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McDonald`s in France
'Its a great example of a restaurant that, not adopted, but adapted to match up with the French
culture. Customers view it as a French restaurant.`
1

- Walt Ricker. vice president of media relations for McDonald`s. in 2009.
'I think that we made it in France because the expectations of French people and the reality of
McDonalds did not coincide. Thev thought that fast food was lousv. dirtv. mostlv for teenagers
and so on. But when thev discovered McDonalds for themselves thev soon changed their minds. In
fact we are a family restaurant where 4 people can eat for around 150 francs. Not many places
can do that.`
2

- Denis Hennequin, president, McDonald`s Europe.
I NTRODUCTI ON
In 2008, France became the biggest source of revenue for US-based Iast Iood giant McDonald`s
Corporation (McDonald`s) outside of the US. According to figures released by the chain, in 2008,
McDonald`s generated sales oI t3.35 billion from its 1,115 outlets in France and profits increased
by 3%.
3
During the same year, McDonald`s opened thirty new restaurants in France which
increased footfall by 11% to 450 million customers.
4
CEO of McDonald`s France, Jean-Pierre
Petit (Petit), said, 'We are the second largest contributor to Group results. We have a 50% growth
in five years.
5

Founded in 1940. McDonald`s is the world`s largest chain of fast food restaurants, serving more
than 58 million customers daily as oI 2009. McDonald`s primarily sells hamburgers, chicken
products, French fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, shakes, and desserts. As of 2009, it had
established more than 30,000 franchising stores in 119 countries with revenues of about US$15
billions annually.
According to some analysts, McDonald`s entry into the French market in 1979 was seen as an
invasion of American culture in a country known for its rich heritage of cuisine. 'It has been tough
for us to become integrated in the French market. The focus we had at the beginning was to open
more stores and to get suppliers, and we were attacked because we had this image of
globalization.
6
said Eric Gravier, vice-president oI McDonald`s France, in 2008. However,

1
Sarah Gilbert. 'McDonald`s at the Louvre? Critics Complain. but the French Can`t Say No.
www.dailyfinance.com, July 10, 2009.
2
Jeremy Joseph. 'McDonald`s Succeeding in France Despite Mad Cow Disease.
www.jeremyjosephs.com/mcdonalds.htm
3
Niamh Cremin. 'France Becomes McDonalds` Largest European Market. www.bordbia.ie. February 13.
2009.
4
'McDonald`s Restaurants to Open at the Louvre. www.telegraph.co.uk. October 4. 2009.
5
'France. Second Best Market Ior McDonald`s. www.20minutes.Ir. January 28, 2009.
6
Andrew Shanahan. 'Why Did France Fall in Love with McDonald`s? www.guardian.co.uk. July 24.
2008.
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McDonald`s popularly known as McDo in France, attracted French diners and boosted its sales by
responding to the preferences of the locals, tailoring its menu to suit local tastes, remodeling its
restaurants, and adding new menu items. Denis Hennequin (Hennequin), president oI McDonald`s
Europe, was largely responsible for the success of McDonald`s in France. According to
McDonald`s executives. Hennequin recreated the entire McDonald`s brand Irom a French
perspective and positioned the chain as a clean family fast food restaurant where customers could
count on good service and reliable food.
In 2009, due to the global economic recession, most French restaurateurs faced a slump in sales
and registered low profits. McDonald`s France, on the other hand, reported increased customer
traffic and good profits mainly because of its low priced items which appealed to French
customers. At McDonald`s, a meal for two people cost about t10
7
. Commenting on the success of
McDonald`s in France, Fred Turner. President oI McDonald`s, said. 'You know I would never
have thought, that you Frogs would have made it. Not in the land where snails and Irogs` legs
regularly appear on the menu. Well done to you all.
8

Some experts were of the view that the French market offered both an opportunity and a challenge
Ior McDonald`s. While the French relished good food and there was strong buying power, cultural
differences and the reluctance to accept foreign food made it diIIicult Ior McDonald`s to establish
its presence in France. Despite the challenges, France became one of the most profitable markets
for McDonald`s with about 1,134 franchised restaurants, as of 2009. Though the company does not
disclose sales figures for individual markets. it was reported that in August 2010. McDonald`s
sales in France dropped. Some analysts attributed the fall to poor marketing. In order to increase
sales in France, McDonald`s needed better marketing of its low-priced menu options, they felt.
'This is a lesson learned. The French consumer needs a more consistent. clear value message.
9

opined Matt DiFrisco, an analyst from Oppenheimer & Co. Inc.
10

BACKGROUND NOTE
The origins of McDonald`s date back to the 1930s. when two brothers Richard 'Dick J.
McDonald and Maurice 'Mac McDonald opened a restaurant called Airdrome in Arcadia.
California, that sold hot dogs, tea, and coffee. Encouraged by the good response to their first
restaurant. the brothers decided to expand their business. In 1940. they opened the McDonald`s
Barbecue restaurant in San Bernardino, California. The barbeque restaurant had about 25 items on
its menu like barbequed beef and pork sandwiches and was characterized by speedy service, low
