c (a) Figure 5.8.1.2 c (b)
162 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.2 d (a)
DEHNport
®
with tandem
gliding spark gap
Figure 5.8.1.2 d (b)
Sectional model tandem
gliding spark gap
Figure 5.8.1.2 d (c)
Function principle
Figure 5.8.1.2 e Lightning current arrester type DEHNport
®
, installed at the
input of a power supply line from lightning protection zone 0 into
lightning protection zone 1
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 163
Figure 5.8.1.2 f Basic circuit diagram for an arc blown out radially and axially in
RADAX-flow technology
Figure 5.8.1.2 g Lightning current arrester DEHNport with RADAX-flow
technology in the mains connection box for application in the
area before the meter
164 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The DEHNbloc
®
(Figure 5.8.1.2 h, b) is a compact, three-pole arrester
unit (with a space-saving width of only four modules). It is especially
suitable for the common TN-C system. Also the multifunction terminals
for the clamping of both terminal wires and comb-type bars are easy to
use (comparable to the DEHNport
®
). The DEHNbloc
®
NH (Figure
5.8.1.2 h, c) is the first lightning current arrester for mounting on
Figure 5.8.1.2 h (c)
DEHNbloc
®
NH
Figure 5.8.1.2.h (b) DEHNbloc
®
Figure 5.8.1.2.h (d) Installation without minimum
distances
Figure 5.8.1.2 h (a)
Encapsulated gliding spark gap
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 165
NH-fuse bases size 00 (also in fuse-disconnector blocks). Installation by
a usual fuse handle is possible without operational interruption. This is
especially attractive for application in industrial plants.
Because of the gliding spark gap technology the ‘breakwater function’
is guaranteed and thus an energetic coordination (as explained in
chapter 4.5.4) with surge arresters based on varistor technology, like
DEHNguard
®
, is possible.
DEHNport
®
, DEHNport
®
Maxi, DEHNbloc
®
NH and DEHNbloc
®
can be installed upstream of the meter because of the leakage current-free
operation and the high insulation resistance.
Another special lightning current arrester (according to E DIN VDE
0675 Part 6/A2) based on air spark gaps is the N-PE lightning current
arrester DEHNgap B (Figure 5.8.1.2 i). What is the task of an N-PE
lightning current arrester?
Lightning current arresters should be installed as close as possible to
the building input. In the TT-system this means an installation upstream
of the residual-current device. In the case of an earth fault in this range,
the upstream fuse must disconnect. But this is not guaranteed under
unfavourable earthing conditions.
On using the N–PE lightning current arrester DEHNgap B in a ‘3 +
1-circuit’, where the three phases (L
1
, L
2
, L
3
) are connected to gliding
spark gaps (e.g., the DEHNport) and a spark gap is installed between
neutral conductor N and protective conductor PE (chapter 5.8.1.6), there
is a short-circuit current between the phases and neutral conductor in
the case of an arrester fault which the upstream fuse can now break
in the time provided.
The N–PE lightning current arrester type DEHNgap B can safely
conduct the residual current of the incoupled lightning between the
earthing system and the neutral conductor up to 100kA (10/350μs) at a
sparkover voltage < 4kV (1.2/50μs).
The compact enclosure design with a space of two modules and the
multifunction terminals for clamping both the terminal wires and comb-
type bars makes the N–PE lightning current arrester DEHNgap B very
easy to use.
Also a quench gap (Figure 5.8.1.2 j) is suitable for the inclusion of
power lines into the lightning protection equipotential bonding at the
interface of lightning protection zones 0 and 1. It is also able to
extinguish mains follow-currents automatically. This lightning current
arrester has been proven in practice for years and is included in the
standards DIN VDE 0804 Part 2 and DIN VDE 0845 Part 1. Quench
gaps are, for example, used in the lightning current arrester arrange-
ment described in chapter 6.5 (Figures 6.5 b and 6.5 c) to protect
transportable telecommunication facilities and for the connection of
the mains supply of TV transmitters (chapter 6.4, Figures 6.4 e and
6.4 f, b).
166 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.1.3 Surge arresters for protection of permanent installation, class C
According to DIN VDE 0675 Part 6, class C surge arresters are used in
the permanent building installation.
At lightning protection zone interfaces 0
B
/1 and higher, the phases (L
1
,
L
2
, L
3
) of the mains are equipped with surge arresters. In TT and TN–S
systems, where the N conductor is run separately from the PE conductor,
the N conductor also has an arrester.
Valve-type arresters are constructed according to DIN VDE 0675
Parts 1 and 6 or IEC 99.1 and consist of a spark gap and voltage-
dependent resistor connected in series; their nominal discharge surge
current is 5kA (8/20μs); the voltage arising at the consumer installation
is about 1.5kV.
Figures 5.8.1.3 a and b show valve-type arresters containing one air-
spark-gap and one silicon carbide resistor. Voltage and current charac-
teristics for voltage limitation are shown in Figure 5.8.1.3 c. Valve-type
arresters are characterized by their quenching voltage U
l
(continuous
operating voltage U
c
according to DIN VDE 0675 Part 6), at which an
arrester (in an operating duty test) is still able to extinguish the mains
follow-current automatically. Figure 5.8.1.3 d shows the voltage and
current during such an operating duty test according to DIN VDE 0675
Part 1 at a valve-type arrester for U
l
= 280V, whereas Figure 5.8.1.3 e
shows the protection characteristic of this arrester.
If the valve-type arrester shown in Figure 5.8.1.3 a is overloaded, the
integrated disconnector separates the defective arrester from the mains.
Downstream consumer installations will stay alive. However, such defect-
ive arresters must be replaced as they no longer protect against surges.
Figure 5.8.1.2 i DEHNgap B Figure 5.8.1.2 j Quench gap
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 167
Valve-type arresters have indicators to show the defective and discon-
nected state (Figure 5.8.1.3 f).
Figure 5.8.1.3 g shows an arrester for NH fuse bases size 00 (connected
to L and PE). Figure 5.8.1.3 h shows a practical example. Replacement of
an arrester in a live state is easy by means of an NH fuse handle. If
holders with a microswitch (Figure 5.8.1.3 i) are used, the projecting pin of
Figure 5.8.1.3 b Nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester (acc. to Figure
5.8.1.3 a), installed in a low-voltage distribution system
Figure 5.8.1.3 a Nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester
168 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.3 c Performance of a nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester
(series connection of spark gap and silicon carbide varistor)
Figure 5.8.1.3 d Performance of a nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester
(acc. to Figure 5.8.1.3 a) during the operating duty test
Figure 5.8.1.3 e Protective characteristic of a nonlinear resistor type gapped
surge arrester (acc. to Figure 8.1.3 a)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 169
the disconnected arrester will press this switch and a remote indication of
the necessary arrester replacement becomes possible.
Recent surge arrester models have zinc oxide varistors (Figure 5.8.1.3 j)
where almost no mains follow-current arises; these can be used without a
series connected spark gap. Figure 5.8.1.3 k shows such a surge arrester in
a modular design with a thermally controlled zinc oxide varistor for
space-saving installation in distribution systems (Figure 5.8.1.3 l).
The basic overvoltage limiting behaviour is shown in Figure 5.8.1.3 m;
Figure 5.8.1.3 h Surge arrester (acc. to Figure 5.8.1.3 g), installed in a
distribution system
Figure 5.8.1.3 f Nonlinear resistor type
gapped surge arrester with disconnector
and indicator (acc. to Figure 8.1.3 a).
Arrester on the right is defective,
disconnector has operated (pushed up
button)
Figure 5.8.1.3 g Surge arrester in
NH type of construction
170 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.3 k Surge arrester in modular design, type DEHNguard
®
Figure 5.8.1.3 i Remote
indication of the operation of the
arrester disconnector (acc. to
Figure 5.8.1.3 g) by microswitch
Figure 5.8.1.3 j Metal oxide varistor
Figure 5.8.1.3 k Surge arrester in modular design, type DEHNguard
®
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 171
the limiting voltage is exclusively determined by the residual voltage at
the discharge of the impulse current. A live surge arrester on a metal
oxide basis (without spark gaps) carries the current corresponding to
its U/I characteristic (Figure 5.8.1.3 n). Such arresters are always ‘in
operation’, whereas an arrester based on a spark gap needs ‘activation’
by an overvoltage.
Usual surge arresters based on ZnO have a discharge capability of
Figure 5.8.1.3 l Surge arrester DEHNguard
®
installed at the input of a power
supply line from lightning protection zone 1 to lightning
protection zone 2
Figure 5.8.1.3 m Performance of a surge arrester based on metal oxide (acc. to
Figure 5.8.1.3 k)
172 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
15kA (8/20μs). The protection element must be able to conduct this
discharge current safely and without changing the characteristic at
least 20 times. This is sufficient to prevent overloading in the case of a
‘creep under’ of a backup lightning current arrester and correctly dimen-
sioned decoupling impedance (chapter 5.8.1.5). If for example, owing to
unfavourable conditions, there is a missing backup lightning current
arrester (in spark gap technology), this discharge capacity is exceeded
and thus the varistor overloaded, then it will be automatically discon-
nected from the mains. This prevents a defective arrester from disturbing
the operation. Remote control is possible by a local indicator and a
potential-free changeover contact.
DEHNguard
®
T (Figure 5.8.1.3 o) consists of two parts: a base and an
attachable varistor module which can be replaced in case of overloading.
For insulation measurements of the system, quick removal is advanta-
geous. To avoid errors, the base and varistor module are provided with
code pins according to their nominal voltage.
Figure 5.8.3.1 p shows a surge arrester with degree of protection IP ×
4W. This is particularly suitable for industrial applications (to be plugged
into NH fuse holders, size 00) and has (like the arrester shown in Figure
5.8.1.3 g) an integrated backup fuse which does not need any further
backup fuse on the mains (section 5.8.1.5).
The 3 + 1 circuit (chapter 5.8.1.5) allows the application of surge
arresters upstream of the residual current device. The three phase con-
ductors (L
1
, L
2
, L
3
) are connected to varistors towards the neutral con-
ductor N, and the surge arrester DEHNgap C (Figure 5.8.1.3 q), based
on a spark gap having a sparkover voltage of about 1.5kV (1.2/50), is
Figure 5.8.1.3 n U/I characteristic of a varistor
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 173
installed between neutral conductor N and protective conductor PE.
Thus, the upstream fuse can meet the disconnection requirements in the
case of a fault.
The space-saving one modular design of the surge arresters DEHN-
guard
®
and DEHNgap C and the multifunction terminals for wires and
usual comb-type bars make them especially easy to install.
5.8.1.4 Surge arresters for application at socket outlets, class D
Surge arresters for mobile application at socket outlets (overvoltage cat-
egory II) are assigned to requirement class D according to E DIN VDE
0675 Part 6. Such pluggable protectors (Figure 5.8.1.4 a) are often
equipped with additional filters (Figure 5.8.1.4 b). The SF protector has a
visual function indicator (green lamp) and a visual fault indicator (red
lamp). When overloading it is disconnected automatically from the
mains without power interruption. The plug-in surge protection adapter
shown in Figure 5.8.1.4 c is a combination of surge arrester and interfer-
ence suppressor filter.
Further types of surge arresters used in this range are shown in Figures
5.8.1.4 d to f: According to design and testing, these are class D pro-
tectors. The surge protection socket outlet (Figure 5.8.1.4 d) has a super-
visory device and a disconnection device with a green lamp as visual
function indication and a red lamp as fault indication (indication of the
disconnected mains). The surge arrester NM-DK 280 (Figure 5.8.1.4 e) is
suitable for application in cable ducts and flush-mounted boxes. Because
of its feed-through terminals it can be easily inserted into circuits. It is
adaptable to all types of switches as it can be covered by the central disc
according to DIN 43 696.
The protector shown in Figure 5.8.1.4 f is for power supply protection
of industrial electronics equipment (e.g., programmable controllers,
SPC) against surges and high-frequency disturbance voltages.
Figure 5.8.1.3 q Surge
arrester DEHNguard
®
C
Figure 5.8.1.3 p Surge
arrester VNH 280
Figure 5.8.1.3 o Surge
arrester DEHNguard
®
T
174 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.1.5 Surge arresters for application at equipment inputs
Equipment with a power technical input (which may form its own light-
ning protection zone) can be directly protected at this input by surge
arresters as mini-modules (Figure 5.8.1.5 a) and (Figure 5.8.1.5 b). They
protect electronic equipment of overvoltage category I. These arresters
are designed and tested according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 as
class D.
5.8.1.6 Application of lightning current arresters and surge arresters
Planning and execution of surge protection measures in the scope
of an EMC-compliant protection strategy must lead to a coordinated
Figure 5.8.1.4 a Pluggable surge arrester
protects mains input of a computer
Figure 5.8.1.4 b SF-protector
(surge arrester with filter) for
protection against transient
surges and frequent interference
voltages
Figure 5.8.1.4 c SFL-protector: Multiple socket outlet with surge arrester and
filter
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 175
protection system. A consequence of the often missing system consider-
ation today is the uncoordinated installation of arresters at different
points of the system which impair or even neutralize each other or have
an inadmissible retroactive effect on the whole system. One of the first
Figure 5.8.1.4 d Socket outlet
(with earthing contact) with
overvoltage protection
Figure 5.8.1.4 e Surge protective device
NM-DK 280 for cable ducts
Figure 5.8.1.4 f SPS-protector: Surge protector with interference suppressor
filter
176 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
essentials for the planning and execution of surge protection for a com-
plex system is an organizing principle which subdivides the protected
system into areas of graded demands. The EMC-oriented concept of
lightning protection zones is such a principle. The concept of lightning
protection zones allows the determination of the corresponding stress
parameters for the individual arresters. The list of requirements for the
arresters used can be basically subdivided into requirements for the indi-
vidual arresters and requirements which are due to the system character
of the total protection. The most important parameter for an individual
arrester is its surge current-carrying capability.
The demanded parameter value is due to the conditions of application
of the arrester in the concept of lightning protection zones. For a light-
ning current arrester (at the boundary of LPZ 0
A
/1) these values are due
to the primary lightning threat parameters (IEC 61312-1) and the real
conditions of installation. For the design of the individual arresters the
question of how many partial systems and conductors the total lightning
current is distributed over must also be clarified (IEC 61312-1).
Within lightning protection zone 1 there still remains the conducted
residual parameters of the lightning current arrester as well as the over-
voltages induced by the electromagnetic field of lightning and internal
sources of interference (e.g., switching operations) as stress parameters
for downstream protective equipment.
The requirements for surge arresters that are installed at the boundary
of lightning protection zone LPZ 1/2 must include this stressing. There
are additional requirements for the different arresters as individual elem-
ents because of the system character of the whole protection system. It
is necessary that the protection levels of the different arresters in the
Figure 5.8.1.5 a
Surge protective mains
module VC 280/2
Figure 5.8.1.5 b Surge arrester (acc. to Figure
5.8.1.5 a) connected to power pack
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 177
protection system be in accordance with the rules of insulation coordin-
ation of IEC 60664-1 (Figure 5.8.1.6 a). Coordination of the arresters
between each other ensures that the individual protection devices are
loaded as effectively as possible and maximum safety of the system is
achieved.
In addition to these specific requirements of surge protection there are
demands for harmonization of surge protection–system protection,
requiring coordination between the arresters’ parameters and the values
of the conventional system protection devices (fuses, circuit breakers
etc.).
The special regulations which both the planner and installer (electri-
cian) of the protective system must take into account are handled in the
following notes.
5.8.1.6.1 Graded application of arresters, energy coordination between
surge arresters and equipment to protect. The requirements for cascaded
arresters in a protection system depend on the concept of protection
zones. The planner is in charge of selecting the different coordinated
arresters which must reduce step-by-step the incoming (lightning partial
currents) or internally generated (switching surges) hazard to the with-
stand capability of the terminal units to be protected.
To adapt a surge protection device (SPD, arrester) to the peripheral
interface of a piece of equipment the interference immunity factor of the
equipment and the maximum let-through parameters (output param-
eters) of the SPD must be known. This must be coordinated with the
energy loadability of the equipment input. In addition to the arrester
Figure 5.8.1.6 a Example for the application of lightning current arresters and
surge arresters
178 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
protection level the maximum values of the integral parameters of out-
put voltage and output current are also of importance for energy
coordination.
Coordination, in this case, means to dimension a protective circuit
upstream of an equipment interface in such a way that only at an immi-
nent overloading of the device’s internal protective circuit will the
upstream protective grade (SPD) become effective. The ‘operating
behaviour’ of the upstream protective grade (SPD) and the loadability of
the equipment’s protective circuit must overlap one another (i.e., form a
common ‘interface’). Only thus is it possible to obtain a good balance
between the costs for the protective circuit and the benefits which are
achieved.
The ‘conditions of adaptation’ described, however, are not only valid
for the surge protective device and terminal unit but also for the use of
arresters in a graded concept of protection zones (Figures 5.8.1.6.1 a).
For a lightning current stressing arrangement according to 5.8.1.6 a
and 5.8.1.6.1 a, the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution board
will operate first due to its low protection level. According to its nominal
discharge data this arrester has a protection level < 1.5kV. This voltage is
insufficient to operate the upstream class B lightning current arrester (as
the operating value of this spark gap is between 3 and 3.5kV). In order
not to overload the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution board,
there must be an additional series voltage drop on the line between the
surge arrester and the lightning current arrester which, in sum with the
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 a (a) Protective gear for power technical systems at the
interfaces of lightning protection zones (LPZ)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 179
protection level of the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution,
reaches the operating value of the spark gap in the class B lightning
current arrester. In the 230/400V mains this series voltage drop can be
obtained by using the cable impedance, or by using a concentrated
inductance (decoupling choke).
The cable inductance depends on the routing of the protective con-
ductor PE. If the protective conductor is in one cable with L
1
, L
2
, L
3
and
N (as for cable type NYM-J), a cable length of at least 15m is the neces-
sary decoupling length between the class B lightning current arrester and
the class C surge arrester (Figure 5.8.1.6.1 b). If the protective conductor
is separate from L
1
, L
2
, L
3
and N (as for cable type NYM-O), and the
distance between the protective conductor and cable is 1m (as in Figure
5.8.1.6.1 c) the necessary minimum decoupling length is 5m. If these
cable lengths cannot be realized, the class B and class C arresters can be
coordinated by decoupling chokes (Figure 5.8.1.6.1 d). With such
decoupling chokes there is the possibility of installing the arresters in one
place (Figure 5.8.1.6.1 e), and insecurities due to installation (such as the
actual line length) can be avoided. Responsibility for this arrangement
thus passes over from the installer to the producer of the protective
devices who indicates the necessary induction value for the coordination
of his arresters.
For dimensioning the decoupling choke it is possible to choose the
inductance value as low as possible by using all securities granted by the
protective devices, or to increase the safety of the graded protective cir-
cuit by a higher minimum inductance value. Increasing the inductance
value by several microhenry (μH) does not mean any restriction on
normal operation. On the contrary, because of too strictly dimensioned
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 (b) Currents through surge arresters and lightning current
arresters at lightning strikes
180 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 b Necessary decoupling line length for arresters of requirement
classes B and C when protective conductor PE is in the cable
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 c Necessary decoupling line length for arresters of requirement
classes B and C when laying the protective conductor
separately
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 d Decoupling inductance DEHNbridge (15μH) for the energy
coordination of lightning current arresters (DEHNbloc
®
,
DEHNport
®
, DEHNport
®
Maxi, DEHNbloc
®
NH) and
surge arresters (DEHNguard
®
) at lightning impulse current
10/350μs
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 181
decoupling inductances, the surge arresters might be overloaded, espe-
cially at the coordination between lightning current and surge arresters,
and its service life being drastically reduced would mean a failure of
surge protection. For the usual lightning current and surge arresters,
decoupling chokes with an inductance > 10μH are sufficiently dimen-
sioned and a long service life for the protective combination is
guaranteed.
The arrester set shown in Figure 5.8.1.6.1 f, lightning current arrester,
decoupling choke and surge arrester, is offered as a complete lightning
current tested mains connection unit (Figure 5.8.1.6.1 g).
Because of the different tasks of class C and D surge arresters,
coordination between both of these arresters is also necessary. Safe
coordination is guaranteed if there is at least 5m of cable type NYM-J
between the class C and D arresters (Figure 5.8.1.6.1 h).
5.8.1.6.2 Application of arresters in different system configurations. Pro-
tective measures to avoid dangerous electric shock are necessary in every
electrical system. Normally live parts must be insulated, covered,
sheathed or arranged to exclude contact and electric shock. This measure
is called ‘protection against direct contact’. Of course, there may not be
any hazard (by electric shock), but if a fault occurs (e.g., damaged insula-
tion) there is the likelihood of accidental energization of the metallic
enclosure (body of an electrical equipment). Protection against such
dangers is called ‘protection in case of indirect contact’.
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 e Decoupling inductance DEHNbridge coordinates lightning
current arresters and surge arresters
182 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 f Mounting assembly of the protective combination
DEHNport
®
– DEHNbridge – DEHNguard
®
in the TN–C
system
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 g Mains connection box, type Netz-AK, tested by lightning
impulse current
Figure 5.8.1.6.1 h Necessary decoupling line length for class C and D arresters
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 183
Usually, the maximum permissible permanent contact voltage U
L
is 50V AC and 120V DC. Higher contact voltages must be discon-
nected automatically at least after 5s (in special cases within 0.2 s).
Higher contact voltages which may arise from a fault must be dis-
connected automatically within 0.2s in circuits of 35A nominal current
with socket outlets and in circuits containing class I portable equip-
ment which is normally kept in hand during operation. In all other
circuits higher contact voltages must be disconnected automatically
within 5s.
Protective measures for indirect contact with protective conductors are
described in IEC 60364-4-41. If triggered by fault these measures cause
automatic disconnection or indication. Installing measures for ‘protec-
tion in case of indirect contact’ will entail a contract dealing with system
type and protective equipment.
According to IEC 60364-4-41 a complete low-voltage distribution
system from the current source to the final equipment is mainly charac-
terized by:

earthing conditions of the current source (e.g., low-voltage side of the
distribution transformer)

earthing conditions of the exposed conductive parts in electrical
consumer systems.
There are three basic types of distribution: (i) the TN-system, (ii) the
TT-system and (iii) the IT-system. These letters have the following
meanings:

The first letter describes the earthing conditions of the feeding current
source:
‘T’ direct earthing of one point of the current source (usually the
neutral of the transformer winding)
‘I’ insulation of all active parts from earth or bonding of one point
of the current source to earth via an impedance.

The second letter describes the earthing conditions of the exposed
conductive parts of the electrical system:
‘T’ exposed conductive parts are directly earthed, regardless of a
possible earthing of one point of the current supply
‘N’ exposed conductive parts are directly bonded with the operational
earth electrode (earthing of the current source).

Further letters describe the running of the neutral conductor and
protective conductor:
‘S’ neutral conductor and protective conductor are separated
‘C’ neutral conductor and protective conductor are combined (in one
conductor).
184 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Thus, three variants are possible for the TN-system: (i) TN–S, (ii) TN–C
and (iii) TN–C–S.
The following protective equipment can be installed in the different
systems:

overcurrent protective device

residual current device

insulation monitoring device

fault voltage-operated protective device.
As already mentioned, coordination between system type and protect-
ive equipment is necessary, as follows:
(a) TN-system with:

overcurrent protective device

residual current device.
(b) TT-system with:

overcurrent protective device

residual current device

fault voltage-operated protective device.
(c) IT-system with:

overcurrent protective device

residual current device

insulation monitoring device

fault voltage-operated protective device.
Protective equipment that can be installed as protection for the case of
indirect contact in the different systems is as follows:

overcurrent protective device

residual current device

insulation minitoring device

fault voltage-operated protective device.
Measures of personnel protection are of top priority in the installation
of power systems. All other protective measures, such as lightning and
surge protection (of electrical systems and installations) must be sub-
ordinate to the protective measures taken for the case of indirect contact
with a protective conductor (considering the system type and the pro-
tective equipment) and must not be annulled by the use of protective
gear (for lightning and surge protection). Also arrester faults must be
taken into account (even though they would seem to be unlikely). This is
especially important as lightning current and surge arresters are always
installed towards the protective conductor which, however, in the case of
arresters in connection with residual current circuit breakers, can lead to
conflict situations.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 185
Figure 5.8.1.6.2 a shows an arrangement of arresters downstream of
the residual current circuit breaker (seen in direction of power flow)
intended to realize the ‘protection in case of indirect contact’. For such
an arrangement it may occur that the surge current, which will be
discharged towards the protective conductor (PE) at overvoltage limita-
tion, is interpreted as a residual current by the upstream residual current
circuit breaker. Thus, the residual current circuit breaker will try to inter-
rupt the circuit concerned. The product standard IEC 61008-1, applic-
able for residual current devices, requires that residual current circuit
breakers must be surge-proof, but only to an impulse amplitude of 250A
(8/20μs) or as a selective type of residual current circuit breaker (marked
by | S|) up to an impulse amplitude of 3kA (8/20μs). Arresters
of classes B and C, provided for application in the permanent installa-
tion, however, have a much higher nominal impulse current discharge
capacity. Especially in class B arresters (lightning current arresters), the
residual current circuit breaker should be of such a quality (i) that it
could safely carry surge currents conducted by the lightning current
arrester and (ii) that there is no mistripping at such surge current
stressing.
A mistripping of the residual current circuit breaker is undesirable in
view of the supplying safety of the consumer system and shall, therefore,
be avoided. A remedy for this problem is an arrester installation (in
direction of power flow) upstream of the residual current circuit breaker
as shown in Figure 5.8.1.6.2 b. The discharged surge currents now no
longer flow through the residual current circuit breaker and cannot be
interpreted as residual current. Mistripping of the residual current
circuit breaker is thus avoided.
A further argument for the installation of arresters upstream of the
Figure 5.8.1.6.2 a Installation of arresters downstream of the residual-current
device (RCD)
186 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
residual current circuit breaker can be obtained from a close considera-
tion of Figure 5.8.1.6.2 c. All parts of the electrical installation, including
the arrester, are subject to overloading. Overloaded arresters will either
be disconnected from the mains by the thermal disconnector according
to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 (e.g., due to ageing reasons) or they are
short-circuited by a sudden high energy input. This short-circuited
arrester is a critical detail if installed downstream of the residual current
circuit breaker. Because of its location between N and PE, it provides a
bonding link between neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) down-
stream of the residual current circuit breaker. Thus, if the equipment is
faulty, as shown in Figure 5.8.1.6.2 c, the current arising over exposed
conductive parts of the equipment will not be clearly identified as
residual current and might, perhaps, not lead to the required disconnec-
tion of the residual current circuit breaker. This double fault which, on
the one hand, provides a short-circuited arrester between N and PE
although, on the other hand, defective equipment is rather rare, should
also be taken into consideration when considering the safety of the
personnel.
If there is such a faulty arrester between N and PE in a constella-
tion according to Figure 5.8.1.6.2 d, the residual current arising can be
clearly identified at a defective piece of equipment downstream of
the residual current circuit breaker, leading to a safe disconnection of the
residual current circuit breaker.
Therefore, arresters of classes B and C must be installed (in the direc-
tion of power flow) upstream of the residual current circuit breaker. To
safeguard the ‘protection at indirect contact’ in connection with the
use of arresters, especially those of classes B and C, only overcurrent
protective devices are accepted as disconnection elements.
A description now follows of the application of lightning current and
Figure 5.8.1.6.2 b Installation of arresters upstream of RCD
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 187
surge arresters in different system configurations: (i) TN, (ii) TT and (iii)
IT systems. Such wiring proposals have been introduced in the German
standard draft E DIN VDE 0100–534/A1. The reader should note that
the solutions presented show the application of lightning current
arresters in the area of the service entrance box (i.e., in the area in front
of the meter). Therefore, the competent power supplying company
should be approached for permission to install lightning current arresters
before the meter.
5.8.1.6.2.1 TN system. For the TN-system overcurrent and residual
current protective devices are permitted for ‘protection in case of indirect
contact’. Lightning current and surge arresters (classes B and C) may
only be installed behind overcurrent protective devices for ‘protection in
Figure 5.8.1.6.2 c Faulty arrester and faulty equipment downstream of RCD
Figure 5.8.1.6.2 d Faulty arrester upstream of RCD and faulty equipment
downstream of RCD
188 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
case of indirect contact’ to safeguard measures of personnel protection
also in case of an arrester fault.
Arresters used in connection with fuses must be considered as over-
current protective equipment. Depending on the strength of the next
backup supply fuse and on the capacity of the arrester backup fuse,
an additional separate backup fuse in the arrester branch must be
provided.
Rated voltages valid for the use of class B, C and D arresters in the TN
system are as follows:
U
c
≥ 1.1 × U
N
For a 230/400V system, this becomes
UR
c
≥ 1.1 × 230V = 253V
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 a shows lightning current and surge arresters in the
TN–C–S system. This shows that class D surge arresters are installed
downstream of the residual current circuit breaker. These class D surge
arresters for terminal protection usually provide transverse surge protec-
tion (surges between L and N). At a surge limitation between L and N
there is no surge current discharge to PE, thus the residual current circuit
breaker cannot interpret a residual current. Class D surge arresters are
conceived for a nominal discharge capability of 1.5kA (8/20μs). On
using a surge current proof residual current circuit breaker, these surge
currents cannot trip or damage the residual current circuit breaker.
Figures 5.8.1.6.2.1 b to e show the arresters introduced in chapters 5.8.2
to 5.8.4 within the concept of lightning protection zones and the
necessary lightning and surge protection measures for a TN–C–S system.
Lightning current and surge arresters in the TN–S system are shown
in Figures 5.8.1.6.2.1 f to j .
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 a Application of arresters in the TN–C–S system
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 189
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–C
system: Mounting diagram DEHNport
®
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 c Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–C
system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc
®
(three pole)
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 d Overvoltage protection in the TN–C system: Mounting
diagram DEHNguard
®
/ DEHNguard
®
T
190 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 e Overvoltage protection of the terminal equipment in the TN–
C–S system: Mounting diagram surge protective device
NM–DK 280 (alternative protective gear: NSM–, SF or S
protector)
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 f Application of arresters in the TN–S system
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 g Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–S
system: Mounting diagram DEHNport
®
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 191
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 h Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–S
system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc
®
(three pole) /
DEHNbloc
®
(one pole)
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 i Overvoltage protection in the TN–S system: Mounting
diagram DEHNguard
®
/ DEHNguard
®
T
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 j Overvoltage protection of terminal equipment in the TN–S
system: Mounting diagram surge protective device NSM-
protector (alternative protective gear: NM–DK 280, S or
SF protector)
192 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.1.6.2.2 TT-system. In the TT-system overcurrent protective devices,
residual current devices and in special cases also fault voltage-operated
protective devices are permitted for ‘protection in case of indirect
contact’. Also here, the lightning current and surge arresters are installed
downstream of the overcurrent protective devices (Section 5.8.1.6.2).
By installing class B and C arresters in the TT-system the conditions
for the use of overcurrent protective devices in ‘protection in case of
indirect contact’ must be fulfilled. Should there be a fault (i.e., in the case
of a defective arrester), currents must flow which would cause an auto-
matic disconnection of the overcurrent protective devices within 5s. In
other words, short-circuit currents must flow. An arrester arrangement in
the TT system, as in Figure 5.8.1.6.2.1 a and 5.8.1.6.2.1 f, show that for
the TN system there would be no short-circuit currents in the case of a
fault, but only earth-fault currents. Earth-fault currents, however, cannot
trip an upstream overcurrent protective device in the required time
period. Class B and C arresters in the TT system are therefore installed
in L towards N. This ensures that in case of a defective arrester a short-
circuit current can be generated in the TT-system which will trip the next
backup overcurrent protective device.
As, however, lightning currents basically arise towards earth (PE), an
N–PE arrester must form the bond between N and PE. The N–PE light-
ning current arrester must meet especially high demands as it must be
able to carry the lightning partial currents of L
1
, L
2
, L
3
and N non-
destructively.
The following rated voltages, U
c
, are relevant to the application of
arresters in the TT-system:
arresters between L and N
U
c
≥ 1.1 × U
N
arresters between N and PE
U
c
≥ 1.1 × U
N
× 0.5
that is, at least ≥ 250V AC. Thus, for a 230/400V TT system:
with arresters between L and N
U
c
≥ 1.1 × 230V = 253V
with arresters between N and PE
U
c
≥ 1.1 × U
N
× 0.5 = 126.5V
that is, at least U
C
≥ 250V.
The lightning current-carrying capacity of class B arresters is rated in
accordance with lightning protection levels I, II, III/IV of IEC 61024-1.
Concerning the lightning current carrying capacity of the arresters
between N and PE the following data for lightning protection level must
be achieved as a minimum:
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 193
I I
imp
≥ 100kA (10/350μs)
II I
imp
≥ 75kA (10/350μs)
III/IV I
imp
≥ 50kA (10/350μs).
Class C arresters are also installed between L and N as well as between N
and PE. A discharge capacity of i
N
> 20kA (8/20μs) is required for the
arrester between N and PE in connection with class C arresters.
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 a shows lightning current and surge arresters in the
TT system. As in the TN system, class D surge arresters are installed
after the residual current circuit breaker. The surge current discharged by
these surge arresters usually is so low that it will not be interpreted as
residual current by the residual current circuit breaker. Nevertheless, a
surge current proof residual current circuit breaker should be provided.
Figures 5.8.1.6.2.2 b to e show installations of this kind.
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 a Application of arresters in the TT system
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TT
system: Mounting diagram DEHNport
®
/ DEHNgap B
194 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 c Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TT
system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc
®
/ DEHNgap B
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 d Overvoltage protection in the TT system: Mounting diagram
DEHNguard
®
/DEHNgap C, DEHNguard
®
T/DEHNgap C
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.2 e Overvoltage protection of terminal equipment in the TT
system: Mounting diagram surge protective adapter S/SF
protector (alternative protective gear: NSM protector,
NM–DK 280)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 195
5.8.1.6.2.3 IT-system. Overcurrent protective devices, residual current
devices, insulation monitoring devices, as well as fault voltage-operated
protective devices in special cases, are permitted for the IT-system as
‘protection in case of indirect contact’. Whereas, in the TN- or TT-system
the ‘protection in case of indirect contact’ at first fault is guaranteed by
the corresponding disconnection conditions of the overcurrent protect-
ive devices or residual current devices, there is only an indication of fault
in the IT-system. A contact voltage that is too high cannot occur because
an earth reference is made in the IT-system at first fault. With regard to
its operating state, the IT-system then changes over into a TN- or TT-
system. An IT-system can, therefore, safely continue after the first
fault, so that processes or productions (e.g., in the chemical industry)
already begun can still be finished. At the first fault the protective
conductor PE takes the potential of the defective phase, which is not
dangerous because through the protective conductor all exposed conduct-
ive parts and touchable metal parts have this potential, so there are no
dangerous potential differences to be bridged.
Nevertheless, it must be considered that in case of the first fault, the
IT-system potential of the non-faulty conductors to earth corresponds
to the potential between the phases. Thus, in a 230/400V IT-system there
is a potential of 400V at the non-faulty arresters in the case of a defective
arrester. This possible operating state must be taken into account on
selecting the arresters with regard to their rated voltage. For the use
of arresters of class B, C and D in the IT-system the following rated
voltages are applicable:
U
c
≥ 1.1 × U
N
× √3
thus, for a 230/440 V–IT-system,
U
c
≥ 1.1 × 230V × √3
U
c
> 440V
For a second fault in the IT-system a protective device must then be
tripped. With respect to the use of arresters in the IT-system in connec-
tion with a protective device for the ‘protection in case of indirect con-
tact’ the statements of section 5.8.1.6.2 are applicable. Thus, in the
IT-system too, the installation of class B and class C arresters upstream
of the residual current circuit breaker is advisable. Figure 5.8.6.2.3 a
shows lightning current and surge arresters in the IT-system.
Different arresters in the IT-system are shown in Figures 5.8.1.6.2.3 b
and c.
5.8.1.6.3 Selection of arrester backup fuses. Arrester data sheets
usually indicate the maximum permissible backup fuse for the arrester.
This indication is required by the product standards IEC 61343-1/DIN
VDE 0675 part 6.
196 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The primary task of this arrester backup fuse is to safeguard the short-
circuit capability. Standardized testing of the arrester’s short-circuit
capability will prevent dangerous sparking of the arrester in the case of
an internal short circuit (which may be due to a surge current that
exceeds the nominal discharge capacity of the arrester) and the generated
50Hz short-circuit current. Special types of arrester have integrated this
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.3 a Application of arresters in the IT system
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.3 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the IT system:
Mounting diagram DEHNport
®
Figure 5.8.1.6.2.3 c Surge protection in the distribution cabinet in the IT system:
Mounting diagram DEHNguard
®
/ DEHNguard
®
T
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 197
backup fuse in their enclosure. Most arresters on the market, however,
are not equipped with such a backup fuse. Therefore, the next upstream
system fuse can be taken as the backup fuse for the arrester if its nominal
value does not exceed that of the maximum permissible fuse (Figure
5.8.1.6.3 a). If, however, the nominal value of the system fuses F1–F3
exceeds the nominal value of the maximum backup fuses for the arrest-
ers, separate backup fuses having the nominal value of the maximum
permissible backup fuse must be installed before the arrester (Figure
5.8.1.6.3 b).
In addition to securing short-circuit capability there is still another
function of an arrester backup fuse which is especially important for
class B arresters (lightning current arresters). These are mostly designed
as spark gap arresters in view of the high electrical and mechanical stress
on discharging a lightning current. This guarantees a high nominal dis-
charge capability of the arrester. Spark gap arresters generate a 50Hz
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 a Use of system fuses as arrester backup fuses
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 b Application of separate arrester backup fuses
198 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
mains follow-current which must be safely quenched after the decay of
the lightning interference. This mains follow-current can be as high as the
prospective short-circuit current at the place of installation of the light-
ning current arrester. Spark gap arresters are usually able to quench
mains follow-currents having a prospective short-circuit current value of
about 4kA
eff
(50Hz). If the prospective short-circuit current exceeds the
arrester mains follow-current quenching capability, the backup fuse must
disconnect the mains follow-current.
Most service entrances have a prospective short-circuit current below
3kA
eff
(50Hz) so that there are few practical cases where the backup
fuse must disconnect a mains follow-current higher than 4kA.
In particular, arresters based on spark gaps (i.e. lightning current
arresters), due to the operation of which a mains follow-current can be
generated, load their upstream fuses (arrester backup fuses) with mains
short-circuit currents. To keep this loading of parts of the power system
as low as possible, the spark gaps must be designed in such a way that not
every discharge process generates a mains follow-current. Spark gaps
meeting these requirements are constructed as multiple gliding spark
gaps (as used in the lightning current arresters DEHNport
©
, DEHN-
bloc
©
, DEHNbloc
©
NH). On the operation of this type of spark gap, two
partial arcs will be generated which oppose the emergence of a mains
follow-current already from the beginning of the arc by the total voltage
drop of both arcs.
In Figure 5.8.1.6.3 c a lightning current arrester with tandem gliding
spark gap is compared with a usual simple spark gap with respect to the
frequency of a generated mains follow-current. This diagram reveals that
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 c Comparison of the follow-current frequency (in %) of
lightning current arresters with spark gaps
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 199
mains follow-currents are less frequent with a multiple gliding spark
gap and that the stressing of the arrester backup fuse and the upstream
power system by mains short-circuit currents is considerably reduced.
With respect to the use of lightning current arresters in power systems
and fuses it must be taken into account that they are first loaded by
lightning surge currents followed by the mains short-circuit currents. In
contrast to mains follow-currents, lightning surge currents in the power
system cannot be avoided as these are impressed currents. The perform-
ance of NH fuses at lightning surge current loading has been closely
examined. Figure 5.8.1.6.3 d shows the fuse characteristics. Depending
on the nominal current of the fuse and the surge current in the test, there
are three different characteristics of NH fuses: (i) no melting, (ii) melting
and (iii) explosion.
(i) No melting. The energy input by the lightning surge current is too low for
the fuse strip to be melted. An installation of the arresters (according to
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 a) guarantees the continued supply to the downstream
consumer as is the case at a configuration according to Figure 5.8.1.6.3 b.
(ii) Melting. The energy of the lightning surge current is high enough to melt
the fuse strip of the NH fuse and thus to interrupt the current path
through the fuse. Figure 5.8.1.6.3 e shows the oscillogram of a fuse melting
by lightning surge currents. Typical for the fuse performance is that the
impressed lightning surge current keeps on flowing without being influ-
enced by the behaviour of the fuse. After the melting integral of the fuse
has been exceeded by the lightning surge current, an arc will be generated
in the fuse which will be realized by the potential over the fuse.
For the arrester configuration according to Figure 5.8.1.6.3 a, the
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 d Performance of NH fuses during the impulse current loading
10/350μs
200 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
downstream consumer system then will be disconnected. Thus, the solu-
tion variant according to Figure 5.8.1.6.3 b comes to the fore. Sometimes it
is suggested to choose fuses of size F4–F6 selectively to the fuses F1–F3.
Practically this means that the relation of the nominal currents of the fuses
F1–F3 to F4–F6 is 1.6: 1. This selective characteristic of fuses is only
relevant with regard to the mains follow-currents (50Hz) but not with
regard to lightning surge currents.
To emphasize this statement consider the following example. Under the
aspect of selectivity let the nominal current of the fuses F1–F3 be 160A
and the nominal current of the fuses F4–F6 be 100A. This configuration
is loaded by a lightning surge current of 25kA (10/350μs) for each path.
At such a loading F1–F3 as well as F4–F6 will be tripped according to
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 d. Such a configuration is not selective under lightning
surge current loading! Thus, the downstream consumer system would be
disconnected.
More severely still, the voltage drop of the melting fuses F4–F6 2kV
(according to 5.8.1.6.3 e) occurs in the arrester branch, that is to say in
parallel with the protected consumer-system. This voltage drop is a driving
voltage for downstream arresters and might cause their overloading. To
avoid this effect, arrester fuses F4–F6 must be as strong as possible which,
in practice, means that F4–F6 only must be used, if F1–F3 are stronger
than the indicated maximum permissible arrester backup fuse. The nom-
inal current of F4–F6 then shall be as high as the maximum permissible
arrester backup fuse.
(iii) Explosion. The energy of the lightning surge current is so high that the fuse
strip of the NH fuse evaporates in an explosion. As a result, the enclosure
of the NH fuse may split (Figure 5.8.1.6.3 f). Beside these mechanical
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 e Current and voltage at a melting 25A NH fuse during a
lightning impulse current loading (10/350μs)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 201
effects there are also the electrical aspects described under ‘melting’ (note
(ii) above).
Different problems require solutions for the arrester backup fuses in
their fields of application. Consider the following:
(i) Protection against indirect contact in case of defective arresters. This is the
task of the backup fuses of all arresters of classes B, C and D (for arresters
in class D, additional residual current circuit breakers can be used). For
this purpose the fuses must be designed in such a way that the defective
arresters will be safely disconnected from the low-voltage system in the
required time.
(ii) Securing short-circuit withstand capability of the arresters. To guarantee the
short-circuit withstand capability indicated by the producer the permitted
maximum backup fuse must, under no circumstances, be exceeded.
(iii) Disconnection of too high mains follow-currents. Particularly in the case of
lightning current arresters based on spark gaps, mains follow-currents
may arise. On application of the permitted maximum backup fuse, the
maximum follow-current quenching capacity of the arrester is also
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 f NH fuse burst due to lightning impulse current loading
202 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
reached. If there is a weaker backup fuse, mains follow-currents will be
disconnected which might be safely quenched by the arrester itself. There-
fore, the backup fuse of a lightning current arrester must be as strong as
possible and separate backup fuses in the arrester branch should be
avoided if the system conditions allow it.
If the system fuses F1–F3 (Figure 5.8.1.6.3 b) are weaker than the
maximum permitted arrester backup fuse and additionally F1–F6 are
required (allowing the disconnection of the arrester branch for mainten-
ance) then for F4–F6 NH-disconnecting blades should be used.
To conclude the subject of ‘arrester backup fuses’ consider yet again
the follow-current extinguishing capability of the lightning current
arrester DEHNport
®
Maxi introduced in section 5.8.1.2.
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 g shows the typical breaking oscillogram (uninfluenced
short-circuit surge current 37kA
eff’
, cos φ = 0.23) of the arrester DEHN
®
Maxi in RADAX-flow technology. The spark gap arc voltage shown in
the left part of the Figure is in its amplitude almost equal to the system
voltage. The typical ‘dipping’ of the system voltage of conventional spark
gaps will not occur. This excludes interference in electronic devices which
are sensitive to voltage dips or voltage supply deviations. In the right part
of the oscillogram the effective limitation of the mains follow-current is
readable. It represents the uninfluenced (i.e., the theoretically possible) as
well as the following short-circuit current through the arrester. Obviously
it is only a very low share of the theoretically possible current that loads
the arrester and thus the whole low voltage system. A further effect of
the high arc resistance is the reduction of the duration of current flow.
The oscillogram shows that, even in case of an impulse short-circuit
current of 37kA
eff
, the pre-arcing current through the examined arrester
in RADAX-flow technology is only about 1.7kA. If this value is trans-
ferred to a diagram, as is usual for the selectivity considerations of over-
current protective devices (fuses, circuit breakers), one obtains Figure
5.8.1.6.3 h. This shows the let-through current integral (∫ I
2
t) of a
RADAX-flow arrester at different short-circuit currents. For better clas-
sification the melting integrals of NH fuses of different nominal currents
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 g Interruption of a short-circuit current by RADAX-flow
technology (DEHNport
®
Maxi)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 203
are indicated. Arresters in RADAX-flow technology can, as Figure
5.8.1.6.3 h shows, effectively limit short-circuit currents of 50kA
eff
.
The integral of the let-through current remains lower than the melting
integral of a 40A NH fuse, meaning that this fuse will not trip. The let-
through current limitation secures the selectivity between the overcurrent
protective devices in the low-voltage consumer system and the lightning
current arresters.
On using an arrester of class B (lightning current arrester) in
RADAX-flow technology in the main current supply system the tripping
of the backup fuse at the service entrance or meter board by mains
follow currents is avoided. Operation of the lightning current arrester
remains practically unnoticed by the user.
Sources
IEC 61643–1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power
distribution systems – Part 1: Performance requirements and testing
methods’. International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembe,
Geneva, Feb. 1998
E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wech-
selstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100V und 1000V’. (VDE
Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach) Nov.1989
E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A1): ‘Überspannungsableiter zur
Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100V
und1000 V’. Änderung A1 zum Entwurf
Figure 5.8.1.6.3 h Selectivity limit current DEHNport
®
Maxi at different
backup fuses
204 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6) (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach)
March 1996
E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A2): ‘Überspannungsableiter. Teil 6:
Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100V
und 1000V’. Änderung A2 zum Entwurf
DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6) (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach)
Oct. 1996
IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1:
General principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva,
Feb. 1995
IEC 60664-1: ‘Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage sys-
tems – Part 1: Principles, requirements and tests. International Electro-
technical Commission, Geneva, Oct. 1992
IEC 60364-4-41: ‘Electrical installations of buildings – Part 4: Protection for
safety’. Chapter 41: ‘Protection against electric shock’. International Electro-
technical Commission, Geneva, Oct. 1992
IEC 61008-1: ‘Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral
overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs). – Part 1:
General principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva,
Dec. 1996
IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning – Part 1: General
principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, March 1990
E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Teil 534/A1): ‘Elektrische Anlagen von
Gebäuden. Auswahl und Errichtung von Betriebsmitteln. Schaltgeräte und
Steuergeräte, Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen – Änderung A1 (Vor-
schlag für eine Europäische Norm)’. (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach)
Oct. 1996
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Installation of SPD for power supply systems and equip-
ment’. DS 655/E/397. (Dehn + Söhne, Neumaret) March 1997
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Energy coordination – The selective surge protection’. DS
641/E/597. (Dehn + Söhne, Neumaret) May 1997
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (VDE
Verlag, Berlin; Pflaum Verlag, München, Fourth edn, 1993)
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (VDE
Verlag, Berlin; Pflaum Verlag, München, 1993)
RAAB, V.: ‘Blitz und Überspannungsschutz-Massnahmen in NS-Anlagen’,
Elektropraktiker, Berlin, Teil 1, 1996, 50, (11), pp. 944–951; Teil 2, 1996, 50,
(12), pp. 1043–1046.
HASSE, P., and EHRLER, J.: ‘Konzeptionelles Vorgehen beim Blitz und Über-
spannungsschutz komplexer Anlagen’, Elektrotechnik, 1996, (2), pp. 53–58;
1996, (3), pp. 69–73; 1996, (6), pp. 49–54.
POSPIECH, J., NOACK, F., BROCKE, R., HASSE, P., and ZAHLMANN, P.:
‘Blitzstrom–Ableiter mit Selbstblas-Funkenstrecken – Ein neues Wirkprinzip
für den Blitzschutz in Niederspannungsnetzen’, Elektrie, Berlin, 1997, 51,
pp. 9–10.
RAAB, V., and ZAHLMANN, P.: ‘Folgestrombegrenzender Blitzstrom-Ableiter
für Hauptstromversorgungssysteme’, Elektropraktiker, Berlin, 1997, 51, p. 12.
HASSE, P., ZAHLMANN, P., POSPIECH, J., and NOACK, F.: ‘Generationswech-
sel bei Blitzstrom–Ableiter für Niederspannungsanlagen’, etz, 1998, No. 7–8
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 205
5.8.2 Arresters for information technology
According to IEC 61644-1/DIN VDE 0845 the generic term ‘surge pro-
tective devices (SPDs)’ in the field of information technology does not
only mean modules but also includes protective circuits which limit the
overvoltages in systems and equipment to permissible values.
Protective circuits gradually reduce surges by the series connection of
overvoltage limiting modules and decoupling elements (Figure 5.8.2 a).
Overvoltage limiting elements with decreasing limiting voltage and
decreasing energy loadability are connected in series. Decoupling elem-
ents can be resistors, inductors, capacitors or filters. There are two types
of arrester depending on the requirements and loading at their place of
installation in accordance with the concept of lightning protection zones.
These are, namely, (i) lightning current arresters (which are tested by an
impulse current wave 10/350μs) and (ii) surge arresters (which are tested
by an impulse current wave 8/20μs).
Highest demands, with regard to their discharge capability, are made
on lightning current arresters. Within the scope of the lightning and
surge protection system they are installed at the interface of the lightning
protection zone 0
A
/1. They prevent disturbing lightning partial currents
from penetrating into the information technology network.
To guarantee interference-free and surge-proof operation of informa-
tion technology equipment a disturbance arising in the information
system must be limited to a level which is below the interference or
destruction limit of the equipment. The interference and destruction
Figure 5.8.2 a Graded protection (stepped protection in accordance with DIN
VDE 0845)
206 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
limits of the equipment, however, are largely unknown and not indicated.
A starting point is offered by the indicated surge immunity against
impulse shaped surges which has been tested in EMC surge immunity
tests according to IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5.
To avoid disturbances or even the destruction of information tech-
nology equipment, surge arresters must limit the disturbing influences to
values below the surge immunity of the equipment to protect. In contrast
to the selection of protective devices in power systems which have
uniform conditions in the 230/400V system regarding voltage and
frequency, there are different kinds of signals to be transmitted in
information technology systems in terms of the following:

voltage (e.g., 0–10V)

current (e.g., 0–20mA, 4–20mA)

signal supply (symmetrical, unsymmetrical)

frequency (DC, LF, HF)

type of signal (analogue, digital).
Each of these electrical parameters of the signal to be transmitted can
contain the information which shall be actually transmitted. Signals
must therefore not be influenced by the installation of lightning current
and surge arresters in information technology systems.
As for power engineering, there are different types of arresters for the
individual places of application in the information technology, such as (i)
in a permanent installation (Figure 5.8.2 b), (ii) at socket outlets (Figure
5.8.2 c) and (iii) at equipment inputs (Figure 5.8.2 d).
Figure 5.8.2 e shows the installation of lightning current and surge
arresters at computing centre interfaces in accordance with the concept
of lightning protection zones. To reduce the influence of the electro-
magnetic field, building or room shielding measures have been realized at
the interfaces of lightning protection zones 0 and 1 as well as at lightning
protection zones 1 and 2, as has already been detailed in Section 5.2. The
power system is included into the lightning protection equipotential
bonding by lightning current arresters at the interface of lightning pro-
tection zones 0 and 1. The local equipotential bonding at the transition
of the lines from lightning protection zones 1 to 2 is achieved by surge
arresters. The surge protection of the information technology system is
structured analogously.
Arresters used in the information technology side of a system pro-
tected as described will be introduced by way of examples in the following
Sections. To facilitate understanding the protective devices are classified
according to whether they are mainly used in measuring and control
systems (chapter 5.8.2.1) or mainly in data networks/systems (chapter
5.8.2.3). Combined protective devices for power and information tech-
nology equipment inputs (chapter 5.8.2.2) are also introduced.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 207
Figure 5.8.2 b Blitzductor
®
s CT for protecting the measuring and control
technology of a petrochemical system (installed in a protective
cabinet)
Figure 5.8.2 c Data socket outlets with surge arresters
Figure 5.8.2 d Pluggable surge arresters for use at terminal equipment
208 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
IEC 61644-1 Ed.1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to telecommunica-
tions and signalling networks – Part 1: Performance requirements and test-
ing methods’. International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, Oct. 1998
DIN VDE 0845 Teil 1: ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen Blitzeinwirkun-
gen, statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen.
Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/
Offenbach) Oct. 1987
E DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbei-
tungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen, Entladung
statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen.
Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungs-schutzeinrichtungen’
(VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach) Oct. 1993
IEC 61000-4-5: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and
measurement techniques (Section 5): Surge immunity test’. International
Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva 1995
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV-Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept München
(Pflaum Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach: VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach)
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices.
Type Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems
acc. to IEC 61312-1. DS 656/E/897’, Aug. 1997
5.8.2.1 Arresters for measuring and control systems
Blitzductor
®
s as protective devices for measuring and control systems
have had a proven record for decades. The energy coordinated arrester
family Blitzductor
®
CT will serve as an example to describe the construc-
tion, effects and application of this type of arrester.
Figure 5.8.2 e Lightning partial current proof interface connection for a
computer centre with asymmetrical interface (V24/RS 232 C)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 209
5.8.2.1.1 Blitzductor
®
CT: Construction and mode of functioning. The
Blitzductor
®
CT is designed in two parts (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 a): Protection
modules are fitted on a universal base (which can be used almost
independently from the operating parameters of the circuit to be
protected like a modular terminal block). The Blitzductor
®
CT, as a four-
pole structure (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 b), has two input and two output
terminals to connect one double wire (type D) or two single wires (type
E). Since it has a width of only 12mm (2/3 module) and a height of
58mm a space-saving installation is possible.
A choice of more than 40 protective modules is available to provide for
optimal discharge capability, protection and performance of the surge
protective device for the interface to be protected. These can be plugged
into the universal base (Figure 5.8.2.1.1.c, a). By means of a contact
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 a Blitzductor
®
CT with different protective modules
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 b Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD, for application in earth-free signal
lines (e.g., telephone lines)
210 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
mechanism in the base, the protective module can be exchanged during
its live state without interruption of the signal transmission. With these
base elements a universal pre-wiring of the system becomes possible
without even knowing the later operating parameters.
If, later, the operating parameters are known then adequate protective
modules are employed. This changes the modular terminal blocks into
an adjusted protective device. This is particularly advantageous when
planning in accordance with the concept of lightning protection zones.
Use of the Blitzductor
®
CT bases, which will be already inserted at the
pre-installation stage, means that space can be reserved for complete
surge protection. The protective devices are safely earthed via the DIN
rail (according to EN 50 0229) and the snap-on base support.
To realize the complex protection philosophy there are also screen
terminals at the base (for contacting the screens of cables). Direct or
indirect earthing of the cable screen is possible by the insertion of a gas
discharge arrester into the base bay (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 c, b). Thus earthing
and equipotential bonding systems can be realized which are adjusted
according to the system to protect.
There are three ‘performance categories’ of the Blitzductor
®
CT. These
protective types of module include: (i) the lightning current arrester, (ii)
the surge arrester and (iii) the combined arrester. Thus
(i) Protective module type B (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 d) is designed as a ‘lightning
current arrester’ for impulse currents I
imp
: 2.5kA (per wire) wave shape
10/350μs.
(ii) Protective module type M is dimensioned as a ‘surge arrester’ for nominal
discharge currents i
sn
: 10kA (per wire) wave shape 8/20μs (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 e).
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 c (a) Blitzductor
®
CT: left: plug-in protective module; right:
base
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 211
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 c (b) Blitzductor
®
CT: left: contacts: base/protective module;
right: circuit
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 d Blitzductor
®
CT, protective module type B: top: basic circuit
diagram; bottom: rated discharge current I
IMP
= 2.5kA
(10/350μs) per wire
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 e Rated discharge current i
sn
= 10kA (8/20μs) for protective
modules, type M
212 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Protective module ME (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 f) protects earthed signal
wires (a typical application is for example the Pt 100 four-phase
measurement).

Protective module MD (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 g) is provided for non-earthed
wire pairs (as for symmetric signal wires which are connected via isolat-
ing transformers).

Protective module ME/C (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 h) protects optocoupler inputs
or inputs with intrinsic protective circuit (clamping diodes) and therefore
has decoupling resistors at the output.

Protective module MD/HF is designed for the protection of HF-
transmission links and is equipped with a diode-matrix (Figure
5.8.2.1.1 i).
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 j Basic circuit diagram, module MD/Ex
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 h Basic circuit
diagram, module ME/C
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 f Basic circuit
diagram, module ME
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 i Basic circuit
diagram, module MD/HF
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 g Basic circuit
diagram, module MD
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 213

Protective module MD/Ex (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 j) (having a 500V AC
withstand capability to earth) is provided for instrinsically safe meas-
uring circuits.
(iii) Protective module B is designed as a ‘combined arrester’ for impulse cur-
rents I
imp
: 2.5kA (10/350μs) per wire, however, with a protection level like a
surge arrester protective module M (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 k).
Basically, there are two types of Blitzductor
®
CT: E types (for con-
necting two single wires and for limiting surges between every wire and
earth) and D types (for connecting a double wire and for limiting
surges between the two wires). The voltage limiting characteristic of
both types is shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.1 l. Other characteristics to
consider include:
(i) Nominal voltage. The nominal voltage indication on the Blitzductor
®
s CT
is the upper value of the signal voltage range which can be transmitted
over the protective device under nominal conditions without any limiting
effects of the protective device. The nominal voltage is indicated as a DC
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 k Blitzductor
®
CT, protective module type B . . . . Top: basic
circuit diagram; bottom: rated discharge current I
IMP
= 2.5kA
(10/350μs) per wire, however, protective level like surge
arrester (M)
214 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
value. On AC voltage transmission the AC peak value must not exceed the
specified nominal voltage. Figure 5.8.2.1.1 m shows nominal voltages for
different types of Blitzductor
®
CT.
(ii) Protection level. The protection level of the Blitzductor
®
CT characterizes
its performance in limiting the output voltage. The specified protection
level value is higher than the maximum value of the limiting voltages in the
tests, the measured limiting voltage being the maximum voltage measured
at the terminals of the surge protective device during the loading with
surge currents and/or surge voltages (with specified impulse waveshape and
amplitude). The standardized procedure is as follows.

Limiting voltage at a 1 kV/μs steepness of the applied test impulse
This test (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 n) determines the operating characteristic of
gas discharge arresters. These protective elements have a ‘switch charac-
teristic’: The mode of function of a gas discharge arrester can be
described as a switch, the resistance of which can ‘jump’ automatically
from > 10GΩ (in the inactive state) to values < 0.1Ω (active state) if a
certain voltage is exceeded, so that the overvoltage is almost short-
circuited (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 o). The activating voltage of the gas discharge
arrester depends on the rate of rise (du/dt) of the incoming impulse.
Hence, the higher the rate of time the higher the activating voltage of
the gas discharger arrester. To compare the operating values of different
gas discharge arresters a rate of rise of 1kV/μs will be applied at the
electrodes of the gas discharge arrester and the activating value will be
determined.

Limiting voltage at nominal discharge current
This test (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 p) is for determining the limiting characteristic
(Figure 5.8.2.1.1 q) of protective elements with constant limiting
characteristic.
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 l Surge limitation of the Blitzductor
®
CT types . . . E and . . . D
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 215
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 m Nominal voltage data for different Blitzductor
®
CT types
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 n Test assembly for the determination of the limiting voltage at
a voltage rate of rise du/dt = 1 kv/μs
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 o Sparkover characteristic of a gas-filled surge arrester, at
du/dt = 1 kv/μs
216 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
(iii) Nominal current
The nominal current I
N
of the Blitzductor
®
CT characterizes the maximum
permissible operating current of the measuring and control circuit to pro-
tect (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 r ). I
N
is determined by the current carrying capacity
and the power loss of the impedances used for the decoupling between gas
discharge arresters and fine protective elements and by the follow-current
extinguishing capability of the gas discharge arresters. It is indicated as a
DC value. Table 5.8.2.1.1 a indicates the nominal currents of different
types of Blitzductor
®
CT.
(iv) Cut-off frequency
The cut-off frequency describes the behaviour of the Blitzductor
®
CT in
relation to frequency (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 s). The cut-off frequency is the fre-
quency which causes (under defined test conditions) an attenuation loss a
E
of 3dB (compare E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2: 1993-10). This frequency
usually refers to a 50Ω system.
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 p Test assembly for the determination of the limiting voltage at
nominal discharge current i
sn
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 q Limiting voltage at nominal discharge current
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 217
(v) Energy coordination, coordination characteristics
The regulations for energy coordination specified in section 5.8.1.6.1 are
also valid for information technology systems. Owing to the low operating
currents of these systems, however, a coordination of arresters by ohmic
resistor elements is also possible here. The Blitzductor
®
CT has integrated
decoupling elements so that external decoupling measures can be avoided:
These protective devices can be directly installed side by side.
Whereas, in the case of a low-voltage consumer system, one can gener-
ally proceed from a surge immunity of the system which has been speci-
fied in the scope of the insulation coordination, proceeding along similar
lines would be a failure for information technology interfaces. Only by
legal demands for an adequate immunity of the interfaces of information
technology equipment due to the EC-general regulations for EMC and
the standardization of reproducible testing methods is it possible to
describe the important parameters needed for the surge protection of
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 r Nominal current of Blitzductor
®
CT
Table 5.8.2.1.1 a Nominal currents of the Blitzductor
®
CT-types
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 s Typical frequency response of a Blitzductor
®
CT
218 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
input circuits. To decide whether the equipment to protect can withstand
the residual let-through impulse of an upstream arrester, a comparison
of the arrester let-through parameters and the impulse parameters of the
specified equipment interface immunity is necessary. This point is shown
in Figure 5.8.2.1.1 t.
The standard series IEC 61000-4 . . . /EN 61000-4 . . . has been stated
for testing a piece of equipment with regard to its immunity against
various electrical transients. Testing with high-energy transient surges as
they arise for the case of switching overvoltages or induced lightning
overvoltages is described in IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5.
As the description of the interference immunity test reveals, there are
parallels to the voltage proof test of insulations. However, on analysing
both testing procedures as well as their final background and the test
techniques used it is observed that the only common parameter of the
tests is the voltage impulse wave of 1.2/50μs of the unloaded generator.
Although the ‘voltage proof test’ examines the insulation of the test
object, thus interpreting by this means ‘sparkover’ or ‘puncturing’ of
the insulation as a failure, the specimen might otherwise ‘react’ in the
‘interference immunity test’. Such a reaction, for example, can be the
limitation of the test impulse by means of protective elements (diodes,
varistors, gas discharge arresters). In contrast to the voltage proof test,
this reaction or response of the protective elements is not considered as a
failure. Functional endurance, during the test, is the most important, so
that depending on the test specimen, a temporary degradation of the
performance is permissible. In addition to the differences in testing
approach and evaluation of both tests there is another considerable
difference in the current–time loadings at the ‘response’ of the test
specimen. Whereas the current flow, in the case of insulation sparkover
or puncture in the test circuit, is usually almost negligible at voltage
proof tests, there will be an energetic loading caused by the impulse
current at the response of the device protection during the interference
immunity test.
The kind of testing used for the equipment to protect is important for
the dimensioning of surge protective devices for information technology:
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 t Basic mode of functioning of the Blitzductor
®
CT
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 219

At a given voltage surge withstand capability the output level of the
arrester only must be below the voltage surge withstand capability of
the terminal equipment in order to guarantee a sufficient protection.

If, however, the dimensioning of the arrester depends on the given
interference immunity of the terminal equipment, both of the follow-
ing conditions must be met: (i) the protection level of the arrester must
be lower than the voltage surge withstand capability of the terminal
equipment; and (ii) the maximum output energy of the arrester must
be lower than the maximum permissible input energy of the terminal
equipment (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 u).
To decide whether the equipment to protect withstands the residual
let-through impulse of a Blitzductor
®
CT, a comparison of the
Blitzductor
®
-let-through values with the impulse parameters of the inter-
ference immunity test specified for the equipment interface (acc. to IEC
61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5) (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 n) must be carried out.
By introducing ‘coordination characteristics’ (KK) (Figure 5.8.2.1.1 v)
a Blitzductor
®
CT can easily be coordinated with the equipment to be
protected:

Coordination characteristics provide information about the discharge
capability of the Blitzductor
®
CT (input characteristic) and about its
protective effect related to a 2Ω hybrid impulse (output characteristic).

By determining the permissible input loading of the equipment inter-
face, based on its basic interference immunity conforming to stand-
ards, the coordination characteristic (input characteristic) of each
interface can be ascertained and is comparable to the output charac-
teristic of the coordination characteristic of the Blitzductor
®
CT.
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 u Verification of safe coordination by comparison of the
admissible energy loading of a device interface tested in
accordance with standard IEC 61000-4-5 with the ‘cut-off
energy’ of the protector Blitzductor
®
CT
220 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Analogously to such an ‘adjustment’ of the Blitzductor
®
CT to the
equipment interface the ‘coordination’ of cascaded Blitzductor
®
s CT can
be achieved. In addition to the operating parameters (such as operating
voltage, nominal current, transmission frequency etc.) it only need be
considered that the ‘input’ of a Blitzductor
®
CT or terminal equipment
must fit with the ‘output’ of an upstream Blitzductor
®
CT.
The necessary ‘input’ of the first Blitzductor
®
CT (of this mutually and
equipment coordinated ‘protective chain’) is determined by the threat-
parameters of the whole system. Figure 5.8.2.1.1 w shows such a co-
ordination with the protector family Blitzductor
®
CT under application
of the coordination characteristics (KK). Blitzductor
®
CT types, with
their coordination characteristics (KK), are listed in Table 5.8.2.1.1 b.
A protective cascade, as designed by the producer under the aspects of
sufficient safety such as the protector Blitzductor
®
CT family, is able to
guarantee in a modern concept of lightning protection the trouble-free
running of the system over a long period of time. Thus, the integral
responsibility of the arrester producer is becoming a new factor in the
cooperation of protector producer and protector applier at a time when
the producer liability is of special importance.
Sources
EHRLER, J., and HASSE, P.: ‘Energetisch koordinierte Überspan-
nungsschutzgeräte erfüllen die Anforderungen moderner Informationstech-
nik’, Elektrotechnik, 1996, (12), pp. 73–76
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Blitzductor
®
CT. Energy coordination in communication/
signalling systems’. DS 643/E/197
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and Installation of surge protective devices.
Type Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems
acc. to IEC 61312-1’. DS 656/E/Aug. 1997
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 v Coordination characteristics (KK) of the Blitzductor
®
CT
family
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 221
HASSE, P., and ZAHLMANN, P.: ‘Koordinierter Einsatz von Blitzstrom und
Überspannungs-Ableitern im Blitzschutz – Umsetzung von DIN VDE 0185
Teil 103, E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6, Teil 6/A1, Teil 6/A2 und E DIN VDE 0100 Teil
534 A1 in die Praxis. 2 (VDE/ABB Fachtagung, Neu Ulm, Nov. 1997)
IEC 61000-4-5: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and
measurement techniques – (Section 5): Surge immunity test. International
Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva 1995
Figure 5.8.2.1.1 w Example for the energy coodinated application of the
Blitzductor
®
CT by means of their coordination
characteristics (KK)
Table 5.8.2.1.1 b Blitzductor
®
CT types and their coordination characteristics
222 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.2.1.2 Blitzductor
®
CT: Selection criteria. Ten of the most important
selection criteria (SC) for arresters in measurement and control systems
are presented here through the example of the Blitzductor
®
CT protector
family. Their application will be described.
SC A: What discharge capability is necessary? Types B . . . or M . . . ?
The selection of the discharge capability of the Blitzductor
®
CT depends
upon which protection requirements shall be fulfilled by this arrester. A
distinction has to be made as to whether the measurement and control
system (or the telecommunication system) is only endangered by surges
(which are effective as impulse currents being simulated by a 8/20μs
wave) or whether by partial lightning currents (simulated by 10/350μs
impulse currents):

Lightning protection, MCR-cable leading beyond the building. In this
case (Figure 5.8.2.1.2 a) the terminal equipment to be protected is in a
building with lightning protection. The measuring, controlling and
regulating (MCR) or telecommunication cable (which connects the
terminal equipment with a sensor) is a line leading beyond the building
to a sensor in the field. As the building has lightning protection, the
application of a lightning current arrester is necessary. Here the Blitz-
ductor
®
CT types B or B . . . are suitable.

No lightning protection, but MCR-cable leading beyond the building.
Here the building with the terminal equipment to be protected has no
lightning protection (Figure 5.8.2.1.2 b). Direct lightning strikes are
not expected. Lightning current proof arresters type B or type B . . .
are only necessary if the MCR-cable can be charged by lightning
Figure 5.8.2.1.2 a Lightning protection, measuring and control cable crossing
buildings
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 223
strikes into neighbouring buildings (close-up strikes). If not, only
Blitzductor
®
CT types M . . . are used.

Lightning protection but no MCR-cable leading beyond the building. In
this case (Figure 5.8.2.1.2 c) the MCR/telecommunication cabling does
not have any lines leading beyond the building. Although the building
has lightning protection no lightning partial current can be coupled
into the considered part of the telecommunication system (the MCR-
system is in lightning protection zone 1). So, in this case surge arresters
which are characterized as type M . . . in the Blitzductor
®
CT family are
used.

No lightning protection, no MCR-cable leading beyond the building. The
building has no lightning protection and there is no MCR/
telecommunication cable leading beyond the building (Figure 5.8.2.1.2
d). To protect the MCR devices only surge arresters are necessary.
Protective modules type M . . . are used.
SC B: Longitudinal or transverse surge protection. Types . . . E or . . . D?
Longitudinal surges always arise between signal wires and earth, whereas
transverse surges are generated between two signal wires. The interfer-
ences in the signal circuits are mostly longitudinal surges. This means,
for the selection of protective devices, that usually fine protective devices
are used between signal wires and earth, that is, the Blitzductor
®
CT,
type . . . E.
For certain inputs to equipment, such as isolating transformers, a fine
protection between wire and earth is not necessary. Gas discharge
arresters can protect against longitudinal surges. However, having a dif-
ferent impulse sparkover characteristic, gas discharge arresters can also
Figure 5.8.2.1.2 b No lightning protection, but measuring and control cable
crossing buildings
224 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
cause transverse surges. That is why, in such a case, fine protection as
offered by the Blitzductor
®
type . . . D is necessary between the signal
wires.
SC C: Which cases require Blitzductor
®
CT with output decoupling
Types . . . E/C?
Sometimes it is necessary to protect equipment inputs against longi-
tudinal and transverse surges. The inputs of such electronic MCR
equipment are usually already provided with protective circuits or have
optocoupler inputs to separate the potential of the signal circuit from the
Figure 5.8.2.1.2 c Lightning protection, but no measuring and control cable
crossing buildings
Figure 5.8.2.1.2 d No lightning protection, no measuring and control cable
crossing buildings
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 225
internal circuit of the MCR equipment. This requires additional meas-
ures for decoupling the Blitzductor
®
CT from the input circuit of the
equipment to be protected. Decoupling is guaranteed by additional
decoupling elements between fine protective elements and output ter-
minals of the Blitzductor
®
CT, type . . . E/C.
SC D: Which cases require Blitzductor
®
s CT with higher cut-off
frequencies? Types . . . D/HF?
Like every transmission system the protective circuit of the Blitzductor
®
CT also has a sort of low-pass characteristic. An indication of the cut-
off frequency (Section 5.8.2.1.1) shows from what frequency the ampli-
tude of the signal to be transmitted will be attenuated by more than 3dB.
To keep the reaction of the Blitzductor
®
CT on the transmission system
within the permissible limits, the cut-off frequency must be higher than
the signal frequency of the signal circuit. The indication of the cut-off
frequency is applicable for sinusoidal parameters. In the field of data
transmission, however, there are mostly no sinusoidal signal forms.
Therefore, it must be taken into account that the maximum data rate of
the Blitzductor
®
CT is higher than the transmission rate of the signal
circuit. On transmitting pulse shaped signals where the rising and the
falling pulse edge is evaluated it must be considered that this edge
changes within a certain period from ‘low’ (L) to ‘high’ (H) or from H to
L. This time interval is important for the recognition of an edge and for
the passing of a ‘prohibited area’. Thus, this signal needs a frequency
bandwidth which is considerably wider than that necessary for the
fundamental wave of this oscillation. The cut-off frequency of the pro-
tective device must therefore be levelled correspondingly high. A rule of
thumb is that the cut-off frequency must not be lower than the fivefold
fundamental wave frequency. Here the types BD/HF or MD/HF are
necessary.
SC E: What about the nominal current I
N
of the Blitzductor
®
CT?
Owing to the electrical characteristics of the components used in the pro-
tective circuit of the Blitzductor
®
CT the signal current which can be
transmitted over this protective device is limited. This means for the
application that the nominal current I
N
of the Blitzductor
®
CT must be
higher than (or equal to) the operating current of the MCR system.
SC F: What about the nominal voltage U
N
of the Blitzductor
®
CT?
The nominal voltage U
N
of the Blitzductor
®
CT must be higher than the
maximum arising operating voltage of the MCR circuit so that the pro-
tective device will not show any limiting effect under normal conditions.
The maximum operating voltage to be expected in a signal circuit usually
226 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
can be compared with the nominal voltage of the transmission system
(under consideration of tolerances). In the case of signal circuit current
loops (e.g., 0–20mA) the open circuit voltage of the system can be rated
as the maximum possible operating voltage.
SC G: To what do the voltage indications refer: wire/wire or wire/earth?
Signal supply in MCR circuits can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. On
the one hand, the operating voltage of the system can be indicated as
wire/wire voltage and, on the other hand, as wire/earth voltage. This
must be considered on selecting the protective device Blitzductor
®
CT.
For different circuits of the Blitzductor
®
CT fine protective elements
different nominal voltages are indicated. The different relativities of the
nominal voltages of the Blitzductor
®
CT modules have been explained in
Section 5.8.2.1.1.
SC H: For what are the series impedance data of the Blitzductor
®
CT?
For the coordination of the protective elements decoupling impedances
are installed into the Blitzductor
®
CT. Being directly in the signal circuit
they can influence it. Especially in current loops (0 . . . 20mA, 4 . . .
20mA) the installation of Blitzductor
®
CT can cause the maximum
permissible ohmic resistance of the signal circuit to be exceeded, a fact
that must be clarified before installation.
SC I: What about the application of the Blitzductor
®
CT-coordination
characteristics (KK)?
For equipment used in different electromagnetic environmental condi-
tions, IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5 specifies different test severity levels
regarding the immunity against impulse shaped interferences. The test
severity runs from level 1 to 4, severity level 1 claiming the lowest immun-
ity (to the equipment to be protected) and level 4 the highest. As
described in section 5.8.2.1.1 this means that the ‘let-through energy’
related to the Blitzductor
®
CT protection level must be lower than the
immunity level of the equipment to be protected. By means of the Blitz-
ductor
®
CT coordination characteristics (KK) a coordinated application
of the Blitzductor
®
CT for the protection of programmable controllers
is possible. If, for example, a programmable controller has been tested
according to test severity level 1, the coordinated Blitzductor
®
CT only
must have a maximum ‘let-through energy’ which corresponds to this
interference level, thus it must have output characteristic 1.
In practice, this means that severity level 4 tested programmable con-
trollers can work interference-free if the Blitzductor
®
CT output has a
protection level corresponding to test severity degree 1, 2, 3 or 4. Thus, it
is very easy for the user to select suitable protective devices.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 227
SC J: Single or multistage protection. Types B and M . . . or only type B . . . ?
Depending on the infrastructure of the building and the protection
requirements of the concept of lightning protection zones it may be
necessary that lightning and surge arresters are either installed spatially
separated or in one position in the system (Figure 5.8.2.1.2 e).
In the first case, the application of the Blitzductor
®
CT with protective
module type B as a lightning current arrester as well as Blitzductor
®
CT
protective module type M . . . as a surge arrester is necessary. In the
second case lightning and surge protective measures shall be carried out
in one position in the system; here the combined arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type B . . . is applied.
Sources
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices.
Type Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems
acc. to IEC 61312-1’. DS 656/E August 1997
IEC 61000-4-5:1995: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing
and measurement techniques (Section 5): Surge immunity test’. International
Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva 1995
5.8.2.1.3 Blitzductor
®
CT: Examples of application. The following three
examples of application show the selection of protective devices of the
Blitzductor
®
CT family by means of the above described selection cri-
teria (SC) A to J. The result of every single step of the selection is entered
into a selection table under the column ‘single result’. The column ‘con-
Figure 5.8.2.1.2 e Single and multistep protection
228 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
secutive result’ then shows the influence of the particular single result on
the consecutive selection result. At the end of every selection table the
final result ‘The applicable Blitzductor
®
CT’ can be read.
Source
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices.
Type Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems
acc. to IEC 61312-1. DS 656/E/897
5.8.2.1.3.1 Lightning/surge protection for electronic vehicle weighbridges.
Electronic vehicle weighbridges (for road and railway vehicles) are sus-
ceptible to incoupled surges due to the large distance between measuring
sensor and the evaluation unit (especially at outdoor weighing machines).
The damaging of components and the failure of the whole weighing
system is a considerable impairment to a commercial enterprise. Some
examples concerning how to select lightning surge protective devices for
a weighing machine are now described.
The electrical measurement of the non-electric parameters of force or
mass is made indirectly by measuring electrical resistance. Strain gauges
are used as ohmic transducer elements. These consist of resistance foils
which are coated on the carrier mostly in ‘meanders’. The extension or
compression of a strain gauge along the printed conductor causes a
change in length and cross section of the printed conductors and thus a
change in their ohmic resistance. Strain gauges are coated onto a deform-
ing carrier in such a way that two strain gauges are in extension and two
strain gauges are in compression. These gauges are coupled in a bridge so
that strain gauges stressed in equal directions are located in diametrically
opposing branches (Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 a). This bridge will be supplied
with a DC voltage.
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 a Basic diagram: Electronic weighbridge system
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 229
The resistance changes due to the extension are very small and
regarding the limits concerning the thermal stressing of the strain
gauges, the bridge diagonal voltage is only some millivolts within the
nominal range of the bridge supply voltage of up to 12V. To compen-
sate for the influence of temperature and voltage drop on long connect-
ing cables two compensating leads are run from the measuring sensor to
the evaluation unit. This procedure is called the six-conductor
technique.
Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 a indicates the single results which are due to the
Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 a Lighting/surge protection for electronic vehicle weighbridges:
Selection procedure (SC: selection criterion)
230 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
individual selection criteria SC (A to J) and the consecutive selection
results as well as the final result: Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE 12 (for circuit,
see Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 b; for technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 b). Figure
5.8.2.1.3.1 c shows the protection of an electronic weighing machine
(with four measuring sensors) using Blitzductor
®
CT type BE 12.
To standardize the equipment of the weighing system with protective
devices, all measuring leads have been equipped with the same Blitzduc-
tor
®
CT types. It is proven practice to assign one protector each to the
wire pairs for supply, compensation and measuring. On subsequent
installation of protective devices into the measuring circuits, the weigh-
ing system must be re-calibrated.
The Blitzductor
®
CT may only be installed into the measuring circuits
of weighing systems to be calibrated if the protective devices have been
confirmed by an authorized testing institute of the EC (e.g., the Federal
Institute of Technical Engineering) together with the weighing machine.
Lightning and surge protection of the 230V supply of the weighing
system is also necessary (for reasons of clarity this is not shown in the
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 c).
Source
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Type
Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. to
IEC 61312–1’. DS 656/E Aug. 1997
5.8.2.1.3.2 Lightning/surge protection for field-bus systems. Because of
the automation process individual sections of production are inter-
connected by field-bus systems. Automation systems can be established
with field-buses where decentral control systems are also included
(Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 a). Such systems are especially endangered by in-
coupled surges due to their spatial extension. If such field-bus system
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 b Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE 12: Basic circuit diagram
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 231
components are damaged there is relatively little hardware loss but a
great deal of production loss due to the subsequent production stand-
still. The field-bus is a serial bus system having technical and functional
characteristics for the networking of automation units at the lower and
medium performance level. Well-known bus systems for automation
technology include: Profibus
®
, Interbus-S, DIN Messbus, D-Net,
Suconet, Bit-Bus, SINEC L1, PLS-Net, SINEC L2 DP and CANbus.
Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 b Blitzductor
®
CT-type BE 12: Technical data
232 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
In most cases it is a serial interface (type RS 485) which is connected
to a combined transmitting and receiving line (party-line). The transmis-
sion process of the RS 485 interface makes a difference evaluation of
the wire signal voltages. Owing to the twisting of the wires the bus line
is insensitive to inductive incouplings between its wires (transverse
surges). Thus, the surge threat for the RS 485 interface is in the transient
potential increase of the signal wires to earth (longitudinal surges).
Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 a again shows the step-by-step procedure to deter-
mine the suitable protective devices. This is a two-stage protective system
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 c Suppressor circuit for electronic weighbridge system with
four measuring sensors
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 a Basic diagram: Field-bus system
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 233
out of the lightning current arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type B 110 and
surge arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/HF 5 (for circuits, see Figure
5.8.2.1.3.2 b; for technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 b).
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c shows the protection of an actuator, distributed
inputs and outputs, sensors and programmable controllers connecting
field-bus systems with the selected Blitzductors.
Lightning and surge protection of the 230V supply is also necessary
(but not shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c for reasons of clarity).
Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 a Lightning/surge protection for field-bus system: Selection
procedure (SC: selection criterion)
234 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 b (a) Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 b (b) Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/HF 5
Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 b Blitzductor
®
CT-types B 110 and MD/HF 5: Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 235
Source
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices.
Type Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems
acc. to IEC 61312-1. DS 656/E Aug. 1997
5.8.2.1.3.3 Surge protection for electrical temperature measuring
equipment. Electrical temperature measuring of media in technological
processes is performed in all industrial fields. The areas of application
can be very different: from food processing to chemical processes to the
air-conditioning of buildings. Generally, there is a large distance between
the location of the measuring sensor and the measured-data indicator
or processing equipment. Into these long bonding lines surges can be
incoupled which are not necessarily caused by atmospheric discharges.
The following description contains a suggestion of how to protect a
PT 100 standard resistance thermometer against surges. The building
where the measuring equipment is installed has no lightning protection.
The temperature is determined by measuring the electrical resistance.
The resistance thermometer (PT 100) has a resistance value of 100Ω at
0°C. Depending on the temperature, this value changes by 0.4Ω/K. To
determine the temperature, a constant measuring current is impressed
causing a voltage drop at the resistance thermometer which is pro-
portional to the temperature. This measuring current is limited to 1mA
in order to avoid self-heating of the resistance thermometer. Thus, at the
PT 100 there will be a voltage drop of 100mV at 0°C, which will be
transmitted to the place of indication or evaluation (Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 a).
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c Suppressor circuit for field-bus system
236 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
An example of the different possible connection systems for a PT 100
measuring sensor is shown by the four-conductor connection in Figure
5.8.2.1.3.3 a. So, the influence of the conductor resistance and its
temperature-sensitive fluctuations on the measuring result are excluded.
The PT 100 sensor is supplied by an impressed current. Changes in the
conductor resistance will be automatically compensated for by the
adjustment of the supply voltage. There is a high-resistance pick-up
at the sensor by the measuring transducer of the changing measuring
voltage U
m
depending on the temperature of the measuring resistance.
Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 a shows how to proceed step-by-step with the selec-
tion of suitable protective devices. For the Blitzductor
®
CT, type ME
5, surge arresters are necessary (for circuit, see Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 b; for
technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 b).
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 c shows the protection of electrical temperature
measuring equipment. To standardize the equipment of the temperature
measuring system with surge protective devices, supply and measuring
lines are protected by the same Blitzductor
®
CT-types. It is proven prac-
tice to assign one protector each to the wire pairs for supply and for
measurement.
Surge protection of the 230V supply for the PT 100 measuring trans-
ducer, as well as of the 4–20mA current loop (beginning there), is also
necessary but not shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 c for reasons of clarity.
Source
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Type
Blitzductor
®
CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. to
IEC 61312-1’. DS 656/E Aug. 1997
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 a Basic diagram: electrical temperature measuring
equipment
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 237
5.8.2.1.3.4 Blitzductor
®
CT applications: Further cases. Table 5.8.2.1.3.4 a
lists further cases of application for different Blitzductor
®
CT-types.
5.8.2.1.4 Arresters for intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits and
their application. In areas where gases, vapours, fogs or dusts are caused
by treating or transporting inflammable material, which together with
the air can form a dangerous explosive atmosphere, special explosion
protection measures must be taken. To avoid the situation where the
Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 a Surge protection for electrical temperature measuring
equipment: Selection procedure (SC: selection
criterion)
238 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 b Basic circuit diagram: Blitzductor
®
CT, type ME 5
Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 b Blitzductor
®
CT, type ME 5: Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 239
Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 c Suppressor circuit for electrical temperature measuring
equipment
Table 5.8.2.1.3.4 a Examples for the use of Blitzductor
®
CT
240 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
electrical operating facilities become the sources of ignition in explosive
atmospheres these are designed to have different types of protection. One
type of protection which is used worldwide in the measuring and control
technique is Intrinsic Safety Ex(i).
‘Intrinsic safety’ protection is based on the principle of current and
voltage limitation in a circuit. Power is kept at such a low level that
neither by sparks nor by unpermissible surface heating of the electric
components can the surrounding explosive atmosphere be ignited. Not
only the voltage and current of the electric equipment but also the energy
storing inductors and capacitors in the whole circuit must be limited to
safe maximum values. Thus, for safe operation (e.g., a measuring and
control circuit) neither a spark due to the opening and closing of the
circuit (e.g., at switch contacts) nor a fault (e.g., a short circuit or an earth
fault) will cause ignition. Furthermore, heat ignition by the equipment
and lines in the intrinsically safe circuit must be eliminated both for the
normal state as well for the possibility of a fault.
Application of the ‘intrinsic safety’ type of protection, thus, is limited
to relatively low-performance circuits. It is achieved by limiting the
available energy in the circuit. In contrast to other types of protection,
this limitation is not only to individual devices but to the whole circuit.
This system is divided into ‘Ex-zones’ and, in general, this division
depends on the probability and the permanence of an explosive atmos-
phere. Zones with dangerous explosive atmosphere due to gases, vapours
and fog are ranked as Ex-zones 0 to 2 and those with dangerous explosive
atmosphere due to dusts as Ex-zones 20, 21 and 22. Depending on how
explosive the different materials are, there are explosions groups I, IIA,
IIB and IIC for which the corresponding minimum ignition curves are
specified. The ignition characteristics of the explosive material include
a minimum ignition curve that indicates the maximum values for the
operating voltage and operating current. Explosion group IIC contains
the most explosive materials, such as hydrogen and acetylene. When
heated, these gases have different ignition temperatures which are
specified by classifying them according to temperatures (T1–T6).
At the interface between Ex-area and non-Ex-area (safe area), safety
barriers or measuring transformers with an Ex(i)-output circuit will be
inserted for separation. The safety-technical maximum values of a safety
barrier or a measuring transformer with Ex(i)-output circuit are specified
by the test certificate of an authorized testing agency. These are, namely,
(i) the maximum output voltage (U
0
), (ii) the maximum output current
(I
0
), (iii) the maximum external inductance (L
0
) and (iv) the maximum
external capacitance (C
0
). The planner/installer must examine in every
single case whether these maximum values are met by the connected
equipment in the intrinsically safe circuit (such as field equipment, cables
and surge protective devices). Corresponding values are indicated on the
type label of the approved equipment or in the prototype test certificate.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 241
Intrinsic safety protection entails all currents, potentials and electric
energy storage mechanisms, but not externally incoupled overvoltages
due to atmospheric discharges, which may arise in large industrial plants
after direct, close-up and remote lightning strikes.
In the case of direct or close-up lightning strikes the voltage drop
causes a potential increase of some 10 to 100kV at the earthing system.
As a potential difference this affects all equipment connected at distant
locations. Such potential differences will exceed the insulation resist-
ance of the equipment. In the case of remote lightning strikes, over-
voltages are generated in lines which will damage the inputs of elec-
tronic equipment as transverse voltage (voltage difference between the
wires).
Thus, as protection against lightning or surge hazards the relevant
arresters must be installed. Figure 5.8.2.1.4 a shows the consideration of
surge arresters in intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits.
As an example of the Blitzductor
®
CT MD/Ex 24 (Figure 5.8.2.1.4 b)
with a certificate from the Federal Institute for Physical Engineering
(Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Braunschweig), the spe-
cific selection criteria for this protective device will now be explained.
This surge protective device has the equipment mark ‘Eex ia IIC T6’
which has the following meaning:
(i) Eex: The testing agency certifies the accordance of this electrical equip-
ment with the harmonized European Standards EN 50 014 ‘Electrical
Apparatus for Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. General Requirements’
and EN 50 020 ‘Intrinsic Safety i’.
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 a Application of surge arresters in the intrinsically safe
measuring and control circuit, calculation of L
0
and C
0
242 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
(ii) Regarding the safe current and voltage limitation there are two categories
to be considered:

Category ib specifies that in case of a fault in the intrinsically safe circuit
the intrinsic safety must be preserved.

Category ia requires that on the occurrence of two independent faults
the intrinsic safety must still be preserved.
The Blitzductor
®
CT MD/Ex 24 is assigned to category ia with its highest
demands and so it may be installed also with other equipment which is in Ex-
protection zone 0 and 20.
(iii) II C: Classification into explosion groups. Explosive gases, vapours and fogs
are classified according to the spark energy necessary to ignite the most
explosive mixture with air. Equipment is classified according to the gases
with which it can be used.

Group II applies for all fields of use, such as the chemical industry, coal
and cereal processing, however not in underground mining.

Danger of explosion is highest in group II C because it considers mix-
tures of lowest ignition energy.
The certificate of the Blitzductor for explosion group II C therefore meets the
highest demands for a hydrogen in air mixture.
(iv) T6: Classification according to temperatures. In the case of a hot-surface
ignition of an explosive atmosphere a material-typical minimum tempera-
ture is necessary. The ignition temperature is a material classification figure
which characterizes the ignition reaction of the gases, vapours, or dusts at
a hot surface. For economical reasons gases and vapours are classified
according to temperatures. Temperature class T6 means that the maximum
surface temperature of the component must not exceed 85°C in operation
as well as in the case of a fault and the ignition temperature of the gases
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 b Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/Ex24 (colour blue)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 243
and vapours must be higher than 85°C. Thus, the T6 classification is the
highest demand for the Blitzductor
®
CT.
In accordance with the PTB-certificate of conformity the following
electrical parameters must be considered:

Maximum external inductance (L
0
) and maximum external capacitance
(C
0
). Owing to the special component selection in the Blitzductor
®
CT
the internal inductance and capacitance values of the different indi-
vidual components are negligible.

Maximum input current (I
i
). The highest permissible current which
may be supplied through the terminal parts is 500mA without cancel-
ling the intrinsic safety.

Maximum input voltage (U
i
). The highest voltage with which the surge
protective device Blitzductor
®
CT may be loaded is 26.8V without
cancelling the intrinsic safety.
Concerning the practical application of arresters in intrinsically safe
circuits (Figure 5.8.2.1.4 e) the requirements for the insulation resistance
need special care. The insulation between an intrinsically safe circuit
and the equipment chassis or other parts which can be earthed should
withstand the effective value of an AC test voltage being twice as high as
that of the intrinsically safe circuit or 500V (depending on which value is
higher). Equipment having an insulation resistance ≥ 500V AC is con-
sidered as earthed.
Intrinsically safe equipment (e.g., underground lines, measuring trans-
ducers, formers, sensors etc.) usually has an insulation resistance of
> 500V AC. Intrinsically safe circuits must be earthed for safety reasons.
They may also be earthed, if necessary, for reasons of function. This
earthing may be realized only at one point by connection with the equi-
potential bonding. Surge protective devices having a DC operating volt-
age to earth < 500V DC, provide an earth of the intrinsically safe circuit.
An intrinsically safe circuit is considered as not earthed if the DC operat-
ing voltage of the protective device is > 500V DC. The Blitzductor
®
CT,
Type MD/Ex 24 meets this requirement.
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 c shows how to use the Blitzductor
®
CT MD/Ex surge
protective devices to protect a transducer and a sensor. In order not to
worsen the arrester protective level due to voltage drop (of the interfer-
ence current to be discharged), care must be taken of the consequent
equipotential bonding between the equipment to be protected and the
surge protective device. In Figure 5.8.2.1.4 c this is achieved by an add-
itional equipotential line between the equipment and the Blitzductor
®
CT.
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 d shows a special case of application. As a surge pro-
tective device in the Ex-area, the (ex-certified) Blitzductor
®
CT MD/Ex is
used. As a surge protective device in the non-Ex-area, however, a (not Ex-
244 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
certified) Blitzductor
®
CT, ME is used having a protection level between
cores to earth/equipotential bonding of much less than 500V. In the
latter case this is necessary because the insulation resistance of the trans-
ducer is < 500V AC.
Sources
MÜLLER, K. P.: ‘Überspannungsschutz in eigensicheren MSR-Kreisen’. de
(der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk), 1997, H. 20, pp.
1913–1916
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 c Application of Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/Ex in the
intrinsically safe measuring and control circuit of an Ex-
system
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 d Application of different Blitzductor
®
s in an intrinsically safe
circuit, which is partly in the Ex-area
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 245
EN 50 014: ‘Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres.
General requirements’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin) March 1994
EN 50 020: ‘Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres.
Intrinsic safety “i” ’ (VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin) April 1996
5.8.2.1.5 Arresters for cathodic protection systems. Underground metal
facilities (e.g., containers and piping) are subject to electrochemical
corrosion, with the metals being the electrodes and the surrounding
soil the electrolyte. A characteristic of the electrochemical corrosion is
the dependence of the corrosion process on the electrodes’ potential
(potential of metal in soil). If there is metal in the soil, positively charged
ions enter into the soil and vice versa; also positive ions from the electro-
lyte (soil) are taken up by the electrode (metal). In this context we speak
of the ‘dissolution pressure’ of the metal and the ‘osmotic pressure’ of
the electrolyte. Depending on both pressures, either the positive ions of
the buried metal facility are increasingly dissolved (thus it becomes nega-
tive with regard to the soil) or positive ions from the soil increasingly
deposit at the metal (then the metal facility becomes positive with regard
to the soil). If buried facilities out of different metals are connected
outside the soil (e.g., within the scope of equipotential bonding) then
current flows in the external circuit from the positive to the negative
electrode; in the soil, however, from the negative to the positive electrode.
So, the more negative metal facility delivers positive ions to the soil, thus
becoming the anode of the created galvanic element with the con-
sequence of being dissolved (corroded) as time passes. Such corrosion
Figure 5.8.2.1.4 e Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/Ex for the protection of a pipeline
valve station
246 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
can be avoided by current supply where a mains-operated rectifier sup-
plies a current over an anode through the soil into the endangered metal
facility, thus becoming a corrosion protected cathode.
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 a shows the basic diagram of such a cathodically pro-
tected system for a pipeline. The measuring sensor picks up the potential
of the pipeline to the surrounding soil, initiating the optimal value of
protective current at the adjustable rectifier.
Cathodically protected systems can be endangered by surges due to
lightning discharges and faults in high-voltage overhead lines or traction
power supply (running in parallel to the pipeline). Protection is offered
by (Figure 5.8.2.1.5 b) Blitzductor
®
KKS, type AD I for the impressed-
current anode circuit, and Blitzductor
®
KKS, type APD for the measuring
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 a Cathodic protection system: Basic design
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 b Blitzductor
®
KKS, type APD
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 247
sensor circuit. Technical data are provided in Table 5.8.2.1.5 a. Figure
5.8.2.1.5 c shows how these surge arresters are used.
5.8.2.1.6 Arresters in Euro-card format. Arresters in Euro-card format
have an especially space-saving design (Figure 5.8.2.1.6 a). They contain
a graded protective circuit as shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.6 b. Such protective
cards can be inserted into individual enclosures (Figure 5.8.2.1.6 c), into
19″-racks (Figure 5.8.2.1.6 d) or into complete protective cabinets
(Figures 5.8.2.1.6 e).
5.8.2.1.7 Arresters in LSA-Plus-technology. Information technology
distribution boxes are often realized using LSA technology, a quick-
connection system without stripping, soldering or screwing: By means of
a special tool the wires are simply pressed into the contact slots of the
LSA rails. The wire insulation will be cut automatically and the copper
core will be pushed between two spring-loaded contact tags. At the same
time the tool also cuts off unnecessary wire ends.
Figure 5.8.2.1.7 a shows components of an LSA-Plus system by means
of which it is possible to construct, for example, small terminal junction
Table 5.8.2.1.5 a Blitzductor
®
KKS, types AD I and APD: Technical data
248 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 c (a) Basic diagram
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 c (b) Application of the Blitzductor
®
KKS in a corrosion
protection cabinet
Figure 5.8.2.1.5 c Protection of a cathodic protection system with Blitzductor
®
KKS types APD and ADI
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 249
Figure 5.8.2.1.6 d 19″-drawout-unit housing for protective cards
Figure 5.8.2.1.6 a 16 pole arrester in drawout-
unit design
Figure 5.8.2.1.6 b Circuit of
the arrester shown in Figure
5.8.2.6 a (shown for two single
wires)
Figure 5.8.2.1.6 c Protective cards in aluminium housing for wall mounting
250 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
boxes with the same economy as large distribution boxes or mains distri-
bution frames with more than 10000 connections. Terminal blocks and
disconnection blocks are to be placed on terminal strips:

At the terminal blocks the cable wires and the jumping wires are con-
nected at opposite contacts. Between these terminal contacts there are
pick-off contacts where, for example, surge protective modules can be
plugged in.

In contrast to the terminal block, the disconnection block is con-
structed so that a disconnection plug can interrupt the contacts
between the cable wire and the jumper wire side which is necessary to
include in a protective decoupling link.
Figure 5.8.2.1.7 b shows protective devices designed especially for
the LSA-Plus system. The protection plugs for one balanced line
(Figure 5.8.2.1.7 b, lower left), consisting of ‘coarse protection’, ‘de-
coupling unit’ and ‘fine protection’, contain series links and must there-
fore be plugged into the LSA disconnection block (Figure 5.8.2.1.7 c).
There is one protection block each for 10 balanced lines (Figure 5.8.2.1.7
b top right) which will also be plugged into the disconnection block.
Source
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: “EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag; München: VDE Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach) 1994
Figure 5.8.2.1.6 e Arresters in Eurocard design, mounted in a protective cabinet
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 251
Figure 5.8.2.1.7 a LSA-Plus
system
Figure 5.8.2.1.7 b Arresters for LSA-Plus
system
Figure 5.8.2.1.7 c Connection of communication technology lines at the entry to
lightning protection zone 1 of the water purification unit
Frauenau/Lower Bavaria
252 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.2.2 Combined protective devices for power supply inputs and
information technology inputs
Equipment and systems connected to power technical and information
technology networks, forming their own lightning protection zone and
where the line routing leads to wide induction loops (Figure 5.8.2.2 a),
will be input-protected by surge arresters which are designed for the
connection of power lines as well as for information technology lines.
The principle of protection is to realize the equipotential bonding
between the systems in the case of overvoltage directly at the inputs of
the device or of the system (Figure 5.8.2.2 b). It is the task of the pro-
tective elements S
1
and S
2
to limit the transverse voltages between the
Figure 5.8.2.2 a Danger to information technology equipment connected to two
systems due to induced lightning overvoltages
Figure 5.8.2.2 b Topology of a protector for equipment or systems at two
networks
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 253
conductors (‘differential mode protection’) and to lead the longitudinal
currents from the conductors (‘common mode protection’) to the com-
mon equipotential bonding bar.
Figure 5.8.2.2 b shows the equipment to be protected in shunt to the
protective device. This guarantees that overvoltages between the power
mains and the information technology mains are limited in such a way
that the puncture voltage of the equipment between the inputs E
1
and E
2
will not be exceeded. Furthermore, it guarantees that the common-mode
currents can be conducted from the power mains into the information
technology mains and vice versa. Moreover, dangerous surges between
the conductors of one system cannot arise.
Figures 5.8.2.2 c and d show surge arresters for realizing such ‘protect-
ive bypasses’.
Source
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
Figure 5.8.2.2 c Surge
arrester for the power input
and the aerial input of a TV
set/radio receiver
Figure 5.8.2.2 d Surge arrester for the power
input and the data input of a computer terminal
254 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
5.8.2.3 Protective devices for data networks/systems
In the following Sections protective devices for different data networks
will be introduced which can be used as part of the concept of
lightning protection zones at the building input (e.g., LPZ-interface
0
A
(0
B
)/1), in the active distributor (HUB), in the terminal block (e.g.,
LPZ-interface 1/2), or at the terminal equipment (e.g., LPZ-interface
2/3).
5.8.2.3.1 Protective devices for application-neutral cabling. The European
Standard EN 50173 ‘Information technology – Generic cabling systems’
offers:

a generic universally applicable cabling system and an open market for
cabling components

a flexible cabling scheme where modifications can be realized easily
and economically

instructions to building professionals for cabling installation before
specific requirements are known (that means early in the initial plan-
ning stage of construction or renovation)

a cabling system for industry and the standardization committees for
network use supporting actual products and acting as a basis for
future product development.
This European Standard defines a universal cabling system which can be
used in places with one or several buildings. It treats cablings with sym-
metric copper cables and optical fibre cables. The universal cabling covers
a wide range of services including speech, data, text, still and moving
pictures.
Generic cabling consists of the following functional elements:

campus distributor (CD)

primary cable

building distributor (BD)

secondary cable

floor distributor (FD)

tertiary cable

cable distribution cabinet (alternatively)

information technology terminal.
Groups of these functional elements are connected to partial systems of
the cabling.
A universal cabling system consists of three partial systems: (i) pri-
mary, (ii) secondary and (iii) tertiary cabling. Together these partial
systems form a universal cabling structure as shown in Figure 5.8.2.3.1 a.
By means of distribution boards any mains topologies such as bus, radial
and annular topologies can be achieved.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 255
(i) The ‘primary cabling’ partial system goes from the campus distributor
to the building distributor(s) which are usually in different buildings. It
contains any primary cables, their first points of contact (at the campus
and the building distributors) and the distribution facilities in the campus
distributor.
(ii) One partial system of the ‘secondary cabling’ goes from the building dis-
tributor(s) to the floor distributor(s). That partial system contains the sec-
ondary cables, their mechanical points of connection (at the building and
floor distributors) and the distribution facilities in the building distributor.
(iii) The ‘tertiary cabling’ partial system goes from the floor distributor to the
connected information technology terminal(s). That partial system con-
tains the tertiary cables, their (mechanical) points of connection at the
floor distributor, the distribution facility in the floor distributor and the
information technology terminals.
The equipment terminal cabling connects the information technology
terminal with the terminal equipment. It is carried out according to local
requirements and is therefore not covered by the range of application of
this European Standard. Between the campus and building distributor
optical fibre cables are usually used as data lines. So, no arrester from the
field side is needed. The star couplers for distributing the optical fibre
cables, however, are powered by 230V and so arresters for the power
engineering system (chapter 5.8.1) may be necessary.
The secondary (building distributor to floor distributor) and tertiary
connections (between floor distributor and terminal equipment) are
often symmetric cables (e.g., twisted pair-cables). Cable lengths (max.
500 or 90m) (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 b), where high longitudinal voltages can be
induced when lightning strikes the building, would overload a HUB insu-
lation strength or that of a network card in the terminal equipment.
Therefore, surge protection measures must be carried out to protect both
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 a Structure of generic cabling
256 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
building/floor distributors (HUB) as well as telecommunication outlets
(terminal equipment).
Protective devices used for the above purpose are specified according
to the type of network. Usually, the following types of networks apply:

Token Ring

Ethernet 10 Base T

Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX.
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 c shows where the protective devices can be used:

Between HUB and patchpanel a NET-Protector with surge protective
modules 4 TP (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 d, Table 5.8.2.3.1 a) is installed (Figure
5.8.2.3.1 e).

At the terminal equipment a surge arrester, type ÜGKF/RJ45 4TP
(Figure 5.8.2.3.1 f, Table 5.8.2.3.1 b) can be used, where all four core
pairs are protected which provides a completely neutral application.
However, it must be taken into account that the power input of the
terminal equipment is also protected. The combined surge protective
device DATA-Protector (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 g, Table 5.8.2.3.1 c), for
example, can be used, or (as shown in Figure 5.8.2.3.1 h) surge arrest-
ers type ÜGKF/RJ45 for the data input and type SF-Protector (cf.
Section 5.8.1.4 b, Figure 5.8.1.4 b) for the power input.
Sources
EN 50173: ‘Information technology. Generic cabling systems’ (Beuth Verlag,
GmbH, Berlin) Nov. 1995
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct.1996
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 b Application-neutral cabling systems
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 257
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 e NET-protector between HUB and Patchpanel
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 d NET-protector
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 c Protectors in an application-neutral cabling system
258 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 f
(a) Surge arrester,
type ÜGKF/RJ45
4TP
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 f
(b) Basic circuit
diagram: ÜGKF/
RJ45 4TP
Table 5.8.2.3.1 a NET-Protector for floor distribution boards (HUB) and other
network components in 19″ modular packaging system
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 259
Table 5.8.2.3.1 b Surge arrester, type ÜGKF/RJ45 4TP: Technical data
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 g
(a) Combined surge
protector DATA-
Protector RJ45 4TP
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 g
(b) Basic circuit
diagram
260 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 5.8.2.3.1 c Combined surge protective device DATA-protector RJ 45 4TP:
Technical data
Figure 5.8.2.3.1 h Surge
arresters, type KF/RJ45 and SF
protector protect terminal
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 261
5.8.2.3.2 Protective devices for token ring cabling. For token ring
cabling the systems are connected in the ring topology and communicate
according to the methods specified in IEEE 802.5. As floor distributors,
mostly controllable ring distributors are used to perform the network
control of the different terminal equipment and the signal amplification.
Long cables present no problems. The maximum data transmission rate
is 16Mbps. (A Herm–Aphrodite plug, also known as an IVS connector,
serves as the connector; it serves as both a plug and socket.) Figure
5.8.2.3.2 a shows the principle of token ring cabling and where the neces-
sary protective devices should be installed.
At the interface of lightning protection zones 0
A
/1 (cable input at
the building) lightning current arrester type TR8 (Figure 5.8.2.3.2 b,
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 a Protectors in token ring cabling
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 b (a) Lightning current arrester, type TR8 (surface housing) for
two token ring lines
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 b (b)
Basic circuit diagram
262 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 5.8.2.3.2 a) is used. A type FS HA surge arrester (Figure
5.8.2.3.2 c, Table 5.8.2.3 a), which should be mounted at the rearside of
the floor distributor between data line and front plate as shown in Figure
5.8.2.3.2 d, protects the floor distributor (interface lightning protection
zones 1 and 2). The surge arrester FS HA is a pluggable Herm–Aphrodite
connector (IVS plug) also usable to protect the terminal equipment
(interface lightning protection zones 2/3) (Figure 5.8.2.3.2 e).
Table 5.8.2.3.2 a Lightning current arrester TR8 and surge arrester FS HA:
Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 263
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 c
(a) Surge arrester, type
FS HA (b) Basic
circuit diagram
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 d (a) Ring line distributor of a
token ring network
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 d (b) Basic diagram
264 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
IEEE Std 802 (Revision of ANSI/IEEE Std 802.5–1985): ‘Local area networks:
Token ring access method and physical layer specifications’ (IEEE, New
York, May 1989)
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’ DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E
1998
5.8.2.3.3 Protective devices for Ethernet twisted pair cabling. For high-
performance PC networks the twisted pair cabling system is used. Two
types of cabling are specified: Ethernet 10 Base T and Fast Ethernet 100
Base TX.
The structure of Ethernet 10 Base T is a ‘twisted pair’ cabling having
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 d Application of the FS HA surge arrester
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 d (c) Detail
Figure 5.8.2.3.2 e Terminal with surge protectors: (energy side) type SF-
Protector; (data side) type FS HA
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 265
a tree topology with cable lengths up to 100m. The terminal equipment
communicating by the transmission method is specified in IEEE 802.3.
Bonding elements are RJ45 connectors. HUBs located in floor distribu-
tors are designed to support network management and the repeater
function. The data transmission rate of the system is 10Mbps. Fast
Ethernet 100 Base TX was developed from Ethernet 10 Base T. With a
higher data transmission rate of 100Mbps this system continuously
meets the growing requirements of data technology. The topology con-
nectors and pin assignments are the same as those of the Ethernet 10
Base T.
Owing to the active components in the floor distributor, large networks
with widespread cabling systems can be realized. Figure 5.8.2.3.3 a is a
proposal for how to protect an Ethernet ‘twisted pair’ cabling. The floor
distributor (HUB) is protected by the NET-Protector 4 TP introduced
in section 5.8.2.3.1 (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 d). This surge protective device
is suitable for both Ethernet 10 Base T and Fast Ethernet 100 Base
TX and fits the universal cabling as specified in EN 50173, class D
(cat. 5).
To protect the data input of the terminal equipment, surge protected
data socket outlets DSM-RJ45–10 Base T with shielded RJ45-sockets
(Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b, Table 5.8.2.3.3 a) can be used. HUB and terminal
equipment can also be protected by the pluggable surge arrester ÜGKF/
RJ45 4TP (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 f, Table 5.8.2.3.1 b), as shown in Figure
5.8.2.3.3 c. Data and power input of the terminal equipment can be
commonly provided with the combined surge protective device DATA-
Protector RJ45 4TP (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 g, Table 5.8.2.3.1 c).
Figure 5.8.2.3.3 a Protectors in Ethernet twisted-pair cabling
266 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
ANSI/IEEE 802 Edition: ‘Information technology – Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems – Local and metropolitan area net-
works – Specific requirements. Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifica-
tions’ (IEEE, New York, March 1996)
EN 50173:1995-11: ‘Informationstechnik. Anwendungsneutrale Verkabe-
lungssysteme’. Deutsche Fassung EN 50173 (Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin,
1995)
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998
5.8.2.3.4 Protective devices for Ethernet coax-cabling. Coaxial cabling
systems do not require floor distributors and additional amplifiers. Two
different types of coaxial Ethernet networks are distinguished:

Ethernet Thickwire according to IEEE 802.3, 10 Base 5, also called
‘Yellow Cable’.

Ethernet Thinwire according to IEEE 802.3, 10 Base 2, also called
‘Cheaper Net’.
Their data transmission rate is 10Mbps.
The yellow coated ‘Ethernet Thickwire’ cable (rigid inner conductor,
four shielding layers) has excellent electrical characteristics and can have
a segment length up to 500m. Connections to the cable segment are
possible by means of a transmission/receiver unit (transceiver). Trans-
ceivers are connected by N-connectors or crimp snap-in connectors to
the coaxial bus cable. It is possible to connect up to 100 transceiver
stations in a 500m segment. Up to 50m long cable sets connect trans-
ceivers and stations. These sets are also called ‘drop-cables’.
Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b
(a) Data socket outlet
(with surge arrester) DSM-
RJ45-10 Base T protects
data input of the terminal
Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b
(c) Basic circuit
diagram
Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b
(b) DSM-RJ45-
10 Base T

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 267
By contrast ‘Ethernet Thinwire’ cable only has a shield and single-
stranded conductor which is shielded by an outer wire fabric and so it is
much more flexible than the ‘Ethernet Thickwire’ cable. The segment
length of the thin Ethernet cable, however, is limited to 185m with
only 30 connections to be made at one cable segment. External trans-
ceivers are not necessary for these connections, but BNC-T connectors or
Table 5.8.2.3.3 a Surge arrester DSM-RJ45–10 Base T: Technical data
268 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
EAD outlets can be used as the Ethernet-connection cards in the stations
already have integrated transceivers.
The coaxial cables of both systems consist of wire and shield, the
shield being earthed at one point (mostly at the server of the system).
The shield is also a common return for the data transmission. Figure
5.8.2.3.4 a shows a proposal of how to protect a system.
Ethernet Thickwire only allows two protectors per segment. These
should be installed at the building entrance or at the floor entrance. Any
number of protectors can be used with Ethernet Thinwire and it is
recommended to protect every network card.
The Ethernet Thickwire cable 10 base 5 in Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (Table
5.8.2.3.4 a) is protected by a ÜGKF/N-L protector, whereas the
ÜGKF/B-L surge arresters are used in the Ethernet Thinwire system
10 Base 2 in the Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (Table 5.8.2.3.4 a).
Sources
ANSI/IEEE 802 Edition: ‘Information technology – Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems – Local and metropolitan area net-
works – Specific requirements. Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifica-
tions’ (IEEE, New York, March 1996)
Figure 5.8.2.3.3 c Compact-HUB and terminal are protected by type
ÜGKF/RJ45 surge arresters. There is an SF-Protector
to protect the power input of the terminal.
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 269
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 a Protectors in Ethernet coax-cabling
Table 5.8.2.3.4 a Surge arresters, types ÜGKF/N-L and ÜGKF/B-L: Technical
data
270 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS64 Oct.1996
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E
1998
5.8.2.3.5 Protective devices for standard cabling. Interfaces V.24 (RS 232
C), V.11 (RS 422) and Twinax for IBM hardware are often used to
connect EDP systems such as terminals and printers. Interfaces RS 232 C
(V.24) and RS 422 (V.11) are used with usual telephone cables in the star-
topology. Consider the following notes:
(i) V.24 (RS 232 C). This is a serial interface with a data transmission rate of
up to 19.2kbps. Standard bus drivers are able to support data transmission
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (a) Ethernet thickwire segment connected to the star coupler
by an ÜGKF/N-L protector
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (b) Surge arrester,
type ÜGKF/N-L with N-plug/socket
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (c) Basic
circuit diagrams of the surge
arresters ÜGKF/N-L and ÜGKF/
B-L (indirect shield-earthing
possible by gas-filled surge
arresters)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 271
lines of up to 15m length, while special bus drivers are able to cover a
distance of up to 300m line length. By the use of an interface converter
for RS 232 to TTY transmission, distances of more than 300m can be
reached. Usually 25-pole D-subminiature sockets and 9-pole connectors
are used as connectors.
(ii) V.11 (RS 422) This is a serial interface using two balanced lines for data
transmission rates of up to 2Mbps. Line lengths up to 1000m are possible.
The 15-pole D-subminiature socket is often used for mechanical
connection.
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (a) Application of surge arresters in the T-branch of an
Ethernet-thinwire segment
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (b) Surge arrester
ÜGKF/B-L to protect the network card
in a workstation
Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (c) Surge
arrester ÜGKF/B-L with
BNC-plug/socket
272 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
(iii) Twinax cabling. The IBM standard is carried out with a shielded Twinax
cable comprising a wire pair. In one Twinax line up to eight terminals can
be connected in the bus topology. A data transmission rate of up to 1Mbps
is possible. The Twinax connector is used at the host computer (e.g., AS
400) as well as at the terminal.
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 a shows cabling protection with V.24(RS 232 C) and
V.11(RS 422) interfaces. Figure 5.8.2.3.5 b shows the basic circuit dia-
gram for data transmission in an IBM Twinax system. Figure 5.8.2.3.5 c
shows the corresponding protection arrangement.
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 a Protectors in a cabling system with V.24 (RS 232 C) and
V.11 (RS 422) interfaces
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 b Data transmission in the IBM Twinax system
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 273
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 c Protectors in an IBM Twinax system
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 d (a) Surge arresters, type FS 25 E protect control unit (every
terminal cable is protected)
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 d (b) Surge arrester, type
FS 25 E protects terminal input
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 d (c) Surge arrester, type FS 25 E
274 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The lightning current arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE, 5 V, is
installed to protect the V.24 (RS 232 C) / V.11 (RS 422) cabling at the
building input. Surge arresters type FS 15 E (15-pole) or type FS 25 E
(25-pole) protect the sockets (Figure 5.8.2.3.5 d, Table 5.8.2.3.5 a). If
Table 5.8.2.3.5 a Surge arresters, types FS 25 E and FS 15 E: Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 275
there are TTY interface converters in such a system, then a type ÜSD-25-
TTY/B-KS surge arrester (Figure 5.8.2.3.5 e, Table 5.8.2.3.5 b) can be
applied.
The IBM Twinax system can be protected by type ÜGKF/Twinax
surge arresters (Figure 5.8.2.3.5 f, Table 5.8.2.3.5 c).
Table 5.8.2.3.5 b Surge arrester, type ÜSD-25-TTY/B–KS: Technical data
276 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 Ed’. DS570/E
1998
5.8.2.3.6 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by an ISDN
base terminal. Different services are offered across common public
networks using ISDN (‘integrated services digital network’). Voice
Table 5.8.2.3.5 c Surge arrester, type ÜGKF/Twinax: Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 277
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 e (a) Surge arrester, type ÜSD-25-
TTY/B-KS for TTY-interface
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 f (b)
Basic circuit diagram
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 f (b) ÜGKF/Twinax
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 f (a) Surge arrester, type ÜGKF/Twinax protects IBM-terminal
Figure 5.8.2.3.5 f
(c) Basic circuit diagram
278 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
frequencies as well as data can be transmitted digitally using ISDN. The
supply line of the digital local exchange is a balanced line. A network
terminal (NT) is the transfer interface for the user. The terminal base has
2 B-channels with 64kbps each and a D-channel with 16kbps. The NT is
supplied with interface U
k0
, the user’s interface is S
0
. A four-line bus
topology can be up to 150m long, a direct connection from point to
point can be up to 1000m long. Digital terminal equipment such as
telephones, faxes or extensions may be connected to this interface.
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 a shows where to use what type of protector.
When protective devices are installed before the NT (U
k0
interface),
the requirements of the telecommunication companies are to be
observed.
The Blitzductor
®
CT, type B arrester described in section 5.8.2.1.1 is
installed at the lightning protection zone interface 0
A
/1 (Figure 5.8.2.3.6 b,
Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 b).
At the user’s interface (S
o
interface) of the NT the pluggable surge
arrester ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN S
0
(Figures 5.8.2.3.6 c, Table 5.8.2.3.6 a) is
installed.
There are one or two-pole data sockets (with surge protection) DSM-
1 × RJ45 ISDN S
o
or DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN S
o
for ISDN terminals
(Figures 5.8.2.3.6 d, Table 5.8.2.3.6 b).
Systems with LSA-PLUS-terminals are protected by surge arresters
such as type DPL 10 F/ISDN S
o
(Figure 5.8.2.3.6 e, Table 5.8.2.3.6 c).
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 a Protectors for long-distance data transmission with an ISDN-
base terminal
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 279
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 c (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/
RJ45 ISDN S
o
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 b Lightning
current arrester Blitzductor
®
CT,
type B
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 c (a) Surge arrester
ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN S
o
on the user side of
the NTBA
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 c (c)
Basic circuit diagram
280 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 5.8.2.3.6 a Surge arrester, type ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN S
o
: Technical data
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 d (a) Data socket outlet (with surge arrester) DSM–2 × RJ45
ISDN S
o
protects ISDN terminals (Fax and telephone)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 281
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 d (b) Data socket outlets (with surge arresters) types DSM–
1 × RJ45 ISDN S
o
and DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN S
o
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 d (c) Basic circuit diagrams
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 e (a) Surge protective block,
type DPL 10F/ISDN S
o
for 10 double wires to
plug into LSA-PLUS disconnection block
Figure 5.8.2.3.6 e
(b) Basic circuit diagram
282 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 5.8.2.3.6 b Data socket outlets (with surge arresters), types DSM-
1 × RJ45 ISDN S
O
and DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN S
o
: Technical
data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 283
Sources
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998.
5.8.2.3.7 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by ISDN pri-
mary multiplex terminal. The primary multiplex terminal has 30 B chan-
nels with 64kbps each and a D channel with 64kbps. Data transmissions
up to 2.048Mbps can be carried out via a primary multiplex terminal.
The NT is supplied with interface U
2m
; the user’s interface is S
2m
. Large
Table 5.8.2.3.6 c Surge protective block, type DPL 10 F/ISDN S
o
: Technical
data
284 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
extension units or data lines with high data volumes are connected to this
interface. The S
2m
interface is operated using normal telephone lines.
Figure 5.8.2.3.7 a shows the basic arrangement of the protective
devices. At the interface of lightning protection zone 0
A
/1 again a light-
ning current arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type B (introduced in Section
5.8.2.1) (Figure 5.8.2.3.7 b) is used.
In the user’s system surge arresters Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/HF
(also described in Section 5.8.2.1.1) (Figure 5.8.2.3.7 c, Table 5.8.2.3.7 a)
are applied.
Figure 5.8.2.3.7 a Protectors for long-distance data transmission with ISDN-
primary–multiplex terminal equipment
Figure 5.8.2.3.7 b Lightning
current arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, type B to protect the U
2m
interface
Figure 5.8.2.3.7 c Surge arrester
Blitzductor
®
CT, type MD/HF (for
high-frequency applications)
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 285
Sources
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E
1998
5.8.2.3.8 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by analogue
a/b-wire terminal. In industrial as well as in private sectors, analogue
long-distance data transmission via modem is commonly used. The data
transmission rate is determined by hardware components of the modem.
The TAE system with N coding is specified by the German Telecom
as a plug-in connector. The exchange lines as well as branch exchange
lines are mostly carried via terminals blocks. The LSA-PLUS terminals
Table 5.8.2.3.7 a Surge arrester Blitzductor
®
CT-type MD/HF: Technical data
286 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 c (a) Surge arresters,
type DPL 1F/ALD, 110V, protect the
rank distributor
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 c
(c) Basic
circuit
diagram
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 a Protectors for long-distance data transmisssion with analogue
a/b-wire connection
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 b (a) Lightning
current arrester, type DPL 10G in LSA-
PLUS technique for protection of
10 double wires
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 c
(b) Surge arrester,
type DPL 1F/ALD,
110V
Figure 5.8.2.3.8.b (b) Basic
circuit diagram
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 287
described in Section 5.8.2.1.7 are widely used for this purpose. Terminal
equipment is often connected via TAE sockets with F coding.
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 a shows the arrangement of protective devices in such
a system. Lightning current arresters (e.g. Blitzductor
®
CT, type B)
(Figure 5.8.2.3.7 b) or DPL 10 G (at LSA-PLUS terminals) (Figure
5.8.2.3.8 b, Table 5.8.2.3.8 a) are installed at the interface of the light-
ning protection zones 0
A
/1 (line input of the lightning protected
building).
The lines at the disconnection block are protected by surge arresters
DPL 1F/ALD, 110V (Figure 5.8.2.3.8 c, Table 5.8.2.3.8 b).
The telephones are connected to TEA sockets (with surge protection)
DSM-TAE-3x6 NFN-PWM (Figure 5.8.2.3.8 d , Table 5.8.2.3.8 c).
The modem is protected by a combined surge protective device, type
FAX-Protector TAE/N (Figure 5.8.2.3.8 e, Table 5.8.2.3.8 d).
Table 5.8.2.3.8 a Lightning current arrester, type DPL 10 G: Technical data
288 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 5.8.2.3.8 b Surge arrester, type DPL 1 F/ALD, 110V: Technical data
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 d (a) TAE-socket outlet
(with integrated surge arrester for a/b wires)
type DSM-TAE-3 × 6 NFN–PWM with
three TAE-sockets with N/F/N coding
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 d
(b) Basic circuit
diagram
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 289
Table 5.8.2.3.8 c TAE socket outlet (with surge arrester), type DSM–TAE-3 × 6
NFN-PWM
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 e (a) Combined surge
protector, type FAX-protector TAE/N protects
a/b-wire-input and 230V-energy supply of the
modem
290 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 e
(b) Combined surge protector,
type FAX-protector TAE/N
Figure 5.8.2.3.8 e (c) Basic circuit
diagram
Table 5.8.2.3.8 d FAX-Protector TAE/N: Technical data
Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application 291
Sources
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice
and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998
292 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Chapter 6
Application in practice:
Some examples
Here are some practical examples of how the protective measures
described are carried out and how the protective devices introduced are
used in electrical systems with sensitive electronic equipment. These are
also systems which were seriously interfered with or even damaged
by lightning previously. Since protective measures were completed the
well-targeted application of protective devices has been working trouble-
free for years, even during violent thunderstorms and direct lightning
strikes.
It is now over 20 years since the development of surge limiters for
highly sensitive electronic systems was initiated. At that time structures
were equipped with the new protective devices and with ‘lightning cur-
rent counters’. Today, there is more than a decade of reliable information
on the efficiency of these surge protective devices, including those sys-
tems that failed five times and more per year in the previously
unprotected stage.
A lightning/surge current counter which can also register the response
of surge protective devices is shown in Figure 6 a. This is designed
according to the current transformer principle (Figure 6 b) and registers
surge currents with peak values exceeding 200A. Such a counter can be
installed directly into the down conductor of a lightning protection sys-
tem (Figure 6 c) or the earth bonding line of a protective device without
reducing the cross section. Often it is necessary to carry out surge
voltage/surge current tests not only in the laboratory or during the pro-
duction of protective devices but also in the field. Here the portable
‘hybrid generator’ shown in Figure 6 d has been proven. In the case of a
short circuit it emits a standardized 8/20μs surge current with a max-
imum peak value of 10kA, whereas in open circuit it generates the
standardized surge voltage wave 1.2/50μs with a peak value up to
10kV.
Figure 6 a Lightning/surge current counter
Figure 6 b Lightning/surge current counter: Layout and interior circuit
Figure 6 c Lightning/surge current counter installed at a down conductor
Figure 6 d Portable hybrid generator
294 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
6.1 Industrial plants
As explained in Section 4.1.1, the necessary protective measures and the
required lightning protection levels for a particular industrial plant are
determined by means of risk analysis as a first step. In a second step the
lightning protection zones will be determined according to the manage-
ment plan introduced in Section 4.1.3 (in accordance with IEC 61312–1)
(Figure 6.1 a).
Modern construction techniques using steel skeletons, reinforced con-
crete and often metal facings allow integration of these metal parts
into the lightning protection system. If lightning protection matters have
been considered during the construction planning stage, advantageous
architectural solutions can often be found.
6.1.1 Fabrication hall
A step-by-step procedure for a factory hall built of prefabricated con-
crete elements (Figure 6.1.1 a) follows:

Connection lines bonding the reinforcement of the foundation socket
(for the hall pillars) with the reinforcement of the pillars and with a
ring type earth electrode are laid around the hall (Figure 6.1.1 b).

Reinforcement of the pillars is interconnected and the connection lines
are brought out at the bottom and top (Figures 6.1.1 c and d).

Figure 6.1.1 e shows a finished pillar with the brought out reinforce-
ment basket connection, ready to be placed into the foundation
socket.
Figure 6.1 a Industrial plant: lightning protection levels = PL (acc. to a risk
analysis) and lightning protection zones = LPZ (in accordance with
the LEMP-management plant)
Application in practice: Some examples 295

Floor reinforcement mats are interconnected by continuous steel wires
(Figure 6.1.1 f ), brought out near the pillars for final connection with
the ring equipotential bonding bar (Figure 6.1.1 g).

Reinforcement connection wires brought out on top of the pillars
(Figure 6.1.1 h) are to be connected with the steel construction of the
attic (Figures 6.1.1 i and j).

All piping or lines entering the factory building (such as water, heating,
oil, compressed air pipes or power, telephone, data and signal lines)
enter through a reinforced cable duct (the reinforcement of which will
be connected with the hall reinforcement) at a point where the light-
ning protection equipotential bonding will also be carried out.

All foundation reinforcements will be included into the earthing sys-
tem (Figure 6.1.1 k), the individual reinforcement mats being intercon-
nected by a continuous wire and corresponding clamps (Figure 6.1.1 l).
Earthing systems of individual buildings of the whole structure to be
protected shall be interconnected to a meshed surface earthing (Figure
6.1.1 m).
6.1.2 Store and dispatch building
In this example the building is a computer-controlled high-bay ware-
house (Figure 6.1.2 a) with dispatch area (Figure 6.1.2 b), made out of
reinforced concrete supports, reinforced prefabricated concrete wall
elements and a metal roof (Figure 6.1.2 c). The following Figures show
how lightning protection measures are realized during the progress of
construction:
Figure 6.1.1 a Factory hall made out of prefabricated concrete parts, where the
metal reinforcements are integrated into the lightning protection
system (total view)
296 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 6.1.1 f Continuously
interconnected reinforcement mats of
the floor
Figure 6.1.1 c Reinforcement basket
of a hall pillar (lying down, during
fabrication) with connection line
Figure 6.1.1 d Detail of Figure 6.1.1 c
Figure 6.1.1 e Finished hall pillar
(lying) with brought out reinforcement
connection line
Figure 6.1.1 g Brought out
connection wire of the reinforcement
mats provided for later connection to
the ring equipotential bonding bar
Figure 6.1.1 b Foundation socket with
brought out reinforcement connection
wire
Application in practice: Some examples 297

Reinforcements of the foundations for the building supports are to be
interconnected and provided with connection wires to the outside
(Figure 6.1.2 d); the reinforcement baskets will then be interconnected.

Steel reinforcements of the supports are to be continuously connected
(Figure 6.1.2 e).
Figure 6.1.1 j Connection of the attic
support construction
Figure 6.1.1 l Terminal to connect
reinforcement mats with steel strip
Figure 6.1.1 k Foundation
reinforcement is included in the
earthing system
Figure 6.1.1 h Reinforcement
connection wire brought out at the
pillar head
Figure 6.1.1 i Connection of the
reinforcement with the attic support
construction
298 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Reinforcements of foundation and support are to be connected (Figure
6.1.2 f ).

Support reinforcements are to be connected with the metal roof con-
struction by clamps made to carry lightning currents (Figures 6.1.2 g).

Steel reinforcements of the prefabricated wall elements for the
Figure 6.1.1 m Building earthings interconnected to a meshed surface
earthing
Figure 6.1.2 a High-bay
warehouse
Figure 6.1.2 b Dispatch area
Application in practice: Some examples 299
high-bay warehouse (lightning protection zone 2) are already continu-
ously connected by the producer (for later shielding purposes) and are
provided with fixed earthing terminals (at which the wall elements then
will be interconnected) (Figures 6.1.2 h).

Figure 6.1.2 i shows such interconnected wall elements.

Reinforcement steel mats in the store floor are to be interconnected;
connection wires (for the ring equipotential bonding bar) are brought
out at the walls (Figure 6.1.2 j).
Figure 6.1.2 c Dispatch building
Figure 6.1.2 d Reinforcement baskets with brought out connection wires
300 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

This is the way to create in the building (lightning protection zone 1) a
completely shielded room (lightning protection zone 2) for the com-
puter controlled high-bay warehouse.

Metal piping for water, heating, and compressed air entering the build-
ing through a supply duct are to be included into the lightning protec-
tion equipotential bonding by pipe clamps (made to carry lightning
currents) on entering lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 6.1.2 k).
Figure 6.1.2 e Continuously
interconnected support reinforcement
Figure 6.1.2 f Reinforcement steels
of foundation and support are
connected
Figure 6.1.2 g Connection of the support reinforcement with the metal roof
construction
Application in practice: Some examples 301

Power lines are to be provided with lightning current arresters on
entering lightning protection zone 1 of the building (Figure 6.1.2 l).

Information technology lines will be connected across the protective
cabinet shown in Figure 6.1.2 m on entering the building (lightning
protection zone 1).

On entering the high-bay warehouse (lightning protection zone 2) all
electric lines are to be provided with surge arresters in the distribution
(outside at the store wall) (Figure 6.1.2 n).
6.1.3 Factory central heating
The central heating system of a factory, shown in Figures 6.1.3 a, has
two 20m high metal chimneys the protected area of which (lightning
Figure 6.1.2 i Reinforcements
of two wall elements
interconnected at brought out
fixed earthing terminals
Figure 6.1.2 j Interconnection of the steel
mats in the floor with brought out connecting
lugs for ring equipotential bonding bar
Figure 6.1.2 h Continuous reinforcement
steels of the wall elements are prepared for
shielding purposes
302 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 6.1.2 m Information
technology lines (e.g. telephone
lines, fire-alarm lines, control lines)
are taken over a protective cabinet
at the building input
Figure 6.1.2 k Inclusion of metal
pipings into the lightning protection
equipotential bonding at the entry into
lightning protection zone 1
Figure 6.1.2 l Lightning current
arrester at the input of power lines into
lightning protection zone 1
Application in practice: Some examples 303
protection level III, α = 45°) is not sufficient (as shown in the side view of
Figure 6.1.3 a, C) to avoid direct lightning strikes into the central
heating.
Also in this example it will be demonstrated step-by-step how
lightning/surge protection is going to be carried out for a central heating
system with steel pillars, sheet steel walls and a metal roof construction.
Consider the following:

Figure 6.1.3 b shows the reinforcement of the ground plate (all struc-
tural steel mats being interconnected) and the metal plate foundations
for the tubular steel pillars which are to be interconnected for reasons
of earthing and shielding.

The tubular steel pillars serve as down conductors (Figure 6.1.3 c).

Figure 6.1.3 d shows how the reinforcement baskets of the metal chim-
neys’ foundations are interconnected.

The tubular steel of the chimneys is to be bonded with the foundation
reinforcement (Figure 6.1.3 e) to serve as ‘air terminations/down
conductor/earthing’.

Metal roof and sheet steel wall elements are to be bonded with the
tubular steel pillars and the metal roof-supporting construction, thus
Figure 6.1.2 n Electrical lines entering lightning protection zone 2 of the high-
bay warehouse are connected with surge arresters
304 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
serving as ‘air terminations, down conductors and shield’ (Figure 6.1.3 f)
and forming an inside lightning protection zone 1.

All metal aggregates are to be connected with the base reinforcement
(as directly as possible) via preinstalled fixed earthing terminals
(chapter 5.2, Figure 5.2 g) (Figure 6.1.3 g).

Electrical lines, on entering lightning protection zone 1, are to be pro-
vided with lightning current arresters in the switchgear cabinet (Figure
6.1.3 h).

Figure 6.1.3 i shows the electrical line protected by surge arresters on
Figure 6.1.3 a Central heating
(d) Internal view
(b) Front view (a) External view
(c) Side view
Application in practice: Some examples 305
Figure 6.1.3 f Metal roof and wall elements are interconnected
Figure 6.1.3 d Reinforcement
baskets of the chimney foundations
Figure 6.1.3 e Metal chimneys
connected with the foundation
reinforcement
Figure 6.1.3 b Continuous
ground plate reinforcement
and metal plate foundations
Figure 6.1.3 c Steel tube supports
connected with the ground plate
reinforcement as down conductors
306 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
entering the control cabinet of the central heating unit which is light-
ning protection zone 2.
6.1.4 Central computer
The central computer (Figure 6.1.4 a) of the factory is in the office build-
ing and is used for accounting, book-keeping, operations scheduling,
Figure 6.1.3 h Lightning current
arresters at the entry of electrical lines
into lightning protection zone 1
Figure 6.1.3 i Surge arresters at the
crossing of electrical lines from lightning
protection zone 1 into lightning
protection zone 2 (control cabinet)
Figure 6.1.3 g Metal aggregates sets are connected as closely as possible with the
ground reinforcement by fixed earthing terminals
Application in practice: Some examples 307
material tracking, production control and stock control. A long fail-
ure of this computing centre (e.g., due to surges) would not only paralyse
the automatic operating process but also would mean an immeasurable
financial loss for the company.
Data transfer occurs over a four-wire current loop 20mA current
interface. 25-pole D-subminiature plugs are used as terminal facilities.
The office building has been structured according to the concept of
lightning protection zones where the interfaces of incoming lines are
treated accordingly at the lightning protection zone boundary 0/1. The
computer room in the office building is designated as lightning protection
zone 2, as described below.
The power cable is connected to surge arresters at the boundary of
lightning protection zone 1/2 (Figure 6.1.4 b). For the datalines, surge
protected data socket-outlets are installed at this zone crossing. They are
mechanically and electrically compatible with the computer interfaces.
These socket-outlet type surge arresters have a front-side ‘protected out-
put’. They are installed into a 19 inch protective cabinet where they offer
the possibility to jump, thus this cabinet can also serve as a terminal block
(Figures 6.1.4 c and 6.1.4 d).
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München, VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
Figure 6.1.4 a Computer centre of a factory
308 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
HASSE, P.: ‘EMV- orientiertes Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept mit Beispielen aus
der Praxis’. Aus: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (VDE Verlag, Berlin/
Offenbach, 1991), pp. 59–150
6.1.5 European installation bus (EIB)
Just as with any other electrical lines the bus network will also be included
in the lightning/surge protection measures, that is lightning current
arresters will be installed at the boundary of lightning protection zone
Figure 6.1.4 c Front view of
the 19″-protective cabinet for
data lines
Figure 6.1.4 b Connection of mains and data lines of a computer centre at the
interfaces of lightning protection zones 1/ 2 with surge arresters
Figure 6.1.4 d Detail of Figure 6.1.4 c
Application in practice: Some examples 309
0
A
/1 (Figure 6.1.5 a). For surge protection of the bus line (Figure 6.1.5 b)
there is an EIB surge-arrester terminal (Figures 6.1.5 c, Table 6.1.5 a)
which, for example, can be mounted in a switch box (as Figures 6.1.5 d
show).
Figures 6.1.5 e show further application of this bus surge arrester for
protection of bus devices in a factory. Figure 6.1.5 f shows the com-
prehensive protection of EIB lines crossing several buildings.
Figure 6.1.5 a Inclusion of the bus network into the lightning protection
equipotential bonding (Source: ZVEI/ZVEH)
Figure 6.1.5 b Application of surge arresters at bus devices
Figure 6.1.5 c (a) EIB-surge arrester
BUStector
Figure 6.1.5 c (b) Basic
circuit diagram
310 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Table 6.1.5 a EIB-surge arrester BUStector: Technical data
Figure 6.1.5 d (a) Basic diagram
Figure 6.1.5 d (a, b and c) Mounting of the EIB-surge arrester in a switch box
(Source: ZVEI/ZVEH)
Figure 6.1.5 d (c) Practical execution Figure 6.1.5 d (b) Practical execution
Application in practice: Some examples 311
Figure 6.1.5 e (a) at the connector
Figure 6.1.5 e (b) at the line coupler
Figure 6.1.5 e (a and b) Mounting examples for EIB-surge arresters
(Source: ZVEI/ZVEH)
Figure 6.1.5 f Lightning/surge protection of factory buildings with EIB-systems
312 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
6.1.6 Other bus systems
Other bus systems are equally integrated in the lightning protection con-
cept by lightning current and surge arresters. It must always be con-
sidered that the local surge protection of the bus components (e.g., in a
local lightning protection zone) includes both the power lines and the bus
lines (Figure 6.1.6 a). This is shown, for example, by the SIMATIC ET
100 bus system (interface RS 485) in Figure 6.1.6 b.
6.1.7 Fire and burglar alarm system
Fire and burglar alarm systems need long conductor loops through
buildings and structures, encountering a considerable danger (especially
Figure 6.1.6 a Surge protection for mains supply and bus lines: (left) SPS-
protector; (right) Blitzductor
®
Figure 6.1.6 b Surge protection for SIMATIC ET 100
Application in practice: Some examples 313
to the central alarm) due to surges. The minimum interference immunity
of such systems is standardized in EN 50 130, prescribing the selection
of the arresters to be used.
There are two kinds of examining principles for fire and burglar alarm
systems:

DC line technique. According to the closed-circuit principle every
signal line (which has several detectors) is continuously controlled.
If a detector gives an alarm, the corresponding signal line will be
interrupted and thus the alarm is given in the central alarm. Here
only the signal line can be identified: not, however, the signalling
detector.

Impulse line technique. Here the information of a signalling detector
will be transmitted in digital signals. By means of the transmission
protocol the signalling detector can be identified.
The lines, just as those for any other network in buildings and systems,
must be included in the lightning/surge protection:

At the boundary of lightning protection zone 0
A
/1 the Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE, for example, is used for lines which cross several
buildings (selected according to the operating voltage of the signal
line).

At the central alarm (which is mostly designed as the local zone of
protection) all inputs and outputs (signal line inputs, optical/
acoustical signal line outputs) will be equipped, for example, with a
suitable Blitzductor
®
CT, where it should be taken into account that
the nominal current of these arresters (at system operation) is not
exceeded. In case of nominal currents > 1A, for example, the surge
protection device DEHNrail with adequate nominal voltage should be
used.
The Blitzductor
®
CT, type BD, 110V, for example, is recommended to
protect telecoms lines (for the self-dial device). The power supply line
of the central alarm will be protected as usual by the lightning current
arrester (e.g., DEHNport
®
, 250V), decoupling element (e.g., in the case
of insufficient line length, DEHNbridge) and surge arrester (e.g.,
DEHNguard
®
).
Figure 6.1.7 a shows a typical fire alarm system in the DC line tech-
nique; here, also, are the necessary protective devices. Figure 6.1.7 b
shows the protection of a burglar alarm system using the DC line
technique.
The surge protection for the lightning protection zone crossing 1/2 for
the Siemens fire central alarm, type BMS, is shown in Figure 6.1.7 c and
in Figure 6.1.7 d for the Siemens burglar central alarm, type IT. For
both of these protection proposals it is pointed out that the Blitzductor
®
s
314 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
CT, type ME/C, are energy coordinated with the protective device type,
8 P/G, recommended by Siemens for such systems (Figure 6.1.7 e).
Source
EN 50130–4: ‘Alarm systems. Part 4: Electromagnetic compatibility –
Product family standard: Immunity requirements for components of fire,
intruder and social alarm systems’ (International Electrotechnical Commis-
sion, Geneva, 1995)
Figure 6.1.7 a Protection of a fire-alarm system using DC line-technique
Figure 6.1.7 b Protection of a burglar alarm system using DC line-technique
Application in practice: Some examples 315
6.1.8 Video control system
Video systems are used in industrial plants for object monitoring and
access control. Figure 6.1.8 a shows the basic structure of such systems.
They are included in lightning/surge protection systems as described
below:

Location of the video camera must not be subject to direct lightning
(lightning protection zone 0
B
): for example, at the outer façade of
Figure 6.1.7 c (a) Surge protection of the SIEMENS fire-alarm system,
type BMS
Figure 6.1.7 c (b) Example for the surge protection of a fire-alarm system
316 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
the building in the protection zone of the air terminations of the
building’s lightning protection system, or the camera mast will be pro-
vided with an air termination rod. The system cable between camera
and terminal box will be run in the shaft of the metal mast.

Connection between terminal box (or transmitter) and monitor (or
receiver) can, for example, be realized by the existing telephone net-
work (symmetric two-wire line) of the industrial plant, or there is a
separate coaxial line network. As shown in Figure 6.1.8 b the choice of
lightning and surge arresters will depend on the requirements (at the
lightning protection zone interfaces).
Figure 6.1.7 d Surge protection of the SIEMENS burglar alarmsystem, type IT
Figure 6.1.7 e Energy coordinated application of Blitzductor
®
CT, type ME/C
and SIEMENS ÜSS, type 8 P/G
Application in practice: Some examples 317
The protective devices ÜGK/B and ÜGKF/BNC, mentioned in Figure
6.1.8 b, are shown in Figures 6.1.8 c with their technical data being
summarized in Tables 6.1.8 a and b.
For surge protection of a video control centre where several monitor-
ing lines arrive, the protective devices for the 19 inch case mounting,
shown in Figure 6.1.8 c (c), can be used (technical data equal to ÜGKF/
BNC).
6.1.9 Radio paging system
A radio paging system, as used in an industrial area, is shown in Figure
6.1.9 a. Note that: (i) the actuator, with microphone and selective call
Figure 6.1.8 a Video-monitoring system: Basic construction
Figure 6.1.8 b Protection for video-monitoring system
318 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
generator, is in the control room or in the keeper’s lodge; (ii) one or two
double wires transmit the signal to the amplifier which is installed
together with the omni-directional antenna in the roof area of an
exposed building; and (iii) the amplified signal will be led to the antenna
by a coaxial cable.
Figure 6.1.8 c (a) Lightning current arrester ÜGK/B (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/
BNC (c) Surge arrester ÜGKF/BNC III
Figure 6.1.8 c (a)
Figure 6.1.8 c (b)
Figure 6.1.8 c (c)
Application in practice: Some examples 319
Figure 6.1.9 a also shows what protective measures shall be taken:

Lightning current arresters are to be used at the lines which are cross-
ing several buildings. For example:
Blitzductor
®
s CT, type BE (according to the signal voltage) for the
signal line double wires; coaxial arresters, type ÜGK (according to the
type BNC, N, or UHF attachment) for the aerial coaxial line; DEHN-
port
®
for the 230V supply (such lightning current arresters certainly
are installed anyhow, if there is a lightning protection system).

Actuator and amplifier will be protected at the 230 V input by surge
arresters, for example, DEHNguard
®
, type 275 (which must be suf-
ficiently decoupled from the lightning current arresters).
6.1.10 Electronic vehicle weighbridge
As explained in the example in Section 5.8.2.1.3.1, electronic vehicle
weighbridges are powered using the four or six-wire technique: that is,
two wires each for the supply voltage, for measuring and for compensa-
tion purposes.
Table 6.1.8 a Arresters for video systems: Technical data
(a) Lightning current arrester, type ÜGK/B
320 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
(b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/BNC
Figure 6.1.9 a Protection of a radio/paging system
Application in practice: Some examples 321
Earthing and equipotential bonding measures for the weighbridge
(with the pressure gauges) are shown in Figure 6.1.10 a.
Figure 6.1.10 b shows how the protective devices are to be used:
Figure 6.1.10 a Earthing and equipotential bonding measures for a vehicle
weighbridge
Figure 6.1.10 b Protection of an electronic vehicle weighbridge
322 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

There are lightning current arresters Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE, 12V, at
the voltage supply, the measuring and compensation lines as well as at
the weighbridges and also at the evaluating electronics.

Data transfer between evaluating electronics and large-digital display
usually travels by symmetric interfaces. For example, V.11 (RS 422),
thus Blitzductor
®
CT, type BE/C, 12V, is used here.

Control and monitoring of the weighing system in this example is
realized by a personal computer (PC) having the asymmetric interface
V.24 (RS 232). A type FS 25 E surge arrester protects this input to the
evaluating electronics (since the PC is in the same building).

The 230V input of the evaluating electronics will be protected by surge
arresters DEHNguard
®
, type 275 (since this line is already provided
with a lightning current arrester, for example, DEHNport
®
at the
building input).
6.2 Peak-load power station
Using the example of the peak-load power station St. Veit of the
Allgäuer Überlandwerk (AÜW) in Kempten it can be demonstrated how
new buildings with electronic equipment already in the existing struc-
tures can obtain the best protection according to the lightning protection
zone concept, and how these measures are made compatible with those
already existing.
A new engine hall with gas turbines has been joined to the engine hall
with diesel generators and the lightning protection system has been
integrated into the comprehensive lightning protection concept (Figure
6.2 a). The volume to be protected is defined as lightning protection
zone 1 and comprises:

the engine hall of the gas turbines

the four underground gas tanks with the tank domes and the gas
pipelines

the external gas distribution station

the corresponding connection routes with power cables and telecom-
munication cables.
The transition from lightning protection zone 0 to lightning protection
zone 1 shall be explained in detail by considering the construction of the
engine hall. The flat roof and the façades consist of usual reinforced
concrete elements with welded reinforcement (Figure 6.2 b). At the four
corners of the prefabricated concrete elements there are threaded bush-
ings which are welded to the reinforcement. At these bushings the indi-
vidual concrete elements can be bonded (Figure 6.2 d). The defined down
conduction of the lightning protection system from the roof to the
foundations has been realized here by additional round steel in the con-
crete pillars. Additional bonding points are provided to connect the
Application in practice: Some examples 323
Figure 6.2 a General plan of the peak-load power station
Figure 6.2 b Steel reinforcement
of the prefabricated concrete parts
Figure 6.2 c Threaded bushing welded to
the reinforcement
324 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
reinforcement of the façade elements to down conductors. The wall side
adjoining the already existing engine hall with the diesel generators has
been covered by continuous wire netting to guarantee a closed, electro-
magnetic shield.
In the floor of the engine hall a net of strip iron is welded to the
reinforcement and bonded with the reinforcement of the cartridge-type
foundations (Figure 6.2 e). By these simple and rather favourable measures
it was possible to obtain an appreciable basic shielding of the engine hall
interior against the electromagnetic field from a lightning discharge.

Only shielded cables have been used inside the volume to protect in
lightning protection zone 1, thus leading to a further reduction in
existing residual fields of interference for the electrical lines. All
shielded cables from the engine hall area are run to the information
technology cabinets, realized using closed sheet metal boxes, of the
directly neighbouring control room. Inside the information technology
cabinets and the connected cables a lightning protection zone 2 has
thus been created. There is further cable routing to two protective cabi-
nets where cable shields are connected and the active cores are protected
by Blitzductor
®
KT (predecessor of Blitzductor
®
CT) surge arresters.
These protective cabinets (Figures 6.2 f) are the central interface
between the protected volume of the engine hall and the outer area.
There turned out to be a special problem in that the underground gas
tanks and gas pipelines had to be cathodically protected. Here two
different levels of equipotential bonding had to be created:

the equipotential bonding on the level of the mentioned direct earthing
by the foundation earth electrodes

the equipotential bonding on the level of the cathodical protection
potential.
Figure 6.2 d Electrical bonding
of the reinforcement of the
prefabricated concrete parts
Figure 6.2 e Bonding of the reinforcement
steel by means of steel strips
Application in practice: Some examples 325
Figure 6.2 g shows the line treatment inside and around the gas distrib-
ution station. Those cable shields leading to equipment on the cathodic
protection potential are connected to a cathodic corrosion protection
equipotential bus bar (CCP–EBB). The gas tank bodies and the pipes
coming from the tanks are directly connected to this equipotential bond-
ing bar. The bushing of the cable shields and the gas pipes must be insu-
lated from the earthed reinforcement of the gas distribution station. As
the gas pipe in the distribution station is at earth potential, an insulating
flange had to be inserted at the entrance and the output of the station.
Equipment at earth potential and the corresponding cable shields have
been bonded with the equipotential bonding bar (EBB) which is directly
earthed. For the purpose of lightning protection equipotential bonding
the equipotential bus bar lying at cathodic protection potential (CCP-
EBB) and the equipotential bus bar lying at earth potential (EBB) are
interconnected by suitable explosion-protected disconnection spark gaps
(Figure 6.2 h).
A corresponding solution has been implemented at the entrance of the
cables and gas pipes into the engine hall area.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994
LANG, U., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Eine Methode des Blitzschutzes für nach-
richtentechnische Anlagen – Das Denken in Blitz-Schutzzonen’, de der
elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk, 1990, (11), pp. 39–45
Figure 6.2 f Protective cabinets: control room (Source: P. Biebl); total view of
the protective cabinets; cable input into the protective cabinet with
arresters (Source: P. Biebl)
326 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 6.2 g Equipotential bonding in the gas distribution station
Figure 6.2 h An explosion protected disconnection spark gap connects the
equipotential bonding bar at cathodic protection potential with
the equipotential bonding bar at earth potential
Application in practice: Some examples 327
6.3 Mobile radio systems
Mobile radio systems are often installed on existing buildings (in a radio
technically favourable site). For these systems class III (according to
DIN V ENV 61024–1) lightning protection is mostly provided. This must
be independent of the host building’s systems so that they will not be
additionally endangered.
Determination of class III protection means a radius R = 45m (of the
rolling sphere) for the rolling sphere method to specify the position and
height of the air terminations. A sphere with radius R = 45m will
be rolled over that part of the building where the components of the
mobile radio system are located (Figure 6.3 a). Thus, there are lightning
protection zones with different levels of potential lightning danger:

LPZ 0
A
. Direct strike is possible, undamped electromagnetic lightning
fields (e.g., antenna masts).

LPZ 0
B
. Direct strike impossible, undamped electromagnetic lightning
fields (e.g., parts of the roof surface).

LPZ 1: Direct strike impossible, damped electromagnetic lightning
fields (e.g., interior of the base station).
If an electrical line crosses a zone interface, it must be protected at the
crossing point. For coaxial cables this is realized by connecting the
shields to earthing couplings and by their equipotential bonding.
Active power and telecommunication wires will be protected by light-
ning current arresters at the lightning protection zone boundary 0
A
/1 and
by surge arresters at the zone boundaries 0
B
/1 and higher. According to
class III lightning protection there is a total lightning current loading of
50kA (10/350μs) for the power and telecommunication cables.
To avoid uncontrolled arcing due to a lightning strike, all mobile
Figure 6.3 a Determination of the protected zone by means of the rolling sphere
method (LPZ: lightning protection zone)
328 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
radio systems on the roof such as metal installations of electrical sys-
tems and the lightning protection and earthing system (if there is any),
must be interconnected by a meshed functional equipotential bonding
(MFEB).
This MFEB shall include the metal components of the base station,
the antenna masts, cable racks and the lightning protection system of the
host building (which might already exist). For the MFEB in the area of
the components of a mobile radio system, a mesh width of about 5 × 5 m
shall be kept, thus obtaining a network of low impedance. The line cross
sections of the MFEB can be taken from Table 6.3 a. An example of real-
izing the meshed functional equipotential bonding for a host building
without a lightning protection system is shown in Figure 6.3 b (a).
Figure 6.3 b (b), for example, shows the integration of the meshed
equipotential bonding for host buildings with an existing lightning
protection system. The antenna mast must be connected as directly as
possible with the MFEB.
When using sector or radio relay antennas they must be placed in the
protective area of the mast (Figures 6.3 c). At the mast foot the incoming
coaxial cables must be screwed to a ground coupling, thus obtaining an
electrically conductive connection (lightning current proof) between the
phase of the coaxial cable and the antenna mast.
The antenna cables are to be run in steel cable conduits (cable racks,
cable gutters). This prevents the cables from direct lightning strikes and
the lightning field influence on the aerial cable will be damped in the case
of close-up strikes. It is necessary to ensure that there is a continuous
bonding of the cable gutters. This is realized by screwing the cable racks
or by bonding them by lightning current proof bridging ropes (Figures
6.3 d (b) ). In addition, ground couplings are used to integrate the aerial
cable at the base station into the MFEB.
The meshed functional equipotential bonding of buildings with exist-
ing lightning protection system will be earthed by connection to the air
terminations (Figure 6.3 b (b) ). The meshed functional equipotential
bonding of buildings without lightning protection will be earthed by an
antenna earthing according to EN 50 083–1:1993–09. As the bonding
conductor (earth conductor) between the MFEB on the roof and the
antenna earthing, the following can be used:
Table 6.3 a Minimum cross section of MFEB line
Application in practice: Some examples 329

single solid wire, 16mm
2
copper

single solid wire, 25mm
2
insulated aluminium

50mm
2
steel.
As the earth conductor, the following can be also used:

metal installations such as continuous metal water pipes, continuous
metal heating pipes on condition that: (i) there is permission in
accordance with the local regulations, (ii) there is permanent continuity
of the different parts, and (iii) the cross sections are at least equal to
those of the above mentioned materials.
Figure 6.3 b Meshed functional equipotential bonding for a mobile radio system
on the roof of the host building: (a) without lightning protection
system; (b) with lightning protection system
Figure 6.3 b (a)
Figure 6.3 b (b)
330 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

metal frame of the building

continuous reinforcement steel of the concrete building

façades, railings, and subconstructions of metal façades on condition
that: (i) their cross sections are at least equal to those of the above
mentioned materials and their thickness is at least 0.5mm and (ii) there
is safe vertical continuity.
Figure 6.3 c Sector antenna in the protected zone of the antenna mast
Figure 6.3 c (a) Principle: protected zone
Figure 6.3 c (b) Arrangement in practice
Application in practice: Some examples 331
Antenna earthing is to be carried out using one of the following
means: (i) foundation earth electrode, (ii) earth electrode rod 2.5m long,
or (iii) two horizontal earth electrodes at least 5m long, laid at least
0.5m deep and a distance of 1m from the foundations. The minimum
cross section of every earth electrode is 50mm
2
Cu or 80mm
2
steel.
Usually the base station, subdistribution and cable junction form
lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 6.3 d (a) ).
The electrical supplying conductors (power line, telecommunication
Figure 6.3 d Protection of base station, subdistribution (SD) and cable
junction (CJ)
Figure 6.3 d (a) Basic circuit diagram
Figure 6.3 d (b) Practical arrangement
332 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
line) entering this lightning protection zone 1 must be included in the
meshed functional equipotential bonding by lightning current arresters
at the zone crossing (Figure 6.3 d (a) ). Application of lightning current
and surge arresters is adjusted to the low-voltage system (TT, TN–C or
TN–S system) taking into account the sufficient energy coordination of
both arrester types. Practical examples of the arresters and decoupling
inductances introduced in Section 5.8.1 are shown in Figures 6.3 e.
Owing to narrow spaces the complete protective circuit for the 230V
supply is often gathered in a service entrance box (Figure 6.3 f ).
All telecommunication lines entering lightning protection zone 1 at the
cable junction must also be included in the meshed lightning protection
equipotential bonding by lightning current arresters (Figure 6.3 d (a) ).
Often, a combination of a lightning current and surge arrester (e.g.,
Combi-Arrester Blitzductor
®
CT, Type BD), depending on the telecom
interface is applied:

Analogue connection (a/b-wire): Blitzductor
®
CT BD, 110V

ISDN U
ko
- interface: Blitzductor
®
CT BD, 110V

ISDN U
2m
-interface: Blitzductor
®
CT BD / HF, 5V

ISDN S
2m
-interface: Blitzductor
®
CT BD / HF, 5V
Conductors between base station, subdistribution and cable junction are
usually run in metal conduits on the roof (on both sides connected with
the MFEB) so that they remain in lightning protection zone 1, not
needing special protective devices.
Sources
ENV 61024–1 (VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Protection of structures against
lightning. Part 1: General principles’. Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35,
B-1050 Brussels Aug.1996
EN 50 083 Teil 1: ‘Cabled distribution systems for television and sound
signals. Part 1: Safety requirements’ (International Electrotechnical Commis-
sion, Geneva, 1993)
Figure 6.3 d (b) Practical arrangement
Application in practice: Some examples 333
6.4 Television transmitter
TV transmitters (Figure 6.4 a) are usually located at high altitude or on
mountain tops (Figure 6.4 b), so they are particularly endangered by
lightning. Power for the transmitter is taken from the public mains.
Figure 6.3 e Energy coordinated application of lightning current- and surge-
arresters to protect the power supply input of mobile radio systems
at different network configurations
Figure 6.3 e (c) TN–S system
Figure 6.3 e (a) TT system Figure 6.3 e (b) TN–C system
Figure 6.3 f Power connection box for TN–S system (compare Figure 6.3 e, C)
334 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Figure 6.4 a Transmitter mast
Figure 6.4 b Television transmitter on a mountain
Application in practice: Some examples 335
Often an overhead line from the valley is changed into an underground
cable at high altitude or on a mountain top. The protective insulation in
the power input circuit and safe electrical insulation by a disconnection
transformer is often the protective measure in the transmitter.
An especially remarkable event involving lightning damage occurred
at a transmitter of the Austrian Broadcasting Service (ORF) in Styria. At
the time (1981) surge arresters with a nominal discharge capability of
5kA (8/20μs) according to IEC 99.1 were used to protect the transmit-
ter. Such arresters are only designed for surge currents due to distant
lightning strikes. In this case the surge arresters were damaged due to a
direct lightning strike on the TV transmitter (Figure 6.4 c), leaving one
phase of the power supply conductively connected to the station earth.
Owing to the fact that in a totally insulated power input the neutral con-
ductor is not connected to the station earth, a short-circuit current to
release the back-up fuses could not be generated. A current of about
30A had, in fact, been flowing through the station earth resistance of
about 7Ω for several months without being noticed. During that time all
accessible parts of the transmitter station which were connected to the
station earth (transmitter cabin, mast and associated equipment) carried
mains voltage.
Apart from the danger to personnel from the hazardous contact volt-
ages at all conductive parts of the transmitter, there was also a consider-
able increase in the current consumption of the installation. This
undesirable condition was only identified when the current consumption
of the plant was subsequently analysed.
Figure 6.4 c Surge arresters (having a rated discharge capacity of 5kA, 8/20μs)
of the ORF TV transmitter ‘Braunhuberkogel’ in Styria damaged
by lightning strike
336 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
This example clearly demonstrates that, in the quest to attain total
‘protective insulation’, only arresters which are extremely robust (able to
carry lightning currents non-destructively) and absolutely reliable in
terms of their insulation should be used.
After having turned the transmitter cabin into a lightning protection
zone 1 new protective devices, namely, quenching spark gaps and high-
current spark gaps, were installed in this installation in autumn 1982
(Figures 6.4 d to 6.4 f). Lightning current counters were installed in the
Figure 6.4 d Power supply of the ORF TV transmitter ‘Braunhuberkogel’.
Lightning current-proof surge protection at the crossing ‘overhead
line/underground cable’
Figure 6.4 e Power input with protective insulation and lightning current-proof
surge protection of the transmitter cabin of the ORF TV transmitter
‘Braunhuberkogel’
Application in practice: Some examples 337
corresponding earth connection line of the arresters at the overhead line
mast and in the transmitter cabin. These had recorded 29 lightning
currents at the overhead line mast and 59 lightning currents in the trans-
mitter up to the end of 1997. These lightning strikes have been controlled
without damage or interference to the transmitter.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
FELDHÜTTER, W., HASSE, P., and PIVIT, E.: ‘Überspannungsschutz des
Netzeinganges eines Fernsehfüllsenders auch be direken Blitzeinschlägen’.
17th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Den Haag,
1983, Paper 3.2
EN 60099–1: ‘Surge arresters. Part 1: Non linear resistor type gapped surge
arresters for AC systems’ (International Electrotechnical Commission,
Geneva, 1991)
Figure 6.4 f (a) Transmitter cabin Figure 6.4 f (b) Detailed view of
Figure 6.4 f (a)
338 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
6.5 Mobile telecommunication facility
A mobile facility (Figures 6.5 a) must be protected against dangerous
contact voltages and surges. In this present case surge protection of the
power connection (with total insulation) was required to guarantee safe
uninterrupted operation in the event of direct lightning strikes and
nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP).
Turning the facility into a lightning protection zone 1 and a NEMP
protection zone 1 was the solution to the problem. All cable entries were
protected at the interface of the lightning or NEMP protection zones 0
and 1.
The lightning and NEMP interferences on the power connection side
Figure 6.5 a Transportable, metal encased telecommunication facility with line
inputs protected against lightning and NEMP (1 to 5)
Application in practice: Some examples 339
must be limited by an arrester circuit so that the protective insulation will
not be endangered. A suitable arrester circuit is shown in Figure 6.5 b. A
group of lightning current arresters (Figure 6.5 c) out of five spark gaps
which can quench the mains follow-current (quenching spark gaps) and a
high current spark gap as a disconnection spark gap is installed between
the phases (L
1
, L
2
, L
3
, N and PE) and the shielding case of the mobile
facility. The minimum AC operating voltage of this arrangement of
arresters is about 5kV and the minimum impulse operating voltage
about 10kV. The insulation between the power input circuit and the
Figure 6.5 b Basic circuit diagram of a surge protected power connection of a
mobile operating facility with protective insulation in the input
circuit
Figure 6.5 c Lightning current arrester arrangement out of five quenching spark
gaps and one high current spark gap
340 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
shielding case of the mobile facility as well as the insulation between the
input and output circuit of the isolating transformer are adjusted to
these operating voltages. Surges below this level, such as switching surges,
are carried by the insulation.
During undisturbed operation, this group of arresters ensures
double insulation. The basic insulation is provided by the quenching
spark gaps which have a quenching capacity according to DIN VDE
0675 Part 6; the additional insulation will be realized by the high current
spark gap.
Voltage peaks will arise at the arrester arrangement before and during
activation, the level of which depends on the steepness of the surges.
Increasing voltage steepness makes the operating voltage of the group of
arresters rise according to its impulse characteristic. Owing to the
enclosed spike chokes, very steep voltage peaks will be damped and thus
reliably protecting the insulation of the isolation transformer (Figure
6.5 d). In the internal network of the facility in lightning and NEMP
protection zone 1, on the secondary side of the isolating transformer, the
TN-C-S-system is used. Any surges arising on the secondary side prior
to the reaction of the arresters will be limited by varistors. For protection
against very high frequency surges, especially due to NEMP effects,
additional RFI bushing filters are provided.
The protective conductor PE of the power cable is not necessary if
protective insulation is applied. However, by using standard power cables
and plugs, the protective conductor PE will be automatically carried to
the coupling socket of the cable at the transportable facility. It must not
terminate here in an open circuit condition because in the event of a
surge a sparkover would occur in the plug and socket facility. Therefore,
the protective conductor PE should be treated as if it were a live con-
ductor and is equipped with a quenching spark gap.
Figure 6.5 d Coordinated surge characteristics of the arrester arrangement and
the isolating transformer insulation
Application in practice: Some examples 341
In the case of a direct lightning strike into a facility on a non-
definitively earthed vehicle the worst case condition occurs when the
entire lightning current enters through the power supply. Therefore, an
arrester arrangement is required to meet the lightning currents according
to protection class III (compare Table 4.1.1 c):

Insulation resistance and minimum operating voltage must not
change considerably even after multiple lightning current loadings
(this guarantees a long-term protective insulation of the power
input).

After activation of the arresters by a surge, the ensuing mains follow-
current must be quenched automatically.
As shown in Figure 6.5 b, these requirements are distributed among
several spark gaps. In terms of their insulation characteristics these
quenching spark gaps correspond to the basic insulation. They will be
connected at their lower end and wired via the high-current spark gap to
the casing of the power connection. This spark gap, working like a dis-
connection spark gap, can control the entire lightning current and has
excellent and very reliable insulation characteristics corresponding to the
requirements of additional insulation.
The series connection of quenching and high current spark gaps
thus constitutes a double insulation with lightning current conductive
surge protection. The spark gaps are installed in a service entrance box
which can be easily inserted into the mobile facility, as shown in Figure
6.5 e.
Figure 6.5 e Mains connection box, installed into a mobile operating facility
342 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München;: VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
HASSE, P., MEUSER, A., PIVIT, E., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Überspan-
nungsschutz eines Netzanschlusses für transportable Betriebsstätten mit
Schutzisolierung bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’, etz Elektrotechn. Z, 1982,
103, (2), pp. 52–54
E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wech-
selstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100V und 1000V’ (VDE
Verlag, GmbH, Berlin/Offenbach) Nov. 1989
6.6 Airport control tower
The planning of the new control tower of Nuremberg Airport shall be
used as an example for the application of LEMP management (IEC
61312–1) introduced in chapter 4.1.3.1.
In accordance with the first step of the LEMP protection management
plan (cf. Table 4.1.3 a), LEMP-protection planning was executed by the
planner Dr R. Frentzel (TÜV South Germany, Munich) in coordination
with

the operator and owner of the airport who provides the new tower
including all technical installations

air traffic control as a user of the new tower with its own electronic
equipment,

the architect (construction planning)

the engineering office (electrotechnical planning).
The defined target of protection was to safeguard failure-free oper-
ation of the electrical and electronic systems of the air traffic control in
the case of lightning interference as far as possible. As, in this stage of
planning, no data about the electromagnetic surge immunity of the dif-
ferent electric and electronic devices and systems of the air traffic control
were available, the requirement was to achieve the utmost protection for
these devices and systems against the impact of lightning and against
internal interferences, by means of the structural possibilities and by the
guidelines for the system installation. Correspondingly the structure was
rated as a lightning protection class I project (according to IEC 61024–1).
The new control tower and the corresponding operations building
were then subdivided into lightning protection zones and interference
protection zones, in order to define rooms of different degrees of severity
with regard to conducted and field interference. Such a subdivision also
makes it possible to determine local equipotential bonding points at the
lightning protection zone boundaries.
Application in practice: Some examples 343
For the planning of the air terminations by which lightning protection
zones 0
A
and 0
B
are determined, an existing CAD-3D-Tower-Model
(scale 1:100) was used. As Figure 6.6 a shows, a sphere (corresponding to
lightning protection class I) with radius 20m is used for the rolling sphere
method.
The second step, ‘LEMP-protection’ according to Table 4.1.3 a,
involves determining the strike-protected areas (lightning protection
zone 0
B
) in the outer area by means of suitable sectional drawings of the
structure.
Owing to the defined target of protection and the structural condi-
tions, two lightning protection zones of graded interference levels were
determined in the inner area of the control tower and the operation
building. All rooms which contain electronic systems and the cables that
are important for the operation of the air traffic control were classified as
lightning protection zone 2, where conducted and field interference are
strongly reduced. All other rooms were classified as lightning protection
zone 1 for which an effective electromagnetic shield is not realizable. In
lightning protection zone 1, therefore a high residual lightning field and
the resulting electromagnetic coupling on lines and devices must be taken
into account. The malfunction and failure of equipment in lightning
protection zone 1, for example of office PCs, are accepted. By a con-
sequent realization of the planned zone division, however, interference
from devices and systems in lightning protection zone 1 on those in
lightning protection zone 2 will be avoided.
The power technical system rooms in the basement were classified as
being in interference protection zone 1, which is comparable to lightning
protection zone 1 with regard to the prevalent interference level. All
Figure 6.6 a Tower model (1:100) and to scale rolling sphere (r=20m)
(Source: Frentzel, R., TÜV South Germany)
344 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
rooms of lightning protection zone 2 also belong to interference protec-
tion zone 2. The interference in interference zone 1 is due to power
technical switching operations and feedback from the mains. In defining
lightning protection zone 1 it was considered that the metal housings
of the devices, such as switching cabinets out of sheet steel, already
attenuate the high frequency field interference. The interior of the metal
housings is therefore considered as being in interference protection zone
0. Figure 6.6 b shows the division into protection zones.
Functions of lightning protection and EMC (such as air terminations,
down conductors, foundation earth electrodes, lightning protection and
surface equipotential bonding, shielding of buildings and rooms against
electromagnetic fields, and earthing of information technology systems)
have been attributed to the metal parts of the control tower and the
operation building, as there are reinforcement mats, steel pillars, metal
façades, metal roof coverings, lattices, railings, stilted floors, elevator
constructions etc. The basis for these functions is an electrically conduct-
ive and possibly low-impedance connection of all metal parts. For the
tower this is realized by an additional netting which is put into the
reinforced floors, ceilings and walls (Figure 6.6 c). The welded netting
consists of flat steel strips 30mm × 3.5mm with a grid size of about 5m ×
5m and is welded to the reinforcement every 2m. For the purpose of
equipotential bonding with other metal parts, fixed earthing terminals or
connection lugs are made to project from the concrete at the necessary
points.
Lightning protection zone 2 contains the systems of the air traffic
control with the highest protection requirements. The electromagnetic
shield of lightning protection zone 2 essentially consists of a multilayer
reinforcement of usual mesh size 10–15cm. For the basement, for
example, it was quite easy to plan an effective shield because the floor, the
walls and the ceiling are reinforced all over. Thus, sufficient shielding in
lightning protection zone 2 against rooms with lightning protection or
interference protection zone 1 as well as against lightning protection
Figure 6.6 b Subdivision of the basement into protected zones (Source: Frentzel,
R., TÜV South Germany)
Application in practice: Some examples 345
zone 0 (outer area) is achieved. The window openings in the basement
are shielded by the conductive bonding of the gratings which cover the
(reinforced) light shafts. If non-metallic doors are planned inside the
shield of lightning protection zone 2, a shielding will be realized by
inserting metal sheets into the doors. These metal sheets will also be
bonded with the reinforcement via the metal door frames.
Not quite as easy, however, was the planning of the shield of light-
ning protection zone 2 in the air traffic controller cabin (Figure 6.6 d)
where, due to the panoramic glass, intensive electromagnetic fields, due
to lightning, must be taken into account. Shielding lattices in front of
the windows or shielded panes were not accepted by the air-traffic con-
trol, as these measures would lower the visibility. Therefore, the inner
air-traffic controller cabin has been divided into lightning protection
zone 1 and lightning protection zone 2. Lightning protection zone 2
comprises the space under the false floor where the entire cabling is
laid. This volume is shielded by a conductive false floor and lateral
sheeting. The base plate under the control bench is reinforced concrete.
All shielding elements are low-impedance interconnected. This light-
ning protection zone 2 is extended to the control desks of the air traffic
controllers. The necessary shielding effect will be reached by the use of
desk casings the insides of which are covered by metal foil. These met-
allized plates will be contacted with the metal base frame of the desks
which again will be low-impedance integrated into the conductive false
floor.
Figure 6.6 c Schematic
representation of the additional
meshed network (Source: Frentzel,
R., TÜV South Germany)
Figure 6.6 d Subdivision of the
air traffic controller cabin into
protected zones (Source: Frentzel,
R., TÜV South Germany)
346 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
The down conductors in the control tower shaft have been planned as
additional netting, as already described. In the area of the operation
building which contains an office section, the partly reinforced walls with
additional netting, the metal façades, and in the case of steel–glass con-
structions, the steel pillars are used as down conductors. By using the
natural elements it is not necessary to install the usual externally
mounted down conductors.
For the tower a common earthing system has been planned to realize a
high-voltage protective earth, low-voltage operational earth, functional
earth and lightning protection earth. The earthing system will be realized
by using a mesh-type earth electrode within the foundation plate, thus
fulfilling the requirements of DIN 18 014. Also here the netting
described is used to which the flat steel strips of the additional netting in
the walls as well as the down conductors are bonded. The foundation
reinforcement of the 1m thick base plate is also included into the earth-
ing measure by welding in order to reduce the earthing resistance and to
achieve close-meshed shielding.
Within the scope of the lightning protection equipotential bonding
all metal installations, the electrical systems, the down conductors and
the earthing system are interconnected in the basement. This bonding in
the basement represents, at the same time, the equipotential bonding at
the boundary from lightning protection zone 0 (0
A
or 0
B
) to lightning
protection zone 1 or lightning protection zone 2. The following con-
struction principles are also applicable for installations which will enter
lightning protection zone 1 or lightning protection zone 2 in the other
floors from the external area. All metal installations which enter the
building will be included into the lightning protection equipotential
bonding directly at their point of entrance. For this purpose reinforce-
ment terminal points have been provided at the corresponding points on
the inside of the outer walls. Piping will be bonded directly or via isolat-
ing spark gaps. In the case of electrical cables from the external area it is
the lightning current conductive shield itself or the wires of the cables
which will be connected via lightning current or surge arresters. The
shield connection and the earthing of the arresters must be carried out
with low-impedance.
The selection of the protective devices must, on the one hand, take
into account the probable threat, while, on the other hand, the
requirements of the respective zone boundary and the immunity of the
equipment to be protected. Generally, lightning current arresters should
be installed at the crossing from lightning protection zone 0
A
into light-
ning protection zone 1 and surge arresters between lightning protection
zone 1 and lightning protection zone 2. Sometimes there is a direct
change over from lightning protection zone 0
A
to lightning protection
zone 2. In such cases the corresponding combi-arresters (chapter 5.8)
must be installed. From the producer of the arresters it is required that
Application in practice: Some examples 347
the lightning current and surge arresters be coordinated and harmon-
ized with regard to their sparkover characteristic and discharge
capability.
It is also in the basement where the lightning protection equipotential
bonding of the larger installations inside the building must be carried
out, as there are cable tray systems, heating pipes, ventilation or air-
conditioning lines, fire extinguishing conduits and guide rails of eleva-
tors. Corresponding terminals are also provided for these installations.
Equipotential bonding must also be carried out at the boundaries of
lightning protection zones 1 and 2 for all electrically conductive parts
which cross the boundaries as well as for metal parts inside the lightning
protection zone.
With the above-described measures a low-impedance equipotential
bonding network is obtained from which it is possible to realize a
surface-covering earthing of the electronic systems at the common
earthing system. The use of concrete reinforcement together with addi-
tional netting as down conductor/equipotential bonding means that
proximities for these structural parts of the tower can be neglected.
For other structural parts the safety distance must be calculated
according to the proximity formula indicated in IEC 61024–1. With
regard to the calculations for the area of the air-traffic controller
cabin it should be considered that the next equipotential bonding level
for the electric lines is the floor of the air-traffic controller cabin, see
Figure 6.6 d.
Apart from lightning discharge as an external source of interference
there are switching operations within the power plants which are a dan-
gerous internal source of interference for electronic systems. Such
switching operations generate high-frequency field and line-conducted
interference which can influence the electronic systems in different modes
of coupling. As a measure to control such interference the already-
described interference protection zones have been defined. The shields at
the boundaries of the interference protection zones (i.e., the metal
equipment casings at the boundary of the interference protection zones
0/1 and the structural shielding measures at the boundary of the inter-
ference protection zones 1/2) have a sufficient damping effect on the
fields which are radiated by the equipment itself, under the condition that
the equipment casings are included with low-impedance into the equi-
potential bonding. Conducted interference due to switching operations
is effectively limited by using shielded cables in interference protection
zone 2 and by the protection measures at interference protection zone
boundary 1/2.
To avoid undesired influence on electronic systems by power cables,
defined distances between cables of different voltage levels are main-
tained. For example, consider a three-layer rack pile; the following
configuration might be provided:
348 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Level 1 (bottom): signal cables < 30V

Level 2 (middle): control, measuring, telecommunication cables
< 60V, control cables < 1kV

Level 3 (top): low-voltage cables < 1kV.
Protection management against electromagnetic lightning pulses
means new requirements for the construction. Additional functions such
as the carrying of lightning current, earthing and shielding of the build-
ing, and equipotential bonding are attributed to the metal structures of
the building. Thus, an economic realization of an effective protection
system is possible. The main difficulty is that after the construction phase
most of the metal structures are no longer accessible. It is, therefore,
absolutely necessary to guarantee that those parts which will be covered
by concrete or soil meet the regulations and so stringent control is neces-
sary during the construction phase.
Sources
IEC 61312–1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Part 1:
General principles’. Centrel de la Commission Electrotechnique Inter-
nationale. 3, rue de Varembe, Genève Jan. 1995
ENV 61024–1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Part 1: General
principles’. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, Cen-
tral Secretariat, rue de Stassart 35, B-1050 Brussels Jan. 1995
DIN 18 014: ‘Fundamenterder’ (Beuth Verlag, Berlin) Feb.1994
FRENTZEL, R.: ‘Massnahmen des Blitzschutzes und der EMV für den neuen
Tower am Flughafen Nürnberg’: DEHN u. SÖHNE Druckschrift Nr. 657 6.
Forum für Versicherer: Blitz und Überspannungsschutz – Massnahmen der
EMV, April 1998 pp. 79–85
Application in practice: Some examples 349
Chapter 7
Prospects
The requirement for electronic information technology systems not to be
disturbed or even damaged by direct or close-up lightning strikes has led
to new quality requirements and a new dimension in the area of lightning
protection engineering. Lightning protection has been integrated into the
world of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The so-created concept
of lightning protection zones has turned out to be a very efficient man-
agement method and is proven as a universal organizing principle in
numerous complex problems. Meanwhile, the concept of lightning pro-
tection zones has been specified as generally the method most appropriate
for the protection of any kind of structure with electronic equipment. To
this end the Technical Committee (TC) 81 of the International Electro-
technical Commission (IEC) has elaborated upon the standard which
shows the principles for protection against ‘electromagnetic lightning
pulses’. This has been published as IEC 61312–1.
This book has introduced practice-proven components and protective
devices by which it is possible to plan and realize complete lightning/
surge protection concepts for many kinds of complex systems and struc-
tures. The protective measures exemplified and devices available are
applicable, not only in new projects but also in existing systems which
can be retrofitted so that a sufficient protection can still be attained.
Subsequent installation, however, will be at higher cost and with a lower
efficiency.
The standards committees are currently working on standards which
treat the following subjects:

risk analysis as to the failure of electronic systems due to lightning

electromagnetic shielding effects of existing metal structure com-
ponents against lightning fields

coordinated application of lightning current and surge arresters at the
interfaces of the lightning protection zones

application of the concept of lightning protection zones to existing
structural systems with electronic equipment.
Along with the practical protection requirements, producers are
accompanying these activities with improvements to protection devices.
As a guiding example of such an improvement the lightning current
arrester DEHNport
®
Maxi now safely extinguishes mains follow-
currents of up to 50 kA.
Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum
Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994)
IEC 61312–1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1:
General principles’ (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)
Feb. 1995
352 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems
Index
abattoir 22
aerials 27–29, 31, 329
air termination 127–129
rods 128
roof superstructures 128, 129
wires 128
air termination systems 69, 78, 79, 84, 85,
87
air traffic control 343–346
aircraft, damage 36–38
airport control tower, protection 343–349
airports, damage 37
alarm systems 68, 313–317
protection 313–317
analogue a/b-wire terminal 286–292
angle of protection 78
animal breeding farm 17, 21
automatic feeding 17, 21
ventilators 17, 21
antenna mast 328, 329, 331, 332
Apollo 12 space ship 38
application-neutral cabling 255–261
arrester backup fuses 196–204
arrester classes 109, 115, 117, 120–122,
154–156, 160
arrester disconnecting devices 117–120
arrester tests 115–119, 227
disconnecting devices 117–119
operating duty 117, 118
test currents 115–117
thermal stability 117
arresters 24, 26, 79, 98–101, 113–126,
153–292
breaking capacity 120
combined 214, 228, 253, 254
coordination 120, 121, 125, 218, 220
cut-off frequency 217, 218, 226
decoupling 180–183
discharge capability 120, 124, 223
limiting voltage 215–217
N-PE 121, 122
nominal current 124, 217, 218, 226
nominal voltage 124, 214, 216, 226,
227
operating frequency range 124
protection level 119, 124, 215, 227
rated voltage 119, 124
standards 113–126
test values 99, 116
valve-type 167, 168
arresters, application in different system
configurations 182–197
IT-system 184, 185, 196, 197
TN-system 184, 185, 188–192, 333, 334
TT-system 184, 185, 193–195, 333,
334
arresters for cathodic protection systems
246–249
arresters for equipment inputs 175, 176,
208
arresters for information technology
122–125, 206–292
arresters for lightning protection
equipotential bonding 157–167
arresters for measuring and control
systems 209–252
arresters for overhead lines 155–159
arresters for permanent building
installations 167–174, 208
arresters for power engineering 113–122,
155–205
arresters for socket outlets 174–176, 208
arresters, graded application 178–183,
206
arresters in Euro-card format 248, 250,
251
arresters in LSA-Plus technology 248,
251, 252
arresters, selection 119, 120, 124, 125,
223–228
atmospheric overvoltages 45–61
magnitude 60, 61
backup fuses for arresters 196–204
Blitzductor
®
208–249
construction and mode of functioning
210–222
examples of application 228–240
selection criteria 223–228
building installations, protection
167–174, 208
building regulations 69, 70
building services control system 22, 23
buildings 39, 40, 69, 76, 77, 81–85, 88–92,
295–304
metal components 83, 84, 90, 92
protection 295–304
room shielding 84, 88–92
burglar alarm systems 313–315, 317
bus systems 309–313
cable coupling resistance 57
cable television 32
cables 56, 57, 61, 95–97, 138–143
ducts 95–97, 140, 141
shielding 138–143
supporting structures 142
cabling systems 255–257
generic 255, 256
primary 255, 256
secondary 255, 256
tertiary 255, 256
catastrophic damage 39–41
cathodic protection systems 246–249,
326, 327
central computer, protection 307–309
central heating, protection 302, 304–307
cereal processing 243
chemical industry 196, 243
chemical plant 11–13
close-up strike 45, 242
cloud-to-cloud lightning 45
coal processing 243
common mode protection 254
computer integrated business 1
computer integrated manufacturing 1
computers, damage 5, 6, 16–20, 32, 34, 35
computers, protection 55, 207, 209, 254,
307–309
connection components, standards 113
consequential damage 77
contact voltage 184
coordination between arresters and
equipment to protect 178–183, 220
coordination characteristics 220–222,
227
corrosion protection 246–249
coupling of surge currents on signal lines
57–60
capacitive 59, 60
inductive 58, 59
ohmic 58
coupling path 43, 44
damage statistics 5–10, 70
data networks, protection 255–292
data telecontrol transmission 277–292
by analogue a/b-wire terminal 286–292
by ISDN base terminal 277–284
by ISDN primary multiplex terminal
284–286
DC line technique 314, 315
decoupling elements 206
decoupling of arresters 180–183
decoupling choke 180–183
decoupling length 180, 181, 183
differential mode protection 254
direct strike 45, 60, 242, 328, 336
disconnection 61, 62
disconnection spark gap 326, 327, 340,
342
disconnectors 167, 168, 170, 171
remote indication 170, 171
dissolution pressure 246
distribution cabinet 30
distributors 255–257, 262–264
down conductor systems 78, 79, 84, 85
drop-cable 267
earth bus 92, 131, 135, 146
earth electrode 90, 332
earth-fault current 193
earth ring bus 146–149
earthing systems 78, 79, 84, 85, 90, 111,
295, 296, 298, 299, 347
electrical systems of buildings 103–110
protection 103–110
surge protection standards 103–110
electrochemical corrosion 246, 247
electromagnetic cage 129, 130
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 2,
3, 43, 63, 68, 112, 114, 115, 351
standards 112, 114, 115
electromagnetic interference 67, 68
electromagnetic lightning fields 328
damped 328
undamped 328
electronic data processing systems 1, 9
354 Index
electronic equipment protection 80
electrostatic discharge 7, 17, 20, 43
engine hall 323–325
equipment inputs, protection 175, 176,
208, 253, 254
equipotential bonding 13, 16, 48, 69,
78–81, 90–95, 97, 99, 111, 145–149,
190–192, 194, 195, 197, 207, 244,
302, 303, 310, 322, 325–329, 345,
347, 348
meshed functional equipotential
bonding 329, 330
equipotential bonding bar 90–93,
147–149, 253, 296, 297, 326,
327
equipotential bonding lines 141, 147
equivalent earth resistance 47, 48
equivalent surface 76
Ethernet 10 Base T 265, 266
Ethernet coax-cabling 267–272
thickwire 267, 269, 271
thinwire 267–269, 272
Ethernet twisted pair cabling 265–269
European Installation Bus (EIB)
309–313
Ex-zones 241, 243–245
explosion-protected spark gap 150–152,
326, 327
explosions 10–13, 24, 27, 241, 243
nuclear 44, 68
explosive atmosphere 238, 241–243
external lightning protection 16, 69, 78,
79
factories, protection 295–323
factory hall, lightning protection
295–299
Faraday cage 13, 16
Faraday hole 13, 16
Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX 265, 266
fault voltage-operated protective device
185, 193, 196
Fax machine 281
field-bus systems, lightning/surge
protection 231–236
financial loss 1, 8, 13, 16, 17, 22, 308
fire alarm systems 313–316
flashover 10, 16, 22
follow-current 199–204, 342, 352
fuses 196–204
gas discharge arresters 215–217, 224, 225
gliding spark gap 161, 163, 165, 166, 199,
200
hazardous areas, damage 10–15
high current spark gap 151–153, 337,
340–342
hospitals 39
houses, damage 27–36
hybrid generator 293, 294
impulse earth resistance 45, 48, 49
voltage drop 48, 49
impulse line technique 314
incoupling 22, 58
induced voltages in metal loops 49–56, 58
square-wave 49–54
transverse 50–52, 58
industrial plants, damage 15–24
industrial plants, protection 295–323
information technology equipment
protection 73, 122–125, 206–292
insulation coordination 105, 106, 178
insulation monitoring device 185, 196
insulation resistance 244, 245, 342
insurance 9, 10
interference model 43
interference protection zones 344, 345,
348
interference sources 43, 44
internal lightning protection 16, 69, 78,
79
intrinsic safety 241–244
intrinsically safe measuring and control
circuits 238–246
ISDN base terminal 277–284
ISDN primary multiplex terminal
284–286
kerosene tank 10–12
lightning current 2, 17, 27, 28, 32, 45–49,
55, 56, 67
components 46
parameters 46, 78, 160
partial 46, 47
rate of rise 49, 50
lightning current arresters 153–155,
157–167, 177–183, 188–203, 206,
207, 211, 222, 228, 234, 262, 263,
275, 280, 285, 287, 288, 307, 314,
319, 320, 323, 328, 340, 341, 352
lightning current counter 293, 294, 337,
338
lightning damage 7, 8, 10–41
direct 7, 8, 34
examples 10–41
indirect 7, 8, 34, 35
Index 355
lightning discharge 2, 3, 68
lightning electromagnetic impulse 43
lightning electromagnetic impulse
protection (LEMP) 80, 82–102, 343,
344, 351
costs 101, 102
inspection 100, 101
installation 99, 100
planning 83–97
realization 97–99
supervision 99, 100
lightning interference standards 64
lightning protection levels 74, 75, 77, 78,
83, 155, 158, 194, 295
lightning protection systems 16, 67–102,
223–225, 351
building integrated 84–86
cable routing and shielding 94–98
efficiency 77
equipotential bonding networks 90–94
external 16, 69, 78, 79
flow diagram 75, 76
internal 16, 69, 78, 79
isolated 84–86, 128
partly isolated 84–86, 128
planning 83–97
protection levels 74, 75, 77, 78, 83
room shielding 84, 88–91
standards 69–103
zones 79–85, 92–99, 102
lightning protection zones 79–85, 92–99,
102, 177–179, 255, 295, 303, 304,
307–309, 323, 325, 328, 343–348,
351, 352
lightning strikes 45–57, 60, 242, 328, 336
close-up 45, 242
direct 45, 60, 242, 328, 336
remote 45, 56, 57, 60, 242
longitudinal current 254
low-voltage overhead lines 155–159
LSA-Plus technology 248, 251, 252
measuring and control systems,
protection 209–252
meshed functional equipotential bonding
(MFEB) 329, 330, 333
line cross section 329
mesh width 329
military applications 152
military installations 68
mobile radio systems, protection 328–334
mobile telecommunication facility,
protection 339–343
modem 286, 288, 290
N-PE arresters 121, 122, 166, 167, 193,
194
NET-Protector 257–259, 266
network card 269, 272
network terminal 279, 284
NH fuses 200–204
explosion 201, 202
melting 200, 201
no melting 200
nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP)
44, 339, 341
nuclear power station 68
oil refinery 10, 13, 14
optical fibre transmission system 144,
145, 256
optocoupler 145, 146
optoelectronic connection 143–146
osmotic pressure 246
overcurrent protective device 185,
187–189, 193, 196, 203
overhead lines, protection 155–159
overvoltage category 105–108
peak-load power station 323–327
petrol tanks 10, 11, 13, 15
temperature control 10, 11
pipeline 247, 249
pipeline valve station 246
potentially susceptible equipment 43,
44
power engineering systems, protection
113–122, 155–205
power stations, protection 323–327
power supply systems, damage 24–27
printing press 22–24
protection against direct contact 182, 184
protection in case of indirect contact
182, 184–188, 193, 196, 202
protection levels 74, 75, 77, 78, 83, 155,
158, 194, 295
angle of protection 78
efficiency 77, 78
lightning current parameters 78
mesh size 78
rolling sphere radius 78
protective bypass 254
protective circuit 206
protective devices for analogue a/b-wire
terminal 286–292
protective devices for application-neutral
cabling 255–261
protective devices for data networks/
systems 255–292
356 Index
protective devices for Ethernet coax-
cabling 267–272
protective devices for Ethernet twisted
pair cabling 265–269
protective devices for ISDN base
terminal 277–284
protective devices for ISDN primary
multiplex terminal 284–286
protective devices for power supply
inputs and information technology
inputs combined 253, 254
protective devices for standard cabling
271–278
protective devices for token ring cabling
262–265
protective insulation 340, 341
quench gap 166, 167
quenching spark gap 337, 340–342
RADAX-flow technology 161, 164, 203,
204
radio paging system, protection 318–321
radio systems 29, 31, 32, 39, 254,
318–321, 328–334
rated surge voltage 105, 107, 108
reactive current compensation system 22
reinforcement 129–134
remote strike 45, 56, 57, 60, 242
residual current circuit breaker 17, 22
false tripping 17
residual current device 17, 22, 185–189,
193, 194, 196, 202
resistance thermometer 236
risk analysis 74–78, 80, 351
risk of failure 67
rockets 36, 38
rolling sphere method 84, 87, 128, 328,
344
drawing 87
scale models 87, 344
safety clearances 78
shielding 84, 88–92, 129–143, 351
buildings 129–138
cables 138–143
electronic cabinets 137
lines 138–141
metal façades 131, 136
rooms 84, 88–92, 130, 131
steel reinforcements 129–134
short-circuit current 193
socket outlets, protection 174–176, 208
spark gaps 150–153, 155, 157–159,
161–166, 198, 199, 200, 203, 204,
326, 327, 337, 340–342
explosion-protected 150–152, 326, 327
gliding 161, 163, 165, 166, 199, 200
high-current 151–153, 337, 340–342
isolating 150–153
quenching 337, 340–342
RADAX-flow technology 161, 164,
203, 204
sparkover voltage 150, 151
standard cabling 271–278
standards 67–126
arresters for information technology
122–125
arresters for power engineering
113–122
connection components 112, 113
electromagnetic compatibility 112,
114, 115
European 67
international 67
lightning protection 69–103
protective devices 113–126
surge protection of electrical systems
of buildings 103–110
surge protection of
telecommunications systems
110–112
state of limited overvoltage 105, 106
in-system 106
protective 106
store and dispatch building, lightning
protection 296–304
strain gauges 229, 230
surge arresters 153–159, 167–197,
206–208, 211, 228, 234, 242, 253,
254, 257, 259–261, 263–272,
274–290, 307–314, 319–323, 328,
336
surge current 45, 46, 56–60, 63
cables 56, 57
coupling 57–60
surge current counter 293, 294
surge damage 5–10
surge immunity 207, 218, 219
surge limiter 123
surge protection 67, 68, 103–112, 224,
225
electrical systems of buildings
103–110
longitudinal 224, 225
standards 103–112
telecommunications systems 110–112
transverse 224, 225
Index 357
surge protective devices 153, 154, 178,
206, 257, 260, 261, 266: see also
arresters
surge voltage 45, 46, 63
surge withstand voltage 105, 107
switchbays 24, 26
switching electromagnetic impulse 43
switching overvoltage 6, 7, 22, 61–64
disconnection of a capacitance 61,
62
disconnection of a transformer 62
earth fault in the floating network 62
telecommunication systems, protection
53, 54, 110–112, 146–149, 223, 224,
279, 339–343
equipotential bonding 146–149
mobile 339–343
surge protection standards 110–112
telephone systems 17, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35,
39–41, 210
telephones 281, 288
television sets 32, 254
television transmitter, protection
334–339
temperature measuring equipment, surge
protection 236–240
textile industry 16
token ring cabling 262–265
traffic lights 28, 32, 34
transceivers 267–269
transformer substation 24, 25, 27
transmitter mast 335, 336, 338
transverse voltage 50–52, 58, 253
Twinax cabling 273, 274, 276–278
valve-type arresters 167–170
disconnectors 167, 168, 170
protection characteristic 169
voltage and current characteristics
167, 169
varistors 170–174
U/I characteristic 172, 173
zinc oxide 170–172
vehicle weighbridge, lightning/surge
protection 229–233, 320, 322, 323
video control system, protection
316–321
vital infrastructure 40, 41
warehouse protection 296–304
weighbridge 229–233, 320, 322, 323
wind power stations, damage 38–40
rotor blades 38, 39
zinc oxide varistors 170–173
discharge capability 172, 173
U/I characteristic 172, 173
358 Index

Contents

1 2

Introduction Damage due to lightning and surges 2.1 Damage statistics 2.2 Examples 2.2.1 Damage in hazardous areas 2.2.2 Damage to industrial plants 2.2.3 Damage to power supply systems 2.2.4 Damage to a house 2.2.5 Damage to aircraft and airports 2.2.6 Damage to wind power stations 2.2.7 Catastrophic damage

1 5 5 10 10 15 24 27 36 38 39 43 45 45 48 49 56 57 58 58 59 60 61 67 69 74 78

3

Origin and effect of surges 3.1 Atmospheric overvoltages 3.1.1 Direct and close-up strikes 3.1.1.1 Voltage drop at the impulse earthing resistance 3.1.1.2 Induced voltages in metal loops 3.1.2 Remote strikes 3.1.3 Coupling of surge currents on signal lines 3.1.3.1 Ohmic coupling 3.1.3.2 Inductive coupling 3.1.3.3 Capacitive coupling 3.1.4 Magnitude of atmospheric overvoltages 3.2 Switching overvoltages

4

Protective measures, standards 4.1 Lightning protection 4.1.1 Risk analysis, protection levels 4.1.2 External and internal lightning protection, DIN VDE 0185 Part 1, DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100)

vi

Contents

4.1.3 Concept of lightning protection zones, DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) 4.1.3.1 LEMP-protection planning 4.1.3.1.1 Definition of lightning protection levels 4.1.3.1.2 Definition of lightning protection zones 4.1.3.1.3 Room shielding measures 4.1.3.1.4 Equipotential bonding networks 4.1.3.1.5 Equipotential bonding measures for supply lines and electric lines at the boundaries of the lightning protection zones 4.1.3.1.6 Cable routing and shielding 4.1.3.2 Realization of LEMP protection 4.1.3.3 Installation and supervision of LEMP protection 4.1.3.4 Acceptance inspection of LEMP protection 4.1.3.5 Periodic inspection 4.1.3.6 Costs 4.2 Surge protection for electrical systems of buildings, IEC 60364, DIN VDE 0100 4.2.1 IEC 60364-4-443/DIN VDE 0100 Part 443 4.2.2 IEC 60664-1/DIN VDE 0110 Part 1 4.2.3 IEC 60364-5-534/DIN VDE 0100 Part 534 4.3 Surge protection for telecommunications systems, DIN VDE 0800, DIN VDE 0845 4.4 Electromagnetic compatibility including protection against electromagnetic impulses and lightning, VG 95 372 4.5 Standards for components and protective devices 4.5.1 Connection components, E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Part 201) 4.5.2 Arresters for lightning currents and surges 4.5.2.1 Arresters for power engineering, IEC 61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 4.5.2.1.1 Important data for arrester selection 4.5.2.1.2 Coordination of the arresters according to requirements and locations 4.5.2.1.3 N-PE arrester, E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2 4.5.2.2 Arresters for information technology, IEC SC 37A/E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 4.5.2.2.1 Important data for arrester selection 4.5.2.2.2 Arrester coordination according to requirements and locations 4.5.2.3 Arrester coordination

79 83 83 83 84 90 92 94 97 99 100 101 101 103 104 105 109 110 112 112 113 113 113 119 120 121 122 124 125 125

8.1.6. energetic coordination between surge arresters and equipment to protect 5. class C 5.7 Arresters in LSA-Plus technology 5.8.4 Arresters for intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits and their application 5.1 Arresters for power engineering 5. class D 5.3 Selection of arrester backup fuses 5.2 Lightning current arresters for lightning protection equipotential bonding.6.2.3 Surge arresters for protection of permanent installation. effect and application 5.8.1.1.2.8.6.8.6 Application of lightning current arresters and surge arresters 5.4 Shields for cables in buildings 5.Contents vii 5 Components and protective devices: construction.1.5.1.5.2 Optocoupler 5.2 Combined protective devices for power supply inputs and information technology inputs 127 127 129 138 141 143 144 145 145 150 153 155 155 157 167 174 175 175 178 182 196 206 209 210 223 228 238 246 248 248 253 .1 Arresters for measuring and control systems 5.1.8.8.8.1.2 Application of arresters in different system configurations 5.4 Surge arresters for application at socket outlets.6 Equipotential bonding 5.7 Isolating spark gaps 5.8.1 Graded application of arresters.1.5 Optoelectronic connections 5.1.2 Arresters for information technology 5.2.1.3 Shields for lines between screened buildings 5. class B 5.1.2.2 Blitzductor®CT: Selection criteria 5.1 Surge arresters for low-voltage overhead lines.8.1 Air terminations 5.1.2.1.5 Surge arresters for application at equipment inputs 5.1 Optical fibre transmission system 5.2.1.5 Arresters for cathodic protection systems 5.1 Blitzductor®CT: Construction and mode of functioning 5.8 Arresters 5.8.8.1.2 Building and room shields 5.2.8.1.8.8.8.3 Blitzductor®CT: Examples of application 5.8.8.6 Arresters in Euro-card format 5. class A 5.8.2.2.8.

8 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by analogous a/b-wire terminal 6 Application in practice: Some examples 6.4 Television transmitter 6.5 Protective devices for standard cabling 5.8.2.8 Video control system 6.5 European installation bus (EIB) 6.2.3.9 Radio paging system 6.6 Other bus systems 6.1.1.1.1.3.8.4 Central computer 6.2.1.1 Fabrication hall 6.8.1 Industrial plants 6.3 Mobile radio systems 6.3.3.1.3 Protective devices for Ethernet twisted paircabling 5.10 Electronic vehicle weighbridge 6.viii Contents 5.8.2.2 Store and dispatch building 6.7 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by ISDN primary multiplex terminal 5.8.8.2 Peak-load power station 6.2.8.4 Protective devices for Ethernet coax-cabling 5.2.3 Factory central heating 6.6 Airport control tower 7 Prospects 255 255 262 265 267 271 277 284 286 293 295 295 296 302 307 309 313 313 316 318 320 323 328 334 339 343 351 353 Index .2 Protective devices for token ring-cabling 5.3.1 Protective devices for application-neutral cabling 5.3 Protective devices for data networks/systems 5.7 Fire and burglar alarm system 6.1.2.8.3.2.6 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by ISDN base terminal 5.1.3.3.2.1.5 Mobile telecommunication facility 6.1.8.

however. severely hindered by interference or damage to the essential transmission systems in the telephone and data networks. measuring and control systems. in other words. Open networks. Electronic data processing (EDP) systems. and insurance companies for 5. The future lies in the computer-integrated factory or in computer-integrated business and administration. the complete integration of all ranges of administration into a multi-EDP system.8 days. Computer safety experts point out that nine out of ten enterprises will close if the computer fails for two weeks.Chapter 1 Introduction Business. In many business sectors within the European Market this risk will certainly continue to increase in the future. Dependence on electronic data processing can quickly lead to catastrophe if the system fails. An investigation by IBM Germany disclosed that enterprises without functioning EDP would be on the verge of ruin after about 4.6 days. manufacturers for 4. computers in local banks are connected to the computing centre of the main bank. as well as at terminals (Figure 1 a). According to this. sales-oriented enterprises will be able to manage for 3.9 days. with its growing flow of information. This rapidly expanding business process is now approaching the CIE (computer integrated enterprise) or CIB (computer integrated business). instrumentation and control as well as secondary technology are all part of a modern industrial plant. is. This ‘networked’ world.3 days. are often the basis for CIM. industry and public institutions depend on electronic data engineering. Data recording devices at the production facilities are connected to office terminals and computers by information networks ranging between buildings—together making CIM (computer integrated manufacturing). The most frequent reason for . where different types of computers and different operating systems communicate. An American study in 1987 highlighted the seriousness of the situation. Everywhere. banks will only be able to manage without EDP for 2 days.

will not disturb their function. radio sets for navigation. transmitters for radio and television. mobile radio sets. and thus of the EMC general instructions. All apparatus. and luminaires and fluorescent lamps. Among the threats from the electromagnetic environment. The instructions of the Council especially mention the following facilities: industrial equipment. is deemed a summary offence. Risk can be controlled by electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measures. Mai 1989 zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften der Mitgliedstaaten über die Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Council Directive of 3 May 1989 to Harmonise Laws of the Member Nations concerning Electromagnetic Compatibility). medical and scientific apparatus and equipment. These instructions were transferred into German law on 9 November 1992 as the ‘Gesetz über die Electromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten (EMVG)’ (Law on the Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices (EMCD)) and was fully valid as from 1 January 1996. A change to the EMVG was made on 30 August 1995. electronic education gear. telecommunication networks and equipment. The European Community has declared EMC as a protection goal by issuing the ‘Richtlinie des Rats vom 3. facilities and systems that include electric or electronic components must demonstrate sufficient ‘withstand’ levels against electromagnetic disturbances to guarantee proper operation of equipment. This specifies conditions under which any kinds of electric equipment do not disturb each other and also where electromagnetic phenomena. information technology equipment. household appliances and electronic household equipment.2 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 1 a Partial lightning currents propagate on lines and mains the failure of such electronic systems is transient electromagnetic interferences that disturb the flow of data and destroy electronic equipment. Violation of the EMC law. private sound and TV-radio-receivers. commercial mobile radio and radio-telephones. lightning discharge (Figure 1 b) is the most important and therefore this deter- . for example. lightning discharges.

438–441 .Introduction 3 Figure 1 b Lightning discharge – a special electromagnetic source of interference mines to a great extent the protective measures that must be undertaken in the framework of EMC. 12. A. 6.: ‘EMV und Blitzschutz leittechnischer Anlagen’ (Siemens AG. even if it is not necessary for the building. Berlin u. J. Nr. 1991) Reihe 21.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Springer Verlag. in the sense of Section 2. 1991. modern lightning protection does not only mean protection of buildings but especially the protection of those devices covered by Section 2. Sources SACHSE.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit beim Blitzeinschlag in ein Gebäude’ (Fortschrittsberichte VDI. Düsseldorf) KOHLING. 1987) No. Z. item 4 of EMVG. 1990) SCHWAB. (9). This book presents proven lightning and surge protection measures. New York. meaning that a lightning protection system also must be erected. Berlin.: ‘Computersicherheit – Tanz auf dem Vulkan’ (ManagementWissen. Therefore. CH.: ‘EG-Rahmenrichtlinie und Europäische Normen zur EMV’. pp.. München. 68–72 PIGLER. etz Elektrotech. A. taking into account the latest standards and engineering. O. pp. item 4 of EMVG. The components and devices that are used to achieve these protective measures are explained in terms of their function and application by means of practical examples. Heidelberg. 1990) BEIERL. 93 (VDI-Verlag GmbH. F. for the equipment it contains.

1997) Neu-Ulm: Neue Blitzschutznormen in der Praxis . 1992) HABIGER. VDE/ABB-Fachtagung (6–7 Nov. 1992) Erstes Gesetz zur Änderung des EMVG vom 30 August 1995 (1. Bundesgesetzblatt Teil 1. 2. Nr.4 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems GONSCHOREK. Errichter und Prüfer von Blitzschutzanlagen’. H. E. 1995).): ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Automatisierungssystemen’ (VDE-Verlag. Grundzüge ihrer Sicherstellung in der Geräte. 47 (8 Sept.-H. Heidelberg. EMVG ÄndG). (VDE-Verlag. 1992) DIN VDE 0870 Teil 1: ‘Elektromagnetische Beeinflussung (EMB)’ Begriffe. ‘Guidelines on the Application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States Relating to Electromagnetic Compatibility’ (Directive 89/336/EEC Amended by Directives 91/263/ EEC. and SINGER. 1992. Berlin–München. 92/31/EEC.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (B. 93/68/EEC. J. 1992) HABIGER. 52 (12 Nov. GmbH. G. Brüssel: Amtsblatt der Gemeinschaft L 139/19 (23 May 1989) Gesetz über die Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten (EMVG). Teubner.: ‘Handbuch Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Verlag Technik GmbH. 1992) MEYER. Berlin/Offenbach.und Anlagentechnik’ (Hüthig Buchverlag GmbH. 9 Nov. GmbH. 93/97/EEC) SCHNITZLER.: ‘Rechtliche Aspekte für Planer. (Ed. Nr. July 1984) Richtlinien des Rats vom 3 May 1989 zur Angleichung der Rechtsvorschriften der Mitgliedstaaten über die Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (89/336/ EWG). Stuttgart–Leipzig.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit. H. K. Bundesgesetzblatt Teil 1. Berlin/Offenbach. E.

1 Damage statistics One important electronic insurance company in Germany reported that the costs of compensation for surge damage due to electromagnetic Figure 2 a Computer board damaged by lightning surges . 2. the consequential damage is often considerably higher than the damage to the hardware (Figure 2 a). and (iii) the increasing use of networks that cover large areas. (ii) the lower signal levels. Although the concomitant destruction of electronic components is not often spectacular. which means higher sensitivity. interruptions to operations in most cases are rather long. Thus.Chapter 2 Damage due to lightning and surges Damage to electronic installations is increasing due to the following factors: (i) the increasing use of electronic equipment and systems.

5%. in 1995 33% out of 11 000 cases of damage and in 1996 26. such as communication systems.1 a).6 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems disturbances on electronic systems and equipment.1 b). in 1994 35. Stuttgart) Figure 2.6% and in 1997 31. have quadrupled within a period of ten years (Figure 2.1 b Electronics sector: damage in 1997 (analysis of more than 9600 cases of damage) .68% out of 8722 cases of damage were caused by surges (Figure 2.5% of all damage adjustments were caused by surges.6%. measuring devices and medical appliances. computers.1 a Development of the percentage of damage due to surges compared with the total damage sum (Source: Württembergische Feuerversicherung AG. In 1984 8. In 1993 34. Figure 2.

1 a) shows (additionally to the damage due to direct lightning strikes). Such indirect Table 2.1 a Damage statistics of the Fire Prevention Authority. indirect damage caused by electromagnetic lightning disturbances. There are also dangers caused by electrostatic discharge. damage costs to electronic equipment and systems caused by surges may have exceeded one billion DM.Damage due to lightning and surges 7 In the former Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in 1990. A statistic concerning lightning damage published for many years by the Upper Austrian fire prevention authority (Table 2. Surge damage analysis has shown that lightning discharges are the dominant disturbances. followed by those due to switching operations in power technical systems. Upper Austria .

4 million ÖS had to be compensated.1 c (b) Electronic systems are interfered with or damaged by conducted and radiated interference . b). For example. in 1993 there were 23 646 indirect damage incidents amounting to 86.2 million ÖS (Austrian schillings). In the case of an electro- Figure 2.1 c. Within this domain electronic systems are affected by conducted and radiated disturbances that may cause destruction (Figure 2. a).1 c.8 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems damage costs are far higher than those due to direct lightning. There is now worldwide agreement that the danger radius around a point struck by lightning is about 2 km (Figure 2. compared to 64 direct damage incidents for which 27.1 c (a) Lightning discharge hazard 2 km around the strike point Figure 2.

to say nothing of the possible liabilities.1 d). otherwise they will cancel the insurance contract (Figure 2. and today they usually pay for the damage only if it is a first event.1 d Text of a letter from the Liability Insurance Association of the German Industry concerning ‘surge damage’ . Thereafter. It is a usual condition for the Figure 2. Consequential damage. they will demand installation of protective measures according to the level of standardization and engineering technology.Damage due to lightning and surges 9 magnetic disturbance by lightning. causes the greatest proportion of the total loss. such as factory standstill due to the breakdown of computer systems or pollution due to the failure of measuring and control systems in chemical plants. Insurers only compensate for hardware damage. the hardware damage is only a small part of the total impact.

The ohmic resistance of a nickel spiral with float serves for measuring the temperature in the tank. The tank exploded and burnt out completely (Figure 2. Karlsruhe) .2.1 b shows the measuring equipment inside the tank. the ‘remote’ earth potential. The inner tank temperature was controlled by a thermoelement connected to the control room by a 200 m long measuring cable which also had.2 Examples Some examples of damage due to lightning discharge.2. Karlsruhe.10 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems conclusion of new contracts that proof of existing relevant protective measures be supplied.1 a). Figure 2. 1965 (Source: DEA-Scholven.2. The explosive mixture was struck and the tank burnt out. 2.1 a Burned out tank due to a lightning strike.2. In 1965 a 1500 m3 solid-roof petrol tank in the DEA-Scholven refinery in Karlsruhe was struck by lightning.1 c). A 5000 m3 kerosene tank exploded due to a lightning strike (Figure 2. switching operations or electrostatic discharge now follow. as in the above-mentioned case. As lightning struck the tank there was a flashover from the tank to the wires of the measuring cable which had the potential of the ‘remote’ earth.1 Damage in hazardous areas The disastrous consequences of lightning strikes in hazardous areas will be illustrated by the following five examples.2. A similar remarkable case happened ten years later in the Netherlands. 2. As Figure 2.

Netherlands. The potential of the tank system increased in accordance with its impulse earthing resistance. there was a sparkover to the measuring line and due to this open sparkover.1 c Lightning strike to a kerosene tank. 1975 one of the surrounding willow trees was struck by lightning. As a consequence.1 b Measuring equipment to determine the temperature inside the tank Figure 2. there was a discharge from the roots of the tree to the earthing system of the tank.Damage due to lightning and surges 11 Figure 2.2.1 d).2.2.1 e). the kerosene-air– mixture caught fire. Here.2. A lightning strike with severe consequences also happened in a chemical plant in Herne in August 1984 where an alcohol tank burnt out (Figure 2. TÜV experts managed to find out the reason for . An amateur photographer shot pictures of this lightning strike and the following explosion (Figure 2.

1984 (Source: Kartenberg.) Figure 2.P.1 e Burning alcohol tank due to a lightning strike. J. T.1 d (a. Herne.2.2.) .2.2.12 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.1 d (a) Figure 2.1 d (b) Figure 2. b) 250 m high explosion cloud after the lightning strike to a kerosene tank (Source: Brood.G. H.

had to be imported daily for the supply of Java. set fire to petrol tanks containing 300 000 gallons of petrol. Once again it was a measuring cable entering the tank with the potential of the ‘remote’ earth that led to the burn out. B.1 h).: ‘Tankbrand durch Blitzeinschlag’ (Erdöl u.2. kerosene and diesel. E. USA. higher values will cause punctures with arcing. Conventional measuring line insulations. 1984) THE JAKARTA POST: ‘Cilacap fire won’t affect domestic fuel oil supplies’ (26 Oct. 1966).-W. I.. A. June 1997. GARNIWA. S. Lightning hits an almost closed Faraday cage which has a hole. R. G. S.2.2. Only in Spring 1997 was the company able to restart its own production. Chamonix Mont Blanc/ France . P. 13. ‘An analysis of origin of internal sparks in kerosene tank due to lightning strikes’. About 200 people had to be evacuated (Figure 2.: ‘Bericht über infolge Blitzeinschlag verursachte Brände in zwei geschützten Tanks für die Lagerung von brennbaren Flüssigkeiten’. 100 kV).5 WESTDEUTSCHE ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG: ‘Herner Tank-Unglück – Blitzschlag trotz einer Schutzanlage’ (4 Dec. Venedig (1976). ISKANTO. SOEWONO. In October 1995 lightning struck the Indonesian oil refinery Pertamina in Cilacap on the south coast of Java. H. ANGGORO. The reasons for these cases of damage are indicated as shown in Figure 2.. June 1997.. Lightning and Mountains ’97. petrol. The tank exploded and the burning oil set fire to six neighbouring tanks (Figures 2. T. however. A line coming from a distant building and which is earthed there enters this hole. THADEN..1 i.1 f and g).. SUDIRHAM. P.. K. Indonesia): ‘Kerosene tank explosions due to lightning strikes in an Indonesian refinery plant’. Intern.Damage due to lightning and surges 13 the damage. pp. and RAHARDJO. Thousands of Cilacap inhabitants and 400 Pertamina employees had to be evacuated for their safety. This meant that oil. Lightning and Mountains ’97. PAKPAHAN. T. worth about DM 600 000. and SASONGKO. Referat R-4. D.. 422–424 BROOD. Between the lightning-struck Faraday cage and this ‘remote’ earth a voltage drop develops that is caused by the lightning current at the impulse earth resistance (e. There was a standstill for about 18 months for this refinery which supplied 34% of Indonesia’s inland need. can only withstand impulse voltages of some 100 V.g. In June 1996 a lightning strike in New Jersey.. Kohle-ErdgasPetro-chemie. Blitzschutzkonf. Chamonix Mont Blanc/France ZORO.. 1995) THE NEW YORK TIMES: ‘Lightning starts fuel tank fire in New Jersey’ (12 June 1996) SIRAITI. Again the reason was incomplete equipotential bonding.1 i. (ITB Bandung. Sources v. in Figure 2.

1995. Seven tanks burned out due to a lightning strike .14 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.1 f. Cilacap/Java.2. g Oil refinery Pertamina.

correspondingly. near Karlsruhe. extended production losses resulted from both direct and remote lightning strikes. Daimler–Benz AG. 10 000 workers produce 400 lorries per shift. at Wörth. USA. In two shifts.1 h Lightning strike sets petrol tank on fire. 1996 2. each time bringing with it a complete production standstill. Often the production came to a standstill and. . this digital symmetric transmission system works at ±350 mV. surges repeatedly damaged the linked equipment.Damage due to lightning and surges 15 Figure 2. New Jersey. At the beginning of the 1980s.5 km and a width of 1 km.2. The factory halls are on a site with a length of 1. The material stock computers are connected with those in production control by a DC data transmission system.2 Damage to industrial plants Repeated and extensive surge damage was caused to Europe’s largest computer-controlled lorry factory.2.

Complete lightning protection equipotential bonding. The case entails the administration tower of Klöckner– Humboldt–Deutz in Cologne (Figures 2.2. Systems with cables and lines crossing several buildings are especially endangered. Consequential water damage was about 1 million DM. The so-called ‘external lightning protection system’ could not prevent this damage. however. The warehouse was only equipped with an ‘external lightning protection system’. in 1989. This was struck by lightning that was diverted to earth by the ‘external lightning protection system’. A lightning strike to the roof was also the reason for a production standstill in the cutting department of a ready-made clothes manufacturer in Dresden. had been neglected and only a few special cables were connected with protective diodes. In the Leuna works. This activated the automatic sprinkler system. A lightning occurrence in 1983 will now be described due to its particular characteristics. ‘internal lightning protection’ measures were absent. thunderstorms caused a failure of electronic control and supervision equipment causing a standstill in production. in 1989.2.1 i Lightning strike to the Faraday cage causes flashover to the line at the ‘Faraday hole’ In a textile mill in the former GDR the fire alarm system was activated by the ionization detector following a lightning strike on the roof of a high-bay warehouse. Distributed sensors in the process system were connected with the control room by cables the shields of which were bonded with the equipotential bonding bar of the control room. Here the central computer and machine control were disturbed by the 80 m long data cable. Because of the absence of an ‘internal lightning protection . The damage loss exceeded 1 million DM. The conclusions that are drawn are valid even today.2 a and b).16 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.

2. the birds are fed automatically.2 c) and numerous computer processors (Figure 2. It must be explained that in intensive chicken breeding farms about 15 000 chickens are reared within six weeks on a surface area of about 1000 m2 (Figure 2. But.2 g). Hardware damage alone amounted to 2 million DM.1.2. after an indirect lightning strike’ are not unusual. about 100 terminals (Figure 2. Microelectronic components and circuits can also be destroyed by electrostatic discharge (Figures 2. 1983 system’. During this particular thunderstorm other neighbouring industrial plants had surge damage to their computers. During this period.2 a Lightning strike into the administration building of Messrs KHD.2 f. Reports such as: ‘Numerous animals killed because of an indirect lightning strike. telephone and telex systems.2. If.2. besides food and water. In an intensive animal breeding farm 14 000 chickens suffocated as the ventilators failed because of false tripping of a residual current circuit breaker. the ventilation system is shut down by false tripping of the . The reasons for these types of damage can be explained by considering Figure 2.2.2 h).3 (a)) and thus cause damage there. If lightning strikes building 1 .2.Damage due to lightning and surges 17 Figure 2. a partial lightning current will flow into building 2 only because of the resistive coupling (Section 3. for example. Cologne.2 i) is of obvious vital importance.2. False tripping of common ‘residual current circuit breakers’ (RCCB) due to electromagnetic interference at lightning discharge in close surroundings can occur.2.2 e). the continuity of air supply (Figure 2.2 d) in the computer centre (about 120 m away) were disturbed by this strike (Figure 2. the consequential loss due to the nonavailability of the computer systems was about 4 million DM.

2 b Administration building behind the computing centre (Messrs KHD) Figure 2.2.2 c Computer terminals in the administration building (Messrs KHD) .2.18 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.

Damage due to lightning and surges 19 Figure 2.2.2.2 e Computer PCB damaged by lightning surge .2 d Computing centre (Messrs KHD) Figure 2.

2 g (a) Figure 2.2.2 g (a.2.2 g (b) Figure 2. (Source: 3M Deutschland GmbH.2.20 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.2 f At a lightning strike to building 1 : Surge damage in buildings 1 and 2 Figure 2.2. Neuss) . b) MOS module damaged by electrostatic discharge.

2 h Automatic feeding Figure 2.2 i Ventilator in an intensive animal breeding building .2.2.Damage due to lightning and surges 21 Figure 2.

2.2 j (a. 1987 .2 l.2 l. leading to flashover with damaging arcs in the reactive-current compensation system of the local abattoir (Figures 2.2.2 k.2. All external components of the control system are connected to a central computer by station computers and bus connections. There were several instances of damage of up to 70 000 DM each in a combined building services and access control system with about 300 interconnected individual components. like code card scanners. A longer standstill of production. the chickens will suffocate within 20 minutes. A loss of about 100 000 DM occurred as surges damaged the printed boards of a printing press (Figure 2.2 j (b) Figure 2. due to some difficulties in obtaining spare parts for this machine. In the parts of the building affected.2 j). In 1987 a defect was to occur in the 20 kV cable network of the town Neumarkt while several switching operations were made.22 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems corresponding residual current circuit breaker. b) Reactive current compensation system in a slaughter house damaged due to switching surges. a). the automatic access control only functioned after several days of repair.2.2. For this production phase this was the only machine available (maximum capacity machine). (Figure 2.2. In each of these cases the reason was a surge ‘incoupling’ into external components. The reason for the defective machine Figure 2. Neumarkt. This gave rise to switching surges in the 220/380 V system.2. caused problems in delivery and a great loss of income. b).2 j (a) Figure 2. due to lightning. The printed boards of the station computers and bus couplers were thus damaged by the incoupling of the surges (Figures 2. a and b).

. P. 4 (1980).2 k (b) Damaged bus coupler (a) and (b) Surge damage in a building services control system Figure 2.2 l (a) Surge damage at a printing press was a cable fault in the 20 kV power supply system.2 k Figure 2.2. 203–207 . G.2.2.: ‘Das Auslöseverhalten von FI-Schutzschaltern bei Gewittern. de/der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk’.2 k (a) Damaged interface card Figure 2. pp. Sources HASSE. causing surges in the low-voltage system. and PRADE.Damage due to lightning and surges 23 Figure 2.2.

The 20 kV surge arresters were already damaged by the initial partial lightning strikes (Figure 2. the subsequent lightning strikes could no longer be discharged. A.3 e) with the consequence that the whole town of Neumarkt (about 30 000 inhabitants) lost power for about six hours. aktualisierte Auflage’ (Verlag TÜV Rheinland. 3.2. P. Further shortcircuit arcs were generated on the 20 kV overhead lines.3 Damage to power supply systems The public is alarmed sometimes by reports of lightning strikes to power supply systems or even nuclear power stations. Köln. To add further to the problems.3 a and b). Sparkover arcs occurred in one switchbay (Figure 2. 7 HASSE.2. P. Heavy conductor rope vibrations made the ropes glow and tear.: Blitze–Feuerzauber der Natur. In: HASSE. There was considerable damage to the switching station and a failure of the 220 V direct voltage control.l (b) Damaged module of the printing press control GUGENBAUER.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen. . Forum für Versicherer ‘Blitz. die österreichische feuerwehr (1983) H.2. 1993) DAUSEND. (Ed.): 5. thus. Neumarkt. In 1983 lightning struck the 110/20 kV transformer substation of the town Neumarkt (Figures 2. 1994) 2.2.3 c) and.und Überspannungsschutz – Massnahmen der EMV’ (Dehn + Söhne.24 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.3 d) which ran along the bus bar and damaged other switchbays. A. the supplying 110 kV transformer exploded during this thunderstorm (Figure 2.2.2.: ‘Überspannungsschutz als Teil des betrieblichen RiskManagements’ Teil II: Schadenfälle aus der Praxis.2.

Neumarkt Figure 2.3 b Site plan of the transformer substation 110/20 kV. OBAG.2. Neumarkt .Damage due to lightning and surges 25 Figure 2. OBAG.2.3 a Transformer substation 110/20 kV.

2.26 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.3 c Surge arresters destroyed by lightning strike Figure 2.3 d Damage in 20 kV switching bays due to lightning surge .2.

p.2.2.4 a. 36. 1983 Sources DER SPIEGEL: ‘Blitz im Atommeiler’ (1983) No.4 Damage to a house Lightning strikes into unearthed aerials of houses (without lightning protection systems). such as the family house in Figure 2.2. occur frequently. 15 NEUMARKTER TAGBLATT: ‘Kurzschluss in Kernkraftwerk’ (22 May 1985) 2.3 e Exploded 110 kV transformer due to lightning strike. Figures 2.Damage due to lightning and surges 27 Figure 2. Neumarkt.4 b to h show the damage caused by lightning current .2.

telephone systems failed due to this lightning strike. the fuel oil pipe was also damaged.4 b). and oil leaked into the cellar.4 a Site plan of a house damaged by lightning. telephone line and water pipe. the traffic-light systems of the town were also disturbed and RC circuit breakers were tripped within a radius of about 3 km. Neumarkt.2. usually. The lightning current flows over the aerial standpipe (Figure 2.28 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2. Neumarkt. feeding partial lightning currents into the power system. In a circle of radius more than 1 km.2.2. In the case mentioned. So. all connected electrical appliances and the telephone system will be damaged.4 b Damage near the antenna-pole in the loft. . 1986 Figure 2. aerial line. 1986 on its path of sparkovers and punctures through the electrical wiring of the house.

2. during a thunderstorm burst.2.2. the radio aerial of a central taxi station in Neumarkt was struck by lightning (Figure 2.2. The electrical cables and socket outlets were torn out of the walls and the entire electrical equipment (TV and household appliances) was damaged so heavily that it could no longer be used.Damage due to lightning and surges 29 (a) Neumarkt 1986 Figure 2. .4 c (b) Similar case Punctures to concealed cables due to lightning strike (a) Neumarkt 1986 Figure 2.4 d (b) Similar case Antenna line damaged by lightning strike In 1994.4 j).4 i). The whole radio system was destroyed (Figure 2.

2.4 e (c) Similar case Distribution cabinets damaged by lightning strike .30 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems (a) Neumarkt 1986 (b) Similar case Figure 2.

4 i (b) (a.2. 1986 Figure 2.4 h Puncture from the power line to the metal oil pipe due to lightning strike. 1986 Figure 2.2.2. Neumarkt. Neumarkt. Neumarkt.4 i (a) Figure 2.2.2.Damage due to lightning and surges 31 Figure 2. 1986 Figure 2. Neumarkt. b) Lightning strike to the Lutter taxi central office.2.4 f Boiler damaged by lightning strike. 1994 .4 g Telephone system damaged by lightning strike.4 i Figure 2.

2.4 k Damaged electrical lines A pressure wave smashed windows and window frames. In the office of the District President. In the district hospital. the inferior court. as well as in industrial and commercial enterprises. the municipal works and the abattoir. around the lightning striking point (marked by an arrow). even at a distance of 3 km from the point of strike.4 k).4 l).32 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2. The locations of the damage are marked by bullets. The Neumarkter Nachrichten duly reported on the damage caused to telephone and cable television connections in 40 households and numerous individual TV sets. Socket outlets were torn out of the wall (Figure 2. in the traffic-light system at the southern perimeter road of the town. Repeatedly. for example. the computer systems and telephones were damaged. Partial lightning currents were conducted along the telephone system and the power supply system. circles are drawn.4 j Damaged radio system Figure 2.4 a). Tiles were torn off the wall and there were cracks in the ceilings and the walls. thus causing other damage in the neighbourhood (Figure 2.2. Underground cables damaged by lightning currents reveal high interference energies. In the vicinity and wider surroundings this lightning strike caused considerably more damage than listed here.2. In Figure 2.4 m. . The Hamburger Abendblatt of 12 July 1995 reported on a thunderstorm two days previously when 25 000 Telecom customers in the suburbs of Hamburg were concerned by failures of cable TV. Damage occurred.2. the district hospital. Wedel. a church. Some 50 microchip amplifiers had to be repaired in Pinneberg. an elementary school and a museum. at a separation of 1 km. the safety and fire alarm systems were damaged (Table 2.2.2. Quickborn and Norderstedt. there are extended disturbances in telecommunication sectors due to solitary lightning strikes.

Sources NEUMARKTER NACHRICHTEN: ‘Blitzschlag zerfetzte Leitungen und hob den Dachstuhl’ (2–3 Aug.Damage due to lightning and surges 33 Figure 2.1 c and 2. 160 (12 July 1995) .1986) NEUMARKTER NACHRICHTEN: ‘Unheil mit einzigem Blitzschlag’ (3 May 1994) HAMBURGER ABENDBLATT: ‘Kabelfernsehen: Vom Blitz getroffen’ No. making them susceptible.2. for example.2. are used in data processing and alarm systems.4 n). Telephone systems.4 l Lightning damage (at Telekom systems) in the surroundings of the point of strike The reason for the above examples of damage is that electrical lightning interferences are conducted through power and data lines from the point of strike over distances of several kilometres directly to the inputs of electronic systems and equipment (Figures 2.

2.4 a .34 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Consequences of a lightning strike to the Lutter Taxi Company Neumarkt. 1994 Table 2.

4 m Lightning damage in a radius of 3 km around the point of strike .2.Damage due to lightning and surges Table 2.4 a continued – 35 Figure 2.2.

Later. weather radar and the radio connection to the tower were knocked out. describes the damage due to a lightning strike to an airliner: “Immediately after take-off. Also the manual control of the elevator was damaged so strongly that the pilot and copilot had to use their whole strength to keep the Jumbo flying. four lightning discharges struck the plane with 225 passengers and 18 crew members on board. Autopilot. After touchdown. more than a hundred instances of fire damage to the shell and wings of the Jumbo were counted. Within a few minutes. Only the landing gear brakes still worked. the Boeing 747 flying to Newark (New Jersey) entered a thunderstorm zone.4 n Dangerous surges in neighbouring buildings 2.36 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 2.2. nine were injured. for example. The accident investigation was finished by the American investigation committee in December 1985. It confirms the . During this accident.2. 1987. Chief pilot Fred Abbott told: ‘I never saw a plane that was damaged so heavily by lightning. A British Airways jet flying in the same space followed the distress call of the struck Boeing and piloted it on the correct glide path to the emergency landing.5 Damage to aircraft and airports The following report from the Kölnischen Rundschau of 12 November. three members of the US Army were killed. in the Continental repair hangar. Parts of the tail fin were missing. Captain Richards – a former Phantom fighter pilot and Vietnam veteran – stated that the braking thrust reversal of the four engines had also failed. The plane was brought to a standstill a few metres before the end of the runway.’ ” There are reports from the Public Information section of the German Federal Ministry of Defence in January 1986 of an electrostatic accident involving a rocket: “The fire accident with a Pershing II motor stage happened on 11 January 1985 on the Waldheide near Heilbronn.

the Changi airport (Singapore) and the Düsseldorf airport . the control tower of the Frankfort/Main airport.5 a Newspaper reports concerning lightning strikes to planes.Damage due to lightning and surges 37 Figure 2.2.

an 83 million dollar Pentagon satellite. 1993) SONNTAG AKTUELL. The rockets had a common earthing system. Owing to the strike. which was the cause for the fire accident. they lifted off ‘simultaneously’ as lightning struck. On board the rockets were measuring devices for thunderstorm research.2.6 a). Lightning damage. which was very similar to the holes registered after lightning strikes to airplanes. the report of 15 April 1985 concludes that a discharge of static electricity caused a spark discharge in the propelling charge of the motor stage. Sources DOLOMITEN: ‘Blitzeinschläge in Flugzeuge’ No. the main computer gave false commands to the driving engines so that the rocket’s trajectory failed and it had to be destroyed. 1993) BLITZSCHLAG IN CHANGI AIRPORT/SINGAPUR (summer 1995) 2.2. a 78 million dollar Atlas Centaur rocket went out of control 51 seconds after its launch from Cape Canaveral and had to be destroyed over the Atlantic together with its freight.2. .38 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems statement of the first accident report of 15 April 1985. On 14 November 1964 the space ship Apollo 12 and then the Saturn V rocket were struck by lightning 36 seconds after lift-off from Cape Canaveral. A lightning strike tripped the ignition mechanisms of three small research rockets on 10 June 1987 which were ready for launch at the NASA base on Wallops island. Newpaper reports about lightning strikes to passenger planes and control towers at airports (Figure 2. Germany and other European countries. The reason for the loss of control was a lightning strike to the nose of the rocket. On 26 March 1987. According to eyewitness reports. STUTTGART: ‘Ein Blitz zerschlug die Radarnase des Airbus – Passagiere wohlauf’ (3 Oct. A piece of fibreglass from the wreck revealed a carbonized hole. a number of other electrical disturbances and the response of some safety switches. The space ship was about 2 000 m above ground when a lightning strike between the rocket and the launching platform on the ground was noticed. After a short flight. especially to rotor blades (Figure 2. offshore Virginia. greatly exceeds .6 Damage to wind power stations The lightning protection of wind power stations is of current and future importance in Britain. The crew registered disturbances of the energy supply.” [The results are then elaborated] From the evidence supplied. having a diameter of about 5 cm.5 a) show that the hazard can extend beyond the immediate system that is damaged. . that a discharge of static electricity was the reason for the accident . they fell into the Atlantic without causing any damage. 230 (2–3 Oct.

Damage due to lightning and surges

39

what is expected, both in frequency and height. Cases are known where insurance companies see no possibility of further insurance after a single lightning strike, that is, until the operator or the producer provides an adequate lightning protection system (Figure 2.2.6 b).

Figure 2.2.6 a

Lightning damage to the rotor blade of a wind power generator

2.2.7 Catastrophic damage
At the 21st International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), S. Lundquist described an especially intense lightning storm in Skane, Southern Sweden, on 1 July 1988. The fire brigade in the town of Lund recorded 1400 alarms. There was a breakdown of the telephone exchange and the mobile police radio was damaged. As an example of many similar life-endangering cases, the situation in the municipal hospital was described. As the 130 kV system failed due to the lightning strike, the hospital was deprived of power for 80 minutes. The lights went out, elevators stopped and the appliances in the intensive care unit could not work. The emergency power generator refused to start because the control computer was damaged; because of the failure of the telephone and the central fire alarm, the technical staff could not be called. When they had managed to start the emergency power generator by hand after half an hour, it failed shortly afterwards due to overheating as the ventilator was supplied by the unfused system. There was serious damage also to the low-voltage mains distribution, the control room and the computer terminals. This episode was particularly horrendous. The consequences of lightning strikes into tall or extended buildings become apparent from events reported from all over the world. Lightning strikes into large-scale buildings, such as office buildings and department stores, cause current failures resulting in: stoppage of full elevators, breakdown of the lighting, tripping of sprinkler systems, flooding of rooms by protective gas, blocking of electronically secured

40

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 2.2.6 b

Report from the Stuttgarter Zeitung, 25 March 1995

doors and garage doors, failure of air-conditioning systems as well as breakdown of the telephone network (Figure 2.2.7 a) and the control systems. Failures of this kind can lead to life-endangering situations and, not least, panic. What characterizes disturbances and failures due to a lightning strike in a building is that safety-relevant systems may be involved at the same time, as well as the infrastructure over a wide area that may also be disturbed. During a thunderstorm with spatial and temporal distribution of lightning, vast damage to vital infrastructure is possible. Catastrophic events, as described by some examples, should not be tolerated. Therefore, precautions must be taken to avoid personal danger. Safety must be

Damage due to lightning and surges

41

Figure 2.2.7 a

Lightning strike causes collapse of the telephone network (Source: Thüringer Allgemeine, 29 June 1994)

guaranteed for the power and information technology systems that are absolutely necessary for vital infrastructure in special situations. These include: airports, public transport, traffic guide and signal systems, hospitals, power stations, above all nuclear power stations and switching plants, high-power transmitters, signal and alarm systems for civil protection, meeting places, schools, kindergardens and mass sports facilities, office and computing centres, buildings with extended safety systems, systems for large-scale supervision of pollutants (including radioactivity) in the air, water and ground, control and alarm systems for defence purposes, telephone exchanges and satellite and relay stations.

Sources
LUNDQUIST St.: ‘Effects on the society of an intense lightning storm’, Tagungsband 21. Internationale Blitzschutzkonferenz (ICLP), Berlin (22–25 Sept. 1992) THÜRINGER ALLGEMEINE: ‘Ein Blitz legte Telefone “tot” ’ (29 June 1994) HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘Can you avoid disasters caused by lightning?’ DEHN Publication No. SD 261E, reprint from etz, 1993, 2, pp. 154–156

Chapter 3

Origin and effect of surges

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineering usually proceeds from an interference model consisting of a source of interference (transmitter), a coupling mechanism (path) and a potentially susceptible equipment (receiver) (Figure 3 a). Electrical systems with electronic devices as potentially susceptible equipment are endangered by conducted interferences and interfering radiation (Figure 3 b) from the following six sources of interference:
(i) Direct and close-up lightning discharges Lightning electromagnetic impulse (LEMP): predominantly conducted interference such as lightning currents and partial lightning currents, potential increase of the struck system as well as interfering radiation. (ii) Power technical switching operations Switching electromagnetic impulse (SEMP): predominantly conducted interference as well as magnetic interfering radiation. (iii) Power technical system perturbation Predominantly conducted interference with voltage distortions. (iv) Electrostatic discharges (ESD): predominantly conducted interference by spark discharge. (v) Low and high frequency transmitters Resulting in continuous interfering radiation.

Figure 3 a

Interference model

44

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 3 b

Electronic system endangered by radiation and conducted interference

(vi) Nuclear explosions Nuclear electromagnetic impulse (NEMP): with a resulting impulse-shaped interfering radiation.

The coupling between the source of interference and potentially susceptible equipment can be realized by either conduction and/or radiation (electric field, magnetic field or electromagnetic field). The coupling path can be described in the equivalent circuit diagram by combinations of resistances and/or capacitances and/or inductances. Potentially susceptible equipment includes telecommunications engineering systems (i.e. electrical systems with electronic equipment and facilities). In lightning protection engineering, structural facilities, such as meeting places and areas with fire and explosion hazards, are considered to contain potentially susceptible equipment in the sense of EMC. Such potentially susceptible equipment is found in (i) commercial areas (e.g., industry, trade, commerce, agriculture, banks and insurance buildings), (ii) public areas (e.g., hospitals, meeting places, air traffic control facilities, museums, churches and sports facilities), and (iii) private areas. In the following Sections, lightning discharges and switching operations as sources of interference are described according to their priority.

Sources
DIN EN 61000 series. ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)’.

Origin and effect of surges

45

3.1 Atmospheric overvoltages
Lightning, as a source of interference, affects buildings and indoor electrical equipment and systems. Surges of atmospheric origin (Figure 3.1 a) are basically due to either a direct-/close-up strike or a remote strike. In the case of a direct strike (Figure 3.1 a, case 1 ), lightning strikes the protected building; but in the case of a close-up strike, lightning strikes an extended system or a line (e.g., a pipeline, data or power transmission line) leading directly into the protected system. However, in the case of a remote strike (Figure 3.1 a, case 2 ), for example, the overhead line is struck. ‘Reflected surges’ (travelling waves) are produced in transmission lines by cloud-to-cloud lightning, and overvoltages are induced by lightning in the surrounding area.

3.1.1 Direct and close-up strikes
Lightning current in a lightning channel and in the lines of the lightning protection system (a) causes a voltage drop at the impulse earth resistance of the earthing system ( 1a in Figure 3.1 a) and (b) induces surge voltages and currents in loops formed by installation lines inside the structure ( 1b in Figure 3.1 a). Owing to the voltage drop at the impulse earth resistance, partial lightning currents also will be discharged by the supply lines that have been connected as a measure of lightning protection equipotential bonding. A lightning strike in the surrounding area causes induced surge voltages and thus surge currents in installation loops especially due to its magnetic interfering radiation. If lightning strikes a feeding overhead

Figure 3.1 a

Reasons for surges at lightning discharges

1. there will be conducted surge voltages and currents on the incoming power line.1. to VG 96901 Lightning current parameters Table 3.46 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems line. If an exact analysis is not possible or justified because of the expense. DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE 0185 Part 100). Lightning between thunderstorm cells in clouds generates conducted surge voltages and currents on power lines and on other wideranging line systems due to interfering electromagnetic radiation.1 a).1 a). the partial lightning currents on supply lines coming from a struck building can be estimated in accordance with IEC 61312-1 and DIN Figure 3. or two degrees of danger in accordance with VG (Table 3.1. Here three protection levels are specified in accordance with IEC. IEC 61312-1 and DIN VDE 0185 Part 103 (Figure 3.1 a Lightning current components (protection level I acc. The parameters of lightning current components (first partial lightning surge current.1 a . to IEC 61024-1/ENV 61024-1 or degree of danger ‘high’ acc. subsequent lightning surge current and lightning long duration current) are specified in the following standards: VG 95 371 in accordance with IEC 61024-1.1.

power and communication lines). Hence. the lightning current will be distributed to the earthing system. In DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) annex C there is a method to estimate the lightning partial currents discharged by the incoming lines (for the case when lightning strikes the protected system). If electrical or information technology (IT) lines are not shielded or laid in metal conduits. the external conductive parts and the incoming lines (which are connected directly or by arresters) now as follows: The share It of lightning current on every external conductive part and every line depends on their number. As shown in Figure 3. every conductor carries a partial current according to It/n′ where n′ is the total number of conductors in these lines (Table 3. Zt is the earth resistance of the external conductive parts or lines. Figure 3.1 b).1 b Estimation of the partial lightning currents on supply systems (acc.Origin and effect of surges 47 VDE 0185 Part 103. L2.. piping. and PEN of a power technical cable or four wires of a data line).1 b.1. to IEC 61312-1.1. nt is the total number of the external conductive parts or lines and I is the lightning current according to the protection level.g. VDE 0185 Part 103) . L1. it is assumed that 50% of the lightning current flows into the earthing system of the structure and 50% is distributed equally to the outgoing remote-earthed supply systems (e. To make things less complicated one assumes that the partial lightning currents in every supply system will be distributed equally to the different conductors (e.. their equivalent earth resistance and the equivalent earth resistance of the earthing system: It = Z×I nt × Z + Zt where Z is the equivalent earth resistance of the earthing system. L3.g.1.

Begriffe (Beuth Verlag. Allgemeine Grundlagen. modifiziert. Part 1: General principles’. International Electrotechnical Commission. 1997 3. 1996 IEC 61312-1: 1995-02: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’. Berlin/Offenbach) Sept.1. however.1. Aug. Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. Geneva CH-1211. Feb. March 1990 DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen.1995 DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103: ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls.) (VDE Verlag. GmbH.1 a): ûE = îRst This voltage drop ûE. (IEC 1312-1: 1995. is not dangerous for the protected system. if the lightning protection equipotential bonding has been installed effectively. Geneva CH-1211. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (VDE Verlag. National as well as international lightning protection standards presently call for a comprehensive lightning protection equipoten- . Berlin).1. Berlin/Offenbach). Part 1: General principles’.1.1 b Sources VG 95 371-2: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV) einschliesslich Schutz gegen den elektromagnetischen Impuls (EMP) und Blitz’. GmbH. March 1994 IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning.1.1 Voltage drop at the impulse earthing resistance The maximum voltage drop ûE arising at the impulse earthing resistance Rst of the affected building is calculated in terms of the maximum value î of lightning current (Figure 3. GmbH.48 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Equivalent earthing resistances Z and Z1 depending on the earth resistivity Table 3.

there will be no dangerous differences.1..1.g.1 a can be used. effective during the period Δt. effective during the front time T1 . U.1. where all lines (incoming or outgoing) are connected directly or by spark gaps or surge protective devices to the earthing system. in a metal loop during a period of Δt is given by (Figure 3.. In the event of a lightning strike.2 a): U=M Δi Δt where U is in V.1.Origin and effect of surges 49 Figure 3. 3. the protective conductor of the electrical installation. The magnetically induced square-wave voltage. For the sizing of lightning protection systems. but. within the system.g.1. For the square-wave voltage of a square loop formed by an infinitely wide lightning current-conducting line and an installation line (e. M is the mutual inductance of the loop in H and Δi/Δt the current rate of rise in A/s.2 Induced voltages in metal loops The maximum rate of lightning current rise. U.1 a Potential increase compared with the distant earth by the peak value of the lightning current tial bonding. Δi/Δt. lightning current-carrying down conductors.1. in a building) it is assumed that the loops are in the vicinity of infinitely extended.1. have to be taken into account in installation loops (e. which is connected to . of Table 3. To estimate what maximum induced square-wave voltages. the potential of the whole system will rise by ûE . determines the peak values of electromagnetically induced voltages in all open or closed installation loops which are in the vicinity of conductors carrying lightning current. the maximum values of the average front current rate of rise I/T1.

This can be taken from Figure 3. layer-wise stranded.2 b. Δi/Δt = I/T1 can be taken from Table 3. the induced effects in very small elongated loops formed by parallel wires of unshielded.50 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 3. Δi/Δt = I/T1 is taken from Table 3.1. M1 is the mutual inductance of the loop in μH and Δi/ Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs. For a square loop. M2 is the mutual inductance of the loop in μH and Δi/ Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs. M1 depends on the side length a of the loop and the cross section q of the lightning current conducting line. formed by an installation line which is insulated from an infinitely wide lightning current conducting line.1.1.1. cables in the surroundings of lightning current conducting lines are also of interest. Induced voltages arising between the wires are called ‘transverse volt- . Apart from the induced effects in wide loops.1.2 e).1.1.2 c).1.1. According to the requirements.1 a. This can be taken from Figure 3.2 d.1.1. the following is applicable: U = M1 Δi Δt where U is in kV. according to the requirements (Figure 3.2 a Induced square-wave voltages in loops by the rate of rise Δi/Δt of the lightning current the down conductor of the lightning protection system at the equipotential bonding bar). M2 depends on the side length of the loop a and the distance s between the loop and the lightning current conducting line. the following is applicable for the square-wave voltage: U = M2 Δi Δt where U is in kV.1.1 a (Figure 3. which are due to installation configurations.

They can be harmful especially to electronic equipment. and on the distance s between the installation line and the lightning current conducting line.1. formed by lightning current-carrying conductor and installation line Figure 3. M′3 is the wire length-related mutual inductance of the loop in nH/m.2 b Mutual inductance M1 to calculate the square-wave voltages in square loops. M′3 depends on the distance of the wires b. the following is applicable for the square-wave voltage: U = M′3 l Δi Δt where U is in V. For a small elongated loop formed by the wires of an installation line and run in parallel to an infinitely wide lightning current conducting line. l is the length of the installation line in m and Δi/Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs.1.1. This can be .1.2 c Example ages’.Origin and effect of surges 51 Figure 3.

But.1 2 f.1. In contrast to the high voltage values in the case of wide loops. does not have any influence on M2). the square-wave voltage is given by: U = M′4 b Δi Δt where U is in V.1 a.2 i). the induced square-wave voltages will be very much reduced compared to the values calculated according to the above equations and the transverse voltage values are usually not dangerous. This can be taken from Figure 3.1.2 g). formed by installation line (an equipotential bonding line. b is the wire distance in mm and Δi/Δt the current change in the lightning current conducting line in kA/μs. In the case of lines with twisted wires and especially in the case of electromagnetically shielded lines.1.1 a. 2 h. between the loop and the lightning currentcarrying conductor.1. which are operated by nominal voltages in the range 1–10 V and which are connected to surge-sensitive electronic equipment. M′4 is the wire-distance-related mutual inductance of the loop in nH/mm.1. Δi/Δt = I/T1 is to be taken from Table 3.52 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 3.1.1.1. according to the requirements (Figure 3. M′4 depends on the line length l and the distance s between the installation line and the lightning current conducting line.2 d Mutual inductance M2 to calculate the square-wave voltages in square loops. Δi/Δt = I/T1 is to be taken from Table 3. formed by the wires of an installation line and run in a distance vertically to an infinitely wide lightning current conducting line. For a small elongated loop. keep in mind that these are transverse voltages on information technology lines.1.1. according to the requirements (Figure 3. elongated loops. taken from Figure 3. . there are only induced voltages up to about 100 V in small.1.

2 g Example .1.1.2 e Example Figure 3.1.2 f Mutual inductance M′3 to calculate the square-wave voltages in two-wire lines (an equipotential bonding line. between the loop and the lightning current-carrying conductor.Origin and effect of surges 53 Figure 3. does not have any influence on M′3).1. Figure 3.1.1.

54 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 3.1. between the loop and the lightning current-carrying conductor.1.1. L is the self-inductance of the loop in . Figure 3. τ is the time constant of the loop in s.2 h Mutual inductance M′4 to calculate the square-wave voltages in two-wire lines (an equipotential bonding line.2 i Example If a metal loop is short-circuited or its insulating distance punctured due to the induced square-wave voltage U.1. does not have any influence on M′4). an induced current ii flows in the loop for which the following equation is applicable: dii 1 M di + ii = dt π L dt with τ = L R where t is the time in s. R is the ohmic resistance of the loop in Ω.

1.8.1. In the vicinity of the lightning channel or the lightning current conducting lines.3). then the cable goes through the data socket outlet into the computer.2. rapidly changing magnetic fields will arise due to the extreme rate of increase of the lightning current. for example. meaning at the equipment itself or directly at its power and data socket outlets (Section 5. causing punctures in the equipment or sometimes even fire. Figure 3. shows a computer connected to the power and the data system. M is the mutual inductance of the loop in H and i the lightning current in the lightning current conducting line in A. they can form an induction loop including a surface of 100 m2. such as power and information technology lines.2 j. As the power and the data cable are independently installed lines. The computer must be protected from these lightning surges ‘on the scene’. The power cable is also connected to the equipotential bonding bar by lightning current arresters and supplies the computer through the power socket outlet. surges of such intensity can be induced into the loop. The open ends of this loop are in the computer. magnetically induced into the loop. water and gas pipings. Surges of up to 100 000 V are generated by these fields within the building in wide ‘induction loops’ formed by the effects of installation lines. here the surge. Formulas and examples to calculate the self-inductance L are indicated in the ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’. The data cable is duly connected to the equipotential bonding bar after entering the building. Figure 3.1.Origin and effect of surges 55 H. but also in the case of strikes in closer proximity.1.2 j Electronic equipment endangered by induced lightning overvoltages . Not only in the case of direct lightning strikes. becomes effective.

28 (which was introduced during the advent of electronic data processing techniques) specifies the electrical characteristics of line drivers permitting a direct bonding up to about 15 m cable length.1). 1993) 3.1 a) in the vicinity of the protected systems. The maximum permissible length of data transmission lines connecting equipment has increased dramatically with advances in technology.2 a).2 Remote strikes In the case of remote strikes. In particular. For example. 4th edn. thereby generating electromagnetic fields which affect the system.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag München. J.1. travelling surges either propagate along the lines ( 2a and 2b in Figure 3.56 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Sources HASSE.2 a Surges in a cable .1. This wide area of danger is due to the increasing sensitivity of high-technology equipment to cables extending beyond the building and the growth in the use of sensitive networks. Today. VDE Verlag. are susceptible to induced or conducted surges and surge currents (Section 2.1 a).1. or lightning strikes ( 2c in Figure 3. damage due to surges of atmospheric origin in the 1990s has shown that electronic installations. the interface V. P. and WIESINGER. there are line drivers and interfaces available on the market which allow a direct bonding over twisted twin-core cables up to a length of about 1000 m! When lightning partial currents flow in cables they generate longitudinal and transverse voltages (Figure 3. however. up to a distance of about 2 km from the lightning point of strike.The longitudinal voltage Figure 3.24/V.. Berlin.

3 Coupling of surge currents on signal lines The following examples will demonstrate how surge currents can be coupled ohmically.Origin and effect of surges 57 ul generated between the wire and the metal cable shield creates stress on the insulation of the connected device between its input terminals and the earthed enclosure. we will assume that both devices are connected to the Table 3. The devices are interconnected by a signal line. the longitudinal voltage ûl can be calculated from the cable coupling resistance Rk (Table 3. Consider the arrangement with device 1 in building 1 and device 2 in building 2.2 a Coupling resistances at lightning currents . The transverse voltage uq is established between the wires and this exerts pressure on the input circuit of the connected device.2 a). 3.1. inductively and capacitively onto the signal lines of extended systems. Furthermore.1.1. If the lightning partial current î2 is known.

A transverse voltage of several kV will be induced in this loop if lightning strikes building 1. The value of this surge current (it can have a peak value of several kA) depends on the relative values of the ohmic resistances RA1 and RA2.3. If lightning strikes building 1. through device 2.3. forming an induction loop. along the signal line.3. giving rise to an incoupled current of up to several kA.1 a Ohmic coupling . Figure 3.1.1.2 b shows another possible example of inductive coupling. 3.1. Figure 3.1.3.2 a shows the two wire signal line between devices 1 and 2. 3. voltages are induced in metal loops by the inductive fields of the lightning channel or the lightning current conducting lines.2 Inductive coupling As already shown.1 Ohmic coupling In Figure 3.58 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems respective equipotential bonding bar (PAS) in the buildings by means of protective conductors PE. Figure 3. through device 1.1. PAS 2 and RA2. causing a potential difference of some 100 kV at the ohmic earth resistance RA1 .1 a lightning strikes building 1. a high voltage (some 10 kV) will be induced in this loop leading to a sparkover of insulation distances in devices 1 and 2 and to an incoupled current of several kA.3.3. These voltages and currents stress the components at the inputs or outputs of the equipment. The induction loop is formed by the signal line and the earth. A voltage of this magnitude is sufficient to sparkover the insulation distance in devices 1 and 2 so that an ohmically cross-coupled surge current can flow from PAS 1.1.

3.1.2 a Inductive coupling: Induction loop between the wires of the signal line Figure 3.Origin and effect of surges 59 Figure 3.1. The signal line between device 1 and device 2 in Figure 3.1.2 b Inductive coupling: Induction loop between signal line and earth 3.3 Capacitive coupling If lightning strikes the ground or a lightning conductor.3.3. the lightning channel or lightning conductor will be raised to a high voltage (some 100 kV) compared to the surroundings because of the potential difference at the earth electrode resistance RA.3.3 a is capacitively coupled with such a lightning channel or lightning .1.

The generated currents are relatively low in value. The coupling capacities are charged and cause an ‘injected’ current (some 10 A) which flows to the ground over the insulation distances in devices 1 and 2.1.4 a). the surge protective devices employed must also be able to discharge high partial lightning currents non-destructively. or even destruction.4 Magnitude of atmospheric overvoltages Remote strikes initially cause surges of some 10 kV. 3. The withstand voltage of some electronic devices can be as low as 10 V.60 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 3. even in the event of direct lightning strikes. however. by the tens of kV produced by remote strikes or 100 kV produced by direct strikes (Table 3. these high values of overvoltages must be reduced to values which are clearly below the permitted impulse breakdown/sparkover voltages by means of protective measures or surge protective devices.3. the values of voltages occurring due to atmospheric discharges can be 100 to 10 000 times higher than the voltages that can be carried non-destructively by lowvoltage systems containing electronic equipment. Direct strikes. give rise to lightning currents of far greater and more severe magnitude: currents of 200 kA (protection level I) and voltage peaks of several 100 kV can occur.1. .1. Therefore. Hence. Low-voltage installations can usually only withstand impulse breakdown voltages of several kV and therefore are susceptible to damage.3 a Capacitive coupling conductor. To guarantee protection.

can cause a flashback between the switch contacts that are yet to close. When the switch opens. 4th edn. J. The line voltage then balances at a level equal to the instantaneous value of the supply . especially due to capacitive coupling. 1994) 3. P. the instantaneous value of the supply voltage on the line results in a high potential difference between the system and the disconnected line.4 a Impulse flashover voltages/impulse breakdown voltages (1. München.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag.Origin and effect of surges Table 3.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’. P. In certain cases. VDE Verlag.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag. these values can exceed 15 kV. 1993) HASSE.. München.. Examples of the cause of these switching overvoltages are as follows: (a) Disconnection of an open-circuit power line (or capacitors) (Figure 3. Berlin. 3 aktualisierte Auflage 1993) HASSE. (Verlag TÜV Rheinland. The potential difference.2 a). which is established in only a few milliseconds.2 Switching overvoltages Switching overvoltages in power plants can also affect low-voltage systems and secondary engineering systems. Köln. and WIESINGER. J. and WIESINGER.1. Berlin-Offenbach. VDE Verlag.2/50 μs) in electrical systems and equipment up to 1000 V 61 Sources HASSE. P.

If an open-circuit transformer is disconnected from the network. (b) Disconnection of an open-circuit transformer.2 a Switching surges on disconnection of a capacitance voltage and the arc between the switch contacts is quenched. The resulting switching overvoltages can reach amplitudes of several times the value of the nominal supply voltage. Switching overvoltages can also be generated within the low-voltage systems themselves due to the following: disconnection in • thevoltage. Such sudden current variations can be due to either the connection or disconnection of a heavy load. If the earth fault arc interrupts. an earth fault or double earth fault. such asof inductances connected or parallel with the source of transformers.62 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 3. or a short circuit. then the potential of the complete conductor system will be altered by the value of the voltage of the affected conductor with respect to earth. which capacitively influence low-voltage systems. The initial amplitude of these switching surges always corresponds to the potential difference between the switch contacts at the moment of the flashback and this amplitude can be a multiple of the nominal supply voltage. its self-capacitance is loaded by the energy of the magnetic field. (c) Earth fault in the floating (earth-free) network. rapid variations in current can also generate surges in low-voltage systems by inductive coupling. This process can occur several times. The switching overvoltage generated by the equalization of the appropriate instantaneous value of the supply voltage has the characteristic of a damped oscillation with a frequency of several 100 kHz. In addition to switching overvoltages from power plants of this nature. The inductive–capacitve circuit now oscillates until all of the energy in the ohmic resistance of the circuit is converted into heat. If an earth fault occurs at the outer conductor of a floating network. the effect is similar to that of an opencircuit conductor or capacitor being disconnected: switching overvoltages will develop with damped oscillations. inductors coils of contactors and .

It is possible that switching interference is generated outside a building and enters through the power lines or it can be generated internally. or the inductances of the actual conductors. about 7.1 ms rate of rise. An impressed surge voltage due to disconnection processes or overcurrent protective components is defined in DIN VDE 0160. (These inductances try to maintain the flow of current.2 b).e. For conducted. which are a multiple of the nominal voltage of the system.2 a and 3. even if the circuit is interrupted.4 ns front time) with peak values . broadband interference a difference is made in the EMC standards between high and low energy impulses or pulses depending on the type of switching operation.3 ms (0. switching overvoltages are generated in a similar way to that described above for the disconnection of an open-circuit power transformer. (i.1/1. series inductors. The surge voltage 0. These impressed voltage impulses 5/50 ns (5 ns rate of rise. So interference for different types of environment with correspondingly adjusted peak values is defined in the VG standards (Tables 3. This is either defined analogously to the lightning interference as combined surge voltage and surge current interference or as impressed surge voltages. Electromagnetic interference by switching in power technical systems is usually more frequent than lightning interferences. high energy. and by sudden unloading of machines and transformers. normally with damped oscillations. (Rapid changes in current resulting from occurrences such as these give rise to switching surges. bursts) are shown in DIN VDE 0847 Part 4-4.Origin and effect of surges 63 • • • relays. conducted interference of switching processes is equated to the conducted lightning interference inside the building (with a duly carried out lightning protection equipotential bonding). The magnitude of the switching overvoltages that arise depends on the value of the current at the time of disconnection. Broadband. or unintentional disconnection brought about by the tripping of fuses or circuit breakers.15 ms front time) with a peak value uN/max will be superimposed on the peak value uN/max of the alternating current voltage. commutation effects in brush collector systems. or by line discontinuity before the natural current zero-axis crossing. about 0. low energy switching voltage interference. (In this case.) by phase control circuits.) intentional disconnection of circuits by means of switches. Extensive measurements taken in different low-voltage networks have shown that the most remarkable surges have been caused by interfering radiation of arcs generated in switchgear.) the disconnection of inductances in the series arm of the current circuit such as conductor loops. In part the broadband.

: ‘Ergebnisse von Messungen transienter Überspannungen in Freiluft-Schaltanlagen’. Fachberichte der FGH Mannheim.64 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Lightning interference ‘1.2 a Table 3. pp. Z. etz-a Elektrotech. pp. 15–17 . 97(1). etz-a Elektrotech.2 b Lightning interference ‘10/700 μs’ depending on the severity of testing are supplied as pulse packages into power and communication lines through coupling capacities. arcs generated by the withdrawing of disconnectors) inducing more conducted interferences. Z.g.2/50 μs’ Table 3.-D. 2–27 MENGE. H.. 1976. 97(1). considerable interfering radiation can also be due to the switching processes themselves (e. Apart from conducted interference.. 1976. Sources FGH MANNHEIM: ‘Transiente Überspannungen’.

GmbH. Berlin. Teil 4: Prüf. München. GmbH. P. Heidelberg. New York.: ‘Überspannungen in Hochspannungsschaltanlagen – Schutz von Sekundäreinrichtungen’. Ausgabe Oct. Köln. Prüfeinrichtungen und Grenzwerte. DINVDE-Normen’ (VDE Verlag.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. 1989) . 1975 DIN EN 61000-4-5 (VDE 0847 Teil 4-5): 1996-09: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV)’.: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (Springer Verlag. 680–683 SCHWAB.. EMV-Grundnorm (VDE Verlag. 3. March 1996) DIN VDE 0160: 1988-05: ‘Ausrüstung von Starkstromanlagen mit elektronischen Betriebsmitteln’ (VDE Verlag. J. Hauptabschnitt 5: Prüfung der Störfestigkeit gegen Stossspannungen (IEC 1000-4-5: 1995). 1986. 1991) VG 96 903 Teil 76/08. J. V. 1990) HASSE. H. U.. pp. aktualisierte Auflage (Verlag TÜV Rheinland. Verfahren LF 76: Prüfung mit Direkteinspeisung eines Spannungsimpulses 1.Origin and effect of surges 65 LANG. P. Berlin/Offenbach.89: ‘Schutz gegen Nuklear-Elektromagnetischen Impuls (NEMP) und Blitzschlag’. 1995) DIN EN 61000-4-4 (VDE 0847 Teil 4-4): 1996-03: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV)’. May 1988) DIN-VDE-Taschenbuch 515: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit 1. VDE Verlag. A. Prüfverfahren. Aug. 1993) HASSE.. GmbH. GmbH. GmbH. and LINDNER.und Messverfahren. Berlin-Offenbach. 22. Berlin/Offenbach. and WIESINGER. Elektrizitätswirtschaft.und Messverfahren. Teil 4: Prüf. Berlin/Offenbach. Berlin/Offenbach.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’. Hauptabschnitt 4: Prüfung der Störfestigkeit gegen schnelle transiente elektrische Störgrössen/Burst. Deutsche Fassung EN 61000-4-5: (VDE Verlag. 1994) VDEW: ‘Hinweise für die Messung von transienten Überspannungen in Sekundärleitungen innerhalb von Freiluft-Schaltanlagen’ Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitätswerke – VDEW e.2/50 s und eines Stromimpulses 8/20 s (Beuth-Verlag. Berlin.

.

lightning as a source of interference is understood and defined with regard to the present protection problems. It is also possible to simulate lightning currents with their extreme values in the laboratory. components and devices. we now have the necessary conditions for protecting systems in such a way that the final risk of failure can be kept extremely low. Also lightning interference fields can be simulated for the testing of information technology equipment. Because of such wide ranging basic research and the development of protection concepts. HV overhead lines and in lightning trigger stations. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as well as the European (Cenelec) and national standards committees (DIN VDE. has been realized. Field measuring stations also register the radiated electromagnetic interference fields of lightning discharges. such as the concept of lightning protection zones as organizing principle of an EMC. this is a prerequisite for testing protective installations. The necessity of standardizing complex EMC-oriented lightning protection measures. Thus. as well as suitable protective measures and devices against field generated and conducted interference due to lightning discharges. standards For a considerable time increasingly refined methods have been used worldwide to measure lightning currents at high towers. VG) produce standards on the following: interference of lightning its statistical • Electromagnetic basis for the assignment ofdischarge and to protection distribution as a interferences • • • levels Methods to estimate the risk of determining the protection levels Measures to discharge the lightning current Measures for screening electromagnetic lightning fields . From the results of research. it can be guaranteed that the essential infrastructure can be maintained and catastrophes avoided in cases of extraordinary atmospheric threats. containing also so-called surge protection measures.Chapter 4 Protective measures.

68 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems • Measures to discharge conducted lightning interference • Requirements and tests for protective components • Protective concepts within the scope of an EMC-oriented management plan When designing a protection system. the ‘equipment’ must have a sufficient immunity also against lightning interference. and surge limitation. the protection of complex power and information systems of a building in the case of a direct or close-up lightning strike. interference-free operation is possible. Hence. for example. such as external and internal lightning protection. The effects of interference are normally covered by ‘classical’ considerations of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of a device. switching surge protection. there must be no error signals even in the case of a lightning discharge or nuclear explosion. To secure. such as the control systems of nuclear power stations. system design is usually limited to avoiding the destruction of devices by surges. Some installations require a combination of lightning protection. With priority system planning. Short-term signal fluctuations can be accepted. The protective measures described in the following paragraphs. the EMC measures of lightning protection are realized so that safe. . it is first necessary to decide whether to protect the device or installation solely against destruction or against interference as well. electrostatic discharge protection and protection against nuclear electromagnetic pulses. lightning discharges and nuclear explosions are relatively rare and of very short duration. alarm systems and military installations. On passing of the law on the electromagnetic compatibility of devices (‘Guidelines on the application of Council Directive 89/336/EEC of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility’). With an EMC analysis. for example. convenient planning for a building and reliable cooperation of all electronic building functions at normal operation can be secured. likewise for the case of direct lightning interference. is the procedure in standard low-voltage systems in wide ranges of industrial measurement and control installations and in telecommunication and electronic data processing systems. In contrast to normal electromagnetic interference. and the possible destruction of devices is the most important consideration in surge protection analysis. If possible. they should be considered at the initial stages of construction of structural systems and electrical consumer installations. are methods which partly overlap and also complement one another. however. but sometimes they can be realized subsequently. extensive analysis by a lightning protection expert is necessary. This. shielding. In certain special cases. The word ‘equipment’ does not only mean all electric and electronic devices but also installations and systems which contain electric or electronic modules.

the down conductors and the earthing system. does not include details of whether a lightning protection system has to be provided for a building or not. standards 69 Sources HASSE. pp.Protective measures. Forum für Versicherer (Dehn und Söhne. however. there is lightning protection equipotential bonding which reduces the potential differences caused by lightning current. External lightning protection involves the air termination systems. national and regional regulations and specifications. 1107–1112 4. the ohmically. The primary task of lightning protection is to intercept lightning by an air termination system. SD 321E. 960–964. extension and alteration of lightning protection systems. Should there be a decision for . Furthermore. aktualisierte Auflage. 1993) HASSE. DIN VDE 0185 Parts 1 and 2 have been enacted since 1982 for the erection. the ‘protected volume’ is the structural system that is to be protected by a lightning protection system.: ‘Blitz-/Überspannungsschutz – Stand der Normung’. Nürnberg. 5. Building regulations of the German Federal Countries. P. instructions and directions of the insurance companies and the danger characteristics for lightning protection systems in the immovables of the German Federal Armed Forces can be used as decision makers.1994) HASSE. P. Oct.12–13 HASSE. Above all else. planning. 1995. VDE/ABBBlitzschutztagung.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’ (Verlag TÜV Rheinland.: ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen – 1’. 7.1 Lightning protection According to national and international lightning protection engineering and standards. Internal lightning protection involves all additional measures preventing magnetic and electric implications of lightning current in the volume to be protected. According to the international lightning protection standard. This VDE guide. 1996. J. 12. pp. it is entirely up to the building supervisory board. DEHN publication No. 1996. the owner or the operator to decide upon its necessity. In Germany. Köln. P. pp. If a lightning protection system for a structural system or building is not made a prerequisiste by the building regulations of an individual country. a lightning protection system for buildings requires the protection of the whole system against the effects of lightning.. This consists of external lightning protection and internal lightning protection. 11. and WIESINGER. capacitively and inductively ‘incoupled’ interference must be reduced to harmless values in the protected volume.: ‘Lightning protection for fulfilling the principles of EMC ’. to discharge the lightning current through a down conductor system to the earthing system where it will be dissipated into the ground. P. reprint from etz. 3.

Technical Committee 81 (TC81) of the IEC has international competence. But Cenelec also works out its own standards: for example. a building lightning protection system planned and installed according to the state of engineering twenty years ago will no longer be sufficient.1 a and 2.1 a illustrates the mechanism for the development of an IEC standard through Cenelec to the DKE using the example of IEC 61024-1: Figure 4. the latest results of lightning research and engineering are reflected in the internationally agreed lightning protection standards.1 b). Through Cenelec. Thus. regional (CLC).1 a Lightning protection standards: International (IEC). Damage statistics of the insurance companies clearly confirm this fact (Figures 2. IEC standards are transferred into European Standards (ES) (sometimes modified): for example. Thus. EN 50164-1 to 4 (Table 4. the presently valid DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 and 2 only reflects the state of engineering of about twenty years ago. it must be carried out in accordance with the corresponding standards or relevant regulations.1 b). however. As an accepted rule of engineering. IEC 61024-1 in ENV 61024-1. Table 4. Developments in the field of engineering and related latest scientific findings may be registered from time to time into a new standard or regulation.1 a shows the current state as well as the future tasks of the IEC standardizing work in this field. Technical Committee 81X (TC81X) of the Cenelec has European (regional) competence and Committee K251 of the German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE) has national competence in lightning protection standardization. However. In the interim years there have been important changes in building services management systems and electronic data processing. national (DKE) .70 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems the installation of a lightning protection system. Figure 4. a standard or regulation only stipulates the minimum requirements at the time of coming into force.

1 a Standards within IEC TC 81 .Table 4.

in Germany. as DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) ‘Gebäudeblitzschutz. This draft standard (translated into the national languages) will be tested in the European countries (for about three years). Its application guarantees safe protection of the structure. is recommended in order to obtain a more effective protection. either this draft standard or the standard DIN VDE 0185-1 (VDE 0185 Part 1): 1982-11 ‘Blitzschutzanlage. The European draft standard ENV 61024-1: 1995-01 ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Therefore. ENV 61024-1 is based on the latest technical state. there will then be the binding standard EN 61024-1 for all European countries.72 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Cenelec-standards ‘Lightning Protection’ Table 4. Part 1: General principles’ has been in force since January 1995. In August 1996 the German draft standard DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) was published (Figure 4. on the one hand. for example. on the other hand. (‘Lightning protection of buildings. . Part 1: General principles’) After final consideration at Cenelec.1 b). including the national annex. application of ENV 61024-1. • IEC 1: General principles’ has been valid worldwide since March Part • • • • 1990. During the transitional period until the final standard. and to gather experience in the application of the later exclusively valid European Standard. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (with national annex). Allgemeines für das Errichten’ can be applied. In Germany this standard will be published as DIN EN 61024-1 (VDE 0185 Part 100).1 b 61024-1: 1990-03 ‘Protection of structures against lightning.

The standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103). standards 73 Figure 4. fire). standard IEC 61662: 1995-04 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’ with Amendment 1: 1996-05 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’. additional requirements in DIN VDE 0185-2 (VDE 0185 Part 2): 198211 must be taken into account. and they will not be endangered by damage to the structure (e.1 b Use of the European Draft Standard (ENV) in Germany Lightning protection measures for special systems DIN VDE 0185-2 (VDE 0185 Part 2): 1982-11 will be treated in a later standard. with the regulations of IEC 61312-1.) requires special protective measures on the basis of IEC 61312-1: 1995-02 ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. A lightning protection system planned and installed according to the draft standard ENV 61024-1 will rather prevent damage at the structure. These special systems can be carried out according to ENV 61024-1.. has been valid since September 1997 (Figure 4. Part 1: General principles’ because of the low admissible voltages. The protection of extended electrical power and information engineering installations in and at the structure cannot be guaranteed by the very measures of lightning protection equipotential bonding according to ENV 61024-1. In particular the protection of information technology equipment (communications technology. .Protective measures. To estimate the damage risk due to a lightning strike. computer networks etc.g. Persons are protected inside the structure. Annex C ‘Structures containing electronic systems’ is applicable.1 c). instrumentation and control. Until then the standard DIN VDE 0185-2 (VDE 0185 Part 2): 1982-11 is valid.

International Electrotechnical Commission. April 1995 Amendment 1: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning. March 1980 DIN V ENV 61024-1(VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen. Aug. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. Berlin/Offenbach. Teil 1: Anforderungen für Verbindungsbauteile’.1 Risk analysis. Genève. . Sept. (IEC 1312-1: 1995. Nov. 1997) IEC 61662: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’. Part 1: General principles’. 1996) E DIN EN 50164-1(VDE 0185 Teil 201): ‘Blitzschutzbauteile. Part 1: General principles’. Feb. protection levels Basically new in these lightning protection standards are methods for the assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning and the subdivision of the protective measures into protection levels.74 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4. GmbH. Berlin/Offenbach. GmbH. Genève. GmbH.1 c New German Lightning Protection Standards Sources DIN VDE 0185: ‘Blitzschutzanlage. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’. Genève.1. Berlin/Offenbach. Deutsche Fassung prEN 50164-1: (VDE Verlag. Centre de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale Genève. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’ (VDE Verlag. Annex C: Structures containing electronic systems’. Teil 1: Allgemeines für das Errichten. modifiziert) (VDE Verlag. May 1996 4. 1995 DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Teil 103): ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls. 1982) IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. May 1997) IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. Teil 2: Errichten besonderer Anlagen’ (VDE Verlag. GmbH. Berlin/Offenbach.

is shown in DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) in Figure 4.1a.1 a Flow diagram for the selection of a lightning protection system .1.Protective measures. The purpose of choosing a sufficient protection level is to reduce the risk of damage due to direct lightning strikes to below an acceptable value. standards 75 The assessment of the risk of damage due to a lightning strike into a structure helps the lightning protection planner to decide whether or not a lightning protection system is to be recommended and to choose suitable protective measures. Figure 4.1. The selection of a sufficient protection level for the lightning protection system can be based on the expected number of direct strikes (Nd) and on the accepted number of strikes (Nc) that will cause damage. The flow diagram for the selection of the lightning protection systems.

That is Nd = Ng Ae The equivalent surface Ae will be determined according to Figure 4. Figure 4. and C is the component considering consequential damage. which is applicable for the region where the building stands. nature contents. roof construction. measures and installations for damage reduction. the walls. material).1. and roof superstructures.76 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Proceeding from a lightning density Ng (lightning strikes per km2 and year). the average annual number Nd of lightning strikes to be expected for the building/surface Ae can be determined by means of the equivalent surface Ae (in km2).1 b Determination of the equivalent collection area Ae for an individual building . the following are taken into account: (building construction): construction of • Component A roof covering. To determine these components. of building contents. B is the component dealing with the use and contents of the building.1. A is the building construction component (type of construction. The equivalent surface Ae takes into account that lightning strikes in the direct vicinity of a structure have the same consequence as direct strikes. According to the national annex NB of this standard the following is specified: Nc = A B C where Nc is the accepted strike frequency. (building and by • Component B of building utilization value contents): utilization and people.1 b.

1. and those to reduce voltages in sensitive installations induced by lightning. failure of importantto the services supdue to the public plied by the building installations.98 protection level I 0.1 a Relation between protection level and efficiency . If Nd > Nc. By the protection level the following is stipulated: of the lightning protection system (Table 4.90 protection level III 0 < E ≤ 0.1 c) • Table 4. a lightning protection system with efficiency E≥1− Nc Nd in accordance with the protection level of Table 4.98 protection level I with additional protective measures 0.1 a should be installed.Protective measures. for example. and. After calculation of E. protective angle. Additional protective measures. mesh size (Table 4. what version has to be chosen: If Nd < Nc . The comparison allows a decision—whether a lightning protection system is necessary or not.1a) • efficacyof the rolling sphere.80 protection level IV E < 0 lightning protection not necessary. a lightning protection system is not necessary.95 protection level II 0.1. in the affirmative.1. those to avoid the spreading of fire. the protection level must be derived from the following: E > 0.1.80 < E ≤ 0.90 < E ≤ 0. standards 77 C (consequential damage): danger environment • Componentbuilding contents. The value of the accepted strike frequency Nc must be compared with the actual number of annual strikes Nd. include those to reduce the contact and step voltages.95 < E ≤ 0. and other consequential damage.1.1 b) radius • lightning characteristics (Table 4.

DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) as well as DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 essentially deal with (Figure 4. 4. rolling sphere radius and mesh size to the protection levels Table 4.1.2 External and internal lightning protection. and safety clearances (at proximity points).1.2 a): air termination system.1 c Assignment of the lightning current parameters to the protection levels to determine the • factor k system and metalsafety distance between the lightning protection installations/electrical and information i • • • technology equipment clearances between the down conductors minimum lengths of the earth electrodes inspection intervals. . earthing system. lightning protection equipotential bonding.78 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Assignment of angle of protection. down conductor system.1 b Table 4. DIN VDE 0185 Part 1.1.1.

and with the power and information technology equipment in the volume to protect. and arresters. if direct connections with the equipotential bonding lines are not allowed (Figure 4.2 b). with the external conductive parts. 4.Protective measures. the down conductor system and the earthing system.1.2 a External and Internal Lightning Protection according to IEC 61024-1/ENV 61024-1 The lightning protection system consists of both external and internal lightning protection. Lightning protection equipotential bonding must be carried out in accordance with DIN V ENV 61024-1. Internal lightning protection includes all additional measures to avoid electromagnetic interference due to lightning current in the protected volume. standards 79 Figure 4. with the metal installations. Lightning protection equipotential bonding is realized by bonding the conductors of the external lightning protection system with the metal frame of the structure. Lightning protection equipotential bonding is that part of the internal lightning protection which reduces the potential differences caused by lightning current. if the continuous electric conductivity is not achieved by the natural connections.1. External lightning protection consists of the air termination system.1.3 Concept of lightning protection zones. Bonding measures include: equipotential bonding lines. DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) Since September 1997 the international standard IEC 61312-1 ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1: General principles’ is also valid in Germany as DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 .

80

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 4.1.2 b

Lightning protection equipotential bonding for incoming services

Part 103): 1997-09 ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze’. This standard became necessary because of the increasing use of many kinds of electronic systems including computers, telecommunication facilities, control systems etc. (called information systems in this standard). Such systems are used in many fields of commerce and industry, including the control of production facilities with high capital value, wide dimensions and great complexity, where failures due to lightning strikes are very undesirable for cost and safety reasons. A risk analysis which focuses on the LEMP hazard to electronic equipment is indicated in IEC 61662, Amendment 1 ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’, Annex C ‘Structures containing electronic systems’. With regard to general principles of protection against lightning strikes DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100) is applicable; however, it does not treat the protection of electric and electronic systems. The standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) is concerned with the lightning electromagnetic impulse and its interfering fields and therefore is a basis for the protective system. The general principles for protection against the electromagnetic lightning pulse (or LEMP: lightning electromagnetic impulse) are described in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103). Here it is shown how a structure can be subdivided into several lightning protection zones (in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103) called LPZ: lightning protection zone) according to the concept of lightning protection zones, and how the equipotential bonding has to be carried out at the zone interfaces (Figure 4.1.3 a). The protected volume (or ‘volume to protect’) will be subdivided into lightning protection zones. The different protection zones are formed by

Protective measures, standards 81

Figure 4.1.3 a

Example for the subdivision of a building into several lightning protection zones (LPZ) and sufficient equipotential bonding

building screens, shielded rooms and devices using existing metal structures. The individual protection zones are characterized by obvious changes of the fieldborne and conducted lightning interference at their boundaries. When a metal supply system passes a zone boundary and thus the electromagnetic screen of a zone, this supplying system must be treated at the interface. For passive conductors (pipes, cable sheaths) this is done by conductive connections to the zone screen; for electrical lines by the use of arresters that discharge the interfering energy.

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In the standard DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103): execution of the protective of the concept • thelightning protection zones ismeasures on the basis planning to its of shown from concept

• • • • • •

acceptance primary lightning interferences are specified generator circuits are indicated for the simulation of lightning currents the timing functions of the lightning current components are shown for calculation analyses measures of lightning protection equipotential bonding are treated electromagnetic building and room screening is described the application of arresters is determined.

The LEMP-protection management for new buildings, as well as for far-reaching alterations in the execution or use of structures, is described in this standard (Table 4.1.3 a). In the following sections the tasks that must be fulfilled by the different management steps are described and practical examples are given.
Table 4.1.3 a LEMP-protection management for new buildings and for comprehensive alterations in development or utilization of existing buildings

Sources
HASSE, P., and WIESINGER, J.: ‘EMV-Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag, München; VDE Verlag, Berlin/Offenbach, 1994) HASSE, P.: ‘Blitzschutz-Management – Planung und Organisation’. Tagungsband 1. VDE/ABB–Blitzschutztagung ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen’. (Kassel, 29 Feb.–1 March,1996)

Protective measures, standards 83 HASSE, P.: Neu: DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103: ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls’. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze – Anwendung in der Praxis – (I). de (der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk), 1997, 14, pp. 1352– 1356, 17, pp. 1552–1558, 18, pp. 1691–1693 IEC 61662, Amendment 1: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning, Annex C: Structures containing electronic systems’. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale, Genève, May 1996

4.1.3.1 LEMP-protection planning The LEMP-protection planning for the system to protect must be carried out by a lightning protection expert (who has well-founded knowledge of EMC) in close coordination with the owner, the architect, the installer of the information system, the planners, and other relevant institutions and, if necessary, with the subcontractors. The planning should begin with definition of the lightning protection levels. 4.1.3.1.1 Definition of lightning protection levels By analysing the risk in accordance with DIN V ENV 61024-1 (VDE V 0185 Part 100), annex F, or according to DIN IEC 61662 (VDE 0185 Part 101), where the structure’s site, the building construction, its use, content, and possible subsequent damage are considered, the adequate protection level for the structure to protect can be determined as described in Section 4.1.1. 4.1.3.1.2 Definition of lightning protection zones As shown in Figure 4.1.3 a, the volume to protect will be divided into protection zones. The different protection zones will be created by the screening of the building, the rooms, and the equipment by using the existing metal components such as metal facades, reinforcements and metallic enclosures. Numbering of the protection zones is according to their damping of the electromagnetic lightning fields. The undamped environs will be defined as lightning protection zone 0 which will be subdivided into the following:

• lightning protection zone 0 ,, where direct lightning strikes occurby the where direct strikes are prevented • lightning protection zone 0accordance with the effectivity of the lightair-termination system (in
A B

ning protection level). The definition of lightning protection zones and the determination of their boundaries in the case of complex systems usually will be developed step-by-step, while the lightning protection expert regularly consults the main involved and responsible parties concerning construction and operation, in order to reach an optimally balanced overall concept by using all structural (technical and economical) realities. At this point, it should be emphasized that on defining the protection levels and on determination of the lightning protection zones the

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essential basic data for the total costs of the lightning protection system to be planned and installed are fixed. So it is, for example, quite usual to attribute different protection levels to the individual buildings of an extended industrial plant (as shown in Figure 4.1.3.1.2 a) by means of a risk analysis. Depending on the actual requirements, the air terminations, down conductors and earthing systems can be executed as ‘isolated’, ‘partly isolated’, or ‘building integrated’, as shown in Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b. Figures 4.1.3.1.2 c to e show the execution in practice. Best positioning of the air terminations is made possible by means of the rolling sphere method: either in a drawing (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f a) or using a scale model (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f b). Only those parts of the building that are touched by the rolling sphere (Figure 4.1.3.1.2 f c), need air terminations. In the following planning step, room shielding measures will be specified. 4.1.3.1.3 Room shielding measures Of special importance for the planning of building and room shields for the lightning protection zones are the existing metal components of the building (e.g., metal roofs and facades, steel reinforcements in concrete, expanded metals in walls, metal lattices, metal supporting structures, metal piping) forming an effective electromagnetic shield, if there is an intermeshed connection. Already by this stage of planning it must be specified (and agreed upon by the construction companies) that: in ceilings, walls, and floors must be • all steel reinforcements with the earthing system (at least everyinterconnected and bonded 5 m) (Figures 4.1.3.1.3 a)

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 a

Lightning protection zones (LPZ) with protection levels (PL)

Protective measures, standards 85

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b

(a) Lightning protection zones in case of an ‘isolated’ lightning protection system

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b

(b) Lightning protection zones in case of a ‘partly isolated’ lightning protection system

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 b

(c) Lightning protection zones in case of a ‘buildingintegrated’ lightning protection system

86

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 c

Example of an ‘isolated’ lightning protection system

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 d Example of a ‘partly isolated’ lightning protection system

Figure 4.1.3.1.2 e Example of a ‘building-integrated’ lightning protection system

1.3.1.2 f (c) Surfaces marked are touched by the rolling sphere Figure 4.1.3.Protective measures.2 f (a) Planning by drawing Figure 4.1.1.1.1.2 f (b) Using a model Figure 4.1.3. standards 87 Figure 4.3.2 f (a–c) Positioning of an air-termination system by means of the rolling sphere method .

1.3.3 a (c) .3 a (a) Figure 4.88 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4.1.1.1.1.3.3.3 a (b) Figure 4.1.

d) Bonding of reinforcements in floors. (c.1.3.Protective measures.1.1.1.3. standards 89 Figure 4.3. walls and ceilings.3 a (f) Effective electromagnetic shielding by: (a.3 a (d) Figure 4. (e.1. b) Steel mats on the roof. f ) Application of fixed earthing terminals for bridging of expansion joints or bonding of reinforcements of prefabricated concrete parts .1.1.1.3 a Figure 4.3.3 a (e) Figure 4.

Figure 4.3. aerial cables. ceilings. and power cables (under consideration of DIN VDE 0100 Parts 410 and 540)). Such installations include: (telecommunication • earth electrodeswith DIN VDE 0141earth electrodes.1. This connection must be either directly. auxiliary earth electrodes. 4. or over disconnection spark gaps. electric lines (metal sheaths and armour of cables as well as shields of lines. or over arresters.1.3 a (g) . even at the planning phase.1. and walls intercon• lost sheet metal forms inthe earthing system (at leastmust be m) nected and bonded with every 5 • steel constructions must be connected to the earthing system to the the • steel reinforcements of everyfoundations must be connected earthing system (at least 5 m) (Figure 4.3.1. earth electrodes in accordance (directly or over disconnection • spark gaps). communications cables (telecommunication and data cables).3.4 Equipotential bonding networks Provision must be made.3.1. that all metal installations entering a lightning protection zone must be connected. measuring earth electrodes (over disconnection spark gaps).1. and earth-contact shielding conductors).1.3.3 a g) floors. to the lightning protection equipotential bonding bar.90 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems • metal facades will be turned into shields by connecting them with the earthing system (every 5 m or less) (Figure 4. a h).1.

3.4 a Lightning protection equipotential bonding bar (water pipes. ventilation and • non-electric linesducts.3 a Figure 4.1. gas pipes. and piping of cathodiair-conditioning cally protected systems or such with stray current protection measures (over disconnection spark gaps)).1. (h) Internal surface earth electrode realized by floor slab reinforcement.3 a (h) (g–h) Bonding of the continuous interconnected metal façade with the earthing system.1. .Protective measures.3.3. standards 91 Figure 4. heating pipes.1.1. which is bonded by hot-galvanized steel strips (in raster 5 m x 5 m) Figure 4.1. fire extinguishing pipes.

1.1. Protection zones nested within each other and local protection zones of different equipotential bonding concepts are interconnected here. Figure 4. It is the same with all supply systems inside the protected volume: if they lead from one lightning protection zone into another. In the case of a lightning strike. live lines will be equipped with arresters that discharge the interfering energies in the case of lightning-induced overvoltages from the lines to the earthed zone screen.1.1.1.1. and overhead lines coming from lightning protection zone 0A or 0B into lightning protection zone 1. Figure 4. Figure 4. 4. the metal grates in double bottoms and (non-electric) metal installations. For supply systems and lines that do not conduct voltages and currents. Typically. the equipotential bonding bar for the lightning protection must be planned in such a way (approximately at ground level inside the building) that it can take over the function of the ‘earth bus’. the interfaces for all metal supply systems including the electric lines must then be clearly defined. Then it usually will be laid as an ‘earth ring bus’ inside the building (Figure 4.4 d illustrates that rather complex zone structures may be planned. Usually a mesh-like functional equipotential bonding system (Figure 4.4 b) will be planned.4 a). such as the reinforcement in the floor. the lightning current will not only be . such as ventilation pipes and cable racks. In the case of protection measures using the concept of lightning protection zones.1. they must also be treated at the interfaces.5 a. thus.1. with the metal parts of the protection zone and the protection zone screen. Also here the planner will employ the already existing metal components of a building.92 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems In the case of extended technical communication systems.5 Equipotential bonding measures for supply lines and electric lines at the boundaries of the lightning protection zones As soon as the lightning protection zones for the system to protect have been determined in agreement with all parties concerned. whereby the shields are integrated into the equipotential bonding system. this supply system must be treated.1. the walls and the ceiling.3.3.3.1. Wherever a supply system penetrates a zone boundary and. a meshing of at least one metre mesh size will be desired.3.1. this is realized by an electrically conductive connection. the electromagnetic screen of a zone. shows the interfaces of supply systems which come from lightning protection zone 0A into lightning protection zone 1 on ground level.4 c shows the bonding of two meshed protection zones.3. The devices in a protection zone shall be interconnected by lines (as many as possible and as short as possible). for example.3. It is required that this ring-equipotential bonding bar be connected to have a low impedance with the earthing system and the zone screen.1. the planner is free to decide between a mesh-like or star-type configuration of the equipotential bonding system.

1.1.4 c Bonding of lightning protection zones with the correspondingly meshed functional equipotential bonding Figure 4.Protective measures.1.3.1.3.3.1.4 b Meshed functional equipotential bonding system in a lightning protection zone Figure 4.4 d Bonding of lightning protection zones with meshed and starshaped functional equipotential bonding at a complex zone structure .1. standards 93 Figure 4.

g.1. Here the current distribution (particularly that depending on the coupling resistance) must be determined individually. for a direct strike.5 c. in accordance with DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103). for example (e.1. This must also be taken into account when the determinations for planning of the equipotential bonding measures are made. but a rather considerable part also over the supply systems entering the lightning protection zone 1 from outside ground.1.1.1.1. At their points of entry.1 c defined according to the protection level) must be discharged over the outgoing supply systems. It may be further assumed that the lightning current will be distributed equally to all metal and also electric line systems (Figure 4.94 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4. it may be assumed.5 b). a considerably higher share can flow over the shield than over the inner conductors. shields are counted as component conductors.1.3.6 Cable routing and shielding Two local. spatially separated lightning protection zones can be turned into one lightning protection zone . If the planner does not make any detailed calculations. In the worst case.1. these systems are bonded with the screen of lightning protection zone 1. that 50% of the whole lightning current (with its parameters in Table 4.3..5 a Interfaces at lightning protection zone boundaries discharged over the earthing system. For a closed outer cable shield and copper braid shield.3.3.1. When a line system consists of several component conductors. in a close-up lightning strike as shown in Figure 4. It is also possible. a power technical line or several cores of an information technology line) it may be assumed that again the lightning partial current will be distributed equally to the different conductors/ cores of a line system. outer conductor and protective conductor. that a considerably higher lightning current can be led to the interface at lightning protection zone 1 by one single supply system than would have been the case. according to the above estimation. 4.

1.1.3.1.6 b (a and b) show cable ducts.5 c Partial lightning current on external supplying systems in case of a close-up strike by means of a bonding line screen (a metal cable conduit. the reinforcement of . standards 95 Figure 4.1.3. a shielded cable route or outer cable shields) (Figure 4.1.3. Figures 4.Protective measures.1.6 a).1.3.1.5 b Partial lightning current on external supplying systems in case of a direct strike into the lightning protection system Figure 4. Easy handling calculation principles for the planner are given in the ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Handbook for Lightning Protection and Earthing).

1.1.3.1.6 a Line shield bonded with building-shields Figure 4.6 b Figure 4.6 b (b) Practical realization Cable duct with continuously interconnected reinforcement .96 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4.6 b (a) Basic structure Figure 4.1.3.1.3.1.3.1.1.

g. enclosures and cable racks are to be included into the meshed functional equipotential bonding in rooms containing information technology systems and equipment (Figure 4. fourth edn.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag. have to be indicated.. Berlin/Offenbach. handling of the shield. which is continuously connected in the longitudinal direction by means of clamps. it will be indicated how metal stages. at the interface of lightning protection zones 0A and 1. making • These works can be carried out by an electrotechnical engineering office.. transmission frequencies. Sources HASSE. the shields will also be effective within the scope of the meshed functional equipotential bonding as equipotential bonding lines. Figure 4.3. Also. can be connected directly to the building foundation reinforcement. Alternatives to shielded cables can be either metal. operating voltages.1.3. the test values of the arresters used . includes the following: • preparation of survey diagrams and descriptions out of tender specifications • workingof detailed drawings and flow diagrams for the installation. Cable lists (and types). VDE Verlag. As an additional measure the lines can be laid in line shields (e. The welded duct reinforcement. and WIESINGER. or shielded cable conduits. it is also possible to turn the enclosure of the devices into local lightning protection zones which are either connected with unshielded lines. the surface of the induction line loop can be reduced. However. closed. 1993) 4. J. Or. electromagnetically shielded cables shall be used for information technology purposes. coming after the LEMP-protection planning. with a mesh size of typically 15 cm and a rod diameter of typically 6 mm. number of wires. standards 97 which is bonded to a screen.6 c shows how. and must then be protected at the zone interfaces. Within lightning protection zones 1 and higher. for example. or metal pipes. it will be specified how the connection of the incoming metal piping to the reinforcement. Here. or with shielded lines forming a common protection zone for lines and devices.3. conduits). München.Protective measures.2 a). by parallel routing of power and information technology lines. cabinets.2 Realization of LEMP protection This step of the LEMP-protection management process. and continuous cable stages. P.1.1. The ends of the conduits must be bonded with the corresponding terminal.. Then. backup fuses etc.1. electrical and mechanical interface configurations. has to be carried out to conduct lightning current and be EMC-compliant. At least both ends of the shields must be bonded.

98 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4.2 a). Therefore. the output levels of the arresters must be stipulated in such a way that the coordination with the downstream arrester or device or system (characterized by its basic strength) is guaranteed.1.3. and that the prospective system short-circuit currents can be controlled. The arresters provided within a scheme using the concept of lightning protection zones are connected in series in the respective cable run. .6 c Measures of shielding and optimal cable routing for the bonding of lines at the interfaces of the lightning protection zones must be stipulated (Table 4.3.1.1.

as long as it is guaranteed that interference will be reduced to levels below the basic strength of the devices or systems to protect in the respective lightning protection zones.Protective measures.3. • revision of detailed .2 a Meshed functional equipotential bonding at a cabinet entry Typical test values of arresters installed at the line interfaces of lightning protection zones Basically.1.3.1. the planner is free to determine how best to use and coordinate the arresters and devices or systems.3 Installation and supervision of LEMP protection Essentials of this step of LEMP-protection management are: • quality assurance at the installation • documentation drawings.3. standards 99 Figure 4. 4.2 a Table 4.1.

special attention must be paid to the separate installation of the lines coming from lightning protection zone 0A and those leading into lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 4.1.3.3 a Floor reinforcement with supportreinforcement bonded by wires/strips and clamps Figure 4.1.1. 4.1. for expulsion arresters a sufficient separation must be maintained between neighbouring live bare parts). and the supervising authority cooperate or liaise.3.3. for example.1. If.4 Acceptance inspection of the LEMP protection An independent lightning protection expert or a supervising authority will carry out the control and documentation of the system state at the acceptance inspection stage of the LEMP protection.1. control is easily possible by inspection and photodocumentation. lightning protection experts.3. In the case of lightning current arresters for power technical systems (installed at the interface of lightning protection zone 0A and 1. engineering officers. Figure 4. structural steel mats are bonded by means of hotgalvanized steel strips.3. steel wires and clamps (Figure 4.3 b Lightning current arresters for the power technical line at the transition from lightning protection zone OA into lightning protection zone 1 . In larger systems it is useful to install protection cabinets (Figure 4..3 c).3 b).3.3. care must be taken to carry out professional installation (e.3 d) as a central interface between two lightning protection zones.g. Figure 4.1.3 a). In the case of lightning current arresters for information technology lines.100 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems It is here that system builders.

3. GmbH. Sources DIN V VDE V 0185-110 (VDE V 0185 Teil 110):1997-01: ‘Blitzschutzsysteme. test measures and the documentation involved.1.3. The standard draft DIN VDE 0185 Part 110: 1997-01 ‘Blitzschutzsystem.5 Periodic inspection To safeguard the reliability performance of the protection system it is necessary that lightning protection experts or supervising authorities make periodic inspections.1.3.3. Guide for testing lightning protection systems’) describes the kind of tests.3 d Protective cabinet with connected cable shields and arresters 4.3 c Lightning current arresters for the information technology line (lightning protection zone OA → lightning protection zone 1) Figure 4. Leitfaden zur Prüfung von Blitzschutzsystemen’ (‘Lightning protection system. Berlin/ Offenbach. test turns. Leitfaden zur Prüfung von Blitzschutzsystemen’ (VDE Verlag. 1992) 4.1.6 Costs The requirement that information technology electronic systems must not be damaged by electromagnetic interference due to direct or close-up lightning strikes has led to a new quality and dimension of lightning . Jan.1. standards 101 Figure 4.Protective measures.

J. P. computing centres. power plants including solar and wind power plants. Sources HASSE.3. radar systems and main transmitters. In the case of newly-built largescale projects. P. control and instrumentation technical systems.: ‘A future- Figure 4.102 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems protection engineering. embodied in DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Part 103). Berlin/Offenbach.: ‘Requirements and tests for EMC-oriented lightning protection zones’. DEHN publication. Auflage. No. The correspondingly developed concept. München. the costs will increase by a factor of 10 and the effectiveness of protection reduces to 95–90%. and WIESINGER.5% max.. P. W. Also the costs of EMC-compliant lightning protection can be calculated from the many existing projects. and ZISCHANK. about 0. 4. J. and WIESINGER.1. pp. etz.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. it has also been proven as a universal organizing principle: for example. administration buildings. 1108–1115 HASSE.. P. VDE Verlag... 21. In subsequent installation and retrofitting.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag. J. 1993) HASSE. reprint from 1990. VDE Verlag. ZAHLMANN.. P.6 a) has turned out to be a very efficient management method in complex and manifold problems. telephone central offices. WIESINGER. lightning protection zones (Figure 4. J.. Berlin/Offenbach. München.6 a Concept of lightning protection zones . and WIESINGER. 1994) HASSE.1.3. to 1% of the gross building cost must be allocated to achieve an effectiveness of protection of about 99%.

Feb. 960–964. 1st VDE/ ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb. 20–23 HASSE. 1st VDE/ ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb. No. . pp. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. 1996. 1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb. J.: Gebäudeblitzschutz – Neue Europanorm. International Electrotechnical Commission.–3 March 1996.–1 March 1996.–1 March 1996. Genève. K. TAB. VDE/ABBBlitzschutztagung. Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. 1996. GmbH.. DIN VDE 0100 A detailed treatment of the surge protection of buildings is given in IEC/TC 64.-P. 6 DIN VDE 0185: ‘Blitzschutzanlage – Teil 1: Allgemeines für das Errichten – Teil 2: Errichten besonderer Anlagen’ (VDE Verlag. Part 1: General principles’. reprint from etz. Genève. GmbH.: ‘Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen – 1’.–1 March 1996. and RAAB. 12. 69–73 HASSE. 1982) IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. DEHN publication. Genève. Kassel) STEINBIGLER. 12.: ‘Verfahren und Komponenten des Gebäudeblitzschutzes. Corresponding international standards in IEC 60364 are provided in chapter 44 of the publication. P. standards 103 oriented principle for the coodination of arresters in low-voltage systems’. April 1995 DIN V ENV 61024-1(VDE V 0185 Teil 100): 1996-08: ‘Blitzschutz baulicher Anlagen.–1 March 1996. Aug. 1995. Berlin/Offenbach. Kassel) WETTINGFELD. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze.: ‘Blitzschutz-Management – Planung und Organisation.: ‘Blitz-Schutzzonen mit Schirmungen und Schnittstellen. 1996. P. Part 440 is the relevant chapter in the national standard series DIN VDE 0100.95 (DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103)? 1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’ (29 Feb. 1. pp. Sept. H. V. pp. pp. H. 11. (29 Feb.2 Surge protection for electrical systems of buildings. modifiziert)’ (VDE Verlag GmbH. 1996) DIN VDE 0185-103 (VDE 0185 Teil 103): 1997–09: ‘Schutz gegen elektromagnetischen Blitzimpuls (LEMP). 1995 IEC 61662: ‘Assessment of the risk of damage due to lightning’.: ‘Neue Blitzschutznormung’. Berlin/Offenbach. Identisch mit IEC 81(Sec)44’ (VDE Verlag. Kassel) WIESINGER.: ‘Was ist neu in ENV 61024-1/01. 1107–1112 MÜLLER. March 1990 IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. 1997) 4.Protective measures. Part 1: General principles’.95 (DIN VDE 0185 Teil 100)? 1st VDE/ABB-Blitzschutztagung “Blitzschutz für Gebäude und Elektrische Anlagen” ’. 1996. Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze (IEC 61024-1: 1990. Nov. Elektropraktiker. Kassel) KERN A. J. Berlin/ Offenbach.: ‘Was ist neu in IEC 1312-1/02. IEC 60364. Kassel) PUSCH.

2. environmental conditions AQ 1 to AQ 3 are defined upon which the application of surge arresters depends. 4. Part 4: Protection for safety. • • • . In connection with the preferred surge resistance level of the equipment. Classifications with regard to the effect of lightning are: AQ 3: direct effect of lightning (cross reference to IEC 61024-1) AQ 2: indirect effect of lightning.104 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Chapter 44 of the above document is divided as follows: Chapter 44 Protection in case of surges Section 441 General Section 442 Protection of low-voltage systems in case of earth faults in systems with higher voltage Section 443 Protection against surges due to atmospheric influences Section 444 Protection against electromagnetic interference in systems of buildings. and means at the same time a wider choice of surge regulation/protection methods. which reduces the risk of faults/failures to an acceptable level/limit and are a basis for a surge protection (regulation). Availability of equipment is differentiated according to the demands concerning continuity of operation and acceptable risk of faults. This procedure is in agreement with the principles of the insulation coordination in the Publication IEC 664 ‘Insulation coordination in lowvoltage systems and equipment’. danger from the supply system AQ 1: negligible effect of lightning. Section 443: Protection against overvoltages of atmospheric origin’/ DIN VDE 0100 Teil 443 ‘Errichten von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennspannungen bis 1000 V Schutzmassnahmen Schutz gegen Überspannung infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse’ contains the following statement: “These standard requirements are provided for describing measures which limit transient overvoltages. Also relevant from IEC 60364 (chapter 53) is the following section: Section 534 Selection and installation of surge protection facilities. they allow a suitable insulation coordination of the whole system to be achieved. damage and failures. “A higher reference number of the overvoltage category indicates a higher specific surge resistance of the equipment. “Overvoltage categories are intended for distinguishing different degrees of availability of the equipment. to an acceptable dimension.” In the above standard.1 IEC 60364-4-443/DIN VDE 0100 Part 443 The current document IEC 60364-4-443: 1995-04 ‘Publication 364: Electrical installations of buildings. Chapter 44: Protection against overvoltage. in order to reduce the risk of faults in the system and the connected equipment.

Anforderungen und Prüfungen (IEC 60664-1: 1992. requirements and tests’ became valid in 1992. III. Berlin/Offenbach. with nominal frequencies up to 30 kHz. Schutzmassnahmen.2 IEC 60664-1/DIN VDE 0110 Part 1 IEC 60664-1 ‘Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems. indicated by the producer for an equipment or a part of it. GmbH. or a rated direct voltage up to 1500 V. standards 105 Sources IEC 60364-4-443: ‘Electrical installation of buildings – Part 4: Protection for safety (chapter 44): Protection against overvoltages (Section 443): Protection against overvoltages of atmospheric origin or due to switching’. It is valid for equipment having a rated alternating voltage up to 1000 V. II. regarding its application and its surroundings. (Identisch mit IEC 64(CO)168’ (VDE Verlag. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. (c) Rated surge voltage: Value of a surge withstand voltage. April 1987 E DIN VDE 0100 Teil 443: 1987-04: ‘Errichten von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennspannungen bis 1000 V. Schutz gegen Überspannungen infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse. Insulation coordination can only . (e) State of limited overvoltage: State within an electric system where the expected transient overvoltages remain limited to a specified height. In this standard the principles of the ‘insulation coordination’ are specified as follows: Insulation coordination comprises the selection of the electrical insulation characteristics of a piece of equipment.Protective measures. Part 1: Principles. (b) Surge withstand voltage: Maximum value of the surge voltage of conventional shape and polarity which does not lead to puncture or sparkover of the insulation under specified conditions. In Germany DIN VDE 0110-1 (VDE 0110 Part 1) is valid: 1997-04 ‘Isolationskoordination für elektrische Betriebsmittel in Niederspannungsanlagen. Genève.2. April 1987) 4. (d) Overvoltage category: A numerical value that specifies a surge withstand voltage. Therein are defined the following: (a) Insulation coordination: Reciprocal classification of the insulation characteristics of electrical equipment. modified). indicating the specified withstand capability of the respective insulation with regard to periodic peak voltages. under consideration of the expected microenvironmental conditions and other important stresses.’ In this standard the insulation coordination for equipment in low-voltage systems is specified. and IV are used. Note: Overvoltage categories termed I. Teil 1: Grundsätze.

under consideration of the system parameters for the connection of which it is provided. This applies especially for overvoltages of atmospheric origin. of the keraunic level.106 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems be achieved if the rating of the equipment is based on the stress to which it will be exposed during its probable lifetime. With respect to ‘transient overvoltages’ it points out that insulation coordination regarding transient overvoltages is based on a state of limited overvoltages. as well as if the limitation is achieved due to an in-system limitation. or to a protective limitation. The overvoltage categories are a means of maintaining the operation of . such as low-voltage systems that are exposed to multiple and changing influences.from the system to equipment is bonded by • Transient overvoltages originating from the equipment. such technical committees must specify an overvoltage category according to the probable use of the equipment. those who are responsible for the standardization of different equipment) how the insulation coordination can be achieved. The state within an electrical system where. (This examination procedure is applied in IEC 60364-4-443 for power systems in buildings which are connected to low-voltage systems. To apply the principle of insulation coordination. Protective limitation. There are two kinds of limitation: within an electrical • In-system limitation. it can be system where. This examination requires knowledge of the electrical system data..e. two different kinds of transient overvoltages must be considered: originating • Transient overvoltages its terminals. The statethe system. due to the use of special overvoltage limiting means. Note 2: An examination concerning the probability as to whether an in-system limitation exists or whether a protective limitation will be necessary. which the This basic safety standard explains to ‘technical committees’ (i. For the purpose of sizing equipment in accordance with the insulation coordination. the height of the transient overvoltage etc. is recommended.) Note 3: The special overvoltage limiting means may contain components for storage or discharging of energy and are able to safely discharge the energy of the overvoltages expected at the place of installation. Note 1: Overvoltages in large and complex systems. can only be judged on a statistical basis. it can be assumed that the expected transient overvoltages will be limited to a specified height. due to the characteristics of assumed that • the expected transient overvoltages remain limited to a specified height.

having more than one rated voltage. may be suitable for different overvoltage categories. (Note that equipment with a special rated surge voltage. (E..) . in order to reduce the transient overvoltages to the respective value. either in the fixed installation or between the fixed installation and the device. Application of overvoltage categories is based on the surge protection requirements contained in IEC 60364-4-443. standards 107 devices in accordance with the necessary requirements. distribution cabinets. In connection with special values of the ‘surge withstand voltage’ for devices. and other devices. Outside the device measures • • • have been taken. the categories enable a suitable insulation coordination in the whole installation. as well as other devices. Overvoltage category II equipment is intended for connection to the fixed installation of a building. and differentiating between the degrees of availability with regard to a possible risk of failure. bus bars. socket outlets) in the fixed installation and devices for industrial use. circuit-breakers.2. portable tools and items of similar loading. such as stationary motors with permanent connection to the fixed installation. The principle of the overvoltage categories is applied for equipment that is directly supplied by the low voltage system.g.2 a according to the determined overvoltage category and the rated voltage of the equipment.) The rated surge voltage of the equipment is given in Table 4. (E. they are the basis for the limitation of overvoltages so that the risk of failure can be reduced to an acceptable value. devices include electricity meters. (Note: Atmospheric overvoltages mostly are not weakened in the course of the installation. devices include distribution boards.) Overvoltage category III equipment is part of the fixed installation. and that from the main distribution into the direction of the system. distributions (IEV 826-06-01.) Overvoltage category IV equipment is intended for use at or near the feed into the electrical installation of buildings. (E.) Examinations have shown that a probability oriented concept is suitable as described in the following: Determination of an overvoltage category for directly supplied system equipment must be realized on the basis of the following general description: • Overvoltage category I equipment is intended for connection to the fixed electrical installation of a building. including cables. switches.g..Protective measures. overcurrent circuit-breakers and ripplecontrol units. where a higher degree of availability is expected. A higher numerical value of the overvoltage category indicates a higher ‘surge withstand capability’ of the device and offers a wider choice of methods of surge limitation. devices include household appliances.g..

2. that is. switchgear) the rated surge voltage means that the equipment must not generate overvoltages exceeding this value. depending on the conditions of the circuit. It should be taken into account that every surge protective installation within the system or the equipment might have to discharge more energy than a surge protective installation at the connection point of the system. (Note that there is always a residual risk that overvoltages may be generated that exceed the value of the rated surge voltage. .108 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Rated impulse voltage for equipment (energized directly from the low-voltage mains) Table 4. if it is operated in accordance with the respective standard and the instructions of the producer.2 a For equipment that can generate overvoltages at the terminals of the equipment (e.g.. if the latter has a higher operating voltage. Suitable surge damping can be attained by using: • a surge protective installationwindings • a transformer with separatedmultitude of branches (which are able to system with a • a distributionenergy of surges) discharge the the energy of • a capacitance which is able to charge up towhich are ablesurges a resistance or similar damping elements to discharge • the energy of surges.) Equipment operating under the conditions of a higher overvoltage category is allowed provided that a suitable surge limitation is enforced.

the selection and the installation of protective equipment for the surge protection due to indirect atmospheric discharges and switching operations according to IEC 60364-4-443 (according to DIN VDE 0100-443 (VDE 0100 Part 443) ) and. The suggested main section 534 of ‘Einrichtungen zum Schutz bei Überspannungen’ treats. Thus. the accepted state of engineering is such that a complex lightning/surge protection system requires more than one type of arrester. the regulations for the selection and the installation of the .3. the selection and the installation of protective equipment due to lightning currents and surges in connection with direct lightning strikes and lightning strikes in the vicinity of buildings according to IEC 61024-1 and IEC 61312-1.2. The main reason for this refusal is the fact that the surge protection must not only consider switching operations and remote lightning strikes (IEC 61024/61312-1). A second standard draft. but also it must consider close-up or direct lightning interference (IEC 61024/61312-1). it is necessary to cater for in a single standard not only the selection and installation of arresters for lightning protection. is proposed for the development of the above-mentioned IEC paper.3 ‘Protection Measures’ on the grounds that its aim no longer meets the current technical state and is. prepared by the German UK 221. of no assistance in the erection of surge-protective installations. II and III) with different protection capacities are standardized in the relevant product standard DIN IEC SC 37A/44/CDV (VDE 0675 Part 6A1).3 IEC 60364-5-534 / DIN VDE 0100 Part 534 During the preparation of this book (starting in January 1997) both standard drafts: 64/867/CDV • E DIN IECof buildings – (VDE 0100 Part 534):1996-10 ‘Electrical installations Selection and Erection of electrical equip- • ment – Switchgear and controlgear – Devices for protection against overvoltages (IEC 64/867/CDV: 1996)’ E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Part 534/A 1):1996-10 ‘Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and Erection of electrical equipment – Switchgear and controlgear – Devices for protection against overvoltages – Amendment A1 (proposal for a European standard)’ were available. Thus. Today. but also surge protection.Protective measures. on the one hand. on the other hand. A multistage protective concept. three arrester types (classes I. includes not only surge protection but also protection against direct lightning strikes. The aforementioned IEC standard draft has now been refused by the German DKE subcommittee UK 221. therefore. standards 109 4. Taking this requirement into account. realized by means of these different types of arresters.

2) refers to this German draft. (VDE Verlag. München.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag.6. are not under discussion and so they will not be considered further. These standard drafts. 1996) DIN VDE 0110-1 (VDE 0110 Teil 1): Isolationskoordination für elektrische Betriebsmittel in Niederspannungsanlagen. Berlin/Offenbach. Teil 1: Grundsätze.. J. Anforderungen und Prüfungen (IEC 664–1: 1992.1. Oct. requirements and tests for the safety of facilities and apparatus’). 1993) E DIN IEC 64(Sec)675 ( VDE 0100 Teil 443/A3): ‘Errichten von Starkstromanlagen mit Nennspannungen bis 1000 V – Schutzmassnahmen. GmbH. DIN VDE 0845 DIN VDE 0800 Part 1: 1989-05 ‘Fernmeldetechnik – Allgemeine Begriffe. Berlin/Offenbach. 1993 IEC 60364-4-443: ‘Electrical installation of buildings – Part 4: Protection for safety (chapter 44): Protection against overvoltages (Section 443): Protection against overvoltages of atmospheric origin or due to switching’. GmbH. April 1997) 4. VDE Verlag. Oct. DIN VDE 0800. Schutz bei Überspannungen infolge atmosphärischer Einflüsse und von Schaltvorgängen’. Nevertheless. (VDE Verlag.8. GmbH. modifiziert) (VDE Verlag. Sources HASSE.110 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems protective equipment and their compatibility with the protective measures against electric shock applied in the system are presented in one principle section of the erection standard for low voltage systems. Anforderungen und Prüfungen für die Sicherheit der Anlagen und Geräte’ (‘Telecommunications – General concepts. Berlin/Offenbach. however. Berlin/Offenbach.3 Surge protection for telecommunications systems. Fourth edn. Oct 1996 E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Teil 534/A 1): Elektrische Anlagen von Gebäuden – Auswahl und Errichtung von Betriebsmitteln – Schaltgeräte und Steuergeräte – Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen – Änderung A1 (Vorschlag für eine Europäische Norm). April 1995 E DIN IEC 64/867/CDV (VDE 0100 Teil 534): ‘Elektrische Anlagen von Gebäuden – Auswahl und Errichtung elektrischer Betriebsmittel – Schaltgeräte und Steuergeräte – Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen. and WIESINGER. The scope of application of this VDE regulation refers to the safety of the facilities and apparatus of telecommunication engineering (in the following: telecommunication systems and telecommunication devices) with regard to the prevention from danger to life or health (of people and animals) and . the description of the different application possibilities of arresters in the power technical system (given in chapter 5. P.

additional steel structures should be put in place. as both of its ends are connected to a reference potential. in parallel with equipotential bonding conductors between points of different potential.. The continuous connection of the building reinforcement is (even in the case of buildings made out of prefabricated parts) only possible during the erection of the building. Equalizing currents in the reinforcement. or contact resistances are submitted to fluctuations. if the components of the reinforcement are continuously connected. an inadmissible coupling with telecommunication circuits occurs. standards 111 things. can lead to interference in the telecommunication system if. welding is not possible. measures should be taken to include the steel construction and the reinforcement into the earthing system. which must be welded to each other and lashed to the reinforcement. DIN VDE 0800 Part 2: 1985-07 ‘Erdung und Potentialausgleich in der Fernmeldetechnik’. If there are particularly high demands on the earthing system of a building regarding the function. Equipotential bonding by steel constructions and reinforcement must therefore already be taken into consideration at the planning stage of the foundations and the building construction. (‘Telecommunications. The continuous connection of the reinforcement. statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen – Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’.) The following is quoted regarding the treatment of ‘line shields’ (i.e. . This standard is also applicable for the safety of information or data processing systems for which no other standards are valid. The scope of application is quoted as follows: dangerous or interfering • This standard is valid for measures against surges are caused by elecsurges in telecommunication systems. For this purpose the reinforcement shall be connected with the earth bus bar. • DIN VDE 0845 Part 1: 1987-10 ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. a shield out of conductive material which accompanies the lines in a certain geometric form) and the integration of steel constructions or reinforcements: version as an electromagnetic screen IEC • In the Part 151: 1983-12. can be realized by welding or careful lashing. These tromagnetic interference or by lightning effects or static charges. in order to avoid potential differences between different points of the building and thereby cause equalizing currents. earthing and equipotential bonding’. Integration of steel constructions and reinforcements into the earthing system. for example. If. owing to the statics. section 151-01-16) (according to DIN con60050 the line shield can tribute to equipotential bonding.Protective measures. because of excessive impedance.

112 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Thereby also the devices and transmission lines belonging to the telecommunication system are taken into consideration. statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. March 1996) 4. Erdung und Potentialausgleich’ (VDE Verlag. For external lightning protection (the interception and downconduction of lightning currents) DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 is applicable. A tabulated list for EMC is given in Figure 4. J.4 Electromagnetic compatibility including protection against electromagnetic impulses and lightning.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (Pflaum Verlag. GmbH. München. National (DIN VDE) standards and drafts with testing authorization are also available.5 Standards for components and protective devices International (IEC) as well as regional (Cenelec) standardizing work on components for lightning protection systems and surge protective devices has now progressed. GmbH. and for aerial systems DIN VDE 0855 Parts 1 and 2. Berlin/Offenbach. These standards shall be considered in the following only as far as it is necessary for the understanding of the mode of function and the possibilities of using these components and protective gear. Source VG 95 372: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit (EMV) einschliesslich Schutz gegen den Elektromagnetischen Impuls (EMP) und Blitz – Übersicht’. Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’ (VDE Verlag. Berlin/Offenbach. 1987) 4. Anforderungen und Prüfungen für die Sicherheit der Anlagen und Geräte’ (VDE Verlag.4 a. Allgemeine Begriffe. Fourth edn. and WIESINGER. Berlin/Offenbach. Berlin/ Offenbach.. VG 95 372 The standard VG 95 372: 1996–03 gives a survey of the VG standards for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) including protection against electromagnetic impulses (EMP) and lightning. GmbH. 1993) DIN VDE 0800 Teil 1: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. GmbH. VDE Verlag. . May 1989) DIN VDE 0800 Teil 2: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. (Beuth Verlag. Oct. Sources HASSE. Berlin. July 1985) DIN VDE 0845 Teil 1: ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. P.

This later IEC standard was valid in February 1998 as IEC 61643-1 ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage distribution systems. 4.5. In addition to conditioning/ageing considerations (simulation of corrosion stress arising in practice) the standard also includes a test by lightning currents (10/350 μs). deformation or loose parts as well as requirements for the release torque of the screwed connection parts.5. connectors) the standard draft E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Part 201) ‘Lightning protection components. for example. standards 113 4. The standard draft E DIN EN 50164-1 is currently under revision by the European Standardizing Committee (Cenelec).Protective measures. the connection components are classified as H and L and tested accordingly: H (high loading) L (normal loading) test current 100 kA (10/350 μs) test current 50 kA (10/350 μs) Criteria for the passing of the lightning current tests are. 4. This specifies the requirements and tests for lightning current conductive connection components.86. a sufficiently low contact resistance.1 Connection components. Part 1: Requirements for connection components’ has been available since May 1997.2 Arresters for lightning currents and surges A difference is made between lightning current arresters (tested by surge currents of wave shape 10/350 μs) and surge arresters (tested by surge currents of wave shape 8/20 μs). which is as follows: Corresponding to their classification indicated by the producer. no perceptible damage. IEC 61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 The German standard draft E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 ‘Surge arresters for use in AC supply systems with nominal voltages ranging from 100 V to 1000 V’ has been available since 1989.1 Arresters for power engineering.5. Part 1: Performance . E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Part 201) For lightning protection components (terminals. Also in October 1996 DIN IEC 37A/ 44/CDV (VDE 0675 Part 601) ‘Surge protective devices for low-voltage distribution systems. Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods (IEC 37A/44/CDV: 1996)’ was introduced. In March 1996 E DIN VDE 0675-6 A1 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A1) ‘Amendment A1 to the draft DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Part 6)’ with testing authorization was published and in October 1996 E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A2) ‘Amendment A2 to the draft DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Part 6)’.2. This standard will eventually replace the national DIN-regulation DIN 48 810/8.

The yellow printed E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 is based on the draft DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/1989-11.114 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems requirements and testing methods’.2.5. The activities of the IEC SC 37A committee which is competent for the international standardization of arresters are shown in Figure 4. These arresters are subdivided into four requirement classes: .1 a. The categories and classifications of the arrester types have been mostly retained.

in the distribution area. Arresters which are installedtouched.5. especially in the socket outlet area or before terminals. Class D.1 b).4 a Survey of the VG-standards for EMC including protection against EMP and lightning in low • ClassatA.2.2. for example. For testing this arrester group.1 b). Arresters installed for the purpose of lightning protection equipotential bonding and controlling direct lightning strikes.1 b). Arresters installed for the purpose of surge protection in the fixed or mobile installation.Protective measures. Arresters installed for the purpose of surge protection in the fixed installation. These arresters are tested by a simulated lightning test current Iimp of wave shape 10/350 μs (Figure 4. standards 115 Figure 4. Class C.voltage overhead lines and places where they cannot be Testing is made with • • • surge currents of wave shape 8/20 μs (Figure 4. Class B.5.2. These arresters are tested by the nominal discharge surge current isn of wave shape 8/20 μs (Figure 4.5. a hybrid generator .

used for testing.1 b Comparison of test currents for surge protective devices (SPDs) (with an apparent interior resistance 2 Ω) generating an open-circuit surge voltage 1.2.2/50 μs and a short-circuit surge current 8/20 μs is used.5. The open-circuit voltage Uoc of the hybrid generator. is indicated as a parameter for these arresters.5.116 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4. which will be briefly explained in the following as far as it is relevant for the user: .1 a Standardization in IEC SC 37A ‘Low-voltage surge protective devices’ Figure 4.2. The tests/amendments in Part A1 concern above all the electrical requirements and test procedures.

a source of voltage corresponding to its follow current is chosen (Table 4. The protection level. Now that the interior structure of the arrester is known.Protective measures. discharge capacity Here the performance of the arresters regarding their discharge and follow-current quenching capacity is tested (see Figure 4. The difference is generated to obtain a practice-like simulation of possible causes of fault: • Arresters based on varistors. C surge currents up to Imax (maximum discharge surge current 8/20 μs) B surge currents up to Iimp (lightning test current 10/350 μs) D combined surge up to Uoc/2 Ω (d) Disconnecting device for arresters and thermal stability of arresters On testing the disconnecting device and the thermal stability of arresters. and wave shape (10/350 μs). the leakage current will increase due to repeated surge . according to its class. in steps up to the maximum value.2. (c) Conditioning and operating duty test.5. the arrester will be submitted to five surge currents. The lightning test current Iimp of the wave shape 10/350 μs conforms most closely with the first surge current of natural lightning discharges and is used worldwide for lightning simulation. standards 117 (a) Lightning test current (Iimp) for class B arresters The lightning test current Iimp (10/350 μs) replaces the former lightning test current of wave shape 8/80 μs (Figure 4.5.1 a) and conditioned in accordance with its requirement class: A.5. (b) Determination of the measured limiting voltage: Protection level Up The testing procedure to determine the measured limiting voltage is subdivided according to the type and class of the arrester.1 c). must not be exceeded by the measured limiting voltage.2/50 μs /8/20 μs with Uoc/2 Ω On testing the operating duty. The measured limiting voltage is the highest value from differently carried out tests. a difference is generated. Iimp is determined by the following parameters: peak value (Ipeak). specific energy (W/R). B and C ⇒ 15 surge currents 8/20 μs with isn D ⇒ 15 combined surges 1.2. whereby its thermal stability will be controlled: • • • A.2. It is assumed that. which has been determined with reference to the insulation coordination. over the course of years. whether a spark gap covered arrester or an arrester based on a varistor is concerned. For the wave shape the value 10 indicates a front rise time of 10 μs and 350 μs the time to the half-value in a wave tail of 350 μs of the lightning wave.1 b). charge (Q).

The maximum . On testing.2. The disconnecting device must separate the arrester from the system before the enclosure becomes too hot which might present a fire hazard. Arresters with spark gaps or spark gaps in series. Here the assumed fault is that there are too frequent and too high discharge currents or too many follow-current quenching processes. This ‘thermal drift’ is simulated in the disconnection test. this fault will be simulated by shortcircuiting spark gaps with a copper conductor.5.1 c Flow diagram ‘operating duty test’ • current loadings. This leads to a heating or increased power loss in the arrester.118 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 4.The electrodes of the integrated spark gaps are welding and a short circuit is generated.

This parameter characterizes the ability of an arrester to limit interference to a non-dangerous voltage value Up.1 a Power frequency source of voltage for arrester conditioning: uc: continuous operating voltage of an arrester/rated voltage.Protective measures. Genève. Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. 1998 4.5.1. IF: follow-current of the arrester. Feb. standards 119 backup fuse certified by the producer must disconnect the arrester from the system before there is noticeable damage at the arrester or fire hazard due to the arrester.2. Ip uninfluenced short-circuit current Sources IEC 61643-1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems. Protection level Up. Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods’. .5.1 Important data for arrester selection U indicates the maximum operating • Rated voltage Uis. The required protection level of the arrester depends on the place of installation (overvoltage category) and/or on the electric strength of the device to be protected.2. Table 4. The valueand at which the certified performance voltage the arrester rated for data c c • are met.

1. This parameter theof decisive importance if the arrester must be selected according to arising hazards (direct lightning strike.5.2 a Application possibilities of arresters in the IEC-overvoltage categories .2. Uoc ⇒ Class D Breaking capability I This • importantcapacity/follow-current quenching indicates the . C Combined surge.1. These data are always of importance.5.5. This value characterizes the real performance of the arrester and indicates the lightning test currents/surge currents/combined surges that can safely be discharged without disturbing its function considerably. Figure 4.2. remote strike.2 a and Table 4. This indication is also reflected in the arrester classification: Lightning test currents. 4. This is particularly so if the arrester is overloaded or wrongly conceived.2.120 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems is • Discharge capability.2.1. isn or Imax ⇒ Class A. or aged due to a large number of discharges.limit atitem is for spark-gap based arresters.5.2 a show the coordination of the arresters: Figure 4. Iimp ⇒ Class B Surge currents.1. induced surges). It which F • the system follow-current will be quenched automatically by the arrester. Disconnecting device/back-up fuse. Arresters designed according to E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 are proving able to turn into a safe fault state in the case of an overload/defect on testing of the disconnecting device and thermal stability.2 Coordination of the arresters according to requirements and locations.

Class D arresters. standards 121 Table 4. These will be installed between the neutral conductor (N) and the protective conductor (PE).2.1.2. socket outlets) are in the range 2. The typical location of these surge arresters is in the subdistribution.1. The location ofhigh lightning current of the house supply where • • lightning partial currents may arise.5.2 a Selection help and assignment of arresters (lightning current the • Class B arrestersarresters is the area arresters). Amendment A2 for the draft DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Part 6)’ N–PE arresters are standardized.3 N–PE arrester E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2.Protective measures. Class C arresters. a ‘3 + 1-circuit’ is used. These arresters are located either between the distributor and the terminal or at socket outlets. 4.2).1. this will be limited to a low value. In E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Part 6/A2): 1996–10 ‘Surge arresters.6. class B and C arresters are usually installed (in energy flow direction) before a fault current circuit-breaker (also see chapter 5. Part 6: Application in AC supply systems with nominal voltages ranging from 100 to 1 000 V.5. the concern is for the voltage liable to cause danger Uoc. What is the task of such N–PE arresters? For reasons of personal protection. The three outer . Typical values of dangerous voltages (arising at the terminal inputs. This is where the residual voltages of the lightning current arresters and surge currents (8/20 μs) in the kA range must be safely controlled. rather than proceeding from an impressed surge current.5–4 kV.8. To safeguard the disconnection of a faulty arrester by the back-up fuse in the TT-system. With regard to the requirement for class D.

L2 and L3 . If the arresters were installed between L and PE.3 a are valid. N–PE arresters must be able to conduct the sum of the interference currents of L1. In the case of a defective (short-circuited) arrester (at the outer conductor). For N–PE arresters the requirements listed in Table 4. Between the neutral conductor N and the protective conductor PE.8.5. IEC SC 37A / E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 Since October 1993.122 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems conductors L1. 4.5. L2 and L3 are connected to arresters and then with the neutral conductor N. the N–PE arrester is installed.2.6.2).3 a N–PE arrester. (‘Protection of Data Processing and Telecommunication Equipment Against Lightning Discharge. Voltages and currents in accordance with E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2 .1. towards N.1.2 Arresters for information technology.und Telekommunikations-technik gegen Blitzentladung. Electrostatic Discharge and Surges from Power Plants’) has been available. In this standard draft a difference is made between the following surge protective devices: Table 4.1.2. the German standard draft DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs.2.5. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen’.2. the current flowing in a TT-system over the defective arrester between L and PE would not be sufficient to trip the system fuse (further details in chapter 5. a shortcircuit current is generated between the concerned outer conductor L and the neutral conductor N which can be disconnected by the backup system fuse in the time provided.

the requirements concerning tests of arresters for information technology and arresters for power technology will be ensured and coordinated with regard to their classes of requirement and the conditions of application.1 a): of the • The specificationsdevices) components (Components for low-voltage surge protection are just being worked out by committee SC 37 B. This is entitled: worked out by the being IEC 61644-1: Surge protection devices connected to telecommunication and signalling networks. components and protectors are treated in separate standard drafts (Figure 4. including reduction transformers. There are plans to work out a second part. that type 1 surge limiters are provided for use against transient overvoltages (for example. For surge limiters.gas discharge tube). As this list shows. The user-relevant electrical requirements and tests for surge limiters are briefly explained later. . (ii) creeping discharge spark (iii) disconnecting • • • spark gaps. The yellow printed E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 specifies requirements and tests made for surge protection devices to be used in installations of data processing and telecommunication technology. (or • gaps. caused by lightning). and that type 2 surge limiters are provided for locations where additional AC interference lasting up to 0.5 s must be taken into account.5. the standard draft identifies a difference between type 1 and type 2: namely. standards 123 arresters. As the standardizing work is developed by committee SC 37 A. including: (i) surgearresters/airgas-filledgaps.Protective measures. describing the selection and the application of surge protectors.2. At present there are four drafts: Draft IEC 61647-1: Specifications for gas discharge tubes (GDT) Draft IEC 61647-2: Specifications for avalanche breakdown diodes (ABD) Draft IEC 61647-3: Specifications for metal oxide varistors (MOV) Draft IEC 61647-4: Specifications for thyristor surge suppressors (TSS). In the international standardization (IEC). the standard draft DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 covers components as well as surge protectors (surge limiters). and (iv) quenching spark gaps semiconductor protective elements and varistors surge limiters protecting and isolating transformers. for surge protection devices are currently • The specifications committee SC 37 A / WG4.

The value Uc indicates the maximum operating voltage for which the arrester is rated. vs = 1. Protection level U . For use in digital transmission systems a special data transmission speed vs is required instead of an operating frequency range. The nominal current is the maximum admissible operating current that may be carried over a current path of an arrester.1 Important data for arrester selection of an arrester • Nominal voltage U . Rated voltage Uc. for example. p characterizes the maximum voltage that can arise at the terminals of the arrester for the specified loadings. the operating frequency range is described by the cut-off frequency fG. In the present state of engineering there are also arresters for information technology equipment which are lightning current conductive (see chapter 5. In telecommunication engineering Vs = 2fG.2. The nominal voltageto the nominal serves for type characterization and is usually identical voltage of the N • • • system where the arrester will be used. The possible data transmission speed for an arrester is associated with the transmission procedure used in the system. When selecting an arrester it must be borne in mind that this value is below the destruction limit of the subsequent device.2. GmbH.1a).2.8. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. . Further selection criteria are described in chapter 5. Oct. and where its specified performance data are met.2).25 × fG. In the operating frequency range the arrester shows an insertion loss of 3 dB or less.124 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Source Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. 0845 Part 2 this • value is also calledIn the standard draft E DIN VDE This parameter the ‘maximum residual voltage’. This value is a support for the user in selecting an arrester for the maximum operating data of a system or equipment. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrichtungen’.5. (VDE Verlag. 1993) 4. Berlin/Offenbach. or practically. Here the same criteria • Current carrying capacity/dischargeengineering (see section 4.8. As the arresters usually have a low pass characteristic. Nominal current IN. Operating frequency range.5. capability. This procedure determines the necessary cut-off frequency in a system with a low pass characteristic. are valid as for arresters for power The standard draft E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2 does not state any requirements for lightning current arresters (lightning test currents Iimp).2.

3. consideration is given to the graded use of arresters.2. GmbH. A practicable coordination of the arresters into classes of requirements and locations is described in chapter 5.5. Auswahlhilfe für den Praktiker.2 Arrester coordination according to requirements and locations A detailed coordination of the arresters for information technology equipment according to the requirements and locations is not given in the standard draft E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2. 1993) 4. Oct. and ZÄUNER. the user or the project organizer must ensure the coordination of the arresters with regard to the devices to be protected.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’ (Verlag TÜV Rheinland.5.1. Only a subdivision into loading classes according to their current carrying capacity has been made. 1996.8.6. de. P.3 Arrester coordination Now that classes of requirements and locations of the lightning current and surge arresters are known. Berlin/Offenbach. In chapter 5. the principle of energetic coordination will also be explained. Neue VDE-Bestimmung.. Berlin/Offenbach. pp. 1993) . GmbH.2. This is the only way to achieve optimally harmonized protection for systems and devices. E.Protective measures. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag. aktualisierte Auflage.2. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. Nov.1. Köln. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag. P. 15 and 16. Sources HASSE. Source Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: 1993-10: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. Berlin/Offenbach) 4.8.: ‘Ableiter für Blitzströme und Überspannungen’. standards 125 Source Entwurf DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. 1993) E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V’ (VDE Verlag. 1397–1400 HASSE. H. GmbH.2. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen.

May 1997) E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A1): ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wechselspannungsnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V. GmbH. Oct. Berlin/Offenbach.1996) E DIN IEC 37A/44/CDV (VDE 0675 Teil 601): ‘Überspannungsschutzgeräte für den Einsatz in Niederspannungs-Verteilungsnetzen.126 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems E DIN EN 50164-1 (VDE 0185 Teil 201): ‘Blitzschutzbauteile. GmbH. GmbH. GmbH. Berlin/Offenbach. Änderung A1 zum Entwurf DIN VDE 0675–6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6)’ (VDE Verlag. 1996) E DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2 (VDE 0845 Teil 2) ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. Teil 1: Anforderungen für Verbindungsbauteile. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungsschutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag. GmbH. Teil 6: Verwendung in Wechselspannungsnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V. Oct. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. Teil 1: Anforderungen an ihr Betriebsverhalten und Prüfmethoden (IEC 37A/44/CDV: 1996)’ (VDE Verlag. Berlin/Offenbach. Änderung A2 zum Entwurf DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6)’ (VDE Verlag. 1993) . Berlin/Offenbach. Oct. Deutsche Fassung prEN 50164-1’ (VDE Verlag. March 1996) E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A2): ‘Überspannungsableiter. Berlin/Offenbach.

electrical installations on flat • • • • • • lightning strikes and thus assessing the lightning protection zone 0B.1 Air terminations Air terminations are fixed points for likely lightning strikes used to avoid uncontrolled strikes and to prevent the volume to be protected from . Power and telecommunication lines. installed at the interface of lightning protection zones 0A and 1. are protected at the interfaces of the lightning protection zones by lightning current arresters. effect and application In this chapter components and protective devices used for surge control and/or the realization of the EMC-oriented lightning protection zone concept will be introduced with particular regard to construction. Shields for lines within lightning protection zone 1 and higher. Optoelectronic bondings. if they have their own (local) protection zones. Materials and components serving for the erection of building and room shields for lightning protection zone 1 and higher.Chapter 5 Components and protective devices: construction. 5. for example. mode of functioning and fields of application. Protective gear is also to be installed. in particu• Air the protection ofthe erection of air-termination roofs against direct lar. for example. Components for equipotential bonding systems. Materials and components by means of which it is possible to realize the shielding of power and telecommunication lines connecting neighbouring buildings. Protective devices to discharge lightning currents and to limit overvoltages. These include: terminations for systems. directly at the inputs of systems and devices.

1 a and b show examples of roof superstructures in lightning protection zone 0B. air terminations form a system of protection for structures on the roof (such as ventilators and air-conditioning systems). b and c).1.1 a Roof-ventilation cowl protected by an air-termination rod . As an alternative an isolated air termination is the best solution.1. The latter may be laid as a meshed network.3.1.3.1. The location of air terminations is usually defined by the ‘rolling sphere’ method (Figures 4.1.1.2 b and d). The distance between air terminations and structures on the roof must at least comform to the calculated safety distance. This air-termination system is spatially separated from lightning protection zone 1. Finally.1. This means that a certain radius of rolling sphere will be assigned to every protection level in accordance with DIN ENV 61024-1 (Table 4. For larger roof structures protection by means of air termination rods is not often possible as the rods would be too high and thus there is danger of leaning. so that there is a lightning protection zone 0B between the air-termination system and lightning protection zone 1 (Figures 4. On flat roofs ‘partly isolated’ lightning protection systems are usually installed as described in chapter 4. Figure 5. Figures 5.3.b). Air terminations comprise air-termination rods and airtermination wires.2 f a. Air-termination networks must form a protective volume including all structures on the roof. For smaller roof structures this protection can be achieved by individual or a combination of several air termination rods.128 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems direct strikes.

May 1998 5. DIN VDE 0185 Parts 1 and 103. metal supporting constructions.1.g. effect and application 129 Figure 5.1. The achievable shield attenuation or shielding factors of steel reinforcements are shown in Figure 5.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum Verlag. Berlin/Offenbach. in principle. it is not possible to weld or clamp every nodal point for large structures.2 b for the especially interesting frequency range of lightning interference from . steel reinforcements in concrete.3 a) by their meshed interconnection (according to DIN VDE 0800 Part 2. München.2 Building and room shields Extended metal components (e. 1994) DEHN u..1 b Structures of air-conditioning systems protected by a mesh network Sources HASSE. lattices. Neumarkt). In practice. Figure 5.1. VDE Verlag.Components and protective devices: construction. metal roofs and facades. DIN VDE 0845 Part 1) are especially important for shielding magnetic fields and for the creation of lightning protection zones. piping) which form an effective electromagnetic shield (see chapter 4. expanded metals in walls. Figure 4. J.. P.3.2 a shows how. however.3. SÖHNE Druckschrift: DS 626/0598 ‘Isolierte Blitz-Fangeinrichtungen’ (Dehne + SÖHNE. and WIESINGER. a steel reinforcement and the metal window and door frames can form an electromagnetic cage (hole screen).

For estimation of the magnetic field strength at any point inside a lightning current-carrying cage structure.2 b Shielding effect of the reinforcement steel 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The damping indicated in this Figure is applicable for the case when a plain magnetic field influences the shield out of steel reinforcement.130 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.2 a Room shield by means of steel reinforcement Figure 5. an approximation .

or flat 30 mm × 3. the facade steel sheets. are provided. Thus. fixed earthing terminals. expanded metal (in walls and ceilings) and lattices.. To such fixed earthing terminals or projecting bonding conductors (Figure 5. For bridging expansion joints or bonding the reinforcement of prefabricated concrete parts. shown in Figures 5. being interconnected. or shields Figure 5. hot-galvanized steel conductors (round 10 mm dia.2 h and i.2 c).g.2 j) the ‘earth bus ’ or ‘earth ring bus’ (ring equipotential bonding bars) are connected (Figure 5. concrete steel mats Q 377) in concrete are interconnected for shielding purposes by means of suitable clamps (Figures 5. control (shortly before filling in the concrete) is easier. Metal facades (Figures 5. Smaller shields for lightning protection zones 2 and higher.2 c Magnetic field strength as function of the wall distance and the mesh size of a grid structure . Some of the above-mentioned shielding measures can also be applied to the establishment of room shields (lightning protection zone 2 and higher). Figure 5.2 k).2 e).2 n). walls and ceilings). The magnetic field strength depends mainly on the mesh size of the shield and on the distance from the shield (Figure 5.2 f and g). In particular this concerns the use of steel reinforcements (in floors.2 l and m) are also used for shielding purposes. effect and application 131 formula is indicated in the draft of IEC 61312-2. Often.2 d shows how structural steel mats (e. are to be bonded to the metal subconstruction and to the reinforcement (Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.5 mm) are used for bonding the reinforcements (Figures 5.

2 d Figure 5.132 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. b) Building shield out of interconnected structural steel mats and reinforcing rods .2 d (a) Figure 5.2 d (b) (a.

2 e (d) (a–d) Bonding of (overlapping) structural steel mats and reinforcing rods Figure 5. effect and application 133 Figure 5.2 e Figure 5.2 f Floor reinforcement bonded with support reinforcement by wires and clamps .2 e (a) Figure 5.2 e (b) Figure 5.2 e (c) Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.

2 h (a) Figure 5.2 g (d) (a–d) Clamps for the connection of bonding wires with the reinforcement Figure 5.134 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.2 h (b) (a and b) Fixed earthing terminal with connection to the reinforcement .2 g (a) Figure 5.2 g (c) Figure 5.2 g Figure 5.2 h Figure 5.2 g (b) Figure 5.

2 k ‘Earth bus’ (according to DIN VDE 0800 Part 2) .Components and protective devices: construction.2 j Brought out bonding wire of the reinforcing mats for connection to a ring equipotential bonding bar Figure 5.2 i Fixed earthing terminals for bridging the expansion joints Figure 5. effect and application 135 Figure 5.

Neuhaus) Figure 5.2 l Metal façade of an office building Figure 5.2 m Metal subconstruction for metal façade (Source: H.136 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.2 n Down conductor system with connection to the air-termination system and to the earthing system with effective electromagnetic shielding .

sheet steel enclosures) of telecommunication systems and devices (Figures 5. are usually formed by the enclosures (sheet steel cabinets. VDE Verlag. and WIESINGER.2 p Connection of the baseframes for the electronic cabinets to the reinforcement of the building Sources HASSE. effect and application 137 of local lightning protection zones. J.2 o Structure of an electronic cabinet Figure 5. sheet steel covered racks.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum Verlag. P. Berlin/Offenbach. 1994) .Components and protective devices: construction. Figure 5.. München.2 o and p).

1.B. connected on both sides at the building input (Figures 5.1.6 (Figure 4.P. Baustahlgewebematten. 1997) 5. K.3.6 a) it was shown how two spatially separated lightning protection zones can be changed into a single lightning protection zone by means of a line shield. zur Dämpfung des elektromagnetischen Feldes’.3 Shields for lines between screened buildings In chapter 4. z.138 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems MÜLLER. The shields used will be introduced here as follows: are • Shielding of cables in metal conduits or closed trays awhichb).3 and of buried cables with conductive connected at • Usebuilding input (Figures 5. Berlin/Offenbach.3 c and shield which will beagainst direct the d). VDE-Fachbericht 52: Neue Blitzschutznormen in der Praxis (VDE Verlag Gmbh. For protection lightning strikes it may be useful to incorporate superimposed earth ropes.1.1.3 a Shielding of cables in metal conduits or closed trays . Figure 5.3.: ‘Wirksamkeit von Gitterschirmen.

effect and application 139 Figure 5. core pair screen and pairing .3 d Cable with external ‘lightning protection’ screen.Components and protective devices: construction.3 b Steel conduits and metal pull boxes form a closed line screen Figure 5.3 c Shielding of underground cable routes by conductive screens and surface laid copper-ropes Figure 5.

between two buildings) is and f).3 e ventional cables (e.3 f Figure 5.3 e Screening of underground cable routes by cages Figure 5. b) Practical execution of a cable duct with continuously interconnected reinforcement steel . Similarly. This cable duct reinforcement must be bonded to the building reinforcement.140 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems multitude of con• Erection of cage-shaped reinforced cable ducts. Expansion joints in continuously reinforced cable ducts must be bridged analogously to the building expansion joints.g. duct Figure 5. if alaid (Figures 5.3 f (a) (a..3 f (b) Figure 5.

. it must be ensured that the maximum admissible voltage loadings on the cables laid or on the connected equipment will not be exceeded. shielded cables should be used (Figure 5. cable supporting structures. A. Nürnberg. cable trays or other electrically conductive parts which are connected to the equipotential bonding system at least at both ends. Berlin/Offenbach. Nov. 1994) KERN. effect and application 141 connectors underneath or between adjacent buildings must be bridged. In principle. there may still arise voltage gradients from some 10 V to over 100 V per metre length of the cable duct. with regard to cable ducts. 1995) 5. depending on the assumed partial lightning current on the cable duct and on the cross section of the cable duct and. Even so. P. Söhne.4 Shields for cables in buildings Cables shall be run near the equipotential bonding lines. Forum für Sachverständige (Dehn u. VDE Verlag. This applies for electronic or data cables as well as for higher voltage levels.4 a Connection of cable screens to a local equipotential bonding bar .Components and protective devices: construction. Pair-twisted signal Figure 5. 2.: ‘Blitz-Störschutz als Massnahme der EMV am Beispiel einer ausgedehnten Industrieanlage. on the number of longitudinal reinforcement rods.4 a). Sources HASSE. München. thus. J. Also. reinforced walls. and WIESINGER. These are parts of the steel construction.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum Verlag.

Different separations are needed depending on the cable parallel running length. power and signalling cables must be consequently separated. The limitation of the incoupled series voltage determines the protection measures.142 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems cables are to be preferred.4 c Line screen out of continuous metal cable racks and metal coverings with pipe bends removed (Source: H. Thus: Figure 5. To lessen surges by overcoupling. For related lines of one signalling circuit a twisted pair each is to be used. if possible by using cable supporting structures which are included in the equipotential bonding (Figures 5.4 b Cable support constructions Figure 5.4 b and c). Neuhaus) . so that the incoupled transverse voltage on cable runs must be neglected.

5 Optoelectronic connections In systems of great transmission bandwidth and extra sensitive electronic components. 20 5. München. VDE Verlag. 1995) BROCKE. FRENTZEL. R. P. Before detailing the application possibilities and limitations of optoelectronic components from the viewpoint of surge protection. Nov. consisting of shielded sleevings (yard goods) provided with a closing system in the longitudinal direction. (Dehn u. R. A. Söhne.: ‘Schirmung von Kabeltrassen gegen Blitzeinkopplungen. Figure 5. effect and application for l < 5 m for 5 m < l < 20 m for l > 20 m distance at random distance > 10 cm distance > 20 cm. apart from the specific use of surge protection devices.Components and protective devices: construction. and ZAHLMANN. J.4 d Figure 5. For this purpose a retrofit set is shown in Figures 5. Berlin/Offenbach. these components and devices will be introduced separately as follows..4 d (a) Figure 5.4 d (b) EMC-retrofit assembly for cable screening: (a) Components of screening tube (yard goods) bonding set and terminal clamps (b) Two samples bonded .: ‘Blitz-Störschutz als Massnahme der EMV am Beispiel einer ausgedehnten Industrieanlage’ 2. Tests for this set have demonstrated a shield damping of about 50 dB.4 d (a and b).. No. and WIESINGER. circuit parts or component conductor systems will be opened by the insertion of optoelectronic coupling gaps (Figure 5. P. Sources HASSE..: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag.5 a). Forum für Sachverständige. 1994) KERN. Nürnberg. 143 Also in existing systems it may become necessary to shield the cable routes (subsequently).’ etz 1996.

Lightemitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes are used in the transmitters.5 a Subdivision into component conductor systems 5. Optical fibre transmission systems have the following advantages over traditional conductor systems: there is no crosstalk between two lines. However. then optocouplers are used. it must be taken into account that optical fibre cables often have a metal sheath for damage protection which can be heated by lightning to such a degree that the cable will be damaged. The optical fibre conductors are usually made of glass fibre although plastic fibres are sometimes used. Photodiodes. If.5. photothyristors or other photoelectronic devices are used in the receivers. they have high transmission capacities in a system of low mass. Figure 5.5. optimal electrical insulation between transmitter and receiver. and they are very space-efficient in the installation. A single complete conductor can comprise between 10 and 100 fibres.1 a shows the principle of an optoelectronic system for data transmission over long distances. a potential separation of elements of an electronic system is required. optical fibre and receiver. however. phototransistors. . The components introduced so far are used for the construction of optical fibre systems for data transmission over long distances.144 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. Individual fibres have diameters ranging between 100 and 150 μm. and insensitivity to incouplings.1 Optical fibre transmission system An optoelectronic connection consists of a transmitter. The transmitter converts an electrical signal into an optical signal which is then transmitted to a receiver by an optical fibre. If the optical fibre is of pure glass. The optical signal is then converted back to an electrical signal in the receiver. there are further advantages with regard to surge protection: namely.

Semiconductor components with known surge sensitivity are connected between the terminals of the optocoupler.5.2 a). namely the diode and the phototransistor. Beitrag R-5. They cannot. N. 1981. therefore. There is. can be thermally destroyed by low.5.5. this voltage only indicates the insulation strength between input and output.5. this means that special attention must be paid to a sufficient limitation of differential-mode overvoltages when using them in transmission systems. Source TRAPP.6 Equipotential bonding Lightning protection equipotential bonding of a ‘volume to protect’ includes all incoming metal installations as explained in Section . these semiconductor components.2 Optocoupler The optocoupler is a combination of radiation emitting (input) and radiation sensitive (output) components. Surge protection devices should thus be incorporated. however.Components and protective devices: construction. effect and application 145 Figure 5. Their function is thus comparable with that of transmitters being primarily used for blocking low common-mode voltages. Internationale Blitschutzkonferenz. 16.2 b). Szeged.: ‘Die Optimierung des Inneren Blitzschutzes durch den Einsatz optoelektronischer Baugruppen’. However. Optocouplers are available having a voltage withstand of some 100 V to 10 kV between input and output. Optocouplers are used as optoelectronic coupling elements for signal transmission in cases where galvanic separation is required in sensitive system elements (Figure 5. be used for protection against voltages higher than their transmitter/receiver surge withstand capability. another galvanic coupling through the mains supply which also is susceptible to the danger of entering overvoltages. long-duration overvoltages and this may reduce the voltage strength of the insulation gap between input and output. Furthermore. Most optoelectronic systems are supplied with mains current. Light transmission between these two components takes place across a thin layer of optical medium which simultaneously isolates the input from the output (Figure 5.04 5.1 a Fibre-optic transmission system: basic circuit diagram (Source: Siemens) 5.

2 b Connection of input and output lines to a data processing system by optocoupler 4.5.5. is a copper bar having a minimum cross section of 50 mm2 for surface mounting at a . as well as for lightning protection equipotential bonding according to DIN VDE 0185. a duly shaped lightning protection equipotential bonding bar (installed at ground level inside the building) also functions as an ‘earth bus’ and is usually installed as an ‘earth ring bus’ inside the building (DIN VDE 0800 Part 2).3. a ring equipotential bonding bar. Figure 5.1.146 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1.6 a shows an equipotential bonding bar which is used for the main equipotential bonding according to DIN VDE 0100 Parts 410 and 540. The ‘earth ring bus’.4. In the case of extended telecommunication systems.2 a Optocoupler: Function diagram Figure 5.

racks.4 b) and the building (e. Equipotential bonding is not only for the protection of electronic systems but it must also fulfil special functions. to DIN VDE 0618) with snap-on terminals for conductor cross sections 25 to 95 mm2 distance of some centimetres from the wall.2 o.g. supporting structures between floors) is possible using a meshed. Different types of functional equipotential bonding systems as needed for telecommunication facilities and systems.. therefore. A lowimpedance coupling of the external conductors and their shields is required for lightning protection equipotential bonding at the interface between lightning protection zones 0 and 1. walls and ceilings. An equipotential bonding bar such as that in Figure 5. This bonding can also be realized over the reinforcement. Such a meshed overall building equipotential bonding system is the best way to reduce overvoltages in telecommunication systems and is the basis for the coordinated use of arresters (surge protection devices. an entity formed of interconnected equipotential bonding lines including the metal parts of the electric systems (such as enclosures. At distances of about 5 m it should be bonded to the foundation earth electrode (DIN VDE 0800 Part 2) (Figures 4.1.6 c). are described in section . filters etc. 5. often carried out using a bonding plate with multiple radial or even coaxial connections of the conduits or line shields (Figure 5.). A low-impedance equipotential bonding system. 5.6 a Equipotential bonding bar (acc. Figures 5.6 b. effect and application 147 Figure 5. Equipotential bonding is. reinforcement in floors. that is. the equipotential bonding bars can be directly bonded with the shield.2 j).6 b).1. cable trays etc. plane or space-covering formation.6 a can be sufficient for small local systems.Components and protective devices: construction.3. If the discharge system consists of plain metal components which constitute an effective electromagnetic shield (Figure 5.4 a and 5.

.1. 5.2. 5.1. TÜV South Germany) 4. which then is connected to the ‘earth ring bus’ several times (also over the steel reinforcement or the protection zone screen) (Figure 5.6 e). cable racks etc.4.4 b and 5.6 d show.6 b Connection of air terminations. Another possibility for achieving functional equipotential bonding is to create an equipotential bonding network by means of the metal supporting structures between floors. as shown in Figure 5. R. earthing and installation to the reinforcement (Source: Frentzel..2 o. in rooms with telecommunication facilities and systems must be included in the meshed functional equipotential bonding. as Figures 5.6 b.3. Metal supports.148 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.6 c Connection of piping entries to the reinforcement (Source: Frentzel. . enclosures. It is useful to install a local ring equipotential bonding bar. equipotential bonding. TÜV South Germany) Figure 5. j. cabinets. R.

and WIESINGER. 1994) DIN VDE 0800 Teil 2: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. these include: (i) the protective conductors (PE) of the power system. and if necessary. functional equipotential bonding shall include: telecommunication systems • metal enclosures and racks of thewhich do not carry operational voltconductors of electrical systems • ages and/or currents.6 d Wall bushing of cable racks in meshed functional equipotential bonding Figure 5. VDE Verlag. GmbH. Berlin/Offenbach.Components and protective devices: construction. P. In the latter case. (ii) the earth electrode conductors of the telecommunication system. Erdung und Potentialausgleich’ (VDE Verlag.. the chassis terminals of the electronic devices and systems. July 1985) . effect and application 149 Figure 5. Sources HASSE.6 e Equipotential bonding bar for communication technology room Above all else. München.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum Verlag. J. (iii) the outer shields of the telecommunication cables. Berlin/Offenbach.

2 b) without being destroyed are known as isolating spark gaps. for example. This is L = 0. and isolating spark gap elements with an . The impulse sparkover voltage of a spark gap depends on the rate of rise of the generated overvoltage wave.2/50 of such spark gaps should be not higher than 50% of the 50 Hz sparkover AC voltage (effective value) of the insulating flange to be protected.16 μH.7 e). ‘Sparkover voltage’ is not the only relevant factor in the design of a parallel-connected isolating spark gap.7 d shows the impulse characteristic of the explosionprotected spark gap in Figure 5. Once the nominal spark-over point is reached. a voltage with peak value û = L(di/dt)max is generated at the insulating part. this corresponds to a peak value of 120 kA. The steeper the wave. This voltage–time relationship is clearly shown by the impulse characteristic. the shorter the time during which failure can occur. for bridging the insulation flanges in pipelines.7 Isolating spark gaps Enclosed spark gaps which can carry test currents of 10/350 μs (Section 4. It is extremely flat: hence. they create an electrical bonding path for the lightning current. and a rope cross section of 25 mm2 Cu (r = 2. Figure 5. From the above data. After the tripping of the isolating spark gap. After a direct strike the lightning current flows to both sides of a pipeline and a maximum rate-of-rise of current of (di/dt)max = 40 kA/μs can be assumed.7 e. the maximum value of inductance may be calculated for a square loop of length 300 mm. for example. the spark gap limits rapidly rising overvoltage impulses to almost constant values of about 2 kV.4 kV for a loop length of 300 mm. The lightning impulse sparkover voltage 1.8 mm). these spark gaps provide the electrical separation of two metal installations.5. into the lightning protection equipotential bonding system in cases where these installations cannot be interconnected due to corrosion effects (Figure 5. From an equation supplied in the ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’. For an impulse wave of 4/10 μs. High specifications must be fulfilled for explosion-protected isolating spark gaps (Figure 5. the peak value of the voltage û = 6. They are used to incorporate metal installations.150 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 5. L is the loop inductance and di/dt the rate of rise of current (Figure 5. This coupling is reset after the decay of the lightning current. Isolating spark gaps (Figure 5. These are used to avoid open sparking in the event of a lightning strike in hazardous areas.7 b).7 a) are used at clearances between the lightning protection system and other earthed system parts in order to avoid uncontrolled arcing or puncturing at these points. Up to their sparkover voltage. 7 c).

Sections 6. peak value û = 5 kV √2 ≈7 kV) can be connected in parallel without any further testing. High-current spark gaps of this nature. must therefore be capable of . Maximum requirements are for isolating spark gaps.7 c Explosion-protected isolating spark gap effective sparkover voltage of more than 5 kV (i.4 and 6.7 f ). the gaps should be capable of carrying the lightning current through a protective insulation and afterwards retain the full insulating strength (cf.e. At the instant of the lightning strike.7 a spark gap Isolating Figure 5.5). type HSFS (Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.7 b Isolating spark gap for isolating metal systems of different potentials Figure 5. effect and application 151 Figure 5..

7 d Impulse voltage–time curve of the explosion-protected isolating spark gap (Figure 5.152 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. they must offer the same high reliability as normal insulation components.7 g shows such a high- . Figure 5. This spark gap type HSFS has been proven in military applications and is in compliance with the requirements and tests of VDE specifications and DIN VDE 0800 Part 9.7 c) Figure 5.7 e Voltage drop û caused by (di/dt)max conducting especially high lightning currents without being destroyed and. during normal operation.

Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods’. SPDs are internationally standardized in IEC 61643-1:1998-02 ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems.: ‘Überspannungsschutz von Niederspannungsanlagen – Einsatz elektronischer Geräte auch bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen. 1994) DIN VDE 0800 Teil 9: ‘Fernmeldetechnik. (Verlag TÜV Rheinland. May 1989) 5. The unit blows the arc through special openings during discharge of the surge currents. Figure 5. lightning current arresters and surge arresters (cf.2. Sources HASSE.5).Components and protective devices: construction. and WIESINGER.2. Berlin/Offenbach. P.5. aktualisierte Auflage. GmbH. München. effect and application 153 Figure 5. In this standard the SPDs are distinguished according to test classes (I. KU-Werte sicherheitsbezogener Bauelemente und Isolierungen’ (VDE Verlag. This type of spark gap is housed in an enclosure which is equipped with baffle plates (Sections 6. Köln. 3. Section 4.7 f type HSFS High-current spark gap.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept (Pflaum Verlag. Berlin/Offenbach. 1993) HASSE.2).8 Arresters According to their ranges of application. surge protective devices (SPDs) for power engineering and for information technology can be subdivided into two kinds: namely.. P. VDE Verlag. type HSFS tested by laboratory simulated lightning current efficiency spark gap under test conditions with a laboratory simulated lightning current. J.5.1 and 4.4 and 6. II. III). It is .7 g High-current spark gap.

for surge protection purposes in the permanent installation. A rather user-convenient SPD standardization is included in the German DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/6A1 and 6A2 (Table 5.8 a). Surge arresters only serve limiting overvoltages at relatively low-energy surge currents. As the requirements and tests of the German standard are more severe than the international standards.8 a). the German standard is taken as a basis for arrester classification.154 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems somewhat difficult for the user to understand this classification because it is primarily meant for the producer of the SPDs. for lightning protection equipotential bonding purposes according to DIN VDE 0185 Part 1 Arresters class C. Lightning current arresters must be able to discharge (high energy) lightning currents or considerable parts of them non-destructively. Table 5. for surge protection purposes in the mobile/permanent installation. especially for use in surge withstand category (surge category) II IEC 37A/447/CDV Arrester: ‘Class I’ Arrester: ‘Class II’ Arrester: ‘Class III’ Figure 5.8 a 1 Test current impulse (10/350 μs) for lightning current arresters. 2 Test current impulse (8/20 μs) for surge arresters according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 . They are dimensioned and tested in accordance with IEC 61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 and Part 6/A1 (Figure 5. especially for use in surge withstand category (surge category) III Arresters class D.8 a E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 Arresters class B.

C and D according to IEC 61643-1/E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 and Part 6 A1 (Figure 5. A disconnector separates the defective arrester from the system (e.1 c indicates the voltage UM arising between overhead line and ‘earth’ on discharging a 5 kA (8/20) surge current. L3 and N as against the protective conductor PE.1 a and b). The final link in lightning and surge protection for power engineering systems is the terminal protection (boundary of lightning protection zones 2/3). Such arresters must be able to carry lightning partial currents with wave shape 10/350 μs non-destructively for several strikes. The main task of the class D arresters used is to protect against surges arising between L and N. These are class C surge arresters with a discharge capacity of some 10 kA (8/20 μs). In the case of a direct lightning strike the spark gap welds and the non-linear resistor fuses. effect and application 155 5.1 b) designed for a nominal discharge surge current of 8/20 μs with 5 kA peak value (Table 5. UM is composed of: (about kV) • the protection level Uthe earth2conductor inductance (at a 5 kA 8/20 the voltage drop at • surge current.1.2.1.1 a and Tables 5. The task of these lightning current arresters is to prevent destructive lightning partial currents from penetrating the electrical system of a building. arresters for systems and equipment in power engineering are subdivided into requirement classes A.1 a) are usually constructed as a series connection of spark gap and voltagedependent resistor (Figure 5.1 Arresters for power engineering As explained in chapter 4. class A Surge arresters for use in low-voltage overhead lines (Figure 5.. L2. C and D arresters are used in permanent building installations.1 Surge arresters for low-voltage overhead lines.1 a). . lightning current arresters may also be installed before the meter.8.1. B. 5.8.g.and surgeprotection at the interface of lightning protection zones 0A/1.8. (di/dt) is about 1 kA/μs.1.5.8.Components and protective devices: construction.1. Class A arresters are used in low-voltage overhead lines.8. The highest requirements for discharge capability are for class B arresters. therefore the voltage drop P max • peak value is about 10 kV) the voltage drop at the impulse earth resistance RE (peak value about 50 kV).8. Surge arresters are installed (at the boundary of lightning protection zones 1/2) for protection against surges arising between the active conductors L1. Figure 5. These are lightning current arresters used in the scope of lightning. indicated by a detached indicator sleeve).8. According to the latest ‘Technical Supply Conditions’ of German power supply companies. Class B.8. These are mainly switching overvoltages. Such a loading occurs in cases of remote lightning striking into the power supply system.

these arresters. a) in discharging the nominal discharge surge current.1 a Requirement classes of arresters for power technical systems in accordance with E DIN VDE 00675 Part 6 and E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A1 The total of these (time-related) potential gradients results in the curve UM = f (t) in Figure 5.156 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1.8. they protect the low voltage overhead line systems themselves.1 c.1.1 a Application of arresters in a power technical network Table 5. Hence. when used in low-voltage overhead lines. . b.8. Primarily.8.1 c. with a peak value UM of about 55 kV. cannot effectively protect the connected consumer installations (Figure 5.8.

8.1.8. effect and application Table 5. Part 1: General principles’ the distribution shown in Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.1 a: (1) fusible point.1.2 a.1 a Arrester hooked into the overhead line (Source: Siemens) Figure 5.1.1 b Assignment of the arrester gear 157 Figure 5.1 b Structure of the arrester in Figure 5.8.2 a may be assumed concerning the distribution of .8. (5) spark gap (Source: Siemens) 5. There may be a (computer based) calculation of the required lightning current-carrying capability according to the respective installation factors. (2) fusible strip.2 Lightning current arresters for lightning protection equipotential bonding.1. class B Lightning current arresters have to meet the requirements in Table 5.8. According to IEC 61312-1:1995-02: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse.1. (3) indicating sleeve.1.8.8. (4) nonlinear resistor disc (silicon carbide).

625 MJ/Ω.1.8.2 d) is equipped with a capacitively-controlled tandem gliding spark gap.8. and (b) 50% (100 kA.1 a the lightning and lightning partial currents at a lightning strike into the air-termination system.1. Their ‘breakwater function’ is a major advantage of such spark gap arresters. It consists of three rotationally symmetric electrodes with spacers made out of different insulating materials. a high discharge capacity of 75 kA (10/350 μs) at a low protection level of 3. If. .8.2 e.1.1. Figure 5. it will be loaded by 50% of lightning current. in the worst case. Thus.2 b). there will be a loading of 50 kA (10/350 μs) each per conductor. The lightning current arrester loading can be estimated as follows. Such leakage current-free gliding spark gaps are often a construction of rotationally symmetric electrodes with a spacing insulating layer which has an arc-exhausting effect. Considering the worst case of only two conductors (L and PEN).1.2 a this lightning current is distributed as follows: (a) 50% (100 kA.8. The DEHNport® lightning current arrester (Figure 5.8. This arrester exhausts hot gases when discharging lightning currents.2/50 μs) is achieved. information technical system.8. a charge of 25 As and a specific energy of 0.158 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Arresters – class A Table 5. Lightning current arresters for such high demands are mostly airgliding spark gap structures which are able to extinguish the flowing mains follow-current automatically after having been activated (Figure 5.5 kV (1.1. there is only the power system. live metal parts must be kept in minimum distances as shown in Figure 5.2 c shows four such practice-proven lightning current arresters. Therefore other bare.1.). According to Figure 5.2 b). A lightning current of 200 kA (10/350 μs) is the maximum loading for protection level I (according to Table 5. 10/350 μs) is discharged through the earthing system. For this worst case scenario the loading of a onepole lightning current arrester will have the following parameters: a peak value 50 kA (10/350 μs). metal piping etc. Wave shape 10/350 μs lightning currents are shortened to surge currents of wave shape < 8/20 μs which are compatible for downstream installed surge arresters. 10/350 μs) is discharged by the connected supply systems (power system.8.

effect and application 159 Figure 5.1.1 c (a) Figure 5. The spark gap in the lightning current arrester must establish a ‘counter voltage’ (arc voltage) in the range of the supplying system voltage in order to obtain a better follow-current extinguishing capability.1 c Figure 5. a completely new function principle had to be developed for the required follow-current-limiting spark gap. The necessary cooling gas is .Components and protective devices: construction. This is based on optimized arc cooling by radial and axial blowing.1.1.1 c (b) Protective effect of arresters installed at overhead lines (a) Spatial arrangement (b) Voltages at discharging a 5 kA (8/20 μs) impulse current Usual types of lightning current arrester based on spark gaps are able to extinguish mains follow-currents of up to 4 kAeff (50 Hz) automatically.8.8. Therefore.8.

160 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Arresters – class B Table 5.1. IEC 61312-1 (ENV 61024-1) Figure 5.8.2 a Assumed distribution of the lightning current .1.1.2 b Lightning current parameters acc.2 a Table 5.8. to IEC 61024-1 resp.8.

a). Thus.3). the arc voltage will be increased.1. The leakage-current-free encapsulated gliding spark gap is embedded into a special insulating material with arcquenching characteristic.1. lightning current arresters in RADAX-flow technology are especially suitable for installation in the sealed part of a consumer system (mains distribution system).8. independent of the possible mains short-circuit current (section 5.1. The pressure arising at the activation of the spark gaps enforces the quenching effect of the insulating material. For RADAX-flow spark gap technology.8. The encapsulation of the spark gaps prevents the ‘blowing’ of these lightning current arresters. the follow-current (let-through current) actually flowing through the arrester will be limited to a very low value. Owing to the reduced cross section of the arc pillar.1.2 b Behaviour of a lightning current arrester based on a spark gap generated under the influence of the arc by the surrounding plastic material. the arc resistance will rise and the arc voltage increase. the mains followcurrent will be safely controlled.Components and protective devices: construction.2 h. .8. The gas heated by the influence of the arc is finally exhausted by an axial gas streaming through an expulsion nozzle. The use of RADAX-flow technology in series bays of usual dimensions (Figure 5.6.2 h.1.8. Owing to the forced blowing.8.1.2/ 50 μs).2 g) has led to a completely new generation of lightning current arresters combining a high surge current discharge capability with the breaking performance of a circuit breaker: The problem of false tripping of fuses due to mains follow-currents is solved. The cooling gas released under the influence of arc streams radially (from all sides) towards the arc and ‘compresses’ it. Figure 5. Owing to the pressure-controlled arc quenching. effect and application 161 Figure 5. DEHNbloc® and DEHNbloc® NH contain a pressure-controlled encapsulated gliding spark gap (Figure 5. Because of these excellent operating characteristics. the spacing problem (safety distances) is solved (Figure 5. d). The discharge capacity of these encapsulated gliding spark gaps is about 25 kA (10/350 μs) and the protection level is lower than 4 kV (1.8.2 f shows the principle of a radially and axially blown arc (RADAX-flow technology).

8.162 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8. (b) DEHNport ® Maxi.8. (three-pole design).2 c (a) Figure 5.1.8. (c) DEHNbloc ®.2 c Lightning current arrester (from left to right): (a) DEHNport ®.1.8.2 c (c) Figure 5.1.2 c (b) Figure 5.1.2 c (d) Figure 5. (d) DEHNbloc ® NH .1.

effect and application 163 Figure 5.8.2 d (c) Function principle Figure 5. installed at the input of a power supply line from lightning protection zone 0 into lightning protection zone 1 .8.1.1.1.Components and protective devices: construction.2 e Lightning current arrester type DEHNport ®.8.2 d (a) DEHNport® with tandem gliding spark gap Figure 5.8.2 d (b) Sectional model tandem gliding spark gap Figure 5.1.

1.2 g Lightning current arrester DEHNport with RADAX-flow technology in the mains connection box for application in the area before the meter .8.1.8.2 f Basic circuit diagram for an arc blown out radially and axially in RADAX-flow technology Figure 5.164 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.

1. It is especially suitable for the common TN-C system.8.2 h.2 h (a) Encapsulated gliding spark gap Figure 5.8.h distances (d) Installation without minimum The DEHNbloc® (Figure 5.8.2 h.8.Components and protective devices: construction. Also the multifunction terminals for the clamping of both terminal wires and comb-type bars are easy to use (comparable to the DEHNport®). The DEHNbloc® NH (Figure 5.2.1.8. three-pole arrester unit (with a space-saving width of only four modules).1.1. c) is the first lightning current arrester for mounting on . b) is a compact.1.2.8. effect and application 165 Figure 5.2 h (c) DEHNbloc® NH Figure 5.h (b) DEHNbloc ® Figure 5.1.

Figures 6.6).5.5 c) to protect transportable telecommunication facilities and for the connection of the mains supply of TV transmitters (chapter 6. DEHNbloc® NH and DEHNbloc® can be installed upstream of the meter because of the leakage current-free operation and the high insulation resistance. there is a short-circuit current between the phases and neutral conductor in the case of an arrester fault which the upstream fuse can now break in the time provided. the upstream fuse must disconnect.8. L2. On using the N–PE lightning current arrester DEHNgap B in a ‘3 + 1-circuit’. Installation by a usual fuse handle is possible without operational interruption.8.4 e and 6. But this is not guaranteed under unfavourable earthing conditions. Because of the gliding spark gap technology the ‘breakwater function’ is guaranteed and thus an energetic coordination (as explained in chapter 4. for example. DEHNport®.5 (Figures 6. like DEHNguard®.166 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems NH-fuse bases size 00 (also in fuse-disconnector blocks).2/50 μs). DEHNport® Maxi. It is also able to extinguish mains follow-currents automatically. L3) are connected to gliding spark gaps (e.1. used in the lightning current arrester arrangement described in chapter 6. The compact enclosure design with a space of two modules and the multifunction terminals for clamping both the terminal wires and combtype bars makes the N–PE lightning current arrester DEHNgap B very easy to use.5 b and 6.2 j) is suitable for the inclusion of power lines into the lightning protection equipotential bonding at the interface of lightning protection zones 0 and 1. This lightning current arrester has been proven in practice for years and is included in the standards DIN VDE 0804 Part 2 and DIN VDE 0845 Part 1.8. is possible. Quench gaps are. Another special lightning current arrester (according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6/A2) based on air spark gaps is the N-PE lightning current arrester DEHNgap B (Figure 5. the DEHNport) and a spark gap is installed between neutral conductor N and protective conductor PE (chapter 5.. The N–PE lightning current arrester type DEHNgap B can safely conduct the residual current of the incoupled lightning between the earthing system and the neutral conductor up to 100 kA (10/350 μs) at a sparkover voltage < 4 kV (1. . This is especially attractive for application in industrial plants. b). In the case of an earth fault in this range. Also a quench gap (Figure 5. where the three phases (L1.4) with surge arresters based on varistor technology.1.2 i).4. In the TT-system this means an installation upstream of the residual-current device.1.4 f.g. What is the task of an N-PE lightning current arrester? Lightning current arresters should be installed as close as possible to the building input.

2 j Quench gap 5. such defective arresters must be replaced as they no longer protect against surges.5 kV. the voltage arising at the consumer installation is about 1.8. At lightning protection zone interfaces 0B/1 and higher. the N conductor also has an arrester.8. where the N conductor is run separately from the PE conductor. . class C According to DIN VDE 0675 Part 6.1. the integrated disconnector separates the defective arrester from the mains. Valve-type arresters are constructed according to DIN VDE 0675 Parts 1 and 6 or IEC 99.8.8. the phases (L1. If the valve-type arrester shown in Figure 5.1.3 Surge arresters for protection of permanent installation. Valve-type arresters are characterized by their quenching voltage Ul (continuous operating voltage Uc according to DIN VDE 0675 Part 6). However. at which an arrester (in an operating duty test) is still able to extinguish the mains follow-current automatically.Components and protective devices: construction. Figures 5. L3) of the mains are equipped with surge arresters.3 a and b show valve-type arresters containing one airspark-gap and one silicon carbide resistor.1.3 a is overloaded.2 i DEHNgap B Figure 5. their nominal discharge surge current is 5 kA (8/20 μs). L2.1. Voltage and current characteristics for voltage limitation are shown in Figure 5.3 c. Downstream consumer installations will stay alive.1 and consist of a spark gap and voltagedependent resistor connected in series.8. In TT and TN–S systems. Figure 5.1.8.3 d shows the voltage and current during such an operating duty test according to DIN VDE 0675 Part 1 at a valve-type arrester for Ul = 280 V.8.3 e shows the protection characteristic of this arrester. effect and application 167 Figure 5.1.1. class C surge arresters are used in the permanent building installation.8.1. whereas Figure 5.

to Figure 5.3 h shows a practical example.3 i) are used.3 g shows an arrester for NH fuse bases size 00 (connected to L and PE).1. installed in a low-voltage distribution system Valve-type arresters have indicators to show the defective and disconnected state (Figure 5. Figure 5.1. Replacement of an arrester in a live state is easy by means of an NH fuse handle. the projecting pin of .3 b Nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester (acc.8.8.8.1.1.3 f).8.168 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. Figure 5.3 a).8.3 a Nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester Figure 5.8.1.1.8.1. If holders with a microswitch (Figure 5.

3 a) .8.8.8.3 e Protective characteristic of a nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester (acc.1. effect and application 169 Figure 5. to Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.1.1.1. to Figure 8.3 a) during the operating duty test Figure 5.3 c Performance of a nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester (series connection of spark gap and silicon carbide varistor) Figure 5.8.1.3 d Performance of a nonlinear resistor type gapped surge arrester (acc.

.8. Arrester on the right is defective.8.1.3 g).1.1.8.8. these can be used without a series connected spark gap.8.3 h Surge arrester (acc.8.3 g Surge arrester in gapped surge arrester with disconnector NH type of construction and indicator (acc.8.1.3 j) where almost no mains follow-current arises. to Figure 5.1. to Figure 8.1.3 m. Figure 5.3 k shows such a surge arrester in a modular design with a thermally controlled zinc oxide varistor for space-saving installation in distribution systems (Figure 5. disconnector has operated (pushed up button) Figure 5.1. Recent surge arrester models have zinc oxide varistors (Figure 5.1. installed in a distribution system the disconnected arrester will press this switch and a remote indication of the necessary arrester replacement becomes possible.3 f Nonlinear resistor type Figure 5.170 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.3 a).1. The basic overvoltage limiting behaviour is shown in Figure 5.3 l).8.

1.1.8.1.3 j Metal oxide varistor Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.8.1. effect and application 171 Figure 5. to Figure 5.3 k ® Surge arrester in modular design.8.3 g) by microswitch Figure 5.3 i Remote indication of the operation of the arrester disconnector (acc.8. type DEHNguard® .

8.8. Usual surge arresters based on ZnO have a discharge capability of . to Figure 5. Such arresters are always ‘in operation’.1.3 k) the limiting voltage is exclusively determined by the residual voltage at the discharge of the impulse current. A live surge arrester on a metal oxide basis (without spark gaps) carries the current corresponding to its U/I characteristic (Figure 5.8.3 n).1.1. whereas an arrester based on a spark gap needs ‘activation’ by an overvoltage.172 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.3 l Surge arrester DEHNguard® installed at the input of a power supply line from lightning protection zone 1 to lightning protection zone 2 Figure 5.3 m Performance of a surge arrester based on metal oxide (acc.8.1.

1 p shows a surge arrester with degree of protection IP × 4W.1. This is particularly suitable for industrial applications (to be plugged into NH fuse holders. This prevents a defective arrester from disturbing the operation.5).3 n U/I characteristic of a varistor 15 kA (8/20 μs).3 g) an integrated backup fuse which does not need any further backup fuse on the mains (section 5. Figure 5. quick removal is advantageous. This is sufficient to prevent overloading in the case of a ‘creep under’ of a backup lightning current arrester and correctly dimensioned decoupling impedance (chapter 5. owing to unfavourable conditions.3 o) consists of two parts: a base and an attachable varistor module which can be replaced in case of overloading.8. there is a missing backup lightning current arrester (in spark gap technology).8. If for example.8.1.1. based on a spark gap having a sparkover voltage of about 1. For insulation measurements of the system. effect and application 173 Figure 5. To avoid errors. and the surge arrester DEHNgap C (Figure 5.1. Remote control is possible by a local indicator and a potential-free changeover contact. DEHNguard® T (Figure 5.8.1.5 kV (1. this discharge capacity is exceeded and thus the varistor overloaded. then it will be automatically disconnected from the mains.3 q).2/50). The three phase conductors (L1.1. size 00) and has (like the arrester shown in Figure 5. is . L3) are connected to varistors towards the neutral conductor N.8.1.Components and protective devices: construction. The 3 + 1 circuit (chapter 5. the base and varistor module are provided with code pins according to their nominal voltage.8.8. L2.5) allows the application of surge arresters upstream of the residual current device. The protection element must be able to conduct this discharge current safely and without changing the characteristic at least 20 times.3.5).8.

4 a) are often equipped with additional filters (Figure 5. Because of its feed-through terminals it can be easily inserted into circuits. The plug-in surge protection adapter shown in Figure 5.3 o Surge arrester DEHNguard® T Figure 5.1.8..4 f is for power supply protection of industrial electronics equipment (e. SPC) against surges and high-frequency disturbance voltages.8. The surge protection socket outlet (Figure 5.8. .3 q Surge arrester DEHNguard® C installed between neutral conductor N and protective conductor PE.4 e) is suitable for application in cable ducts and flush-mounted boxes.1.8.8.4 c is a combination of surge arrester and interference suppressor filter.4 d) has a supervisory device and a disconnection device with a green lamp as visual function indication and a red lamp as fault indication (indication of the disconnected mains). 5.4 d to f: According to design and testing.8.8. The space-saving one modular design of the surge arresters DEHNguard® and DEHNgap C and the multifunction terminals for wires and usual comb-type bars make them especially easy to install. the upstream fuse can meet the disconnection requirements in the case of a fault.8. The protector shown in Figure 5.1.1. class D Surge arresters for mobile application at socket outlets (overvoltage category II) are assigned to requirement class D according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6.3 p Surge arrester VNH 280 Figure 5.8.1.4 Surge arresters for application at socket outlets.1.8.1.4 b). Such pluggable protectors (Figure 5.174 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. The SF protector has a visual function indicator (green lamp) and a visual fault indicator (red lamp). these are class D protectors. Thus. When overloading it is disconnected automatically from the mains without power interruption. The surge arrester NM-DK 280 (Figure 5.8.1. Further types of surge arresters used in this range are shown in Figures 5. programmable controllers.g.1.1. It is adaptable to all types of switches as it can be covered by the central disc according to DIN 43 696.1.

4 c SFL-protector: Multiple socket outlet with surge arrester and filter 5.8.6 Application of lightning current arresters and surge arresters Planning and execution of surge protection measures in the scope of an EMC-compliant protection strategy must lead to a coordinated .5 Surge arresters for application at equipment inputs Equipment with a power technical input (which may form its own lightning protection zone) can be directly protected at this input by surge arresters as mini-modules (Figure 5. effect and application 175 Figure 5.1. These arresters are designed and tested according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 as class D.8.1.4 b SF-protector (surge arrester with filter) for protection against transient surges and frequent interference voltages Figure 5.8. 5.8.1.1.8. They protect electronic equipment of overvoltage category I.8.1.1.5 a) and (Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.8.5 b).4 a Pluggable surge arrester protects mains input of a computer Figure 5.1.

4 d Socket outlet (with earthing contact) with overvoltage protection Figure 5.4 e Surge protective device NM-DK 280 for cable ducts Figure 5.1.8.1.176 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. One of the first .8.1.8.4 f SPS-protector: Surge protector with interference suppressor filter protection system. A consequence of the often missing system consideration today is the uncoordinated installation of arresters at different points of the system which impair or even neutralize each other or have an inadmissible retroactive effect on the whole system.

8.. The demanded parameter value is due to the conditions of application of the arrester in the concept of lightning protection zones. The concept of lightning protection zones allows the determination of the corresponding stress parameters for the individual arresters.5 a Surge protective mains module VC 280/2 Figure 5. Within lightning protection zone 1 there still remains the conducted residual parameters of the lightning current arrester as well as the overvoltages induced by the electromagnetic field of lightning and internal sources of interference (e.Components and protective devices: construction.8. For a lightning current arrester (at the boundary of LPZ 0A/1) these values are due to the primary lightning threat parameters (IEC 61312-1) and the real conditions of installation. For the design of the individual arresters the question of how many partial systems and conductors the total lightning current is distributed over must also be clarified (IEC 61312-1).1. to Figure 5. The EMC-oriented concept of lightning protection zones is such a principle. switching operations) as stress parameters for downstream protective equipment. The list of requirements for the arresters used can be basically subdivided into requirements for the individual arresters and requirements which are due to the system character of the total protection. The requirements for surge arresters that are installed at the boundary of lightning protection zone LPZ 1/2 must include this stressing. It is necessary that the protection levels of the different arresters in the .1. There are additional requirements for the different arresters as individual elements because of the system character of the whole protection system.g.8. The most important parameter for an individual arrester is its surge current-carrying capability.1.5 a) connected to power pack essentials for the planning and execution of surge protection for a complex system is an organizing principle which subdivides the protected system into areas of graded demands. effect and application 177 Figure 5.5 b Surge arrester (acc.

requiring coordination between the arresters’ parameters and the values of the conventional system protection devices (fuses. 5.1. The requirements for cascaded arresters in a protection system depend on the concept of protection zones.6 a Example for the application of lightning current arresters and surge arresters . This must be coordinated with the energy loadability of the equipment input.1.8. The planner is in charge of selecting the different coordinated arresters which must reduce step-by-step the incoming (lightning partial currents) or internally generated (switching surges) hazard to the withstand capability of the terminal units to be protected. In addition to the arrester Figure 5. circuit breakers etc. In addition to these specific requirements of surge protection there are demands for harmonization of surge protection–system protection.). To adapt a surge protection device (SPD.1 Graded application of arresters.1.178 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems protection system be in accordance with the rules of insulation coordination of IEC 60664-1 (Figure 5.6.8. arrester) to the peripheral interface of a piece of equipment the interference immunity factor of the equipment and the maximum let-through parameters (output parameters) of the SPD must be known. The special regulations which both the planner and installer (electrician) of the protective system must take into account are handled in the following notes. energy coordination between surge arresters and equipment to protect.8. Coordination of the arresters between each other ensures that the individual protection devices are loaded as effectively as possible and maximum safety of the system is achieved.6 a).

. in this case.6.6 a and 5.1 a).5 kV. Coordination.Components and protective devices: construction. there must be an additional series voltage drop on the line between the surge arrester and the lightning current arrester which.1.1.1 a.8. In order not to overload the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution board. form a common ‘interface’).6.5 kV). For a lightning current stressing arrangement according to 5.6.1.8. The ‘operating behaviour’ of the upstream protective grade (SPD) and the loadability of the equipment’s protective circuit must overlap one another (i.8. means to dimension a protective circuit upstream of an equipment interface in such a way that only at an imminent overloading of the device’s internal protective circuit will the upstream protective grade (SPD) become effective.e. however. Only thus is it possible to obtain a good balance between the costs for the protective circuit and the benefits which are achieved.1 a (a) Protective gear for power technical systems at the interfaces of lightning protection zones (LPZ) . The ‘conditions of adaptation’ described.1. are not only valid for the surge protective device and terminal unit but also for the use of arresters in a graded concept of protection zones (Figures 5. According to its nominal discharge data this arrester has a protection level < 1. the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution board will operate first due to its low protection level.8. This voltage is insufficient to operate the upstream class B lightning current arrester (as the operating value of this spark gap is between 3 and 3. effect and application 179 protection level the maximum values of the integral parameters of output voltage and output current are also of importance for energy coordination. in sum with the Figure 5.

and the distance between the protective conductor and cable is 1 m (as in Figure 5. For dimensioning the decoupling choke it is possible to choose the inductance value as low as possible by using all securities granted by the protective devices. or to increase the safety of the graded protective circuit by a higher minimum inductance value.1 c) the necessary minimum decoupling length is 5 m. L3 and N (as for cable type NYM-J). With such decoupling chokes there is the possibility of installing the arresters in one place (Figure 5.1.8.6.1.1 d). or by using a concentrated inductance (decoupling choke). If these cable lengths cannot be realized.1 e). In the 230/400 V mains this series voltage drop can be obtained by using the cable impedance. If the protective conductor is in one cable with L1. a cable length of at least 15 m is the necessary decoupling length between the class B lightning current arrester and the class C surge arrester (Figure 5. If the protective conductor is separate from L1.8. and insecurities due to installation (such as the actual line length) can be avoided.8.6. L3 and N (as for cable type NYM-O).6.6. L2.1 (b) Currents through surge arresters and lightning current arresters at lightning strikes protection level of the class C surge arrester in the subdistribution.8.1. because of too strictly dimensioned . the class B and class C arresters can be coordinated by decoupling chokes (Figure 5. Increasing the inductance value by several microhenry (μH) does not mean any restriction on normal operation.1 b). On the contrary.6.180 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1.1. Responsibility for this arrangement thus passes over from the installer to the producer of the protective devices who indicates the necessary induction value for the coordination of his arresters. The cable inductance depends on the routing of the protective conductor PE. L2. reaches the operating value of the spark gap in the class B lightning current arrester.8.

8. DEHNport® Maxi.1.1 c Necessary decoupling line length for arresters of requirement classes B and C when laying the protective conductor separately Figure 5.1 b Necessary decoupling line length for arresters of requirement classes B and C when protective conductor PE is in the cable Figure 5.1.8.Components and protective devices: construction.6.6.1.6.8. DEHNport®. DEHNbloc® NH) and surge arresters (DEHNguard®) at lightning impulse current 10/350 μs . effect and application 181 Figure 5.1 d Decoupling inductance DEHNbridge (15 μH) for the energy coordination of lightning current arresters (DEHNbloc®.

The arrester set shown in Figure 5.1 f.8.8. covered. but if a fault occurs (e. Protective measures to avoid dangerous electric shock are necessary in every electrical system.g. Protection against such dangers is called ‘protection in case of indirect contact’. and its service life being drastically reduced would mean a failure of surge protection. coordination between both of these arresters is also necessary.1. Because of the different tasks of class C and D surge arresters.8. Of course.6. For the usual lightning current and surge arresters. sheathed or arranged to exclude contact and electric shock. lightning current arrester.6. damaged insulation) there is the likelihood of accidental energization of the metallic enclosure (body of an electrical equipment). the surge arresters might be overloaded.6. Safe coordination is guaranteed if there is at least 5 m of cable type NYM-J between the class C and D arresters (Figure 5.1 h)..1. decoupling chokes with an inductance > 10 μH are sufficiently dimensioned and a long service life for the protective combination is guaranteed. .8. Normally live parts must be insulated. is offered as a complete lightning current tested mains connection unit (Figure 5.2 Application of arresters in different system configurations. there may not be any hazard (by electric shock). 5.1 g).182 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1.1.1.1 e Decoupling inductance DEHNbridge coordinates lightning current arresters and surge arresters decoupling inductances. decoupling choke and surge arrester.6.6. especially at the coordination between lightning current and surge arresters.8. This measure is called ‘protection against direct contact’.

1.8. type Netz-AK.1.1 g Mains connection box. tested by lightning impulse current Figure 5.1 h Necessary decoupling line length for class C and D arresters .8.1.1 f Mounting assembly of the protective combination DEHNport® – DEHNbridge – DEHNguard® in the TN–C system Figure 5.6. effect and application 183 Figure 5.8.Components and protective devices: construction.6.6.

In all other circuits higher contact voltages must be disconnected automatically within 5 s. • Further letters describe protective conductor: the running of the neutral conductor and ‘S’ neutral conductor and protective conductor are separated ‘C’ neutral conductor and protective conductor are combined (in one conductor).184 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Usually. There are three basic types of distribution: (i) the TN-system.g. According to IEC 60364-4-41 a complete low-voltage distribution system from the current source to the final equipment is mainly characterized by: • earthing conditions of the current source (e. (ii) the TT-system and (iii) the IT-system. These letters have the following meanings: • The first letter describes the earthing conditions of the feeding current source: ‘T’ direct earthing of one point of the current source (usually the neutral of the transformer winding) ‘I’ insulation of all active parts from earth or bonding of one point of the current source to earth via an impedance. If triggered by fault these measures cause automatic disconnection or indication.2 s). Higher contact voltages must be disconnected automatically at least after 5 s (in special cases within 0. regardless of a possible earthing of one point of the current supply ‘N’ exposed conductive parts are directly bonded with the operational earth electrode (earthing of the current source). the maximum permissible permanent contact voltage UL is 50 V AC and 120 V DC. low-voltage side of the distribution transformer) • earthing conditions of the exposed conductive parts in electrical consumer systems.2 s in circuits of 35 A nominal current with socket outlets and in circuits containing class I portable equipment which is normally kept in hand during operation. letter earthing • The secondparts ofdescribes the system: conditions of the exposed conductive the electrical ‘T’ exposed conductive parts are directly earthed. Installing measures for ‘protection in case of indirect contact’ will entail a contract dealing with system type and protective equipment. Protective measures for indirect contact with protective conductors are described in IEC 60364-4-41. Higher contact voltages which may arise from a fault must be disconnected automatically within 0.. .

Protective equipment that can be installed as protection for the case of indirect contact in the different systems is as follows: • overcurrent protective device • residual current devicedevice • insulation minitoring protective device. • fault voltage-operated As already mentioned. All other protective measures.Components and protective devices: construction. coordination between system type and protective equipment is necessary. (ii) TN–C and (iii) TN–C–S. three variants are possible for the TN-system: (i) TN–S. can lead to conflict situations. in the case of arresters in connection with residual current circuit breakers. • • • • • • • • • (b) TT-system with: overcurrent protective device residual current device fault voltage-operated protective device. however. Also arrester faults must be taken into account (even though they would seem to be unlikely). (c) IT-system with: overcurrent protective device residual current device insulation monitoring device fault voltage-operated protective device. The following protective equipment can be installed in the different systems: • overcurrent protective device • residual current devicedevice • insulation monitoring protective device. . This is especially important as lightning current and surge arresters are always installed towards the protective conductor which. such as lightning and surge protection (of electrical systems and installations) must be subordinate to the protective measures taken for the case of indirect contact with a protective conductor (considering the system type and the protective equipment) and must not be annulled by the use of protective gear (for lightning and surge protection). as follows: (a) TN-system with: overcurrent protective device residual current device. • fault voltage-operated Measures of personnel protection are of top priority in the installation of power systems. effect and application 185 Thus.

is interpreted as a residual current by the upstream residual current circuit breaker. but only to an impulse amplitude of 250 A (8/20 μs) or as a selective type of residual current circuit breaker (marked by | S |) up to an impulse amplitude of 3 kA (8/20 μs). applicable for residual current devices. A further argument for the installation of arresters upstream of the Figure 5.2 a Installation of arresters downstream of the residual-current device (RCD) . be avoided.1. Arresters of classes B and C. have a much higher nominal impulse current discharge capacity.2 a shows an arrangement of arresters downstream of the residual current circuit breaker (seen in direction of power flow) intended to realize the ‘protection in case of indirect contact’.186 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. however.6.8. For such an arrangement it may occur that the surge current. requires that residual current circuit breakers must be surge-proof.8. Thus. the residual current circuit breaker will try to interrupt the circuit concerned. Especially in class B arresters (lightning current arresters). A mistripping of the residual current circuit breaker is undesirable in view of the supplying safety of the consumer system and shall. The product standard IEC 61008-1.1.8. The discharged surge currents now no longer flow through the residual current circuit breaker and cannot be interpreted as residual current.6. the residual current circuit breaker should be of such a quality (i) that it could safely carry surge currents conducted by the lightning current arrester and (ii) that there is no mistripping at such surge current stressing. provided for application in the permanent installation.2 b. Mistripping of the residual current circuit breaker is thus avoided. A remedy for this problem is an arrester installation (in direction of power flow) upstream of the residual current circuit breaker as shown in Figure 5. which will be discharged towards the protective conductor (PE) at overvoltage limitation. therefore.6.1.

. due to ageing reasons) or they are short-circuited by a sudden high energy input.6.2 c. perhaps.2 b Installation of arresters upstream of RCD residual current circuit breaker can be obtained from a close consideration of Figure 5. on the one hand.6. are subject to overloading. the current arising over exposed conductive parts of the equipment will not be clearly identified as residual current and might. A description now follows of the application of lightning current and . arresters of classes B and C must be installed (in the direction of power flow) upstream of the residual current circuit breaker.2 c. If there is such a faulty arrester between N and PE in a constellation according to Figure 5. effect and application 187 Figure 5. especially those of classes B and C. leading to a safe disconnection of the residual current circuit breaker.1. as shown in Figure 5. it provides a bonding link between neutral (N) and protective conductor (PE) downstream of the residual current circuit breaker.8.1.g.8.6.1. the residual current arising can be clearly identified at a defective piece of equipment downstream of the residual current circuit breaker. defective equipment is rather rare. This double fault which. Therefore. Thus. This short-circuited arrester is a critical detail if installed downstream of the residual current circuit breaker. Because of its location between N and PE.8. not lead to the required disconnection of the residual current circuit breaker.1. Overloaded arresters will either be disconnected from the mains by the thermal disconnector according to E DIN VDE 0675 Part 6 (e. including the arrester.6. All parts of the electrical installation. should also be taken into consideration when considering the safety of the personnel. To safeguard the ‘protection at indirect contact’ in connection with the use of arresters. if the equipment is faulty.8. only overcurrent protective devices are accepted as disconnection elements.2 d.Components and protective devices: construction. on the other hand. provides a short-circuited arrester between N and PE although.

1.8. Therefore.e. 5..6. The reader should note that the solutions presented show the application of lightning current arresters in the area of the service entrance box (i.2 c Faulty arrester and faulty equipment downstream of RCD Figure 5. For the TN-system overcurrent and residual current protective devices are permitted for ‘protection in case of indirect contact’.6.2. (ii) TT and (iii) IT systems. Such wiring proposals have been introduced in the German standard draft E DIN VDE 0100–534/A1. in the area in front of the meter).6.2 d Faulty arrester upstream of RCD and faulty equipment downstream of RCD surge arresters in different system configurations: (i) TN.1. the competent power supplying company should be approached for permission to install lightning current arresters before the meter.8.8.1 TN system.188 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. Lightning current and surge arresters (classes B and C) may only be installed behind overcurrent protective devices for ‘protection in .1.

On using a surge current proof residual current circuit breaker.6.8. Rated voltages valid for the use of class B.1 a Application of arresters in the TN–C–S system . Class D surge arresters are conceived for a nominal discharge capability of 1.2. These class D surge arresters for terminal protection usually provide transverse surge protection (surges between L and N). thus the residual current circuit breaker cannot interpret a residual current.1. Figures 5.2.8.1.6. Figure 5.2.8.8.1 × 230 V = 253 V Figure 5. Lightning current and surge arresters in the TN–S system are shown in Figures 5.1 b to e show the arresters introduced in chapters 5. Arresters used in connection with fuses must be considered as overcurrent protective equipment.1. this becomes URc ≥ 1. effect and application 189 case of indirect contact’ to safeguard measures of personnel protection also in case of an arrester fault.6. an additional separate backup fuse in the arrester branch must be provided.1 a shows lightning current and surge arresters in the TN–C–S system.5 kA (8/20 μs).1 × UN For a 230/400 V system. these surge currents cannot trip or damage the residual current circuit breaker.2 to 5.1 f to j . This shows that class D surge arresters are installed downstream of the residual current circuit breaker.2.4 within the concept of lightning protection zones and the necessary lightning and surge protection measures for a TN–C–S system.Components and protective devices: construction.8.8. C and D arresters in the TN system are as follows: Uc ≥ 1.1. At a surge limitation between L and N there is no surge current discharge to PE. Depending on the strength of the next backup supply fuse and on the capacity of the arrester backup fuse.6.

1.1 c Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–C system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc® (three pole) Figure 5.6.8.8.6.6.2.1 d Overvoltage protection in the TN–C system: Mounting diagram DEHNguard® / DEHNguard® T .190 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.2.2.1 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–C system: Mounting diagram DEHNport® Figure 5.8.1.1.

8.1 f Application of arresters in the TN–S system Figure 5.8.1.2.2.6. effect and application 191 Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.2.6. SF or S protector) Figure 5.1.8.1 g Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–S system: Mounting diagram DEHNport® .1 e Overvoltage protection of the terminal equipment in the TN– C–S system: Mounting diagram surge protective device NM–DK 280 (alternative protective gear: NSM–.1.6.

2.1.1 h Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TN–S system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc® (three pole) / DEHNbloc® (one pole) Figure 5.1.6.2.1 i Overvoltage protection in the TN–S system: Mounting diagram DEHNguard® / DEHNguard® T Figure 5.8.8.6.1 j Overvoltage protection of terminal equipment in the TN–S system: Mounting diagram surge protective device NSMprotector (alternative protective gear: NM–DK 280.6.1.2.192 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8. S or SF protector) .

at least ≥ 250 V AC.6.2. Should there be a fault (i.2). however.1 × 230 V = 253 V with arresters between N and PE Uc ≥ 1. In the TT-system overcurrent protective devices. L2. II. show that for the TN system there would be no short-circuit currents in the case of a fault.1 × UN arresters between N and PE Uc ≥ 1. in the case of a defective arrester). are relevant to the application of arresters in the TT-system: arresters between L and N Uc ≥ 1.1.5 V that is. short-circuit currents must flow. This ensures that in case of a defective arrester a shortcircuit current can be generated in the TT-system which will trip the next backup overcurrent protective device. lightning currents basically arise towards earth (PE).1. as in Figure 5. residual current devices and in special cases also fault voltage-operated protective devices are permitted for ‘protection in case of indirect contact’. Concerning the lightning current carrying capacity of the arresters between N and PE the following data for lightning protection level must be achieved as a minimum: . however.5 that is. Class B and C arresters in the TT system are therefore installed in L towards N.6.1. Earth-fault currents.2. An arrester arrangement in the TT system. currents must flow which would cause an automatic disconnection of the overcurrent protective devices within 5 s. the lightning current and surge arresters are installed downstream of the overcurrent protective devices (Section 5.8.2 TT-system. effect and application 193 5.6. but only earth-fault currents.1 × UN × 0. The lightning current-carrying capacity of class B arresters is rated in accordance with lightning protection levels I.e. cannot trip an upstream overcurrent protective device in the required time period. In other words. The following rated voltages. for a 230/400 V TT system: with arresters between L and N Uc ≥ 1. By installing class B and C arresters in the TT-system the conditions for the use of overcurrent protective devices in ‘protection in case of indirect contact’ must be fulfilled.1.8.Components and protective devices: construction.1 × UN × 0. L3 and N nondestructively. Thus.6. As.1 a and 5. an N–PE arrester must form the bond between N and PE.1 f..5 = 126.8. III/IV of IEC 61024-1. Uc. at least UC ≥ 250 V.2. The N–PE lightning current arrester must meet especially high demands as it must be able to carry the lightning partial currents of L1. Also here.8.

2. Nevertheless. Figure 5.2 a shows lightning current and surge arresters in the TT system.1. The surge current discharged by these surge arresters usually is so low that it will not be interpreted as residual current by the residual current circuit breaker. Class C arresters are also installed between L and N as well as between N and PE. a surge current proof residual current circuit breaker should be provided.6.6. class D surge arresters are installed after the residual current circuit breaker.6.8.1.194 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems I II III/IV Iimp ≥ 100 kA (10/350 μs) Iimp ≥ 75 kA (10/350 μs) Iimp ≥ 50 kA (10/350 μs).1.8.6.2 a Application of arresters in the TT system Figure 5.2.2 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TT system: Mounting diagram DEHNport® / DEHNgap B . Figure 5.2.2. Figures 5. A discharge capacity of iN > 20 kA (8/20 μs) is required for the arrester between N and PE in connection with class C arresters.8.8. As in the TN system.1.2 b to e show installations of this kind.

2.2 c Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the TT system: Mounting diagram DEHNbloc® / DEHNgap B Figure 5.8.1.1.2 d Overvoltage protection in the TT system: Mounting diagram DEHNguard®/DEHNgap C. NM–DK 280) .6.2. DEHNguard® T/DEHNgap C Figure 5.8.1.6. effect and application 195 Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.8.2 e Overvoltage protection of terminal equipment in the TT system: Mounting diagram surge protective adapter S/SF protector (alternative protective gear: NSM protector.6.2.

so that processes or productions (e. the installation of class B and class C arresters upstream of the residual current circuit breaker is advisable.196 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 5.8. as well as fault voltage-operated protective devices in special cases. Whereas. in the TN. therefore.3 IT-system.2.1.g. which is not dangerous because through the protective conductor all exposed conductive parts and touchable metal parts have this potential. Different arresters in the IT-system are shown in Figures 5. in a 230/400 V IT-system there is a potential of 400 V at the non-faulty arresters in the case of a defective arrester.3 Selection of arrester backup fuses. . are permitted for the IT-system as ‘protection in case of indirect contact’.8. the IT-system then changes over into a TN.1.3 a shows lightning current and surge arresters in the IT-system. in the chemical industry) already begun can still be finished.8. Arrester data sheets usually indicate the maximum permissible backup fuse for the arrester.2.3 b and c. Nevertheless.1 × UN × √ 3 thus. for a 230/440 V–IT-system.6. A contact voltage that is too high cannot occur because an earth reference is made in the IT-system at first fault.2 are applicable..2.8. C and D in the IT-system the following rated voltages are applicable: Uc ≥ 1.6. With respect to the use of arresters in the IT-system in connection with a protective device for the ‘protection in case of indirect contact’ the statements of section 5. safely continue after the first fault. there is only an indication of fault in the IT-system.or TT-system the ‘protection in case of indirect contact’ at first fault is guaranteed by the corresponding disconnection conditions of the overcurrent protective devices or residual current devices.8.or TTsystem. Overcurrent protective devices. At the first fault the protective conductor PE takes the potential of the defective phase. residual current devices.6. Uc ≥ 1. For the use of arresters of class B. 5.1.6. the IT-system potential of the non-faulty conductors to earth corresponds to the potential between the phases.1 × 230 V × √ 3 Uc > 440 V For a second fault in the IT-system a protective device must then be tripped.6. Thus. This indication is required by the product standards IEC 61343-1/DIN VDE 0675 part 6. insulation monitoring devices. in the IT-system too. With regard to its operating state. Thus. This possible operating state must be taken into account on selecting the arresters with regard to their rated voltage. Figure 5. it must be considered that in case of the first fault.1. An IT-system can. so there are no dangerous potential differences to be bridged.

3 a Application of arresters in the IT system Figure 5.2.1.3 c Surge protection in the distribution cabinet in the IT system: Mounting diagram DEHNguard® / DEHNguard® T The primary task of this arrester backup fuse is to safeguard the shortcircuit capability.1.1.2. Special types of arrester have integrated this . Standardized testing of the arrester’s short-circuit capability will prevent dangerous sparking of the arrester in the case of an internal short circuit (which may be due to a surge current that exceeds the nominal discharge capacity of the arrester) and the generated 50 Hz short-circuit current.6. effect and application 197 Figure 5.8.6.2.6.Components and protective devices: construction.8.3 b Lightning protection equipotential bonding in the IT system: Mounting diagram DEHNport® Figure 5.8.

This guarantees a high nominal discharge capability of the arrester. Most arresters on the market.1. separate backup fuses having the nominal value of the maximum permissible backup fuse must be installed before the arrester (Figure 5. Spark gap arresters generate a 50 Hz Figure 5.3 b).6.8.1.6. however.6. the next upstream system fuse can be taken as the backup fuse for the arrester if its nominal value does not exceed that of the maximum permissible fuse (Figure 5.8.198 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems backup fuse in their enclosure. however.1. Therefore.1.6.8. the nominal value of the system fuses F1–F3 exceeds the nominal value of the maximum backup fuses for the arresters.3 b Application of separate arrester backup fuses .8. These are mostly designed as spark gap arresters in view of the high electrical and mechanical stress on discharging a lightning current.3 a Use of system fuses as arrester backup fuses Figure 5. are not equipped with such a backup fuse. If.3 a). In addition to securing short-circuit capability there is still another function of an arrester backup fuse which is especially important for class B arresters (lightning current arresters).

1. In Figure 5. To keep this loading of parts of the power system as low as possible. Spark gaps meeting these requirements are constructed as multiple gliding spark gaps (as used in the lightning current arresters DEHNport©.8. load their upstream fuses (arrester backup fuses) with mains short-circuit currents. the backup fuse must disconnect the mains follow-current. Most service entrances have a prospective short-circuit current below 3 kAeff (50 Hz) so that there are few practical cases where the backup fuse must disconnect a mains follow-current higher than 4 kA. lightning current arresters). DEHNbloc© NH).6.1. Spark gap arresters are usually able to quench mains follow-currents having a prospective short-circuit current value of about 4 kAeff (50 Hz). On the operation of this type of spark gap. two partial arcs will be generated which oppose the emergence of a mains follow-current already from the beginning of the arc by the total voltage drop of both arcs. the spark gaps must be designed in such a way that not every discharge process generates a mains follow-current.e. This diagram reveals that Figure 5. If the prospective short-circuit current exceeds the arrester mains follow-current quenching capability. arresters based on spark gaps (i.Components and protective devices: construction.3 c Comparison of the follow-current frequency (in %) of lightning current arresters with spark gaps . effect and application 199 mains follow-current which must be safely quenched after the decay of the lightning interference.6. due to the operation of which a mains follow-current can be generated. DEHNbloc©.8.3 c a lightning current arrester with tandem gliding spark gap is compared with a usual simple spark gap with respect to the frequency of a generated mains follow-current. This mains follow-current can be as high as the prospective short-circuit current at the place of installation of the lightning current arrester. In particular.

200 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems mains follow-currents are less frequent with a multiple gliding spark gap and that the stressing of the arrester backup fuse and the upstream power system by mains short-circuit currents is considerably reduced.1. the (ii) Figure 5. Depending on the nominal current of the fuse and the surge current in the test. Figure 5. After the melting integral of the fuse has been exceeded by the lightning surge current.8. In contrast to mains follow-currents.6.1. Figure 5.6. (i) No melting.3 b. an arc will be generated in the fuse which will be realized by the potential over the fuse. The energy input by the lightning surge current is too low for the fuse strip to be melted.3 d shows the fuse characteristics. The energy of the lightning surge current is high enough to melt the fuse strip of the NH fuse and thus to interrupt the current path through the fuse. Melting.3 d Performance of NH fuses during the impulse current loading 10/350 μs .8. (ii) melting and (iii) explosion.1.6.6. Typical for the fuse performance is that the impressed lightning surge current keeps on flowing without being influenced by the behaviour of the fuse.8.6. With respect to the use of lightning current arresters in power systems and fuses it must be taken into account that they are first loaded by lightning surge currents followed by the mains short-circuit currents.1. An installation of the arresters (according to Figure 5. For the arrester configuration according to Figure 5. there are three different characteristics of NH fuses: (i) no melting.3 e shows the oscillogram of a fuse melting by lightning surge currents. lightning surge currents in the power system cannot be avoided as these are impressed currents.6.8.1.3 a.8.8.1. The performance of NH fuses at lightning surge current loading has been closely examined.3 a) guarantees the continued supply to the downstream consumer as is the case at a configuration according to Figure 5.

6: 1. (iii) Explosion.Components and protective devices: construction. Under the aspect of selectivity let the nominal current of the fuses F1–F3 be 160 A and the nominal current of the fuses F4–F6 be 100 A.8. The nominal current of F4–F6 then shall be as high as the maximum permissible arrester backup fuse. This voltage drop is a driving voltage for downstream arresters and might cause their overloading. Such a configuration is not selective under lightning surge current loading! Thus.3 e) occurs in the arrester branch. Thus.6. effect and application 201 Figure 5. This configuration is loaded by a lightning surge current of 25 kA (10/350 μs) for each path. To avoid this effect. The energy of the lightning surge current is so high that the fuse strip of the NH fuse evaporates in an explosion. if F1–F3 are stronger than the indicated maximum permissible arrester backup fuse.8. At such a loading F1–F3 as well as F4–F6 will be tripped according to Figure 5.1. As a result.6. the enclosure of the NH fuse may split (Figure 5.6. the voltage drop of the melting fuses F4–F6 2 kV (according to 5. Practically this means that the relation of the nominal currents of the fuses F1–F3 to F4–F6 is 1.3 f). arrester fuses F4–F6 must be as strong as possible which.1. Beside these mechanical .1. that is to say in parallel with the protected consumer-system.8.1. More severely still. the downstream consumer system would be disconnected.8. To emphasize this statement consider the following example. in practice.3 b comes to the fore.8. the solution variant according to Figure 5.3 d.3 e Current and voltage at a melting 25 A NH fuse during a lightning impulse current loading (10/350 μs) downstream consumer system then will be disconnected. means that F4–F6 only must be used.6. This selective characteristic of fuses is only relevant with regard to the mains follow-currents (50 Hz) but not with regard to lightning surge currents.6.1. Sometimes it is suggested to choose fuses of size F4–F6 selectively to the fuses F1–F3.

On application of the permitted maximum backup fuse. the maximum follow-current quenching capacity of the arrester is also Figure 5.3 f NH fuse burst due to lightning impulse current loading . Particularly in the case of lightning current arresters based on spark gaps.8. (ii) Securing short-circuit withstand capability of the arresters. mains follow-currents may arise. This is the task of the backup fuses of all arresters of classes B.1.6. under no circumstances. be exceeded. C and D (for arresters in class D. additional residual current circuit breakers can be used). Different problems require solutions for the arrester backup fuses in their fields of application. Consider the following: (i) Protection against indirect contact in case of defective arresters. (iii) Disconnection of too high mains follow-currents. For this purpose the fuses must be designed in such a way that the defective arresters will be safely disconnected from the low-voltage system in the required time.202 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems effects there are also the electrical aspects described under ‘melting’ (note (ii) above). To guarantee the short-circuit withstand capability indicated by the producer the permitted maximum backup fuse must.

1. the backup fuse of a lightning current arrester must be as strong as possible and separate backup fuses in the arrester branch should be avoided if the system conditions allow it.8.1. the pre-arcing current through the examined arrester in RADAX-flow technology is only about 1. If there is a weaker backup fuse. If this value is transferred to a diagram.23) of the arrester DEHN® Maxi in RADAX-flow technology.8. one obtains Figure 5. Obviously it is only a very low share of the theoretically possible current that loads the arrester and thus the whole low voltage system. A further effect of the high arc resistance is the reduction of the duration of current flow. In the right part of the oscillogram the effective limitation of the mains follow-current is readable..3 g shows the typical breaking oscillogram (uninfluenced short-circuit surge current 37 kAeff’. This shows the let-through current integral (∫ I 2t) of a RADAX-flow arrester at different short-circuit currents. circuit breakers). To conclude the subject of ‘arrester backup fuses’ consider yet again the follow-current extinguishing capability of the lightning current arrester DEHNport® Maxi introduced in section 5.3 h.6.1.8. The typical ‘dipping’ of the system voltage of conventional spark gaps will not occur.8.1. effect and application 203 reached.1. It represents the uninfluenced (i.Components and protective devices: construction.3 b) are weaker than the maximum permitted arrester backup fuse and additionally F1–F6 are required (allowing the disconnection of the arrester branch for maintenance) then for F4–F6 NH-disconnecting blades should be used.3 g Interruption of a short-circuit current by RADAX-flow technology (DEHNport® Maxi) .e. This excludes interference in electronic devices which are sensitive to voltage dips or voltage supply deviations. cos φ = 0. Therefore. Figure 5. The spark gap arc voltage shown in the left part of the Figure is in its amplitude almost equal to the system voltage.6. If the system fuses F1–F3 (Figure 5. the theoretically possible) as well as the following short-circuit current through the arrester.7 kA.6.6. as is usual for the selectivity considerations of overcurrent protective devices (fuses. For better classification the melting integrals of NH fuses of different nominal currents Figure 5. mains follow-currents will be disconnected which might be safely quenched by the arrester itself.8. The oscillogram shows that. even in case of an impulse short-circuit current of 37 kAeff.2.

Berlin/Offenbach) Nov. Arresters in RADAX-flow technology can.1.8.6. Feb. Änderung A1 zum Entwurf . The integral of the let-through current remains lower than the melting integral of a 40 A NH fuse.1989 E DIN VDE 0675-6/A1 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A1): ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V’. meaning that this fuse will not trip. effectively limit short-circuit currents of 50 kAeff.1. as Figure 5. International Electrotechnical Commission. 1998 E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V’.3 h Selectivity limit current DEHNport ® Maxi at different backup fuses are indicated. (VDE Verlag.6. Geneva.8. GmbH. The letthrough current limitation secures the selectivity between the overcurrent protective devices in the low-voltage consumer system and the lightning current arresters. On using an arrester of class B (lightning current arrester) in RADAX-flow technology in the main current supply system the tripping of the backup fuse at the service entrance or meter board by mains follow currents is avoided.3 h shows. Sources IEC 61643–1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to low-voltage power distribution systems – Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods’.204 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. Operation of the lightning current arrester remains practically unnoticed by the user. 3 rue de Varembe.

Dec. 51. HASSE. Berlin. Pflaum Verlag. (12). pp.. 1996. P. International Electrotechnical Commission.. P. GmbH. (3). 1996. Berlin.. 1992 IEC 61008-1: ‘Residual current operated circuit-breakers without integral overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCCBs). Teil 2. International Electrotechnical Commission. 9–10. P. and NOACK. and WIESINGER. 1993) HASSE.: ‘Blitz und Überspannungsschutz-Massnahmen in NS-Anlagen’. Feb. J. pp. 1996 DEHN u. 1997. P. Änderung A2 zum Entwurf DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6) (VDE Verlag. 1995 IEC 60664-1: ‘Insulation coordination for equipment within low-voltage systems – Part 1: Principles. Berlin. Elektrie. F. Geneva. 7–8 . 944–951. RAAB. 51. Überspannungs-Schutzeinrichtungen – Änderung A1 (Vorschlag für eine Europäische Norm)’. P. 1992 IEC 60364-4-41: ‘Electrical installations of buildings – Part 4: Protection for safety’. 12. J. etz. 1996. Berlin/Offenbach) March 1996 E DIN VDE 0675-6/A2 (VDE 0675 Teil 6/A2): ‘Überspannungsableiter. 1993) RAAB. and ZAHLMANN.: ‘Konzeptionelles Vorgehen beim Blitz und Überspannungsschutz komplexer Anlagen’. (6).Components and protective devices: construction. 1996. München. 1998. Elektropraktiker.. J. and WIESINGER. 69–73. pp. effect and application 205 DIN VDE 0675-6 (VDE 0675 Teil 6) (VDE Verlag.. Chapter 41: ‘Protection against electric shock’. DS 641/E/597. POSPIECH. Geneva. P. pp. Geneva. V. Teil 1. HASSE. (11). Oct. Geneva. ZAHLMANN. J. 49–54. Neumaret) May 1997 HASSE. Elektropraktiker. Teil 6: Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V’. BROCKE. Elektrotechnik.: ‘Generationswechsel bei Blitzstrom–Ableiter für Niederspannungsanlagen’. 50. P. March 1990 E DIN VDE 0100-534/A1 (VDE 0100 Teil 534/A1): ‘Elektrische Anlagen von Gebäuden. 1996 IEC 61024-1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning – Part 1: General principles’. (VDE Verlag.. requirements and tests. HASSE. NOACK. International Electrotechnical Commission. Neumaret) March 1997 DEHN u. International Electrotechnical Commission. 1996. Berlin. p. 1043–1046. Pflaum Verlag. pp. DS 655/E/397. V. P..: ‘Folgestrombegrenzender Blitzstrom-Ableiter für Hauptstromversorgungssysteme’. F. Berlin. No. and EHRLER. – Part 1: General principles’.: ‘Handbuch für Blitzschutz und Erdung’ (VDE Verlag. SÖHNE: ‘Energy coordination – The selective surge protection’. International Electrotechnical Commission. R. Auswahl und Errichtung von Betriebsmitteln.: ‘Blitzstrom–Ableiter mit Selbstblas-Funkenstrecken – Ein neues Wirkprinzip für den Blitzschutz in Niederspannungsnetzen’. GmbH. 1996 IEC 61312-1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1: General principles’. (2).. München. 50. Oct. 1997. J. pp.. Schaltgeräte und Steuergeräte. (Dehn + Söhne. Berlin/Offenbach) Oct.: ‘EMV – Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (VDE Verlag. GmbH.. SÖHNE: ‘Installation of SPD for power supply systems and equipment’. POSPIECH. 53–58. Berlin/Offenbach) Oct. and ZAHLMANN.. (Dehn + Söhne. Geneva. Fourth edn.

Highest demands. with regard to their discharge capability.2 a). There are two types of arrester depending on the requirements and loading at their place of installation in accordance with the concept of lightning protection zones. Overvoltage limiting elements with decreasing limiting voltage and decreasing energy loadability are connected in series.8. Within the scope of the lightning and surge protection system they are installed at the interface of the lightning protection zone 0A/1. These are. namely. are made on lightning current arresters.8.2 a Graded protection (stepped protection in accordance with DIN VDE 0845) .206 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 5. inductors. They prevent disturbing lightning partial currents from penetrating into the information technology network. To guarantee interference-free and surge-proof operation of information technology equipment a disturbance arising in the information system must be limited to a level which is below the interference or destruction limit of the equipment. capacitors or filters. (i) lightning current arresters (which are tested by an impulse current wave 10/350 μs) and (ii) surge arresters (which are tested by an impulse current wave 8/20 μs). Decoupling elements can be resistors. Protective circuits gradually reduce surges by the series connection of overvoltage limiting modules and decoupling elements (Figure 5. The interference and destruction Figure 5.2 Arresters for information technology According to IEC 61644-1/DIN VDE 0845 the generic term ‘surge protective devices (SPDs)’ in the field of information technology does not only mean modules but also includes protective circuits which limit the overvoltages in systems and equipment to permissible values.8.

Figure 5. Each of these electrical parameters of the signal to be transmitted can contain the information which shall be actually transmitted. A starting point is offered by the indicated surge immunity against impulse shaped surges which has been tested in EMC surge immunity tests according to IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5. surge arresters must limit the disturbing influences to values below the surge immunity of the equipment to protect. To facilitate understanding the protective devices are classified according to whether they are mainly used in measuring and control systems (chapter 5.2 d). are largely unknown and not indicated. Arresters used in the information technology side of a system protected as described will be introduced by way of examples in the following Sections. however.8.Components and protective devices: construction.2) are also introduced.8. .3). 0–10 V) (e. 4–20 mA) (symmetrical.2. The power system is included into the lightning protection equipotential bonding by lightning current arresters at the interface of lightning protection zones 0 and 1. digital).2.g. Signals must therefore not be influenced by the installation of lightning current and surge arresters in information technology systems..2 b).1) or mainly in data networks/systems (chapter 5. effect and application 207 limits of the equipment. building or room shielding measures have been realized at the interfaces of lightning protection zones 0 and 1 as well as at lightning protection zones 1 and 2. The surge protection of the information technology system is structured analogously.2 c) and (iii) at equipment inputs (Figure 5. unsymmetrical) (DC.2 e shows the installation of lightning current and surge arresters at computing centre interfaces in accordance with the concept of lightning protection zones. To avoid disturbances or even the destruction of information technology equipment.8. LF. Combined protective devices for power and information technology equipment inputs (chapter 5. To reduce the influence of the electromagnetic field. there are different types of arresters for the individual places of application in the information technology.8..8.g. HF) (analogue. In contrast to the selection of protective devices in power systems which have uniform conditions in the 230/400 V system regarding voltage and frequency.2. there are different kinds of signals to be transmitted in information technology systems in terms of the following: • • • • • voltage current signal supply frequency type of signal (e. as has already been detailed in Section 5.8. (ii) at socket outlets (Figure 5. such as (i) in a permanent installation (Figure 5. As for power engineering.8.2. The local equipotential bonding at the transition of the lines from lightning protection zones 1 to 2 is achieved by surge arresters. 0–20 mA.

2 b Blitzductor®s CT for protecting the measuring and control technology of a petrochemical system (installed in a protective cabinet) Figure 5.2 c Data socket outlets with surge arresters Figure 5.2 d Pluggable surge arresters for use at terminal equipment .8.8.208 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8.

Massnahmen gegen Überspannungen’ (VDE Verlag. Aug.: ‘EMV-Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept München (Pflaum Verlag. The energy coordinated arrester family Blitzductor® CT will serve as an example to describe the construction.1: ‘Surge protective devices connected to telecommunications and signalling networks – Part 1: Performance requirements and testing methods’.Components and protective devices: construction.8. GmbH. Geneva. 1998 DIN VDE 0845 Teil 1: ‘Schutz von Fernmeldeanlagen gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. effect and application 209 Figure 5. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc.1 Arresters for measuring and control systems Blitzductor®s as protective devices for measuring and control systems have had a proven record for decades. 1997 5. and WIESINGER. 1987 E DIN VDE 0845 Teil 2: ‘Schutz von Einrichtungen der Informationsverarbeitungs und Telekommunikationstechnik gegen Blitzeinwirkungen. J. International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva 1995 HASSE. .8. P.. effects and application of this type of arrester. statische Aufladungen und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. Berlin/Offenbach) DEHN u. Berlin/ Offenbach) Oct. Oct. Berlin/Offenbach: VDE Verlag.2. International Electrotechnical Commission. GmbH. to IEC 61312-1.2 e Lightning partial current proof interface connection for a computer centre with asymmetrical interface (V24/RS 232 C) Sources IEC 61644-1 Ed. SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Anforderungen und Prüfungen von Überspannungs-schutzeinrichtungen’ (VDE Verlag. Entladung statischer Elektrizität und Überspannungen aus Starkstromanlagen. DS 656/E/897’. 1993 IEC 61000-4-5: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques (Section 5): Surge immunity test’. Berlin/Offenbach) Oct.

2.8.210 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 5.1 b Blitzductor® CT.1. type MD. By means of a contact Figure 5. The Blitzductor® CT.1. as a fourpole structure (Figure 5.8. The Blitzductor® CT is designed in two parts (Figure 5.c.2. a).8.1 a): Protection modules are fitted on a universal base (which can be used almost independently from the operating parameters of the circuit to be protected like a modular terminal block).1.8.1.1 b). protection and performance of the surge protective device for the interface to be protected. Since it has a width of only 12 mm (2/3 module) and a height of 58 mm a space-saving installation is possible.. These can be plugged into the universal base (Figure 5. telephone lines) .2.1. A choice of more than 40 protective modules is available to provide for optimal discharge capability.2.1.g.1. for application in earth-free signal lines (e.8.2.1 Blitzductor® CT: Construction and mode of functioning.1 a Blitzductor® CT with different protective modules Figure 5.2. has two input and two output terminals to connect one double wire (type D) or two single wires (type E).8.

These protective types of module include: (i) the lightning current arrester. which will be already inserted at the pre-installation stage.8.1 e). The protective devices are safely earthed via the DIN rail (according to EN 50 0229) and the snap-on base support. (ii) .8. Protective module type M is dimensioned as a ‘surge arrester’ for nominal discharge currents isn: 10 kA (per wire) wave shape 8/20 μs (Figure 5.1. means that space can be reserved for complete surge protection.1.2. Thus earthing and equipotential bonding systems can be realized which are adjusted according to the system to protect. effect and application 211 Figure 5.2.8. the protective module can be exchanged during its live state without interruption of the signal transmission.1. To realize the complex protection philosophy there are also screen terminals at the base (for contacting the screens of cables).Components and protective devices: construction.1 c (a) Blitzductor® CT: left: plug-in protective module. With these base elements a universal pre-wiring of the system becomes possible without even knowing the later operating parameters.2. This changes the modular terminal blocks into an adjusted protective device. There are three ‘performance categories’ of the Blitzductor® CT. right: base mechanism in the base. later. the operating parameters are known then adequate protective modules are employed. This is particularly advantageous when planning in accordance with the concept of lightning protection zones.1 c. (ii) the surge arrester and (iii) the combined arrester. If. b).8. Thus (i) Protective module type B (Figure 5.1. Use of the Blitzductor® CT bases.5 kA (per wire) wave shape 10/350 μs.2. Direct or indirect earthing of the cable screen is possible by the insertion of a gas discharge arrester into the base bay (Figure 5.1 d) is designed as a ‘lightning current arrester’ for impulse currents Iimp: 2.

1. type M .212 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8.1 d Blitzductor® CT. protective module type B: top: basic circuit diagram.5 kA (10/350 μs) per wire Figure 5.1 c (b) Blitzductor® CT: left: contacts: base/protective module.8.1 e Rated discharge current isn = 10 kA (8/20 μs) for protective modules.2.8.2.1.1.2. right: circuit Figure 5. bottom: rated discharge current IIMP = 2.

8.2.1 i).2. Protective module ME/C (Figure 5. module MD/HF Figure 5.8.1 g Basic circuit diagram.1 f) earthed signal • Protectivetypical application is for example protects 100 four-phase wires (a the Pt • • • measurement).1 f Basic circuit diagram.2.8.2. effect and application 213 module ME (Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.1.1.1. module ME Figure 5.1 h Basic circuit diagram.2.2.1 h) protects optocoupler inputs or inputs with intrinsic protective circuit (clamping diodes) and therefore has decoupling resistors at the output.2. module MD Figure 5.1.1.1. module MD/Ex .1.8. Protective module MD (Figure 5.1 i Basic circuit diagram.8.1 j Basic circuit diagram.2. Figure 5.1 g) is provided for non-earthed wire pairs (as for symmetric signal wires which are connected via isolating transformers).1.1.8. module ME/C Figure 5.8.8.2.8. Protective module MD/HF is designed for the protection of HFtransmission links and is equipped with a diode-matrix (Figure 5.

214 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems module MD/Ex (Figure 5.1. .1 500 • Protective capability to earth) is provided for j) (having a safe V AC withstand instrinsically meas- uring circuits.2.5 kA (10/350 μs) per wire.2.8.8.8.8.1.1. The nominal voltage is indicated as a DC Figure 5.2. there are two types of Blitzductor® CT: E types (for connecting two single wires and for limiting surges between every wire and earth) and D types (for connecting a double wire and for limiting surges between the two wires). .1 k).1. The voltage limiting characteristic of both types is shown in Figure 5. .1 k Blitzductor® CT.2. Top: basic circuit diagram. with a protection level like a surge arrester protective module M (Figure 5. (iii) Protective module B is designed as a ‘combined arrester’ for impulse currents Iimp: 2.1 l. The nominal voltage indication on the Blitzductor®s CT is the upper value of the signal voltage range which can be transmitted over the protective device under nominal conditions without any limiting effects of the protective device.5 kA (10/350 μs) per wire. Basically. however. however. protective level like surge arrester (M) . Other characteristics to consider include: (i) Nominal voltage. bottom: rated discharge current IIMP = 2. protective module type B .

. Hence. The activating voltage of the gas discharge arrester depends on the rate of rise (du/dt) of the incoming impulse.Components and protective devices: construction. the applied test impulse • Limiting voltage at a 1 kV/μs steepness of the operating characteristic of This test (Figure 5. .1.1 o).1. effect and application 215 Figure 5. so that the overvoltage is almost shortcircuited (Figure 5. Figure 5.1. The specified protection level value is higher than the maximum value of the limiting voltages in the tests.8.8. These protective elements have a ‘switch characteristic’: The mode of function of a gas discharge arrester can be described as a switch. To compare the operating values of different gas discharge arresters a rate of rise of 1 kV/μs will be applied at the electrodes of the gas discharge arrester and the activating value will be determined.8. The standardized procedure is as follows.1. On AC voltage transmission the AC peak value must not exceed the specified nominal voltage.1 n) determines gas discharge arresters. . D value. . the measured limiting voltage being the maximum voltage measured at the terminals of the surge protective device during the loading with surge currents and/or surge voltages (with specified impulse waveshape and amplitude).1. (ii) Protection level.2.2.2.1 Ω (active state) if a certain voltage is exceeded. the higher the rate of time the higher the activating voltage of the gas discharger arrester. voltage at nominal • Limiting (Figure 5.1 q) of protective elements with constant limiting characteristic.1 l Surge limitation of the Blitzductor® CT types . .2.2.2. E and .1 p)discharge current the limiting characteristic This test is for determining (Figure 5. The protection level of the Blitzductor® CT characterizes its performance in limiting the output voltage.8.1. the resistance of which can ‘jump’ automatically from > 10 GΩ (in the inactive state) to values < 0.8.1 m shows nominal voltages for different types of Blitzductor® CT.8.

1 n Test assembly for the determination of the limiting voltage at a voltage rate of rise du/dt = 1 kv/μs Figure 5.2.8.216 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1.2.1.1 o Sparkover characteristic of a gas-filled surge arrester.1.2.8.1 m Nominal voltage data for different Blitzductor® CT types Figure 5. at du/dt = 1 kv/μs .8.

1.1.2.8.2.1 a indicates the nominal currents of different types of Blitzductor® CT. effect and application 217 Figure 5. The cut-off frequency is the frequency which causes (under defined test conditions) an attenuation loss aE of 3 dB (compare E DIN VDE 0845 Part 2: 1993-10).1.8.2.2.Components and protective devices: construction. IN is determined by the current carrying capacity and the power loss of the impedances used for the decoupling between gas discharge arresters and fine protective elements and by the follow-current extinguishing capability of the gas discharge arresters.8.1 s). It is indicated as a DC value. (iv) Cut-off frequency The cut-off frequency describes the behaviour of the Blitzductor® CT in relation to frequency (Figure 5. .8.1.1 r ). Table 5.1 q Limiting voltage at nominal discharge current (iii) Nominal current The nominal current IN of the Blitzductor® CT characterizes the maximum permissible operating current of the measuring and control circuit to protect (Figure 5. This frequency usually refers to a 50 Ω system.1 p Test assembly for the determination of the limiting voltage at nominal discharge current isn Figure 5.8.1.2.

1.2.2.8.2.8.6. proceeding along similar lines would be a failure for information technology interfaces.1.1.1 are also valid for information technology systems. Whereas.1 r Nominal current of Blitzductor® CT Table 5. Owing to the low operating currents of these systems.1 s (v) Typical frequency response of a Blitzductor® CT Energy coordination. however.8. in the case of a low-voltage consumer system. The Blitzductor® CT has integrated decoupling elements so that external decoupling measures can be avoided: These protective devices can be directly installed side by side.218 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. coordination characteristics The regulations for energy coordination specified in section 5. a coordination of arresters by ohmic resistor elements is also possible here.1. one can generally proceed from a surge immunity of the system which has been specified in the scope of the insulation coordination. Only by legal demands for an adequate immunity of the interfaces of information technology equipment due to the EC-general regulations for EMC and the standardization of reproducible testing methods is it possible to describe the important parameters needed for the surge protection of .1 a Nominal currents of the Blitzductor® CT-types Figure 5.8.

Components and protective devices: construction. /EN 61000-4 . thus interpreting by this means ‘sparkover’ or ‘puncturing’ of the insulation as a failure. In contrast to the voltage proof test. The kind of testing used for the equipment to protect is important for the dimensioning of surge protective devices for information technology: Figure 5. As the description of the interference immunity test reveals. However. gas discharge arresters). . Although the ‘voltage proof test’ examines the insulation of the test object.8.1. . during the test. there will be an energetic loading caused by the impulse current at the response of the device protection during the interference immunity test. . . can be the limitation of the test impulse by means of protective elements (diodes.2. The standard series IEC 61000-4 . Such a reaction. on analysing both testing procedures as well as their final background and the test techniques used it is observed that the only common parameter of the tests is the voltage impulse wave of 1. Whereas the current flow. is the most important. varistors. a temporary degradation of the performance is permissible. Functional endurance. there are parallels to the voltage proof test of insulations.1 t. the specimen might otherwise ‘react’ in the ‘interference immunity test’.1. this reaction or response of the protective elements is not considered as a failure.1 t Basic mode of functioning of the Blitzductor® CT .8. is usually almost negligible at voltage proof tests. so that depending on the test specimen. a comparison of the arrester let-through parameters and the impulse parameters of the specified equipment interface immunity is necessary. has been stated for testing a piece of equipment with regard to its immunity against various electrical transients. for example. In addition to the differences in testing approach and evaluation of both tests there is another considerable difference in the current–time loadings at the ‘response’ of the test specimen. effect and application 219 input circuits.2/50 μs of the unloaded generator. Testing with high-energy transient surges as they arise for the case of switching overvoltages or induced lightning overvoltages is described in IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5.2. To decide whether the equipment to protect can withstand the residual let-through impulse of an upstream arrester. in the case of insulation sparkover or puncture in the test circuit. This point is shown in Figure 5.

1. a comparison of the Blitzductor®-let-through values with the impulse parameters of the interference immunity test specified for the equipment interface (acc. To decide whether the equipment to protect withstands the residual let-through impulse of a Blitzductor® CT.2.1 n) must be carried out.8. By determining the permissible input loading of the equipment interface. By introducing ‘coordination characteristics’ (KK) (Figure 5.1.8.1 v) a Blitzductor® CT can easily be coordinated with the equipment to be protected: characteristics the • Coordinationthe Blitzductor provide information about and discharge CT (input characteristic) about its capability of ® • protective effect related to a 2 Ω hybrid impulse (output characteristic).1 u Verification of safe coordination by comparison of the admissible energy loading of a device interface tested in accordance with standard IEC 61000-4-5 with the ‘cut-off energy’ of the protector Blitzductor® CT .2.1. the coordination characteristic (input characteristic) of each interface can be ascertained and is comparable to the output characteristic of the coordination characteristic of the Blitzductor® CT. the dimensioning of the arrester depends on the given interference immunity of the terminal equipment. both of the following conditions must be met: (i) the protection level of the arrester must be lower than the voltage surge withstand capability of the terminal equipment. however.8. based on its basic interference immunity conforming to standards. and (ii) the maximum output energy of the arrester must be lower than the maximum permissible input energy of the terminal equipment (Figure 5.2.220 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems surge withstand capability the output level of • At a given voltage be below the voltage surge withstand capabilitythe arrester only must of • the terminal equipment in order to guarantee a sufficient protection.1.8. If.1 u).2. to IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5) (Figure 5. Figure 5.

with their coordination characteristics (KK).. DS 643/E/197 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and Installation of surge protective devices. Sources EHRLER.8.2. P. The necessary ‘input’ of the first Blitzductor® CT (of this mutually and equipment coordinated ‘protective chain’) is determined by the threatparameters of the whole system.) it only need be considered that the ‘input’ of a Blitzductor® CT or terminal equipment must fit with the ‘output’ of an upstream Blitzductor® CT. Elektrotechnik.1 v Coordination characteristics (KK) of the Blitzductor® CT family Analogously to such an ‘adjustment’ of the Blitzductor® CT to the equipment interface the ‘coordination’ of cascaded Blitzductor®s CT can be achieved.1 w shows such a coordination with the protector family Blitzductor® CT under application of the coordination characteristics (KK). transmission frequency etc. A protective cascade. Blitzductor® CT types. Thus.2.2. to IEC 61312-1’. the integral responsibility of the arrester producer is becoming a new factor in the cooperation of protector producer and protector applier at a time when the producer liability is of special importance. Energy coordination in communication/ signalling systems’. nominal current. 73–76 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Blitzductor® CT. effect and application 221 Figure 5. are listed in Table 5. and HASSE.1. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc.1 b.8.1. Figure 5. 1997 . 1996.: ‘Energetisch koordinierte Überspannungsschutzgeräte erfüllen die Anforderungen moderner Informationstechnik’.1. pp. J. is able to guarantee in a modern concept of lightning protection the trouble-free running of the system over a long period of time. DS 656/E/Aug. as designed by the producer under the aspects of sufficient safety such as the protector Blitzductor® CT family.8. In addition to the operating parameters (such as operating voltage. (12).Components and protective devices: construction.

P. P. 1997) IEC 61000-4-5: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques – (Section 5): Surge immunity test. 2 (VDE/ABB Fachtagung..2. International Electrotechnical Commission.222 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. Teil 6/A1. E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6.2.1 w Example for the energy coodinated application of the Blitzductor® CT by means of their coordination characteristics (KK) Blitzductor® CT types and their coordination characteristics Table 5.1.8. Teil 6/A2 und E DIN VDE 0100 Teil 534 A1 in die Praxis. Geneva 1995 . Nov.: ‘Koordinierter Einsatz von Blitzstrom und Überspannungs-Ableitern im Blitzschutz – Umsetzung von DIN VDE 0185 Teil 103. Neu Ulm.8. and ZAHLMANN.1 b HASSE.1.

.2 Blitzductor® CT: Selection criteria. Their application will be described.8. SC A: What discharge capability is necessary? Types B . Ten of the most important selection criteria (SC) for arresters in measurement and control systems are presented here through the example of the Blitzductor® CT protector family. . .2.1. Direct lightning strikes are not expected. No lightning protection. As the building has lightning protection. ? The selection of the discharge capability of the Blitzductor® CT depends upon which protection requirements shall be fulfilled by this arrester.Components and protective devices: construction.2.2 be protected is building with lightning protection. .2. The measuring. . measuring and control cable crossing buildings .1. In in a case (Figure 5.8. Here the building with the terminal equipment to be protected has no lightning protection (Figure 5. but MCR-cable leading beyond the building. are only necessary if the MCR-cable can be charged by lightning • Figure 5.2 b). . the application of a lightning current arrester is necessary. effect and application 223 5. .2. controlling and regulating (MCR) or telecommunication cable (which connects the terminal equipment with a sensor) is a line leading beyond the building to a sensor in the field.8. . Lightning current proof arresters type B or type B . Here the Blitzductor® CT types B or B . are suitable.2 a Lightning protection.1.1.8. or M . a) the terminal equipment tothe building. A distinction has to be made as to whether the measurement and control system (or the telecommunication system) is only endangered by surges (which are effective as impulse currents being simulated by a 8/20 μs wave) or whether by partial lightning currents (simulated by 10/350 μs impulse currents): MCR-cable leading beyond this • Lightning protection.

2 c) the MCR/telecommunication cabling does not have any lines leading beyond the building. in the Blitzductor® CT family are used. no MCR-cable leading beyond the building. for the selection of protective devices.224 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. However. In this case (Figure 5. Types . Although the building has lightning protection no lightning partial current can be coupled into the considered part of the telecommunication system (the MCRsystem is in lightning protection zone 1). .2.8. If not. such as isolating transformers. . that is. E.2. a fine protection between wire and earth is not necessary. the Blitzductor® CT.8. Protective modules type M . in this case surge arresters which are characterized as type M . . For certain inputs to equipment. type . . The interferences in the signal circuits are mostly longitudinal surges. are used.2 b No lightning protection. D? Longitudinal surges always arise between signal wires and earth. . whereas transverse surges are generated between two signal wires. gas discharge arresters can also . . E or . This means. Gas discharge arresters can protect against longitudinal surges. So. .2.1. . . . but measuring and control cable crossing buildings • • strikes into neighbouring buildings (close-up strikes).8. are used. SC B: Longitudinal or transverse surge protection. . Lightning protection but no MCR-cable leading beyond the building. The building has no lightning protection and there is no MCR/ telecommunication cable leading beyond the building (Figure 5. that usually fine protective devices are used between signal wires and earth.1.2 d). No lightning protection. .1. having a different impulse sparkover characteristic. only Blitzductor® CT types M . To protect the MCR devices only surge arresters are necessary.

8. . E/C? Sometimes it is necessary to protect equipment inputs against longitudinal and transverse surges.Components and protective devices: construction. no measuring and control cable crossing buildings cause transverse surges. That is why.2.8. D is necessary between the signal wires.1. .1. in such a case. but no measuring and control cable crossing buildings Figure 5.2 c Lightning protection.2 d No lightning protection. SC C: Which cases require Blitzductor® CT with output decoupling Types .2. . The inputs of such electronic MCR equipment are usually already provided with protective circuits or have optocoupler inputs to separate the potential of the signal circuit from the . fine protection as offered by the Blitzductor® type . . effect and application 225 Figure 5.

type .1) shows from what frequency the amplitude of the signal to be transmitted will be attenuated by more than 3 dB. The maximum operating voltage to be expected in a signal circuit usually .226 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems internal circuit of the MCR equipment. The indication of the cut-off frequency is applicable for sinusoidal parameters. however. This time interval is important for the recognition of an edge and for the passing of a ‘prohibited area’. E/C. Decoupling is guaranteed by additional decoupling elements between fine protective elements and output terminals of the Blitzductor® CT. This requires additional measures for decoupling the Blitzductor® CT from the input circuit of the equipment to be protected.8. there are mostly no sinusoidal signal forms. . this signal needs a frequency bandwidth which is considerably wider than that necessary for the fundamental wave of this oscillation. An indication of the cutoff frequency (Section 5. . SC F: What about the nominal voltage UN of the Blitzductor® CT? The nominal voltage UN of the Blitzductor® CT must be higher than the maximum arising operating voltage of the MCR circuit so that the protective device will not show any limiting effect under normal conditions. . . Therefore. Here the types BD/HF or MD/HF are necessary. A rule of thumb is that the cut-off frequency must not be lower than the fivefold fundamental wave frequency. The cut-off frequency of the protective device must therefore be levelled correspondingly high. Thus.1.2. This means for the application that the nominal current IN of the Blitzductor® CT must be higher than (or equal to) the operating current of the MCR system. On transmitting pulse shaped signals where the rising and the falling pulse edge is evaluated it must be considered that this edge changes within a certain period from ‘low’ (L) to ‘high’ (H) or from H to L. D/HF? Like every transmission system the protective circuit of the Blitzductor® CT also has a sort of low-pass characteristic. it must be taken into account that the maximum data rate of the Blitzductor® CT is higher than the transmission rate of the signal circuit. SC D: Which cases require Blitzductor®s CT with higher cut-off frequencies? Types . SC E: What about the nominal current IN of the Blitzductor® CT? Owing to the electrical characteristics of the components used in the protective circuit of the Blitzductor® CT the signal current which can be transmitted over this protective device is limited. the cut-off frequency must be higher than the signal frequency of the signal circuit. In the field of data transmission. To keep the reaction of the Blitzductor® CT on the transmission system within the permissible limits.

. it is very easy for the user to select suitable protective devices. 3 or 4. 20 mA.Components and protective devices: construction.2. Being directly in the signal circuit they can influence it.8. The test severity runs from level 1 to 4. Especially in current loops (0 . SC G: To what do the voltage indications refer: wire/wire or wire/earth? Signal supply in MCR circuits can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. severity level 1 claiming the lowest immunity (to the equipment to be protected) and level 4 the highest. If. 2.2. a programmable controller has been tested according to test severity level 1. thus it must have output characteristic 1. this means that severity level 4 tested programmable controllers can work interference-free if the Blitzductor® CT output has a protection level corresponding to test severity degree 1.1 this means that the ‘let-through energy’ related to the Blitzductor® CT protection level must be lower than the immunity level of the equipment to be protected. IEC 61000-4-5/EN 61000-4-5 specifies different test severity levels regarding the immunity against impulse shaped interferences.. In the case of signal circuit current loops (e. The different relativities of the nominal voltages of the Blitzductor® CT modules have been explained in Section 5. effect and application 227 can be compared with the nominal voltage of the transmission system (under consideration of tolerances). 0–20 mA) the open circuit voltage of the system can be rated as the maximum possible operating voltage. In practice. Thus. SC I: What about the application of the Blitzductor® CT-coordination characteristics (KK)? For equipment used in different electromagnetic environmental conditions. By means of the Blitzductor® CT coordination characteristics (KK) a coordinated application of the Blitzductor® CT for the protection of programmable controllers is possible. . For different circuits of the Blitzductor® CT fine protective elements different nominal voltages are indicated. 4 . This must be considered on selecting the protective device Blitzductor® CT.g. the operating voltage of the system can be indicated as wire/wire voltage and.1.1. 20 mA) the installation of Blitzductor® CT can cause the maximum permissible ohmic resistance of the signal circuit to be exceeded. the coordinated Blitzductor® CT only must have a maximum ‘let-through energy’ which corresponds to this interference level. on the other hand. As described in section 5. SC H: For what are the series impedance data of the Blitzductor® CT? For the coordination of the protective elements decoupling impedances are installed into the Blitzductor® CT. for example. .1. . as wire/earth voltage. On the one hand. .8. a fact that must be clarified before installation.

. The result of every single step of the selection is entered into a selection table under the column ‘single result’. . Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. ? Depending on the infrastructure of the building and the protection requirements of the concept of lightning protection zones it may be necessary that lightning and surge arresters are either installed spatially separated or in one position in the system (Figure 5. Sources DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. DS 656/E August 1997 IEC 61000-4-5:1995: ‘Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques (Section 5): Surge immunity test’. is applied.3 Blitzductor® CT: Examples of application. . .2.1. Types B and M .8. here the combined arrester Blitzductor® CT. The following three examples of application show the selection of protective devices of the Blitzductor® CT family by means of the above described selection criteria (SC) A to J. . The column ‘con- Figure 5.228 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems SC J: Single or multistage protection. as a surge arrester is necessary.2.8. type B .2 e Single and multistep protection . . . Geneva 1995 5. In the first case. International Electrotechnical Commission. or only type B .2 e). .1. to IEC 61312-1’.1. In the second case lightning and surge protective measures shall be carried out in one position in the system.2.8. the application of the Blitzductor® CT with protective module type B as a lightning current arrester as well as Blitzductor® CT protective module type M .

1 a Basic diagram: Electronic weighbridge system .8.3.1 a).8.8.2. This bridge will be supplied with a DC voltage. These gauges are coupled in a bridge so that strain gauges stressed in equal directions are located in diametrically opposing branches (Figure 5. effect and application 229 secutive result’ then shows the influence of the particular single result on the consecutive selection result.2. to IEC 61312-1.1.1 Lightning/surge protection for electronic vehicle weighbridges. Strain gauges are coated onto a deforming carrier in such a way that two strain gauges are in extension and two strain gauges are in compression.1. Figure 5. The extension or compression of a strain gauge along the printed conductor causes a change in length and cross section of the printed conductors and thus a change in their ohmic resistance.Components and protective devices: construction. Electronic vehicle weighbridges (for road and railway vehicles) are susceptible to incoupled surges due to the large distance between measuring sensor and the evaluation unit (especially at outdoor weighing machines).3. DS 656/E/897 5. Strain gauges are used as ohmic transducer elements.3. Source DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices.2. These consist of resistance foils which are coated on the carrier mostly in ‘meanders’. At the end of every selection table the final result ‘The applicable Blitzductor® CT’ can be read. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc.1. Some examples concerning how to select lightning surge protective devices for a weighing machine are now described. The damaging of components and the failure of the whole weighing system is a considerable impairment to a commercial enterprise. The electrical measurement of the non-electric parameters of force or mass is made indirectly by measuring electrical resistance.

230 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems The resistance changes due to the extension are very small and regarding the limits concerning the thermal stressing of the strain gauges.8.2.8. the bridge diagonal voltage is only some millivolts within the nominal range of the bridge supply voltage of up to 12 V.1 a Lighting/surge protection for electronic vehicle weighbridges: Selection procedure (SC: selection criterion) . Table 5. To compensate for the influence of temperature and voltage drop on long connecting cables two compensating leads are run from the measuring sensor to the evaluation unit.1.3.1 a indicates the single results which are due to the Table 5.1.3. This procedure is called the six-conductor technique.2.

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application

231

individual selection criteria SC (A to J) and the consecutive selection results as well as the final result: Blitzductor® CT, type BE 12 (for circuit, see Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 b; for technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 b). Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 c shows the protection of an electronic weighing machine (with four measuring sensors) using Blitzductor® CT type BE 12. To standardize the equipment of the weighing system with protective devices, all measuring leads have been equipped with the same Blitzductor® CT types. It is proven practice to assign one protector each to the wire pairs for supply, compensation and measuring. On subsequent installation of protective devices into the measuring circuits, the weighing system must be re-calibrated. The Blitzductor® CT may only be installed into the measuring circuits of weighing systems to be calibrated if the protective devices have been confirmed by an authorized testing institute of the EC (e.g., the Federal Institute of Technical Engineering) together with the weighing machine. Lightning and surge protection of the 230 V supply of the weighing system is also necessary (for reasons of clarity this is not shown in the Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 c).

Source
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. to IEC 61312–1’. DS 656/E Aug. 1997

5.8.2.1.3.2 Lightning/surge protection for field-bus systems. Because of the automation process individual sections of production are interconnected by field-bus systems. Automation systems can be established with field-buses where decentral control systems are also included (Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 a). Such systems are especially endangered by incoupled surges due to their spatial extension. If such field-bus system

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 b

Blitzductor® CT, type BE 12: Basic circuit diagram

232

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Blitzductor® CT-type BE 12: Technical data

Table 5.8.2.1.3.1 b

components are damaged there is relatively little hardware loss but a great deal of production loss due to the subsequent production standstill. The field-bus is a serial bus system having technical and functional characteristics for the networking of automation units at the lower and medium performance level. Well-known bus systems for automation technology include: Profibus®, Interbus-S, DIN Messbus, D-Net, Suconet, Bit-Bus, SINEC L1, PLS-Net, SINEC L2 DP and CANbus.

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233

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.1 c

Suppressor circuit for electronic weighbridge system with four measuring sensors

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 a

Basic diagram: Field-bus system

In most cases it is a serial interface (type RS 485) which is connected to a combined transmitting and receiving line (party-line). The transmission process of the RS 485 interface makes a difference evaluation of the wire signal voltages. Owing to the twisting of the wires the bus line is insensitive to inductive incouplings between its wires (transverse surges). Thus, the surge threat for the RS 485 interface is in the transient potential increase of the signal wires to earth (longitudinal surges). Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 a again shows the step-by-step procedure to determine the suitable protective devices. This is a two-stage protective system

234

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Lightning/surge protection for field-bus system: Selection procedure (SC: selection criterion)

Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 a

out of the lightning current arrester Blitzductor® CT, type B 110 and surge arrester Blitzductor® CT, type MD/HF 5 (for circuits, see Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 b; for technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 b). Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c shows the protection of an actuator, distributed inputs and outputs, sensors and programmable controllers connecting field-bus systems with the selected Blitzductors. Lightning and surge protection of the 230 V supply is also necessary (but not shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c for reasons of clarity).

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235

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 b

(a)

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 b (b) Blitzductor® CT, type MD/HF 5

Table 5.8.2.1.3.2 b Blitzductor® CT-types B 110 and MD/HF 5: Technical data

236

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.2 c

Suppressor circuit for field-bus system

Source
DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. to IEC 61312-1. DS 656/E Aug. 1997

5.8.2.1.3.3 Surge protection for electrical temperature measuring equipment. Electrical temperature measuring of media in technological processes is performed in all industrial fields. The areas of application can be very different: from food processing to chemical processes to the air-conditioning of buildings. Generally, there is a large distance between the location of the measuring sensor and the measured-data indicator or processing equipment. Into these long bonding lines surges can be incoupled which are not necessarily caused by atmospheric discharges. The following description contains a suggestion of how to protect a PT 100 standard resistance thermometer against surges. The building where the measuring equipment is installed has no lightning protection. The temperature is determined by measuring the electrical resistance. The resistance thermometer (PT 100) has a resistance value of 100 Ω at 0 °C. Depending on the temperature, this value changes by 0.4 Ω/K. To determine the temperature, a constant measuring current is impressed causing a voltage drop at the resistance thermometer which is proportional to the temperature. This measuring current is limited to 1 mA in order to avoid self-heating of the resistance thermometer. Thus, at the PT 100 there will be a voltage drop of 100 mV at 0 °C, which will be transmitted to the place of indication or evaluation (Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 a).

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application

237

Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 a

Basic diagram: electrical temperature measuring equipment

An example of the different possible connection systems for a PT 100 measuring sensor is shown by the four-conductor connection in Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 a. So, the influence of the conductor resistance and its temperature-sensitive fluctuations on the measuring result are excluded. The PT 100 sensor is supplied by an impressed current. Changes in the conductor resistance will be automatically compensated for by the adjustment of the supply voltage. There is a high-resistance pick-up at the sensor by the measuring transducer of the changing measuring voltage Um depending on the temperature of the measuring resistance. Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 a shows how to proceed step-by-step with the selection of suitable protective devices. For the Blitzductor® CT, type ME 5, surge arresters are necessary (for circuit, see Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 b; for technical data, see Table 5.8.2.1.3.3 b). Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 c shows the protection of electrical temperature measuring equipment. To standardize the equipment of the temperature measuring system with surge protective devices, supply and measuring lines are protected by the same Blitzductor® CT-types. It is proven practice to assign one protector each to the wire pairs for supply and for measurement. Surge protection of the 230 V supply for the PT 100 measuring transducer, as well as of the 4–20 mA current loop (beginning there), is also necessary but not shown in Figure 5.8.2.1.3.3 c for reasons of clarity.

Source
DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Selection and installation of surge protective devices. Type Blitzductor® CT for protection of control and instrumentation systems acc. to IEC 61312-1’. DS 656/E Aug. 1997

2.1.4 Arresters for intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits and their application.4 Blitzductor® CT applications: Further cases. which together with the air can form a dangerous explosive atmosphere. 5.8. In areas where gases. vapours.238 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Table 5.3.1.3.8.2.1.8.2.4 a lists further cases of application for different Blitzductor® CT-types.3.8.3 a Surge protection for electrical temperature measuring equipment: Selection procedure (SC: selection criterion) 5. special explosion protection measures must be taken. To avoid the situation where the .2. fogs or dusts are caused by treating or transporting inflammable material.1. Table 5.

2. effect and application 239 Figure 5.3 b Table 5.8. type ME 5 Blitzductor® CT.8.Components and protective devices: construction.1.3.1. type ME 5: Technical data .2.3 b Basic circuit diagram: Blitzductor® CT.3.

1.3.4 a Examples for the use of Blitzductor® CT .3.1.8.2.3 c Suppressor circuit for electrical temperature measuring equipment Table 5.2.240 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8.

cables and surge protective devices). (i) the maximum output voltage (U0). IIB and IIC for which the corresponding minimum ignition curves are specified. These are. this division depends on the probability and the permanence of an explosive atmosphere. Zones with dangerous explosive atmosphere due to gases. Power is kept at such a low level that neither by sparks nor by unpermissible surface heating of the electric components can the surrounding explosive atmosphere be ignited. This system is divided into ‘Ex-zones’ and. this limitation is not only to individual devices but to the whole circuit. Corresponding values are indicated on the type label of the approved equipment or in the prototype test certificate. effect and application 241 electrical operating facilities become the sources of ignition in explosive atmospheres these are designed to have different types of protection. a short circuit or an earth fault) will cause ignition. for safe operation (e. Depending on how explosive the different materials are. Application of the ‘intrinsic safety’ type of protection. Explosion group IIC contains the most explosive materials. at switch contacts) nor a fault (e. namely. The ignition characteristics of the explosive material include a minimum ignition curve that indicates the maximum values for the operating voltage and operating current. vapours and fog are ranked as Ex-zones 0 to 2 and those with dangerous explosive atmosphere due to dusts as Ex-zones 20. these gases have different ignition temperatures which are specified by classifying them according to temperatures (T1–T6). is limited to relatively low-performance circuits. One type of protection which is used worldwide in the measuring and control technique is Intrinsic Safety Ex(i). .g.g. ‘Intrinsic safety’ protection is based on the principle of current and voltage limitation in a circuit. there are explosions groups I. such as hydrogen and acetylene. It is achieved by limiting the available energy in the circuit.g. The planner/installer must examine in every single case whether these maximum values are met by the connected equipment in the intrinsically safe circuit (such as field equipment....Components and protective devices: construction. (iii) the maximum external inductance (L0) and (iv) the maximum external capacitance (C0). 21 and 22. When heated. safety barriers or measuring transformers with an Ex(i)-output circuit will be inserted for separation. a measuring and control circuit) neither a spark due to the opening and closing of the circuit (e. IIA. In contrast to other types of protection. The safety-technical maximum values of a safety barrier or a measuring transformer with Ex(i)-output circuit are specified by the test certificate of an authorized testing agency. thus. Not only the voltage and current of the electric equipment but also the energy storing inductors and capacitors in the whole circuit must be limited to safe maximum values. in general. (ii) the maximum output current (I0). At the interface between Ex-area and non-Ex-area (safe area). Thus. heat ignition by the equipment and lines in the intrinsically safe circuit must be eliminated both for the normal state as well for the possibility of a fault. Furthermore.

4 a shows the consideration of surge arresters in intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits.4 b) with a certificate from the Federal Institute for Physical Engineering (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt PTB. As an example of the Blitzductor® CT MD/Ex 24 (Figure 5.8.4 a Application of surge arresters in the intrinsically safe measuring and control circuit.242 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Intrinsic safety protection entails all currents.1. calculation of L0 and C0 . Braunschweig). General Requirements’ and EN 50 020 ‘Intrinsic Safety i’. overvoltages are generated in lines which will damage the inputs of electronic equipment as transverse voltage (voltage difference between the wires). This surge protective device has the equipment mark ‘Eex ia IIC T6’ which has the following meaning: (i) Eex: The testing agency certifies the accordance of this electrical equipment with the harmonized European Standards EN 50 014 ‘Electrical Apparatus for Potentially Explosive Atmospheres. which may arise in large industrial plants after direct. Such potential differences will exceed the insulation resistance of the equipment.8. In the case of direct or close-up lightning strikes the voltage drop causes a potential increase of some 10 to 100 kV at the earthing system.1.2. the specific selection criteria for this protective device will now be explained. close-up and remote lightning strikes.1.2. Thus. Figure 5. as protection against lightning or surge hazards the relevant arresters must be installed. potentials and electric energy storage mechanisms.2. In the case of remote lightning strikes. As a potential difference this affects all equipment connected at distant locations.8. Figure 5. but not externally incoupled overvoltages due to atmospheric discharges.

effect and application 243 Figure 5. In the case of a hot-surface ignition of an explosive atmosphere a material-typical minimum temperature is necessary.2. For economical reasons gases and vapours are classified according to temperatures. • • The Blitzductor® CT MD/Ex 24 is assigned to category ia with its highest demands and so it may be installed also with other equipment which is in Exprotection zone 0 and 20. type MD/Ex24 (colour blue) Regarding the safe current and voltage limitation there are two categories to be considered: Category ib specifies that in case of a fault in the intrinsically safe circuit the intrinsic safety must be preserved.4 b (ii) Blitzductor® CT. (iii) II C: Classification into explosion groups.Components and protective devices: construction.1. vapours. Category ia requires that on the occurrence of two independent faults the intrinsic safety must still be preserved. Equipment is classified according to the gases with which it can be used. however not in underground mining. Group II applies for all fields of use. such as the chemical industry.8. vapours and fogs are classified according to the spark energy necessary to ignite the most explosive mixture with air. The ignition temperature is a material classification figure which characterizes the ignition reaction of the gases. (iv) T6: Classification according to temperatures. or dusts at a hot surface. coal and cereal processing. Explosive gases. • • The certificate of the Blitzductor for explosion group II C therefore meets the highest demands for a hydrogen in air mixture. Danger of explosion is highest in group II C because it considers mixtures of lowest ignition energy. Temperature class T6 means that the maximum surface temperature of the component must not exceed 85 °C in operation as well as in the case of a fault and the ignition temperature of the gases .

The highest voltage with which the surge protective device Blitzductor® CT may be loaded is 26. This earthing may be realized only at one point by connection with the equipotential bonding.4 c this is achieved by an additional equipotential line between the equipment and the Blitzductor® CT.g. a (not Ex- . In accordance with the PTB-certificate of conformity the following electrical parameters must be considered: inductance (L ) and maximum • Maximum external special component selection in external capacitance the Blitzductor CT (C ).8 V without cancelling the intrinsic safety.1. As a surge protective device in the Ex-area.2. for reasons of function.) usually has an insulation resistance of > 500 V AC. Intrinsically safe circuits must be earthed for safety reasons. the (ex-certified) Blitzductor® CT MD/Ex is used. As a surge protective device in the non-Ex-area. care must be taken of the consequent equipotential bonding between the equipment to be protected and the surge protective device.4 c shows how to use the Blitzductor® CT MD/Ex surge protective devices to protect a transducer and a sensor. Maximum input current (Ii). Surge protective devices having a DC operating voltage to earth < 500 V DC. The insulation between an intrinsically safe circuit and the equipment chassis or other parts which can be earthed should withstand the effective value of an AC test voltage being twice as high as that of the intrinsically safe circuit or 500 V (depending on which value is higher). Concerning the practical application of arresters in intrinsically safe circuits (Figure 5.1. The Blitzductor® CT.8. Equipment having an insulation resistance ≥ 500 V AC is considered as earthed. In order not to worsen the arrester protective level due to voltage drop (of the interference current to be discharged).8. Figure 5. the T6 classification is the highest demand for the Blitzductor® CT. measuring transducers. Maximum input voltage (Ui). Thus. provide an earth of the intrinsically safe circuit. formers.2. however. In Figure 5. They may also be earthed.1.244 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems and vapours must be higher than 85 °C. Figure 5.2. sensors etc. The highest permissible current which may be supplied through the terminal parts is 500 mA without cancelling the intrinsic safety.4 d shows a special case of application. if necessary.8. underground lines.1. Type MD/Ex 24 meets this requirement..4 e) the requirements for the insulation resistance need special care. Owing to the 0 ® 0 • • the internal inductance and capacitance values of the different individual components are negligible.2.8. Intrinsically safe equipment (e. An intrinsically safe circuit is considered as not earthed if the DC operating voltage of the protective device is > 500 V DC.

de (der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk). Sources MÜLLER.4 c Application of Blitzductor® CT.1. effect and application 245 Figure 5. ME is used having a protection level between cores to earth/equipotential bonding of much less than 500 V. 1997.1. H. pp.4 d Application of different Blitzductor®s in an intrinsically safe circuit.8.2.: ‘Überspannungsschutz in eigensicheren MSR-Kreisen’.2. which is partly in the Ex-area certified) Blitzductor® CT. K. type MD/Ex in the intrinsically safe measuring and control circuit of an Exsystem Figure 5. In the latter case this is necessary because the insulation resistance of the transducer is < 500 V AC.8.Components and protective devices: construction. 1913–1916 . 20. P.

Such corrosion .g. Underground metal facilities (e. however. Intrinsic safety “i” ’ (VDE Verlag.2. In this context we speak of the ‘dissolution pressure’ of the metal and the ‘osmotic pressure’ of the electrolyte. also positive ions from the electrolyte (soil) are taken up by the electrode (metal). within the scope of equipotential bonding) then current flows in the external circuit from the positive to the negative electrode. So.2. containers and piping) are subject to electrochemical corrosion. Berlin) March 1994 EN 50 020: ‘Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres. A characteristic of the electrochemical corrosion is the dependence of the corrosion process on the electrodes’ potential (potential of metal in soil).1. type MD/Ex for the protection of a pipeline valve station EN 50 014: ‘Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres. General requirements’ (VDE Verlag. positively charged ions enter into the soil and vice versa.8. GmbH.8. in the soil. If buried facilities out of different metals are connected outside the soil (e.4 e Blitzductor® CT.1. from the negative to the positive electrode.g. Depending on both pressures. GmbH. either the positive ions of the buried metal facility are increasingly dissolved (thus it becomes negative with regard to the soil) or positive ions from the soil increasingly deposit at the metal (then the metal facility becomes positive with regard to the soil). Berlin) April 1996 5..246 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. the more negative metal facility delivers positive ions to the soil. If there is metal in the soil. thus becoming the anode of the created galvanic element with the consequence of being dissolved (corroded) as time passes.5 Arresters for cathodic protection systems. with the metals being the electrodes and the surrounding soil the electrolyte..

2.1.8. Protection is offered by (Figure 5.8. Figure 5. thus becoming a corrosion protected cathode.2. initiating the optimal value of protective current at the adjustable rectifier.5 a Cathodic protection system: Basic design Figure 5. Cathodically protected systems can be endangered by surges due to lightning discharges and faults in high-voltage overhead lines or traction power supply (running in parallel to the pipeline).1. type AD I for the impressedcurrent anode circuit.5 a shows the basic diagram of such a cathodically protected system for a pipeline.1. and Blitzductor® KKS.8.2.2. effect and application 247 can be avoided by current supply where a mains-operated rectifier supplies a current over an anode through the soil into the endangered metal facility. type APD for the measuring Figure 5. type APD .Components and protective devices: construction. The measuring sensor picks up the potential of the pipeline to the surrounding soil.8.5 b Blitzductor® KKS.5 b) Blitzductor® KKS.1.

6 a). into 19″-racks (Figure 5.7 Arresters in LSA-Plus-technology.5 a.5 c shows how these surge arresters are used.1.1. 5.8. 5.1. Such protective cards can be inserted into individual enclosures (Figure 5.8.8.1.8.2. for example.6 e).2. Figure 5.8. types AD I and APD: Technical data .2.6 b. soldering or screwing: By means of a special tool the wires are simply pressed into the contact slots of the LSA rails.1.6 Arresters in Euro-card format.7 a shows components of an LSA-Plus system by means of which it is possible to construct. They contain a graded protective circuit as shown in Figure 5.8. At the same time the tool also cuts off unnecessary wire ends. Technical data are provided in Table 5. Figure 5. small terminal junction Table 5.8. a quickconnection system without stripping.1.6 c).2.2.1. Information technology distribution boxes are often realized using LSA technology.6 d) or into complete protective cabinets (Figures 5.1.5 a Blitzductor® KKS. The wire insulation will be cut automatically and the copper core will be pushed between two spring-loaded contact tags.8. Arresters in Euro-card format have an especially space-saving design (Figure 5.248 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems sensor circuit.8.2.2.2.2.8.1.2.1.1.2.8.

8.5 c (b) Application of the Blitzductor® KKS in a corrosion protection cabinet Protection of a cathodic protection system with Blitzductor® KKS types APD and ADI .5 c (a) Basic diagram Figure 5.1.2.Components and protective devices: construction.1.2. effect and application 249 Figure 5.8.5 c Figure 5.1.8.2.

8.6 b Circuit of the arrester shown in Figure 5.2.6 d 19″-drawout-unit housing for protective cards .6 a unit design 16 pole arrester in drawout- Figure 5.1.2.2.1.8.6 a (shown for two single wires) Figure 5.8.8.2.6 c Protective cards in aluminium housing for wall mounting Figure 5.2.1.1.250 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8.

Berlin/Offenbach) 1994 . the disconnection block is constructed so that a disconnection plug can interrupt the contacts between the cable wire and the jumper wire side which is necessary to include in a protective decoupling link.7 c). München: VDE Verlag.1. In contrast to the terminal block. and WIESINGER.1. Terminal blocks and disconnection blocks are to be placed on terminal strips: and the jumping wires are • At the terminal blocks the cable wiresthese terminal contacts thereconnected at opposite contacts. The protection plugs for one balanced line (Figure 5.8. effect and application 251 Figure 5. lower left).8. Between are • pick-off contacts where. mounted in a protective cabinet boxes with the same economy as large distribution boxes or mains distribution frames with more than 10 000 connections.2. contain series links and must therefore be plugged into the LSA disconnection block (Figure 5. Source HASSE. Figure 5. consisting of ‘coarse protection’. J.1. GmbH.6 e Arresters in Eurocard design.7 b top right) which will also be plugged into the disconnection block.2.8..1.7 b shows protective devices designed especially for the LSA-Plus system.8. surge protective modules can be plugged in.Components and protective devices: construction. P.8. for example.2.2.7 b.1. ‘decoupling unit’ and ‘fine protection’.: “EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. There is one protection block each for 10 balanced lines (Figure 5.2.

8.7 b system Arresters for LSA-Plus Figure 5.1.1.2.252 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.7 c Connection of communication technology lines at the entry to lightning protection zone 1 of the water purification unit Frauenau/Lower Bavaria .8.2.2.7 a system LSA-Plus Figure 5.1.8.

2. The principle of protection is to realize the equipotential bonding between the systems in the case of overvoltage directly at the inputs of the device or of the system (Figure 5.8.2 a).2 Combined protective devices for power supply inputs and information technology inputs Equipment and systems connected to power technical and information technology networks.2.8.2. will be input-protected by surge arresters which are designed for the connection of power lines as well as for information technology lines. forming their own lightning protection zone and where the line routing leads to wide induction loops (Figure 5.2 a Danger to information technology equipment connected to two systems due to induced lightning overvoltages Figure 5.8. It is the task of the protective elements S1 and S2 to limit the transverse voltages between the Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.8.2.2 b Topology of a protector for equipment or systems at two networks .8.2 b).2. effect and application 253 5.

: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag.2 b shows the equipment to be protected in shunt to the protective device.2. Moreover. dangerous surges between the conductors of one system cannot arise.8.2. and WIESINGER. München.8. 1994) Figure 5.2. This guarantees that overvoltages between the power mains and the information technology mains are limited in such a way that the puncture voltage of the equipment between the inputs E1 and E2 will not be exceeded.8. J. Berlin/Offenbach. it guarantees that the common-mode currents can be conducted from the power mains into the information technology mains and vice versa.254 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems conductors (‘differential mode protection’) and to lead the longitudinal currents from the conductors (‘common mode protection’) to the common equipotential bonding bar. Figure 5.2 c Surge arrester for the power input and the aerial input of a TV set/radio receiver Figure 5.2. Source HASSE. P. Furthermore.. VDE Verlag.2 d Surge arrester for the power input and the data input of a computer terminal .2 c and d show surge arresters for realizing such ‘protective bypasses’.8. Figures 5.

Groups of these functional elements are connected to partial systems of the cabling..2. The universal cabling covers a wide range of services including speech. . Generic cabling consists of the following functional elements: • campus distributor (CD) • primary cable • building distributor (BD) • secondary cable (FD) • floor distributor • tertiary cable cabinet (alternatively) • cable distribution • information technology terminal.g. or at the terminal equipment (e..2. LPZ-interface 2/3).g.8. data. (ii) secondary and (iii) tertiary cabling. LPZ-interface 1/2). Together these partial systems form a universal cabling structure as shown in Figure 5. in the active distributor (HUB)..1 a. The European Standard EN 50173 ‘Information technology – Generic cabling systems’ offers: • a generic universally applicable cabling system and an open market for cabling components • a flexible cabling scheme where modifications can be realized easily and economically for cabling • instructions to building professionals means early installation before specific requirements are known (that in the initial plan• ning stage of construction or renovation) a cabling system for industry and the standardization committees for network use supporting actual products and acting as a basis for future product development.3.1 Protective devices for application-neutral cabling.g. This European Standard defines a universal cabling system which can be used in places with one or several buildings. in the terminal block (e. 5. effect and application 255 5.Components and protective devices: construction.3. radial and annular topologies can be achieved. It treats cablings with symmetric copper cables and optical fibre cables. text. A universal cabling system consists of three partial systems: (i) primary. still and moving pictures.2. By means of distribution boards any mains topologies such as bus.8.3 Protective devices for data networks/systems In the following Sections protective devices for different data networks will be introduced which can be used as part of the concept of lightning protection zones at the building input (e. LPZ-interface 0A(0B)/1).8.

(iii) The ‘tertiary cabling’ partial system goes from the floor distributor to the connected information technology terminal(s). twisted pair-cables).g. their mechanical points of connection (at the building and floor distributors) and the distribution facilities in the building distributor. Cable lengths (max. The star couplers for distributing the optical fibre cables. It is carried out according to local requirements and is therefore not covered by the range of application of this European Standard. That partial system contains the tertiary cables. however. (ii) One partial system of the ‘secondary cabling’ goes from the building distributor(s) to the floor distributor(s). It contains any primary cables. are powered by 230 V and so arresters for the power engineering system (chapter 5. their (mechanical) points of connection at the floor distributor.1) may be necessary. the distribution facility in the floor distributor and the information technology terminals.1 b).3. their first points of contact (at the campus and the building distributors) and the distribution facilities in the campus distributor. That partial system contains the secondary cables. surge protection measures must be carried out to protect both .3..8.1 a (i) Structure of generic cabling The ‘primary cabling’ partial system goes from the campus distributor to the building distributor(s) which are usually in different buildings. So. Between the campus and building distributor optical fibre cables are usually used as data lines. where high longitudinal voltages can be induced when lightning strikes the building.8. would overload a HUB insulation strength or that of a network card in the terminal equipment.2. Therefore. The secondary (building distributor to floor distributor) and tertiary connections (between floor distributor and terminal equipment) are often symmetric cables (e.8. The equipment terminal cabling connects the information technology terminal with the terminal equipment.2. no arrester from the field side is needed. 500 or 90 m) (Figure 5.256 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.

1.1 e).1 b) can be used.8. Protective devices used for the above purpose are specified according to the type of network.1.3.1996 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection.3.8.1 h) surge arresters type ÜGKF/RJ45 for the data input and type SF-Protector (cf.3. or (as shown in Figure 5. Berlin) Nov. Figure 5.2.4 b. can be used. Generic cabling systems’ (Beuth Verlag.8.1 b Application-neutral cabling systems building/floor distributors (HUB) as well as telecommunication outlets (terminal equipment).Components and protective devices: construction.8.8.3. Usually. 1995 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks.8.3.1 c shows where the protective devices can be used: HUB and patchpanel with surge protective • Between 4 TP (Figure 5. • Sources EN 50173: ‘Information technology. At the terminal equipment a surge arrester. DS570/E 1998 .8. where all four core pairs are protected which provides a completely neutral application.8.2. the following types of networks apply: • Token Ring Base T • Ethernet 10 100 Base TX. effect and application 257 Figure 5.3.1 5. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. Table 5.2.8.2. • Fast Ethernet Figure 5.4 b) for the power input.2.8.1 g. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’.8. Table 5. However. GmbH. Section 5.2.2.1 a NET-Protector a) is installed (Figure modules d. it must be taken into account that the power input of the terminal equipment is also protected. DS647 Oct.3.2.3. type ÜGKF/RJ45 4TP (Figure 5. Table 5. The combined surge protective device DATA-Protector (Figure 5.8.3. for example.2.1 f.3.1 c).2.

2.2.2.1 c Protectors in an application-neutral cabling system Figure 5.8.8.3.8.258 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.1 d NET-protector Figure 5.3.3.1 e NET-protector between HUB and Patchpanel .

1 f (b) Basic circuit diagram: ÜGKF/ RJ45 4TP NET-Protector for floor distribution boards (HUB) and other network components in 19″ modular packaging system .3.1 a Figure 5.3. effect and application 259 Figure 5.8.8. type ÜGKF/RJ45 4TP Table 5.2.Components and protective devices: construction.1 f (a) Surge arrester.2.2.3.8.

2.8.1 b Figure 5.260 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Surge arrester.3.2.3.2.8.8.1 g (a) Combined surge protector DATAProtector RJ45 4TP Figure 5.1 g (b) Basic circuit diagram .3. type ÜGKF/RJ45 4TP: Technical data Table 5.

effect and application Table 5.1 c 261 Combined surge protective device DATA-protector RJ 45 4TP: Technical data Figure 5.2. type KF/RJ45 and SF protector protect terminal .8.Components and protective devices: construction.3.3.2.1 h Surge arresters.8.

3.3.) Figure 5.2 a Protectors in token ring cabling Figure 5.2 Protective devices for token ring cabling. type TR8 (surface housing) for two token ring lines . mostly controllable ring distributors are used to perform the network control of the different terminal equipment and the signal amplification.8.8.2. Long cables present no problems.8.3.2.2.2 b.8.2 b (b) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5. The maximum data transmission rate is 16 Mbps.3. At the interface of lightning protection zones 0A/1 (cable input at the building) lightning current arrester type TR8 (Figure 5. serves as the connector. For token ring cabling the systems are connected in the ring topology and communicate according to the methods specified in IEEE 802.2.3.8. also known as an IVS connector.262 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 5. (A Herm–Aphrodite plug.2.2 b (a) Lightning current arrester.3.5. Figure 5. it serves as both a plug and socket.2.8. As floor distributors.2 a shows the principle of token ring cabling and where the necessary protective devices should be installed.

2. effect and application 263 Table 5.3 a).8.3.2.8.3.2 a Lightning current arrester TR8 and surge arrester FS HA: Technical data .2.2 e). The surge arrester FS HA is a pluggable Herm–Aphrodite connector (IVS plug) also usable to protect the terminal equipment (interface lightning protection zones 2/3) (Figure 5. which should be mounted at the rearside of the floor distributor between data line and front plate as shown in Figure 5.2 c.2. Table 5.3.2. A type FS HA surge arrester (Figure 5.8.8.Components and protective devices: construction.8.2 d. protects the floor distributor (interface lightning protection zones 1 and 2).3.3.2.2 a) is used. Table 5.8.

3.264 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. type FS HA (b) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5.2.8.3.8.3.2 d (a) Ring line distributor of a token ring network Figure 5.2 c (a) Surge arrester.2 d (b) Basic diagram .2.2.8.

New York. The structure of Ethernet 10 Base T is a ‘twisted pair’ cabling having .5–1985): ‘Local area networks: Token ring access method and physical layer specifications’ (IEEE.3.8. Two types of cabling are specified: Ethernet 10 Base T and Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX. Main catalogue UE’98 E’.2 d (c) Detail Figure 5. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks.8.8. For highperformance PC networks the twisted pair cabling system is used. effect and application 265 Figure 5. May 1989) DEHN u.3. DS570/E 1998 5.2.2. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection.2.3. (data side) type FS HA Sources IEEE Std 802 (Revision of ANSI/IEEE Std 802. 1996 DEHN u.3.2 e Terminal with surge protectors: (energy side) type SFProtector.8. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’ DS647 Oct.2 d Application of the FS HA surge arrester Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.2.3 Protective devices for Ethernet twisted pair cabling.

266

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

a tree topology with cable lengths up to 100 m. The terminal equipment communicating by the transmission method is specified in IEEE 802.3. Bonding elements are RJ45 connectors. HUBs located in floor distributors are designed to support network management and the repeater function. The data transmission rate of the system is 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX was developed from Ethernet 10 Base T. With a higher data transmission rate of 100 Mbps this system continuously meets the growing requirements of data technology. The topology connectors and pin assignments are the same as those of the Ethernet 10 Base T. Owing to the active components in the floor distributor, large networks with widespread cabling systems can be realized. Figure 5.8.2.3.3 a is a proposal for how to protect an Ethernet ‘twisted pair’ cabling. The floor distributor (HUB) is protected by the NET-Protector 4 TP introduced in section 5.8.2.3.1 (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 d). This surge protective device is suitable for both Ethernet 10 Base T and Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX and fits the universal cabling as specified in EN 50173, class D (cat. 5). To protect the data input of the terminal equipment, surge protected data socket outlets DSM-RJ45–10 Base T with shielded RJ45-sockets (Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b, Table 5.8.2.3.3 a) can be used. HUB and terminal equipment can also be protected by the pluggable surge arrester ÜGKF/ RJ45 4TP (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 f, Table 5.8.2.3.1 b), as shown in Figure 5.8.2.3.3 c. Data and power input of the terminal equipment can be commonly provided with the combined surge protective device DATAProtector RJ45 4TP (Figure 5.8.2.3.1 g, Table 5.8.2.3.1 c).

Figure 5.8.2.3.3 a

Protectors in Ethernet twisted-pair cabling

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application

267

Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b (a) Data socket outlet (with surge arrester) DSMRJ45-10 Base T protects data input of the terminal

Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b (b) DSM-RJ4510 Base T

Figure 5.8.2.3.3 b (c) Basic circuit diagram

Sources
ANSI/IEEE 802 Edition: ‘Information technology – Telecommunications and information exchange between systems – Local and metropolitan area networks – Specific requirements. Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications’ (IEEE, New York, March 1996) EN 50173:1995-11: ‘Informationstechnik. Anwendungsneutrale Verkabelungssysteme’. Deutsche Fassung EN 50173 (Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, 1995) DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS647 Oct. 1996 DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998

5.8.2.3.4 Protective devices for Ethernet coax-cabling. Coaxial cabling systems do not require floor distributors and additional amplifiers. Two different types of coaxial Ethernet networks are distinguished: Thickwire • EthernetCable’. according to IEEE 802.3, 10 Base 5, also called ‘Yellow Thinwire • Ethernet Net’. according to IEEE 802.3, 10 Base 2, also called ‘Cheaper Their data transmission rate is 10 Mbps. The yellow coated ‘Ethernet Thickwire’ cable (rigid inner conductor, four shielding layers) has excellent electrical characteristics and can have a segment length up to 500 m. Connections to the cable segment are possible by means of a transmission/receiver unit (transceiver). Transceivers are connected by N-connectors or crimp snap-in connectors to the coaxial bus cable. It is possible to connect up to 100 transceiver stations in a 500 m segment. Up to 50 m long cable sets connect transceivers and stations. These sets are also called ‘drop-cables’.

268

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Surge arrester DSM-RJ45–10 Base T: Technical data

Table 5.8.2.3.3 a

By contrast ‘Ethernet Thinwire’ cable only has a shield and singlestranded conductor which is shielded by an outer wire fabric and so it is much more flexible than the ‘Ethernet Thickwire’ cable. The segment length of the thin Ethernet cable, however, is limited to 185 m with only 30 connections to be made at one cable segment. External transceivers are not necessary for these connections, but BNC-T connectors or

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application

269

Figure 5.8.2.3.3 c

Compact-HUB and terminal are protected by type ÜGKF/RJ45 surge arresters. There is an SF-Protector to protect the power input of the terminal.

EAD outlets can be used as the Ethernet-connection cards in the stations already have integrated transceivers. The coaxial cables of both systems consist of wire and shield, the shield being earthed at one point (mostly at the server of the system). The shield is also a common return for the data transmission. Figure 5.8.2.3.4 a shows a proposal of how to protect a system. Ethernet Thickwire only allows two protectors per segment. These should be installed at the building entrance or at the floor entrance. Any number of protectors can be used with Ethernet Thinwire and it is recommended to protect every network card. The Ethernet Thickwire cable 10 base 5 in Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (Table 5.8.2.3.4 a) is protected by a ÜGKF/N-L protector, whereas the ÜGKF/B-L surge arresters are used in the Ethernet Thinwire system 10 Base 2 in the Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (Table 5.8.2.3.4 a).

Sources
ANSI/IEEE 802 Edition: ‘Information technology – Telecommunications and information exchange between systems – Local and metropolitan area networks – Specific requirements. Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications’ (IEEE, New York, March 1996)

270

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 a Table 5.8.2.3.4 a

Protectors in Ethernet coax-cabling Surge arresters, types ÜGKF/N-L and ÜGKF/B-L: Technical data

Components and protective devices: construction, effect and application

271

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b

(a) Ethernet thickwire segment connected to the star coupler by an ÜGKF/N-L protector

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (b) Surge arrester, type ÜGKF/N-L with N-plug/socket

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 b (c) Basic circuit diagrams of the surge arresters ÜGKF/N-L and ÜGKF/ B-L (indirect shield-earthing possible by gas-filled surge arresters)

DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’. DS64 Oct.1996 DEHN u. SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS570/E 1998

5.8.2.3.5 Protective devices for standard cabling. Interfaces V.24 (RS 232 C), V.11 (RS 422) and Twinax for IBM hardware are often used to connect EDP systems such as terminals and printers. Interfaces RS 232 C (V.24) and RS 422 (V.11) are used with usual telephone cables in the startopology. Consider the following notes:
(i) V.24 (RS 232 C). This is a serial interface with a data transmission rate of up to 19.2 kbps. Standard bus drivers are able to support data transmission

272

Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c

(a) Application of surge arresters in the T-branch of an Ethernet-thinwire segment

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/B-L to protect the network card in a workstation

Figure 5.8.2.3.4 c (c) Surge arrester ÜGKF/B-L with BNC-plug/socket

(ii)

lines of up to 15 m length, while special bus drivers are able to cover a distance of up to 300 m line length. By the use of an interface converter for RS 232 to TTY transmission, distances of more than 300 m can be reached. Usually 25-pole D-subminiature sockets and 9-pole connectors are used as connectors. V.11 (RS 422) This is a serial interface using two balanced lines for data transmission rates of up to 2 Mbps. Line lengths up to 1000 m are possible. The 15-pole D-subminiature socket is often used for mechanical connection.

A data transmission rate of up to 1 Mbps is possible. Figure 5.2.Components and protective devices: construction. The IBM standard is carried out with a shielded Twinax cable comprising a wire pair.24(RS 232 C) and V. Figure 5.8.3. Figure 5.8.g. The Twinax connector is used at the host computer (e.2. In one Twinax line up to eight terminals can be connected in the bus topology.2.8.11 (RS 422) interfaces Figure 5.5 b shows the basic circuit diagram for data transmission in an IBM Twinax system.11(RS 422) interfaces.3.24 (RS 232 C) and V.2.5 c shows the corresponding protection arrangement..5 a Protectors in a cabling system with V.5 b Data transmission in the IBM Twinax system .8. Figure 5.8.5 a shows cabling protection with V.3.3. effect and application 273 (iii) Twinax cabling. AS 400) as well as at the terminal.3.2.

5 d (c) Surge arrester.5 d (a) Surge arresters.274 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.2. type FS 25 E protects terminal input Figure 5.8. type FS 25 E protect control unit (every terminal cable is protected) Figure 5.5 d (b) Surge arrester.3.2.8.2.3.8.3.3. type FS 25 E .5 c Protectors in an IBM Twinax system Figure 5.8.2.

2. effect and application 275 The lightning current arrester Blitzductor® CT.2. 5 V.5 a). Surge arresters type FS 15 E (15-pole) or type FS 25 E (25-pole) protect the sockets (Figure 5.5 d. If Table 5. is installed to protect the V.5 a Surge arresters.2.11 (RS 422) cabling at the building input. type BE.24 (RS 232 C) / V.8.8. types FS 25 E and FS 15 E: Technical data .Components and protective devices: construction. Table 5.3.8.3.3.

2.8. Table 5.3. Table 5.8.8.3.2.276 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems there are TTY interface converters in such a system.5 e.5 b) can be applied.5 c).2.5 f. type ÜSD-25-TTY/B–KS: Technical data .8. Table 5.3.3.3.2. then a type ÜSD-25TTY/B-KS surge arrester (Figure 5.8. The IBM Twinax system can be protected by type ÜGKF/Twinax surge arresters (Figure 5.2.5 b Surge arrester.

1996 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. DS647 Oct.5 c Surge arrester. Different services are offered across common public networks using ISDN (‘integrated services digital network’). effect and application Table 5.8. Voice .3.3. type ÜGKF/Twinax: Technical data 277 Sources DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks.Components and protective devices: construction. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’.2. DS570/E 1998 5. Main catalogue UE’98 Ed’.8.6 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by an ISDN base terminal.2.

3.5 f (c) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5.5 e (a) Surge arrester.5 f (b) ÜGKF/Twinax .2.2.2.2.8.8. type ÜSD-25TTY/B-KS for TTY-interface Figure 5. type ÜGKF/Twinax protects IBM-terminal Figure 5.278 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.3.3.8.8.8.3.2.5 f (b) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5.3.5 f (a) Surge arrester.

6 a shows where to use what type of protector.8.3.6 b).8. Figure 5.3. The terminal base has 2 B-channels with 64 kbps each and a D-channel with 16 kbps. The Blitzductor® CT.3. faxes or extensions may be connected to this interface.3.6 e.2.6 a Protectors for long-distance data transmission with an ISDNbase terminal .3.3.8.8. a direct connection from point to point can be up to 1000 m long. the user’s interface is S0.2.2. Systems with LSA-PLUS-terminals are protected by surge arresters such as type DPL 10 F/ISDN So (Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.8.6 d.2.6 c.1 is installed at the lightning protection zone interface 0A/1 (Figure 5. Table 5. Table 5. There are one or two-pole data sockets (with surge protection) DSM1 × RJ45 ISDN So or DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN So for ISDN terminals (Figures 5.2.3.6 a) is installed.2.3.2.8. type B arrester described in section 5. effect and application 279 frequencies as well as data can be transmitted digitally using ISDN. the requirements of the telecommunication companies are to be observed. Table 5.1.2.6 c).6 b. When protective devices are installed before the NT (Uk0 interface).8.2. Figure 5.3.8.8. A four-line bus topology can be up to 150 m long. The supply line of the digital local exchange is a balanced line. A network terminal (NT) is the transfer interface for the user.3. Digital terminal equipment such as telephones.2. At the user’s interface (So interface) of the NT the pluggable surge arrester ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN S0 (Figures 5.2 b).8. Table 5.1.8.2. The NT is supplied with interface Uk0.

8.3.8.6 b Lightning current arrester Blitzductor® CT.2.2.6 c RJ45 ISDN So (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/ Figure 5.2.3.6 c (c) Basic circuit diagram .3.6 c (a) Surge arrester ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN So on the user side of the NTBA Figure 5.280 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5. type B Figure 5.8.2.3.8.

6 a Surge arrester.6 d (a) Data socket outlet (with surge arrester) DSM–2 × RJ45 ISDN So protects ISDN terminals (Fax and telephone) .3.2.3. type ÜGKF/RJ45 ISDN So: Technical data 281 Figure 5. effect and application Table 5.8.8.2.Components and protective devices: construction.

8.2.282 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 5.8.6 d (b) Data socket outlets (with surge arresters) types DSM– 1 × RJ45 ISDN So and DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN So Figure 5.6 d (c) Basic circuit diagrams Figure 5.6 e (a) Surge protective block.3.3.2.2.8.3. type DPL 10F/ISDN So for 10 double wires to plug into LSA-PLUS disconnection block .3.8.6 e (b) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5.2.

Components and protective devices: construction. types DSM1 × RJ45 ISDN SO and DSM-2 × RJ45 ISDN So: Technical data .3. effect and application Table 5.2.6 b 283 Data socket outlets (with surge arresters).8.

8. Large . Data transmissions up to 2. DS570/E 1998.6 c Sources DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks.3.048 Mbps can be carried out via a primary multiplex terminal.2. The NT is supplied with interface U2m.3. type DPL 10 F/ISDN So: Technical data Table 5. Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’.7 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by ISDN primary multiplex terminal.284 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Surge protective block. The primary multiplex terminal has 30 B channels with 64 kbps each and a D channel with 64 kbps. 5. 1996 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. the user’s interface is S2m. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS647 Oct.2.8.

Components and protective devices: construction.2. Table 5.8.2.3.8.7 a shows the basic arrangement of the protective devices.3.3.8.8. type B to protect the U2m interface Figure 5.7 c.8.8.3.2.2.1) (Figure 5. type B (introduced in Section 5.7 b Lightning current arrester Blitzductor® CT.1.2. effect and application 285 extension units or data lines with high data volumes are connected to this interface. Figure 5.3. type MD/HF ( for high-frequency applications) .1) (Figure 5. At the interface of lightning protection zone 0A/1 again a lightning current arrester Blitzductor® CT. type MD/HF (also described in Section 5. In the user’s system surge arresters Blitzductor® CT.7 a Protectors for long-distance data transmission with ISDNprimary–multiplex terminal equipment Figure 5.2. The S2m interface is operated using normal telephone lines.2.8.8.2. Figure 5.8.7 a) are applied.7 b) is used.7 c Surge arrester Blitzductor® CT.3.2.3.

Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’.2. 1996 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection.3.2.7 a Sources DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks. The exchange lines as well as branch exchange lines are mostly carried via terminals blocks. The data transmission rate is determined by hardware components of the modem.8.286 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Surge arrester Blitzductor® CT-type MD/HF: Technical data Table 5. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS647 Oct. DS570/E 1998 5.3.8. analogue long-distance data transmission via modem is commonly used. The LSA-PLUS terminals . The TAE system with N coding is specified by the German Telecom as a plug-in connector.8 Protective devices for data telecontrol transmission by analogue a/b-wire terminal. In industrial as well as in private sectors.

8 a Protectors for long-distance data transmisssion with analogue a/b-wire connection Figure 5.8 c (c) Basic circuit diagram .3.2.8.8. protect the rank distributor Figure 5.2.Components and protective devices: construction.3. 110 V Figure 5. type DPL 10G in LSAPLUS technique for protection of 10 double wires (b) Basic Figure 5.8 c (a) Surge arresters. type DPL 1F/ALD. effect and application 287 Figure 5.8 c (b) Surge arrester.8. type DPL 1F/ALD. 110 V.3.3.b circuit diagram Figure 5.8.3.2.2.8.2.2.8.8 b (a) Lightning current arrester.3.8.

8.8 b). Table 5.2.2. type FAX-Protector TAE/N (Figure 5.2.2. type B) (Figure 5. Figure 5.288 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems described in Section 5. Table 5.8 d .2.3.2.2.8. Blitzductor® CT.7 b) or DPL 10 G (at LSA-PLUS terminals) (Figure 5.2.8.3.8.2.8 a) are installed at the interface of the lightning protection zones 0A/1 (line input of the lightning protected building).8 a Lightning current arrester.8.7 are widely used for this purpose.2.2. Table 5.8.8.3.3.3. 110 V (Figure 5.8.2. type DPL 10 G: Technical data .3. Table 5.3.8.8 c).3.3.g. Table 5.8.3.8 a shows the arrangement of protective devices in such a system.8 d). The modem is protected by a combined surge protective device.8. The telephones are connected to TEA sockets (with surge protection) DSM-TAE-3x6 NFN-PWM (Figure 5. Terminal equipment is often connected via TAE sockets with F coding. Lightning current arresters (e.8 c.8.3. The lines at the disconnection block are protected by surge arresters DPL 1F/ALD.1.8 b.8 e.

type DPL 1 F/ALD. 110 V: Technical data 289 Figure 5.Components and protective devices: construction.2.8 b Surge arrester.8.8 d (b) Basic circuit diagram Figure 5.8. effect and application Table 5.3.2.8.3.2.3.8 d (a) TAE-socket outlet (with integrated surge arrester for a/b wires) type DSM-TAE-3 × 6 NFN–PWM with three TAE-sockets with N/F/N coding .

290 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems TAE socket outlet (with surge arrester).8 e (a) Combined surge protector. type FAX-protector TAE/N protects a/b-wire-input and 230 V-energy supply of the modem .8.2. type DSM–TAE-3 × 6 NFN-PWM Table 5.8.3.3.2.8 c Figure 5.

type FAX-protector TAE/N Table 5.8.3.3.2.8 e diagram (c) Basic circuit FAX-Protector TAE/N: Technical data .2.8.2.3. effect and application 291 Figure 5.8.8 e (b) Combined surge protector.Components and protective devices: construction.8 d Figure 5.

1996 DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection. DS570/E 1998 . Advice and equipment for optimized system solutions’. Main catalogue UE’98 E’. DS647 Oct.292 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Sources DEHN + SÖHNE: ‘Surge protection: Safety for your data networks.

Such a counter can be installed directly into the down conductor of a lightning protection system (Figure 6 c) or the earth bonding line of a protective device without reducing the cross section. In the case of a short circuit it emits a standardized 8/20 μs surge current with a maximum peak value of 10 kA. even during violent thunderstorms and direct lightning strikes. Here the portable ‘hybrid generator’ shown in Figure 6 d has been proven. Today. Since protective measures were completed the well-targeted application of protective devices has been working troublefree for years. there is more than a decade of reliable information on the efficiency of these surge protective devices. These are also systems which were seriously interfered with or even damaged by lightning previously. . It is now over 20 years since the development of surge limiters for highly sensitive electronic systems was initiated. At that time structures were equipped with the new protective devices and with ‘lightning current counters’. including those systems that failed five times and more per year in the previously unprotected stage. whereas in open circuit it generates the standardized surge voltage wave 1. Often it is necessary to carry out surge voltage/surge current tests not only in the laboratory or during the production of protective devices but also in the field.2/50 μs with a peak value up to 10 kV. This is designed according to the current transformer principle (Figure 6 b) and registers surge currents with peak values exceeding 200 A. A lightning/surge current counter which can also register the response of surge protective devices is shown in Figure 6 a.Chapter 6 Application in practice: Some examples Here are some practical examples of how the protective measures described are carried out and how the protective devices introduced are used in electrical systems with sensitive electronic equipment.

294 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6 a Lightning/surge current counter Figure 6 b Lightning/surge current counter: Layout and interior circuit Figure 6 d Portable hybrid generator Figure 6 c Lightning/surge current counter installed at a down conductor .

6.1.1.1 a).1 c and d). If lightning protection matters have been considered during the construction planning stage.1. In a second step the lightning protection zones will be determined according to the management plan introduced in Section 4. advantageous architectural solutions can often be found.Application in practice: Some examples 295 6.1.1.1 a Industrial plant: lightning protection levels = PL (acc.1 Fabrication hall A step-by-step procedure for a factory hall built of prefabricated concrete elements (Figure 6. ready to be placed into the foundation socket. the necessary protective measures and the required lightning protection levels for a particular industrial plant are determined by means of risk analysis as a first step. to a risk analysis) and lightning protection zones = LPZ (in accordance with the LEMP-management plant) .1. reinforced concrete and often metal facings allow integration of these metal parts into the lightning protection system. Figure 6. Reinforcement of the pillars is interconnected and the connection lines are brought out at the bottom and top (Figures 6.1 a) follows: the reinforcement of the foundation socket • Connection lines bonding the reinforcement of the pillars and with a (for the hall pillars) with • • ring type earth electrode are laid around the hall (Figure 6.1 e shows a finished pillar with the brought out reinforcement basket connection.1.3 (in accordance with IEC 61312–1) (Figure 6.1.1 b).1 Industrial plants As explained in Section 4. Figure 6. Modern construction techniques using steel skeletons.

made out of reinforced concrete supports.1. where the metal reinforcements are integrated into the lightning protection system (total view) are interconnected by • Floor reinforcement matsout near the pillars for continuous steel wires (Figure 6.1. the individual reinforcement mats being interconnected by a continuous wire and corresponding clamps (Figure 6.1 g).1. Earthing systems of individual buildings of the whole structure to be protected shall be interconnected to a meshed surface earthing (Figure 6. telephone.1.1. 6.2 a) with dispatch area (Figure 6.1.1 f ).1.1. heating.296 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.1 l).1 i and j).1.1 h) are to be connected with the steel construction of the attic (Figures 6.2 c). data and signal lines) enter through a reinforced cable duct (the reinforcement of which will be connected with the hall reinforcement) at a point where the lightning protection equipotential bonding will also be carried out. compressed air pipes or power. Reinforcement connection wires brought out on top of the pillars (Figure 6.1. All piping or lines entering the factory building (such as water.1 m). The following Figures show how lightning protection measures are realized during the progress of construction: .1 a Factory hall made out of prefabricated concrete parts.2 b).1.1 k). All foundation reinforcements will be included into the earthing system (Figure 6. oil.2 Store and dispatch building In this example the building is a computer-controlled high-bay warehouse (Figure 6.1. reinforced prefabricated concrete wall elements and a metal roof (Figure 6. brought final connection with • • • the ring equipotential bonding bar (Figure 6.

1.1 g Brought out connection wire of the reinforcement mats provided for later connection to the ring equipotential bonding bar .1.1.1.1.1 f Continuously interconnected reinforcement mats of the floor Figure 6.1 d Detail of Figure 6.Application in practice: Some examples 297 Figure 6.1 e Finished hall pillar (lying) with brought out reinforcement connection line Figure 6. during fabrication) with connection line Figure 6.1.1 c Figure 6.1 c Reinforcement basket of a hall pillar (lying down.1.1 b Foundation socket with brought out reinforcement connection wire Figure 6.

Steel reinforcements of the supports are to be continuously connected (Figure 6.1.1.1.1 i Connection of the reinforcement with the attic support construction Figure 6.1.2 d).1 j Connection of the attic support construction Figure 6.298 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. the reinforcement baskets will then be interconnected.1. .1.1.1 k Foundation reinforcement is included in the earthing system Figure 6.1 l Terminal to connect reinforcement mats with steel strip of • Reinforcements andthe foundations for the building supports are to be interconnected provided with connection wires to the outside • (Figure 6.1 h Reinforcement connection wire brought out at the pillar head Figure 6.2 e).

2 g).2 f ).2 b Dispatch area • Reinforcements of foundation and support are to be connected (Figure 6.1 m Building earthings interconnected to a meshed surface earthing Figure 6.Application in practice: Some examples 299 Figure 6. Steel reinforcements of the prefabricated wall elements for the • .1.1.2 a warehouse High-bay Figure 6.1.1.1. with the metal • Support reinforcements are to be connectedcurrents (Figuresroof construction by clamps made to carry lightning 6.

1.1.2 i shows such interconnected wall elements.1.2 j). . connection wires (for the ring equipotential bonding bar) are brought out at the walls (Figure 6.2 d Reinforcement baskets with brought out connection wires • • high-bay warehouse (lightning protection zone 2) are already continuously connected by the producer (for later shielding purposes) and are provided with fixed earthing terminals (at which the wall elements then will be interconnected) (Figures 6. Figure 6.300 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.1.1.2 h).2 c Dispatch building Figure 6. Reinforcement steel mats in the store floor are to be interconnected.

2 f Reinforcement steels of foundation and support are connected Figure 6.1.1.2 g Connection of the support reinforcement with the metal roof construction the building (lightning protection zone 1) a • This is the way to create in (lightning protection zone 2) for the comcompletely shielded room • puter controlled high-bay warehouse.1. and compressed air entering the building through a supply duct are to be included into the lightning protection equipotential bonding by pipe clamps (made to carry lightning currents) on entering lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 6.2 e Continuously interconnected support reinforcement Figure 6.2 k). .1. Metal piping for water. heating.Application in practice: Some examples 301 Figure 6.

2 j Interconnection of the steel mats in the floor with brought out connecting lugs for ring equipotential bonding bar lightning current arresters • Power lines are to be provided with the building (Figure 6.1. on entering lightning protection zone 1 of be connected across the • Information technology lines will on entering the building protective cabinet shown in Figure 6.1.1.1.3 Factory central heating The central heating system of a factory.2 l).2 m (lightning • protection zone 1).1.1.2 h Continuous reinforcement steels of the wall elements are prepared for shielding purposes Figure 6.2 n).1.302 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. On entering the high-bay warehouse (lightning protection zone 2) all electric lines are to be provided with surge arresters in the distribution (outside at the store wall) (Figure 6. has two 20 m high metal chimneys the protected area of which (lightning . 6.3 a.2 i Reinforcements of two wall elements interconnected at brought out fixed earthing terminals Figure 6. shown in Figures 6.1.

2 k Inclusion of metal pipings into the lightning protection equipotential bonding at the entry into lightning protection zone 1 Figure 6.1.1.2 l Lightning current arrester at the input of power lines into lightning protection zone 1 Figure 6.2 m Information technology lines (e.g. fire-alarm lines. control lines) are taken over a protective cabinet at the building input .Application in practice: Some examples 303 Figure 6.1. telephone lines.

1. C) to avoid direct lightning strikes into the central heating. Also in this example it will be demonstrated step-by-step how lightning/surge protection is going to be carried out for a central heating system with steel pillars.304 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.3 d shows how the reinforcement baskets of the metal chimneys’ foundations are interconnected. The tubular steel pillars serve as down conductors (Figure 6. Metal roof and sheet steel wall elements are to be bonded with the tubular steel pillars and the metal roof-supporting construction.1.3 e) to serve as ‘air terminations/down conductor/earthing’. sheet steel walls and a metal roof construction. α = 45°) is not sufficient (as shown in the side view of Figure 6. The tubular steel of the chimneys is to be bonded with the foundation reinforcement (Figure 6.1. Figure 6.1.3 a. Consider the following: the ground plate (all struc• Figure 6. thus .2 n Electrical lines entering lightning protection zone 2 of the highbay warehouse are connected with surge arresters protection level III.3 b shows the reinforcement of the metal plate foundations tural steel mats being interconnected) and • • • • for the tubular steel pillars which are to be interconnected for reasons of earthing and shielding.1.1.3 c).

1.3 i shows the electrical line protected by surge arresters on . on entering lightning protection zone 1. down conductors and shield’ (Figure 6.3 f) and forming an inside lightning protection zone 1.1.2 g) (Figure 6. are to be provided with lightning current arresters in the switchgear cabinet (Figure 6.3 h).3 g).1.1.2.Application in practice: Some examples 305 (a) External view (b) Front view (c) Side view Figure 6.1. Electrical lines. All metal aggregates are to be connected with the base reinforcement (as directly as possible) via preinstalled fixed earthing terminals (chapter 5. Figure 6. Figure 5.3 a Central heating (d) Internal view • • • serving as ‘air terminations.

3 c Steel tube supports connected with the ground plate reinforcement as down conductors Figure 6.1.3 e Metal chimneys connected with the foundation reinforcement Figure 6.3 f Metal roof and wall elements are interconnected .3 d Reinforcement baskets of the chimney foundations Figure 6.1.1.1.1.3 b Continuous ground plate reinforcement and metal plate foundations Figure 6.306 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.

3 g Metal aggregates sets are connected as closely as possible with the ground reinforcement by fixed earthing terminals Figure 6. book-keeping.4 a) of the factory is in the office building and is used for accounting.Application in practice: Some examples 307 Figure 6.1.3 i Surge arresters at the crossing of electrical lines from lightning protection zone 1 into lightning protection zone 2 (control cabinet) entering the control cabinet of the central heating unit which is lightning protection zone 2.1. 6. operations scheduling.1.1.4 Central computer The central computer (Figure 6. .3 h Lightning current arresters at the entry of electrical lines into lightning protection zone 1 Figure 6.1.

München.g. The power cable is connected to surge arresters at the boundary of lightning protection zone 1/2 (Figure 6. They are installed into a 19 inch protective cabinet where they offer the possibility to jump.4 d).: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. due to surges) would not only paralyse the automatic operating process but also would mean an immeasurable financial loss for the company. and WIESINGER.4 b). They are mechanically and electrically compatible with the computer interfaces.1. The computer room in the office building is designated as lightning protection zone 2. Berlin/Offenbach. thus this cabinet can also serve as a terminal block (Figures 6. Data transfer occurs over a four-wire current loop 20 mA current interface. production control and stock control.4 c and 6. The office building has been structured according to the concept of lightning protection zones where the interfaces of incoming lines are treated accordingly at the lightning protection zone boundary 0/1.. Sources HASSE. 25-pole D-subminiature plugs are used as terminal facilities.1. These socket-outlet type surge arresters have a front-side ‘protected output’. as described below.4 a Computer centre of a factory material tracking. J. P.1. surge protected data socket-outlets are installed at this zone crossing. 1994) . A long failure of this computing centre (e.. VDE Verlag. For the datalines.308 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.1.

pp. P.5 European installation bus (EIB) Just as with any other electrical lines the bus network will also be included in the lightning/surge protection measures.1. Berlin/ Offenbach.1.1. 1991). Aus: ‘Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit’ (VDE Verlag.4 b Connection of mains and data lines of a computer centre at the interfaces of lightning protection zones 1/ 2 with surge arresters Figure 6. 59–150 6.1.4 c Front view of the 19 ″-protective cabinet for data lines Figure 6.4 d Detail of Figure 6.orientiertes Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept mit Beispielen aus der Praxis’.1.4 c HASSE. that is lightning current arresters will be installed at the boundary of lightning protection zone .Application in practice: Some examples 309 Figure 6.: ‘EMV.

1.5 b) there is an EIB surge-arrester terminal (Figures 6. for example. Figure 6. For surge protection of the bus line (Figure 6. Table 6.5 f shows the comprehensive protection of EIB lines crossing several buildings.5 a) which.1. Figure 6.1.5 c BUStector (a) EIB-surge arrester Figure 6.1.310 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 0A/1 (Figure 6.1.5 d show).1.5 c.5 b Application of surge arresters at bus devices Figure 6.5 e show further application of this bus surge arrester for protection of bus devices in a factory.1.5 c (b) Basic circuit diagram .1.1.5 a). can be mounted in a switch box (as Figures 6.1.1.5 a Inclusion of the bus network into the lightning protection equipotential bonding (Source: ZVEI/ZVEH) Figure 6. Figures 6.

1.1.5 d (c) Practical execution (a.5 d (b) Practical execution Figure 6.5 d (a) Basic diagram Figure 6.5 d Figure 6.1.Application in practice: Some examples Table 6.1. b and c) Mounting of the EIB-surge arrester in a switch box (Source: ZVEI/ZVEH) .5 a EIB-surge arrester BUStector: Technical data 311 Figure 6.1.

5 e (a) at the connector Figure 6.1.1.5 e (b) at the line coupler (a and b) Mounting examples for EIB-surge arresters (Source: ZVEI/ZVEH) Figure 6.1.1.5 f Lightning/surge protection of factory buildings with EIB-systems .5 e Figure 6.312 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.

Application in practice: Some examples 313 6.7 Fire and burglar alarm system Fire and burglar alarm systems need long conductor loops through buildings and structures.6 a Surge protection for mains supply and bus lines: (left) SPSprotector.1.1. 6. This is shown. in a local lightning protection zone) includes both the power lines and the bus lines (Figure 6. It must always be considered that the local surge protection of the bus components (e.1.6 b Surge protection for SIMATIC ET 100 . by the SIMATIC ET 100 bus system (interface RS 485) in Figure 6. for example.g. (right) Blitzductor® Figure 6.6 a).6 b.1. encountering a considerable danger (especially Figure 6..6 Other bus systems Other bus systems are equally integrated in the lightning protection concept by lightning current and surge arresters.1.1.

The Blitzductor® CT. must be included in the lightning/surge protection: lightning /1 the Blitzductor • At the boundary ofexample. Here only the signal line can be identified: not.. Here the information of a signalling detector will be transmitted in digital signals. DEHNguard®).g.314 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems to the central alarm) due to surges. are the necessary protective devices. however. signal line (which If a detector gives an alarm. Figure 6. the surge protection device DEHNrail with adequate nominal voltage should be used. 250 V). the signalling detector.has several detectors) is continuously controlled. in the case of insufficient line length.7 a shows a typical fire alarm system in the DC line technique. Figure 6.g. DEHNbridge) and surge arrester (e. By means of the transmission protocol the signalling detector can be identified. type BD.. Impulse line technique. In case of nominal currents > 1 A. type BE. prescribing the selection of the arresters to be used. For both of these protection proposals it is pointed out that the Blitzductor®s . just as those for any other network in buildings and systems. optical/ acoustical signal line outputs) will be equipped. DEHNport® . the corresponding signal line will be interrupted and thus the alarm is given in the central alarm. The power supply line of the central alarm will be protected as usual by the lightning current arrester (e. isprotection zone 0which cross several CT..1. for example.g. for example. The minimum interference immunity of such systems is standardized in EN 50 130. for used for lines A ® • buildings (selected according to the operating voltage of the signal line). for example. The surge protection for the lightning protection zone crossing 1/2 for the Siemens fire central alarm. type IT. here.7 d for the Siemens burglar central alarm. There are two kinds of examining principles for fire and burglar alarm systems: According to the closed-circuit principle every • DC line technique.1. 110 V. • The lines. with a suitable Blitzductor® CT.1.7 c and in Figure 6. is shown in Figure 6.1. decoupling element (e. where it should be taken into account that the nominal current of these arresters (at system operation) is not exceeded. also.7 b shows the protection of a burglar alarm system using the DC line technique. is recommended to protect telecoms lines (for the self-dial device). type BMS. At the central alarm (which is mostly designed as the local zone of protection) all inputs and outputs (signal line inputs.

7 b Protection of a burglar alarm system using DC line-technique CT.7 a Protection of a fire-alarm system using DC line-technique Figure 6. 1995) . Part 4: Electromagnetic compatibility – Product family standard: Immunity requirements for components of fire.1. type ME/C. Source EN 50130–4: ‘Alarm systems. are energy coordinated with the protective device type.7 e). 8 P/G. Geneva.1. intruder and social alarm systems’ (International Electrotechnical Commission.1. recommended by Siemens for such systems (Figure 6.Application in practice: Some examples 315 Figure 6.

type BMS Figure 6. They are included in lightning/surge protection systems as described below: camera direct lightning • Location of the video zone 0 ):must not be subject toouter façade of for example.8 a shows the basic structure of such systems.316 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.8 Video control system Video systems are used in industrial plants for object monitoring and access control.7 c (a) Surge protection of the SIEMENS fire-alarm system.1.1.1.7 c (b) Example for the surge protection of a fire-alarm system 6. at the (lightning protection B . Figure 6.1.

1. The system cable between camera and terminal box will be run in the shaft of the metal mast. be realized by the existing telephone network (symmetric two-wire line) of the industrial plant. for example.Application in practice: Some examples 317 Figure 6. type IT Figure 6.7 e Energy coordinated application of Blitzductor® CT. type 8 P/G • the building in the protection zone of the air terminations of the building’s lightning protection system. .1.8 b the choice of lightning and surge arresters will depend on the requirements (at the lightning protection zone interfaces). or the camera mast will be provided with an air termination rod. As shown in Figure 6.1. type ME/C and SIEMENS ÜSS. Connection between terminal box (or transmitter) and monitor (or receiver) can.7 d Surge protection of the SIEMENS burglar alarm system. or there is a separate coaxial line network.

6.1. is shown in Figure 6.1. are shown in Figures 6.318 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. can be used (technical data equal to ÜGKF/ BNC). shown in Figure 6.1.1.9 Radio paging system A radio paging system.8 b. Note that: (i) the actuator.1.8 c with their technical data being summarized in Tables 6. as used in an industrial area.8 a and b.8 b Protection for video-monitoring system The protective devices ÜGK/B and ÜGKF/BNC. For surge protection of a video control centre where several monitoring lines arrive. with microphone and selective call .9 a.1.8 c (c). the protective devices for the 19 inch case mounting.8 a Video-monitoring system: Basic construction Figure 6. mentioned in Figure 6.1.1.

8 c (b) Figure 6. (ii) one or two double wires transmit the signal to the amplifier which is installed together with the omni-directional antenna in the roof area of an exposed building. is in the control room or in the keeper’s lodge.8 c (c) Figure 6.1.1.Application in practice: Some examples 319 Figure 6.8 c (a) Lightning current arrester ÜGK/B (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/ BNC (c) Surge arrester ÜGKF/BNC III generator.1. and (iii) the amplified signal will be led to the antenna by a coaxial cable.1. .8 c (a) Figure 6.

N. type ÜGK/B Figure 6. for ® ficiently decoupled from the lightning current arresters).1. two wires each for the supply voltage.1.320 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Arresters for video systems: Technical data Table 6.1. coaxial arresters. if there is a lightning protection system).8.3. electronic vehicle weighbridges are powered using the four or six-wire technique: that is. or UHF attachment) for the aerial coaxial line.9 a also shows what protective measures shall be taken: • Lightning current arresters are to be used at the lines which are crossing several buildings. DEHNport® for the 230 V supply (such lightning current arresters certainly are installed anyhow. amplifier will be protected at • Actuator and example. type BE (according to the signal voltage) for the signal line double wires.8 a (a) Lightning current arrester. . For example: Blitzductor®s CT. type the 230 V input by surge 275 (which must be sufarresters.2. DEHNguard .1. for measuring and for compensation purposes.1. 6. type ÜGK (according to the type BNC.10 Electronic vehicle weighbridge As explained in the example in Section 5.

Application in practice: Some examples (b) Surge arrester ÜGKF/BNC 321 Figure 6.1.9 a Protection of a radio/paging system .

Figure 6.322 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Earthing and equipotential bonding measures for the weighbridge (with the pressure gauges) are shown in Figure 6.10 b Protection of an electronic vehicle weighbridge .1.10 a.10 a Earthing and equipotential bonding measures for a vehicle weighbridge Figure 6.1.1.1.10 b shows how the protective devices are to be used: Figure 6.

6. thus Blitzductor® CT. For example. The flat roof and the façades consist of usual reinforced concrete elements with welded reinforcement (Figure 6.2 b). is used here. 12 V.2 d). V. Data transfer between evaluating electronics and large-digital display usually travels by symmetric interfaces. Additional bonding points are provided to connect the • • • • . A type FS 25 E surge arrester protects this input to the evaluating electronics (since the PC is in the same building). At these bushings the individual concrete elements can be bonded (Figure 6. The transition from lightning protection zone 0 to lightning protection zone 1 shall be explained in detail by considering the construction of the engine hall. The volume to be protected is defined as lightning protection zone 1 and comprises: the engine hall of the gas turbines the four underground gas tanks with the tank domes and the gas pipelines the external gas distribution station the corresponding connection routes with power cables and telecommunication cables. The 230 V input of the evaluating electronics will be protected by surge arresters DEHNguard®. DEHNport® at the building input). the measuring and compensation lines as well as at • • • the weighbridges and also at the evaluating electronics. for example.24 (RS 232). A new engine hall with gas turbines has been joined to the engine hall with diesel generators and the lightning protection system has been integrated into the comprehensive lightning protection concept (Figure 6. type BE/C.2 a). At the four corners of the prefabricated concrete elements there are threaded bushings which are welded to the reinforcement. type 275 (since this line is already provided with a lightning current arrester. Veit of the Allgäuer Überlandwerk (AÜW) in Kempten it can be demonstrated how new buildings with electronic equipment already in the existing structures can obtain the best protection according to the lightning protection zone concept.Application in practice: Some examples ® 323 There are lightning current arresters Blitzductor CT. type BE. at • the voltage supply. Control and monitoring of the weighing system in this example is realized by a personal computer (PC) having the asymmetric interface V.11 (RS 422). The defined down conduction of the lightning protection system from the roof to the foundations has been realized here by additional round steel in the concrete pillars.2 Peak-load power station Using the example of the peak-load power station St. 12 V. and how these measures are made compatible with those already existing.

2 a General plan of the peak-load power station Figure 6.2 b Steel reinforcement of the prefabricated concrete parts Figure 6.324 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.2 c Threaded bushing welded to the reinforcement .

realized using closed sheet metal boxes. There is further cable routing to two protective cabinets where cable shields are connected and the active cores are protected by Blitzductor® KT (predecessor of Blitzductor® CT) surge arresters. Figure 6. electromagnetic shield.Application in practice: Some examples 325 reinforcement of the façade elements to down conductors. of the directly neighbouring control room. All shielded cables from the engine hall area are run to the information technology cabinets. thus leading further reduction existing residual fields of interference for the electrical lines. The wall side adjoining the already existing engine hall with the diesel generators has been covered by continuous wire netting to guarantee a closed. have the in • Only shielded cables zone been used insideto a volume to protect in lightning protection 1. By these simple and rather favourable measures it was possible to obtain an appreciable basic shielding of the engine hall interior against the electromagnetic field from a lightning discharge.2 e Bonding of the reinforcement steel by means of steel strips . These protective cabinets (Figures 6. In the floor of the engine hall a net of strip iron is welded to the reinforcement and bonded with the reinforcement of the cartridge-type foundations (Figure 6.2 d Electrical bonding of the reinforcement of the prefabricated concrete parts Figure 6.2 f) are the central interface between the protected volume of the engine hall and the outer area. Inside the information technology cabinets and the connected cables a lightning protection zone 2 has thus been created. There turned out to be a special problem in that the underground gas tanks and gas pipelines had to be cathodically protected. Here two different levels of equipotential bonding had to be created: equipotential • thethe foundationbonding on the level of the mentioned direct earthing by earth electrodes the equipotential bonding on the level of the cathodical protection • potential.2 e).

1994 LANG. The gas tank bodies and the pipes coming from the tanks are directly connected to this equipotential bonding bar.2 g shows the line treatment inside and around the gas distribution station. cable input into the protective cabinet with arresters (Source: P. 39–45 .. and WIESINGER. Equipment at earth potential and the corresponding cable shields have been bonded with the equipotential bonding bar (EBB) which is directly earthed. an insulating flange had to be inserted at the entrance and the output of the station.. Sources HASSE. J. U.: ‘Eine Methode des Blitzschutzes für nachrichtentechnische Anlagen – Das Denken in Blitz-Schutzzonen’. J. Berlin/Offenbach. P. pp. The bushing of the cable shields and the gas pipes must be insulated from the earthed reinforcement of the gas distribution station. München VDE Verlag. Biebl) Figure 6. (11).: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. Biebl). For the purpose of lightning protection equipotential bonding the equipotential bus bar lying at cathodic protection potential (CCPEBB) and the equipotential bus bar lying at earth potential (EBB) are interconnected by suitable explosion-protected disconnection spark gaps (Figure 6. A corresponding solution has been implemented at the entrance of the cables and gas pipes into the engine hall area. total view of the protective cabinets.326 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6.2 f Protective cabinets: control room (Source: P. and WIESINGER.2 h). Those cable shields leading to equipment on the cathodic protection potential are connected to a cathodic corrosion protection equipotential bus bar (CCP–EBB). As the gas pipe in the distribution station is at earth potential. 1990. de der elektromeister + deutsches elektrohandwerk.

Application in practice: Some examples 327 Figure 6.2 g Equipotential bonding in the gas distribution station Figure 6.2 h An explosion protected disconnection spark gap connects the equipotential bonding bar at cathodic protection potential with the equipotential bonding bar at earth potential .

Active power and telecommunication wires will be protected by lightning current arresters at the lightning protection zone boundary 0A/1 and by surge arresters at the zone boundaries 0B/1 and higher. antenna masts). To avoid uncontrolled arcing due to a lightning strike. According to class III lightning protection there is a total lightning current loading of 50 kA (10/350 μs) for the power and telecommunication cables.328 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems 6..3 a Determination of the protected zone by means of the rolling sphere method (LPZ: lightning protection zone) . it must be protected at the crossing point. parts of the roof surface). there are lightning protection zones with different levels of potential lightning danger: LPZ . Direct strike is possible.3 Mobile radio systems Mobile radio systems are often installed on existing buildings (in a radio technically favourable site). LPZ . Determination of class III protection means a radius R = 45 m (of the rolling sphere) for the rolling sphere method to specify the position and height of the air terminations. A sphere with radius R = 45 m will be rolled over that part of the building where the components of the mobile radio system are located (Figure 6.3 a).g. interior of A B If an electrical line crosses a zone interface. For these systems class III (according to DIN V ENV 61024–1) lightning protection is mostly provided. undamped electromagnetic lightning • fields0(e. impossible.. undamped electromagnetic lightning • fields0(e. This must be independent of the host building’s systems so that they will not be additionally endangered. electromagnetic lightning fields (e.. Thus.g. Direct strike impossible. For coaxial cables this is realized by connecting the shields to earthing couplings and by their equipotential bonding. all mobile Figure 6. damped • LPZ 1: Direct strike the base station).g.

The meshed functional equipotential bonding of buildings with existing lightning protection system will be earthed by connection to the air terminations (Figure 6. cable racks and the lightning protection system of the host building (which might already exist). for example. The meshed functional equipotential bonding of buildings without lightning protection will be earthed by an antenna earthing according to EN 50 083–1:1993–09. thus obtaining an electrically conductive connection (lightning current proof) between the phase of the coaxial cable and the antenna mast. thus obtaining a network of low impedance. The antenna mast must be connected as directly as possible with the MFEB.3 a Minimum cross section of MFEB line . The line cross sections of the MFEB can be taken from Table 6. For the MFEB in the area of the components of a mobile radio system. ground couplings are used to integrate the aerial cable at the base station into the MFEB. It is necessary to ensure that there is a continuous bonding of the cable gutters.3 b (a). At the mast foot the incoming coaxial cables must be screwed to a ground coupling.3 b (b). In addition. This prevents the cables from direct lightning strikes and the lightning field influence on the aerial cable will be damped in the case of close-up strikes. shows the integration of the meshed equipotential bonding for host buildings with an existing lightning protection system.Application in practice: Some examples 329 radio systems on the roof such as metal installations of electrical systems and the lightning protection and earthing system (if there is any). This is realized by screwing the cable racks or by bonding them by lightning current proof bridging ropes (Figures 6. An example of realizing the meshed functional equipotential bonding for a host building without a lightning protection system is shown in Figure 6. The antenna cables are to be run in steel cable conduits (cable racks. a mesh width of about 5 × 5 m shall be kept. the following can be used: Table 6.3 a.3 d (b) ).3 c). This MFEB shall include the metal components of the base station.3 b (b) ). the antenna masts. As the bonding conductor (earth conductor) between the MFEB on the roof and the antenna earthing. must be interconnected by a meshed functional equipotential bonding (MFEB). Figure 6. When using sector or radio relay antennas they must be placed in the protective area of the mast (Figures 6. cable gutters).

(b) with lightning protection system 2 2 • single solid wire. 16 mm • single solid wire. the following can be also used: metal installations such as continuous metal water pipes. and (iii) the cross sections are at least equal to those of the above mentioned materials.330 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. 25 mm • 50 mm steel.3 b Figure 6.3 b (a) Figure 6. 2 copper insulated aluminium • As the earth conductor. . continuous metal heating pipes on condition that: (i) there is permission in accordance with the local regulations.3 b (b) Meshed functional equipotential bonding for a mobile radio system on the roof of the host building: (a) without lightning protection system. (ii) there is permanent continuity of the different parts.

railings.3 c (a) Principle: protected zone Figure 6.Application in practice: Some examples 331 Figure 6.3 c (b) Arrangement in practice Sector antenna in the protected zone of the antenna mast of the building • metal framereinforcement steel of the concrete building continuous • façades. and subconstructions of metal façades on condition • that: (i) their cross sections are at least equal to those of the above mentioned materials and their thickness is at least 0.5 mm and (ii) there is safe vertical continuity. .3 c Figure 6.

The electrical supplying conductors (power line. (ii) earth electrode rod 2. subdistribution (SD) and cable junction (CJ) .3 d (a) ). laid at least 0. or (iii) two horizontal earth electrodes at least 5 m long. telecommunication Figure 6.5 m deep and a distance of 1 m from the foundations. The minimum cross section of every earth electrode is 50 mm2 Cu or 80 mm2 steel. Usually the base station.3 d (a) Basic circuit diagram Figure 6.3 d (b) Practical arrangement Figure 6.5 m long. subdistribution and cable junction form lightning protection zone 1 (Figure 6.3 d Protection of base station.332 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Antenna earthing is to be carried out using one of the following means: (i) foundation earth electrode.

Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35. Part 1: Safety requirements’ (International Electrotechnical Commission.Application in practice: Some examples 333 Figure 6.3 f ). TN–C or TN–S system) taking into account the sufficient energy coordination of both arrester types.3 e. subdistribution and cable junction are usually run in metal conduits on the roof (on both sides connected with the MFEB) so that they remain in lightning protection zone 1. depending on the telecom interface is applied: (a/b-wire): • Analogue -connectionBlitzductor Blitzductor CT BD.1 are shown in Figures 6. Sources ENV 61024–1 (VDE V 0185 Teil 100): ‘Protection of structures against lightning. Application of lightning current and surge arresters is adjusted to the low-voltage system (TT.. Often. B-1050 Brussels Aug. • ISDN U -interface: Blitzductor CT BD /110 V5 V HF.1996 EN 50 083 Teil 1: ‘Cabled distribution systems for television and sound signals. a combination of a lightning current and surge arrester (e. 1993) . Practical examples of the arresters and decoupling inductances introduced in Section 5. 5 V • ® ko ® 2m ® 2m ® Conductors between base station. All telecommunication lines entering lightning protection zone 1 at the cable junction must also be included in the meshed lightning protection equipotential bonding by lightning current arresters (Figure 6. • ISDN S -interface: Blitzductor CT BD / HF. Owing to narrow spaces the complete protective circuit for the 230 V supply is often gathered in a service entrance box (Figure 6. Combi-Arrester Blitzductor® CT.8. 110 V ISDN U interface: CT BD. Part 1: General principles’.g. not needing special protective devices. Geneva. Type BD).3 d (a) ).3 d (a) ).3 d (b) Practical arrangement line) entering this lightning protection zone 1 must be included in the meshed functional equipotential bonding by lightning current arresters at the zone crossing (Figure 6.

4 a) are usually located at high altitude or on mountain tops (Figure 6.3 e Figure 6.and surgearresters to protect the power supply input of mobile radio systems at different network configurations Figure 6.3 f Power connection box for TN–S system (compare Figure 6.3 e.4 b).3 e (a) TT system Figure 6. so they are particularly endangered by lightning.3 e (c) TN–S system Energy coordinated application of lightning current.4 Television transmitter TV transmitters (Figure 6. .334 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. C) 6.3 e (b) TN–C system Figure 6. Power for the transmitter is taken from the public mains.

Application in practice: Some examples 335 Figure 6.4 b Television transmitter on a mountain .4 a Transmitter mast Figure 6.

1 were used to protect the transmitter. A current of about 30 A had. Such arresters are only designed for surge currents due to distant lightning strikes. At the time (1981) surge arresters with a nominal discharge capability of 5 kA (8/20 μs) according to IEC 99. been flowing through the station earth resistance of about 7 Ω for several months without being noticed. 8/20 μs) of the ORF TV transmitter ‘Braunhuberkogel’ in Styria damaged by lightning strike . in fact.4 c). This undesirable condition was only identified when the current consumption of the plant was subsequently analysed. An especially remarkable event involving lightning damage occurred at a transmitter of the Austrian Broadcasting Service (ORF) in Styria. The protective insulation in the power input circuit and safe electrical insulation by a disconnection transformer is often the protective measure in the transmitter. Apart from the danger to personnel from the hazardous contact voltages at all conductive parts of the transmitter. a short-circuit current to release the back-up fuses could not be generated. In this case the surge arresters were damaged due to a direct lightning strike on the TV transmitter (Figure 6. Figure 6. there was also a considerable increase in the current consumption of the installation. During that time all accessible parts of the transmitter station which were connected to the station earth (transmitter cabin. mast and associated equipment) carried mains voltage. leaving one phase of the power supply conductively connected to the station earth.4 c Surge arresters (having a rated discharge capacity of 5 kA. Owing to the fact that in a totally insulated power input the neutral conductor is not connected to the station earth.336 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Often an overhead line from the valley is changed into an underground cable at high altitude or on a mountain top.

4 e Power input with protective insulation and lightning current-proof surge protection of the transmitter cabin of the ORF TV transmitter ‘Braunhuberkogel’ . only arresters which are extremely robust (able to carry lightning currents non-destructively) and absolutely reliable in terms of their insulation should be used. were installed in this installation in autumn 1982 (Figures 6. quenching spark gaps and highcurrent spark gaps.4 f).4 d to 6. Lightning current-proof surge protection at the crossing ‘overhead line/underground cable’ Figure 6. in the quest to attain total ‘protective insulation’.4 d Power supply of the ORF TV transmitter ‘Braunhuberkogel’. After having turned the transmitter cabin into a lightning protection zone 1 new protective devices. Lightning current counters were installed in the Figure 6. namely.Application in practice: Some examples 337 This example clearly demonstrates that.

.338 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. P. 17th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP). 1994) FELDHÜTTER. These had recorded 29 lightning currents at the overhead line mast and 59 lightning currents in the transmitter up to the end of 1997. W.4 f (b) Detailed view of Figure 6.: ‘Überspannungsschutz des Netzeinganges eines Fernsehfüllsenders auch be direken Blitzeinschlägen’. J. Paper 3. P. These lightning strikes have been controlled without damage or interference to the transmitter.4 f (a) Transmitter cabin Figure 6. Geneva.. Berlin/Offenbach. Sources HASSE.2 EN 60099–1: ‘Surge arresters. 1991) . Den Haag. and WIESINGER. E. HASSE..4 f (a) corresponding earth connection line of the arresters at the overhead line mast and in the transmitter cabin. and PIVIT.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. Part 1: Non linear resistor type gapped surge arresters for AC systems’ (International Electrotechnical Commission. 1983. München VDE Verlag.

5 Mobile telecommunication facility A mobile facility (Figures 6. The lightning and NEMP interferences on the power connection side Figure 6.5 a) must be protected against dangerous contact voltages and surges. All cable entries were protected at the interface of the lightning or NEMP protection zones 0 and 1. Turning the facility into a lightning protection zone 1 and a NEMP protection zone 1 was the solution to the problem.Application in practice: Some examples 339 6.5 a Transportable. In this present case surge protection of the power connection (with total insulation) was required to guarantee safe uninterrupted operation in the event of direct lightning strikes and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). metal encased telecommunication facility with line inputs protected against lightning and NEMP (1 to 5) .

The minimum AC operating voltage of this arrangement of arresters is about 5 kV and the minimum impulse operating voltage about 10 kV.5 c Lightning current arrester arrangement out of five quenching spark gaps and one high current spark gap .340 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems must be limited by an arrester circuit so that the protective insulation will not be endangered. A suitable arrester circuit is shown in Figure 6. The insulation between the power input circuit and the Figure 6.5 c) out of five spark gaps which can quench the mains follow-current (quenching spark gaps) and a high current spark gap as a disconnection spark gap is installed between the phases (L1. A group of lightning current arresters (Figure 6. N and PE) and the shielding case of the mobile facility. L2.5 b.5 b Basic circuit diagram of a surge protected power connection of a mobile operating facility with protective insulation in the input circuit Figure 6. L3.

additional RFI bushing filters are provided. The protective conductor PE of the power cable is not necessary if protective insulation is applied. the level of which depends on the steepness of the surges. Voltage peaks will arise at the arrester arrangement before and during activation. such as switching surges. It must not terminate here in an open circuit condition because in the event of a surge a sparkover would occur in the plug and socket facility.5 d Coordinated surge characteristics of the arrester arrangement and the isolating transformer insulation . the additional insulation will be realized by the high current spark gap. very steep voltage peaks will be damped and thus reliably protecting the insulation of the isolation transformer (Figure 6. especially due to NEMP effects. However.Application in practice: Some examples 341 shielding case of the mobile facility as well as the insulation between the input and output circuit of the isolating transformer are adjusted to these operating voltages. Any surges arising on the secondary side prior to the reaction of the arresters will be limited by varistors.5 d). In the internal network of the facility in lightning and NEMP protection zone 1. the protective conductor PE should be treated as if it were a live conductor and is equipped with a quenching spark gap. Increasing voltage steepness makes the operating voltage of the group of arresters rise according to its impulse characteristic. the protective conductor PE will be automatically carried to the coupling socket of the cable at the transportable facility. are carried by the insulation. For protection against very high frequency surges. The basic insulation is provided by the quenching spark gaps which have a quenching capacity according to DIN VDE 0675 Part 6. the TN-C-S-system is used. Therefore. Surges below this level. on the secondary side of the isolating transformer. Figure 6. this group of arresters ensures double insulation. During undisturbed operation. by using standard power cables and plugs. Owing to the enclosed spike chokes.

working like a disconnection spark gap. They will be connected at their lower end and wired via the high-current spark gap to the casing of the power connection.1. installed into a mobile operating facility .342 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems In the case of a direct lightning strike into a facility on a nondefinitively earthed vehicle the worst case condition occurs when the entire lightning current enters through the power supply. the ensuing mains followcurrent must be quenched automatically. an arrester arrangement is required to meet the lightning currents according to protection class III (compare Table 4. Figure 6. This spark gap. After activation of the arresters by a surge. these requirements are distributed among several spark gaps. As shown in Figure 6.5 e Mains connection box. The spark gaps are installed in a service entrance box which can be easily inserted into the mobile facility. The series connection of quenching and high current spark gaps thus constitutes a double insulation with lightning current conductive surge protection. can control the entire lightning current and has excellent and very reliable insulation characteristics corresponding to the requirements of additional insulation.5 b. Therefore. as shown in Figure 6. In terms of their insulation characteristics these quenching spark gaps correspond to the basic insulation.5 e.1 c): and minimum operating • Insulation resistance even after multiple lightningvoltage must not change considerably current loadings • (this guarantees a long-term protective insulation of the power input).

München.1..3 a). J. by means of the structural possibilities and by the guidelines for the system installation. etz Elektrotechn.1. in this stage of planning. • the architect (construction planning) planning). 1989 6. J..1.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. . in order to define rooms of different degrees of severity with regard to conducted and field interference. GmbH. PIVIT. 1994) HASSE.6 Airport control tower The planning of the new control tower of Nuremberg Airport shall be used as an example for the application of LEMP management (IEC 61312–1) introduced in chapter 4. and WIESINGER. P. E. no data about the electromagnetic surge immunity of the different electric and electronic devices and systems of the air traffic control were available. Berlin/Offenbach.. In accordance with the first step of the LEMP protection management plan (cf. 1982.: VDE Verlag. Berlin/Offenbach) Nov. pp. 103.3. Such a subdivision also makes it possible to determine local equipotential bonding points at the lightning protection zone boundaries. (2). Correspondingly the structure was rated as a lightning protection class I project (according to IEC 61024–1). • the engineering office (electrotechnical The defined target of protection was to safeguard failure-free operation of the electrical and electronic systems of the air traffic control in the case of lightning interference as far as possible. and WIESINGER.. Table 4. the requirement was to achieve the utmost protection for these devices and systems against the impact of lightning and against internal interferences. Z.: ‘Überspannungsschutz eines Netzanschlusses für transportable Betriebsstätten mit Schutzisolierung bei direkten Blitzeinschlägen’. 52–54 E DIN VDE 0675 Teil 6: ‘Überspannungsableiter zur Verwendung in Wechselstromnetzen mit Nennspannungen zwischen 100 V und 1000 V’ (VDE Verlag. Munich) in coordination with and owner of the airport who provides the new tower • the operator technical installations including all • air traffic control as a user of the new tower with its own electronic equipment. LEMP-protection planning was executed by the planner Dr R. P. As. Frentzel (TÜV South Germany.Application in practice: Some examples 343 Sources HASSE. The new control tower and the corresponding operations building were then subdivided into lightning protection zones and interference protection zones. MEUSER. A.

. All other rooms were classified as lightning protection zone 1 for which an effective electromagnetic shield is not realizable. for example of office PCs.6 a Tower model (1:100) and to scale rolling sphere (r=20 m) (Source: Frentzel. are accepted. By a consequent realization of the planned zone division. Owing to the defined target of protection and the structural conditions.344 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems For the planning of the air terminations by which lightning protection zones 0A and 0B are determined. As Figure 6. a sphere (corresponding to lightning protection class I) with radius 20 m is used for the rolling sphere method. The malfunction and failure of equipment in lightning protection zone 1. therefore a high residual lightning field and the resulting electromagnetic coupling on lines and devices must be taken into account. All rooms which contain electronic systems and the cables that are important for the operation of the air traffic control were classified as lightning protection zone 2. however.6 a shows. two lightning protection zones of graded interference levels were determined in the inner area of the control tower and the operation building. which is comparable to lightning protection zone 1 with regard to the prevalent interference level. where conducted and field interference are strongly reduced.3 a. interference from devices and systems in lightning protection zone 1 on those in lightning protection zone 2 will be avoided. TÜV South Germany) . involves determining the strike-protected areas (lightning protection zone 0B) in the outer area by means of suitable sectional drawings of the structure. In lightning protection zone 1.1. ‘LEMP-protection’ according to Table 4. an existing CAD-3D-Tower-Model (scale 1:100) was used. R. All Figure 6. The second step. The power technical system rooms in the basement were classified as being in interference protection zone 1.

Functions of lightning protection and EMC (such as air terminations. For the purpose of equipotential bonding with other metal parts. already attenuate the high frequency field interference. as there are reinforcement mats. The electromagnetic shield of lightning protection zone 2 essentially consists of a multilayer reinforcement of usual mesh size 10–15 cm. lattices. fixed earthing terminals or connection lugs are made to project from the concrete at the necessary points.6 b Subdivision of the basement into protected zones (Source: Frentzel. railings. and earthing of information technology systems) have been attributed to the metal parts of the control tower and the operation building. such as switching cabinets out of sheet steel. The welded netting consists of flat steel strips 30 mm × 3. stilted floors. For the tower this is realized by an additional netting which is put into the reinforced floors..5 mm with a grid size of about 5 m × 5 m and is welded to the reinforcement every 2 m. Lightning protection zone 2 contains the systems of the air traffic control with the highest protection requirements. it was quite easy to plan an effective shield because the floor. for example. Thus. The interior of the metal housings is therefore considered as being in interference protection zone 0. down conductors.6 c). metal roof coverings. sufficient shielding in lightning protection zone 2 against rooms with lightning protection or interference protection zone 1 as well as against lightning protection Figure 6.6 b shows the division into protection zones. R. foundation earth electrodes. For the basement. In defining lightning protection zone 1 it was considered that the metal housings of the devices. elevator constructions etc. The interference in interference zone 1 is due to power technical switching operations and feedback from the mains. shielding of buildings and rooms against electromagnetic fields. metal façades. TÜV South Germany) . the walls and the ceiling are reinforced all over.Application in practice: Some examples 345 rooms of lightning protection zone 2 also belong to interference protection zone 2. steel pillars. Figure 6. The basis for these functions is an electrically conductive and possibly low-impedance connection of all metal parts. lightning protection and surface equipotential bonding. ceilings and walls (Figure 6.

The base plate under the control bench is reinforced concrete. intensive electromagnetic fields. a shielding will be realized by inserting metal sheets into the doors. TÜV South Germany) Figure 6. R. These metal sheets will also be bonded with the reinforcement via the metal door frames. the inner air-traffic controller cabin has been divided into lightning protection zone 1 and lightning protection zone 2.346 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems Figure 6. TÜV South Germany) zone 0 (outer area) is achieved. Lightning protection zone 2 comprises the space under the false floor where the entire cabling is laid.. Shielding lattices in front of the windows or shielded panes were not accepted by the air-traffic control..6 d) where. due to the panoramic glass. The window openings in the basement are shielded by the conductive bonding of the gratings which cover the (reinforced) light shafts. This lightning protection zone 2 is extended to the control desks of the air traffic controllers. must be taken into account. Therefore. All shielding elements are low-impedance interconnected.6 c Schematic representation of the additional meshed network (Source: Frentzel. however. as these measures would lower the visibility. due to lightning. was the planning of the shield of lightning protection zone 2 in the air traffic controller cabin (Figure 6. Not quite as easy. . This volume is shielded by a conductive false floor and lateral sheeting. The necessary shielding effect will be reached by the use of desk casings the insides of which are covered by metal foil. If non-metallic doors are planned inside the shield of lightning protection zone 2.6 d Subdivision of the air traffic controller cabin into protected zones (Source: Frentzel. R. These metallized plates will be contacted with the metal base frame of the desks which again will be low-impedance integrated into the conductive false floor.

the metal façades. In such cases the corresponding combi-arresters (chapter 5. Also here the netting described is used to which the flat steel strips of the additional netting in the walls as well as the down conductors are bonded. The earthing system will be realized by using a mesh-type earth electrode within the foundation plate. Sometimes there is a direct change over from lightning protection zone 0A to lightning protection zone 2. the requirements of the respective zone boundary and the immunity of the equipment to be protected.8) must be installed. and in the case of steel–glass constructions. functional earth and lightning protection earth. low-voltage operational earth. on the one hand. Within the scope of the lightning protection equipotential bonding all metal installations. as already described. at the same time. The shield connection and the earthing of the arresters must be carried out with low-impedance. the equipotential bonding at the boundary from lightning protection zone 0 (0A or 0B) to lightning protection zone 1 or lightning protection zone 2. the down conductors and the earthing system are interconnected in the basement. For the tower a common earthing system has been planned to realize a high-voltage protective earth. take into account the probable threat. the partly reinforced walls with additional netting. The following construction principles are also applicable for installations which will enter lightning protection zone 1 or lightning protection zone 2 in the other floors from the external area. while. In the area of the operation building which contains an office section. thus fulfilling the requirements of DIN 18 014. Piping will be bonded directly or via isolating spark gaps.Application in practice: Some examples 347 The down conductors in the control tower shaft have been planned as additional netting. Generally. By using the natural elements it is not necessary to install the usual externally mounted down conductors. the steel pillars are used as down conductors. All metal installations which enter the building will be included into the lightning protection equipotential bonding directly at their point of entrance. This bonding in the basement represents. In the case of electrical cables from the external area it is the lightning current conductive shield itself or the wires of the cables which will be connected via lightning current or surge arresters. on the other hand. The foundation reinforcement of the 1 m thick base plate is also included into the earthing measure by welding in order to reduce the earthing resistance and to achieve close-meshed shielding. For this purpose reinforcement terminal points have been provided at the corresponding points on the inside of the outer walls. the electrical systems. The selection of the protective devices must. lightning current arresters should be installed at the crossing from lightning protection zone 0A into lightning protection zone 1 and surge arresters between lightning protection zone 1 and lightning protection zone 2. From the producer of the arresters it is required that .

Apart from lightning discharge as an external source of interference there are switching operations within the power plants which are a dangerous internal source of interference for electronic systems. Corresponding terminals are also provided for these installations. heating pipes. As a measure to control such interference the alreadydescribed interference protection zones have been defined. under the condition that the equipment casings are included with low-impedance into the equipotential bonding. With the above-described measures a low-impedance equipotential bonding network is obtained from which it is possible to realize a surface-covering earthing of the electronic systems at the common earthing system.. consider a three-layer rack pile.348 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems the lightning current and surge arresters be coordinated and harmonized with regard to their sparkover characteristic and discharge capability. To avoid undesired influence on electronic systems by power cables. the following configuration might be provided: . The shields at the boundaries of the interference protection zones (i. For other structural parts the safety distance must be calculated according to the proximity formula indicated in IEC 61024–1.e. as there are cable tray systems. see Figure 6. fire extinguishing conduits and guide rails of elevators. With regard to the calculations for the area of the air-traffic controller cabin it should be considered that the next equipotential bonding level for the electric lines is the floor of the air-traffic controller cabin. Equipotential bonding must also be carried out at the boundaries of lightning protection zones 1 and 2 for all electrically conductive parts which cross the boundaries as well as for metal parts inside the lightning protection zone. Such switching operations generate high-frequency field and line-conducted interference which can influence the electronic systems in different modes of coupling. For example.6 d. the metal equipment casings at the boundary of the interference protection zones 0/1 and the structural shielding measures at the boundary of the interference protection zones 1/2) have a sufficient damping effect on the fields which are radiated by the equipment itself. defined distances between cables of different voltage levels are maintained. ventilation or airconditioning lines. Conducted interference due to switching operations is effectively limited by using shielded cables in interference protection zone 2 and by the protection measures at interference protection zone boundary 1/2. It is also in the basement where the lightning protection equipotential bonding of the larger installations inside the building must be carried out. The use of concrete reinforcement together with additional netting as down conductor/equipotential bonding means that proximities for these structural parts of the tower can be neglected.

1995 ENV 61024–1: ‘Protection of structures against lightning. • < 60 V. therefore. Central Secretariat. 79–85 . earthing and shielding of the building. B-1050 Brussels Jan. Berlin) Feb. Forum für Versicherer: Blitz und Überspannungsschutz – Massnahmen der EMV. 1995 DIN 18 014: ‘Fundamenterder’ (Beuth Verlag. rue de Stassart 35. rue de Varembe. Part 1: General principles’. Thus. an economic realization of an effective protection system is possible. SÖHNE Druckschrift Nr.1994 FRENTZEL. control cables < 1 kV • Level 3 (top): low-voltage cables < 1 kV. April 1998 pp.Application in practice: Some examples 349 < 30 V • Level 12(bottom): signal cablesmeasuring. telecommunication cables Protection management against electromagnetic lightning pulses means new requirements for the construction. absolutely necessary to guarantee that those parts which will be covered by concrete or soil meet the regulations and so stringent control is necessary during the construction phase. and equipotential bonding are attributed to the metal structures of the building. 3. Centrel de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale. Additional functions such as the carrying of lightning current. Level (middle): control. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. Genève Jan. It is. Part 1: General principles’. The main difficulty is that after the construction phase most of the metal structures are no longer accessible. R. Sources IEC 61312–1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse. 657 6.: ‘Massnahmen des Blitzschutzes und der EMV für den neuen Tower am Flughafen Nürnberg’: DEHN u.

.

This book has introduced practice-proven components and protective devices by which it is possible to plan and realize complete lightning/ surge protection concepts for many kinds of complex systems and structures. however. To this end the Technical Committee (TC) 81 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has elaborated upon the standard which shows the principles for protection against ‘electromagnetic lightning pulses’. The standards committees are currently working on standards which treat the following subjects: the failure of electronic systems due • risk analysis as toshielding effects of existing metal to lightning electromagnetic structure com• ponents against lightning fields lightning • coordinated application ofprotection current and surge arresters at the interfaces of the lightning zones . the concept of lightning protection zones has been specified as generally the method most appropriate for the protection of any kind of structure with electronic equipment. will be at higher cost and with a lower efficiency. This has been published as IEC 61312–1. Meanwhile. not only in new projects but also in existing systems which can be retrofitted so that a sufficient protection can still be attained. Subsequent installation. The so-created concept of lightning protection zones has turned out to be a very efficient management method and is proven as a universal organizing principle in numerous complex problems. Lightning protection has been integrated into the world of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The protective measures exemplified and devices available are applicable.Chapter 7 Prospects The requirement for electronic information technology systems not to be disturbed or even damaged by direct or close-up lightning strikes has led to new quality requirements and a new dimension in the area of lightning protection engineering.

J. Geneva) Feb. producers are accompanying these activities with improvements to protection devices.352 Overvoltage protection of low voltage systems concept of lightning protection zones to existing • application of the with electronic equipment. München. 1995 . VDE Verlag. structural systems Along with the practical protection requirements. As a guiding example of such an improvement the lightning current arrester DEHNport® Maxi now safely extinguishes mains followcurrents of up to 50 kA.: ‘EMV Blitz-Schutzzonen-Konzept’ (Pflaum Verlag. 1994) IEC 61312–1: ‘Protection against lightning electromagnetic impulse – Part 1: General principles’ (International Electrotechnical Commission. P.. Berlin/Offenbach. Sources HASSE. and WIESINGER.

31. 124. 98–101. 185. 329 air termination 127–129 rods 128 roof superstructures 128. 226 decoupling 180–183 discharge capability 120. 26. 227 operating frequency range 124 protection level 119. 84. 120. 122 nominal current 124. 21 antenna mast 328. 196. 79. 208 arresters for power engineering 113–122. 160 arrester disconnecting devices 117–120 arrester tests 115–119. 227 rated voltage 119. 329. 197 TN-system 184. 331. 226. 334 arresters for cathodic protection systems 246–249 arresters for equipment inputs 175. 121. 185. 215. 113–126. 208 arresters. 155–205 arresters for socket outlets 174–176. 125. 206 arresters in Euro-card format 248. 188–192. 78. 333. 227 disconnecting devices 117–119 operating duty 117. 226 nominal voltage 124. 118 test currents 115–117 thermal stability 117 arresters 24. 124. 124. 206–292 arresters for lightning protection equipotential bonding 157–167 arresters for measuring and control systems 209–252 arresters for overhead lines 155–159 arresters for permanent building installations 167–174. 216. 334 TT-system 184. protection 343–349 airports. 153–292 breaking capacity 120 combined 214. 313–317 protection 313–317 analogue a/b-wire terminal 286–292 angle of protection 78 animal breeding farm 17. 223 limiting voltage 215–217 N-PE 121. selection 119. graded application 178–183. damage 37 alarm systems 68. 176. 21 ventilators 17. 220 cut-off frequency 217. 228. 252 arresters. 214. 116 valve-type 167. 333. 251. 21 automatic feeding 17. 250. 218. 254 coordination 120. 218. 223–228 . 79. 251 arresters in LSA-Plus technology 248. 115. 208 arresters for information technology 122–125. damage 36–38 airport control tower. 120–122. 85. 154–156. 124 standards 113–126 test values 99. 217. 125. 253.Index abattoir 22 aerials 27–29. 129 wires 128 air termination systems 69. application in different system configurations 182–197 IT-system 184. 87 air traffic control 343–346 aircraft. 332 Apollo 12 space ship 38 application-neutral cabling 255–261 arrester backup fuses 196–204 arrester classes 109. 117. 193–195. 218. 185. 168 arresters.

35 computers. 181. 114. 317 bus systems 309–313 cable coupling resistance 57 cable television 32 cables 56. protection 255–292 data telecontrol transmission 277–292 by analogue a/b-wire terminal 286–292 by ISDN base terminal 277–284 by ISDN primary multiplex terminal 284–286 DC line technique 314. 130 electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) 2. standards 113 consequential damage 77 contact voltage 184 coordination between arresters and equipment to protect 178–183. 256 primary 255. 327 central computer. protection 167–174. 43. 207. 85. 208 building regulations 69. 183 differential mode protection 254 direct strike 45. 135. 307–309 connection components. 77. 81–85. 111. 299. 60 inductive 58. 61. 247 electromagnetic cage 129. 304–307 cereal processing 243 chemical industry 196. 9 atmospheric overvoltages 45–61 magnitude 60. 32. 88–92. 61 backup fuses for arresters 196–204 Blitzductor® 208–249 construction and mode of functioning 210–222 examples of application 228–240 selection criteria 223–228 building installations. 76. 242 cloud-to-cloud lightning 45 coal processing 243 common mode protection 254 computer integrated business 1 computer integrated manufacturing 1 computers. 68. 336 disconnection 61. 146 earth electrode 90. 115 electromagnetic interference 67. 90. 171 dissolution pressure 246 distribution cabinet 30 distributors 255–257. 23 buildings 39. 340. 60. 351 standards 112. 90. 59 ohmic 58 coupling path 43. 220 . 327. 168. 141 shielding 138–143 supporting structures 142 cabling systems 255–257 generic 255. 114. 262–264 down conductor systems 78. 63. protection 307–309 central heating. 70 building services control system 22. 326. 256 tertiary 255. 34. 170. 298. 84. 115. 16–20. 332 earth-fault current 193 earth ring bus 146–149 earthing systems 78. 347 electrical systems of buildings 103–110 protection 103–110 surge protection standards 103–110 electrochemical corrosion 246. 256 secondary 255. 256 catastrophic damage 39–41 cathodic protection systems 246–249. 62 disconnection spark gap 326. 79. 70 data networks. 3. 295. 69. 138–143 ducts 95–97. 140. 95–97. 44 damage statistics 5–10. 209. 295–304 metal components 83. 68 electromagnetic lightning fields 328 damped 328 undamped 328 electronic data processing systems 1. 296. 227 corrosion protection 246–249 coupling of surge currents on signal lines 57–60 capacitive 59. 171 remote indication 170. 57. 92 protection 295–304 room shielding 84. 40. 243 chemical plant 11–13 close-up strike 45. 6. 84.354 Index coordination characteristics 220–222. 88–92 burglar alarm systems 313–315. 254. 85 drop-cable 267 earth bus 92. 328. 131. 112. damage 5. 84. 242. protection 55. protection 302. 342 disconnectors 167. 79. 315 decoupling elements 206 decoupling of arresters 180–183 decoupling choke 180–183 decoupling length 180.

8. 160 partial 46. 176. 32. 22. 253. protection 295–323 information technology equipment protection 73. 58 induced voltages in metal loops 49–56. 243 nuclear 44. 341. 16 Fast Ethernet 100 Base TX 265. 308 fire alarm systems 313–316 flashover 10. 327 explosions 10–13. 211. 43 engine hall 323–325 equipment inputs. 222. 195. 78. 47 rate of rise 49. 20. 17. 348 meshed functional equipotential bonding 329. 206–292 insulation coordination 105. 196 Fax machine 281 field-bus systems. 241–243 external lightning protection 16. 78. 330 equipotential bonding bar 90–93. 35 . 78–81. 199. 58 square-wave 49–54 transverse 50–52. 188–203. 90–95. 16. 352 fuses 196–204 gas discharge arresters 215–217. 275. 207. 347. 67 components 46 parameters 46. 253. 200 hazardous areas. 58 industrial plants. 319. 196 insulation resistance 244. 106. 10–41 direct 7. 69. 69. 49 voltage drop 48. 280. 224. 99. 17. 208. 16 Faraday hole 13. 206. 323. 326. 163. 55. 338 lightning damage 7. 244. 262. 8. 320. 34 examples 10–41 indirect 7. 325–329. 34. damage 10–15 high current spark gap 151–153. 49 impulse line technique 314 incoupling 22. 45–49. 272 Ethernet twisted pair cabling 265–269 European Installation Bus (EIB) 309–313 Ex-zones 241. 266 Ethernet coax-cabling 267–272 thickwire 267. 342 insurance 9. 8. 269. 285. 197. 79 factories. 337. 245. 48 equivalent surface 76 Ethernet 10 Base T 265. 10 interference model 43 interference protection zones 344. 48. 228. 302. 207. 24. 254 equipotential bonding 13. damage 15–24 industrial plants. 28. 288. 340. 177–183. 69. 78. 294 355 impulse earth resistance 45. 345. 122–125. 337. lightning/surge protection 231–236 financial loss 1. 322. protection 295–323 factory hall. 22 follow-current 199–204. 147–149. 44 internal lightning protection 16. 166. 56. 307. 190–192. 79 intrinsic safety 241–244 intrinsically safe measuring and control circuits 238–246 ISDN base terminal 277–284 ISDN primary multiplex terminal 284–286 kerosene tank 10–12 lightning current 2. 8. 194. 297. 263. 241. 271 thinwire 267–269. 342. 296. 145–149. 294. 97. 303. 340–342 hospitals 39 houses. 345. 178 insulation monitoring device 185. 287. damage 27–36 hybrid generator 293. 68 explosive atmosphere 238. 157–167. 165. 348 interference sources 43. 243–245 explosion-protected spark gap 150–152. 310. 16. 225 gliding spark gap 161. lightning protection 295–299 Faraday cage 13. 50 lightning current arresters 153–155. 16. 147 equivalent earth resistance 47. 234. 27. 193. 111. 13. 328. 352 lightning current counter 293. 314. 326. 17. 48. 327 equipotential bonding lines 141. 27. protection 175.Index electronic equipment protection 80 electrostatic discharge 7. 266 fault voltage-operated protective device 185.

284 NH fuses 200–204 explosion 201. 102 inspection 100. 75. 196. 251. 343. 295. 78. 88–91 standards 69–103 zones 79–85. 194 NET-Protector 257–259. 256 optocoupler 145. 255. 166. 288. 155. 75. 344. 78. 76 internal 16. 194. 177–179. 242. 201 no melting 200 nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) 44. 252 measuring and control systems. 69. 82–102. 83. 67–102. 69. 60. 187–189. 295 angle of protection 78 efficiency 77. 202 melting 200. 11. 323. 196. 60. 79 flow diagram 75. 330. 193. 352 lightning strikes 45–57. 92–99. 272 network terminal 279. 203 overhead lines. 194. 249 pipeline valve station 246 potentially susceptible equipment 43. 242. 128 planning 83–97 protection levels 74. 60. 78. 307–309. 158. 193. 68 lightning electromagnetic impulse 43 lightning electromagnetic impulse protection (LEMP) 80. protection 155–159 overvoltage category 105–108 peak-load power station 323–327 petrol tanks 10. 328. 11 pipeline 247. 351. 328. 56. 79 isolated 84–86. protection 113–122. 15 temperature control 10. 351 building integrated 84–86 cable routing and shielding 94–98 efficiency 77 equipotential bonding networks 90–94 external 16. 343–348. 336 close-up 45. 295 lightning protection systems 16. protection 339–343 modem 286. 83 room shielding 84. 158. 102. protection 328–334 mobile telecommunication facility. 14 optical fibre transmission system 144. 304. 13. 155. 78. 77. 223–225. 100 lightning interference standards 64 lightning protection levels 74. 75. 77. 202 protection levels 74. 339. 184 protection in case of indirect contact 182. 122. 83. 128 partly isolated 84–86. 336 remote 45. 13. damage 24–27 printing press 22–24 protection against direct contact 182. 290 . protection 209–252 meshed functional equipotential bonding (MFEB) 329. 193. 3. 77. 184–188.356 Index N-PE arresters 121. 57. 242 longitudinal current 254 low-voltage overhead lines 155–159 LSA-Plus technology 248. 146 optoelectronic connection 143–146 osmotic pressure 246 overcurrent protective device 185. 167. 100 planning 83–97 realization 97–99 supervision 99. 101 installation 99. 351 costs 101. 266 network card 269. 145. 242 direct 45. 44 power engineering systems. 78 lightning current parameters 78 mesh size 78 rolling sphere radius 78 protective bypass 254 protective circuit 206 protective devices for analogue a/b-wire terminal 286–292 protective devices for application-neutral cabling 255–261 protective devices for data networks/ systems 255–292 lightning discharge 2. 333 line cross section 329 mesh width 329 military applications 152 military installations 68 mobile radio systems. 341 nuclear power station 68 oil refinery 10. 303. protection 323–327 power supply systems. 325. 92–99. 102 lightning protection zones 79–85. 78. 155–205 power stations. 328.

259–261. 106 in-system 106 protective 106 store and dispatch building.Index protective devices for Ethernet coaxcabling 267–272 protective devices for Ethernet twisted pair cabling 265–269 protective devices for ISDN base terminal 277–284 protective devices for ISDN primary multiplex terminal 284–286 protective devices for power supply inputs and information technology inputs combined 253. 131 steel reinforcements 129–134 short-circuit current 193 socket outlets. 31. 167 quenching spark gap 337. 200 high-current 151–153. 163. protection 318–321 radio systems 29. 294 surge damage 5–10 surge immunity 207. 87. 307–314. 204. 340–342 isolating 150–153 quenching 337. 344 safety clearances 78 shielding 84. 193. 218. 242 residual current circuit breaker 17. 357 161–166. 166. 219 surge limiter 123 surge protection 67. 337. 204 radio paging system. 203. 340–342 explosion-protected 150–152. 242. 194. 198. 165. 129–143. 253. 326. 199. 344 drawing 87 scale models 87. 234. 225 . 200. 103–112. 208 spark gaps 150–153. 225 standards 103–112 telecommunications systems 110–112 transverse 224. 203. 151 standard cabling 271–278 standards 67–126 arresters for information technology 122–125 arresters for power engineering 113–122 connection components 112. 22. 128. 38 rolling sphere method 84. 63 cables 56. 60. 211. 115 European 67 international 67 lightning protection 69–103 protective devices 113–126 surge protection of electrical systems of buildings 103–110 surge protection of telecommunications systems 110–112 state of limited overvoltage 105. 114. 328–334 rated surge voltage 105. 56–60. 56. 319–323. 254. 257. 327. 263–272. 167–197. 327 gliding 161. 113 electromagnetic compatibility 112. 318–321. 351 buildings 129–138 cables 138–143 electronic cabinets 137 lines 138–141 metal façades 131. 157–159. 328. 39. 274–290. 130. 164. 337. 202 resistance thermometer 236 risk analysis 74–78. 155. 206–208. 185–189. 351 risk of failure 67 rockets 36. 341 quench gap 166. 204 sparkover voltage 150. 228. 254 protective devices for standard cabling 271–278 protective devices for token ring cabling 262–265 protective insulation 340. 203. 32. 57. 164. 68. 326. 88–92. 328. 340–342 RADAX-flow technology 161. 336 surge current 45. 80. 196. 225 electrical systems of buildings 103–110 longitudinal 224. 108 reactive current compensation system 22 reinforcement 129–134 remote strike 45. protection 174–176. 224. 22 false tripping 17 residual current device 17. 57 coupling 57–60 surge current counter 293. 199. 88–92. 340–342 RADAX-flow technology 161. lightning protection 296–304 strain gauges 229. 46. 254. 107. 136 rooms 84. 230 surge arresters 153–159.

26 switching electromagnetic impulse 43 switching overvoltage 6. 58. 336. 46. 276–278 valve-type arresters 167–170 disconnectors 167. lightning/surge protection 229–233. 257.358 Index traffic lights 28. 34 transceivers 267–269 transformer substation 24. 173 surge protective devices 153. 169 varistors 170–174 U/I characteristic 172. 32. protection 316–321 vital infrastructure 40. 107 switchbays 24. 288 television sets 32. 320. 22. 224. protection 53. 31. 168. 266: see also arresters surge voltage 45. 320. 39–41. surge protection 236–240 textile industry 16 token ring cabling 262–265 . 63 surge withstand voltage 105. 35. 110–112. 254 television transmitter. 339–343 equipotential bonding 146–149 mobile 339–343 surge protection standards 110–112 telephone systems 17. 260. damage 38–40 rotor blades 38. protection 334–339 temperature measuring equipment. 322. 323 video control system. 206. 261. 28. 223. 322. 274. 62 disconnection of a transformer 62 earth fault in the floating network 62 telecommunication systems. 253 Twinax cabling 273. 178. 210 telephones 281. 54. 61–64 disconnection of a capacitance 61. 279. 32. 338 transverse voltage 50–52. 173 zinc oxide 170–172 vehicle weighbridge. 25. 146–149. 27 transmitter mast 335. 323 wind power stations. 34. 173 U/I characteristic 172. 41 warehouse protection 296–304 weighbridge 229–233. 170 protection characteristic 169 voltage and current characteristics 167. 154. 7. 39 zinc oxide varistors 170–173 discharge capability 172.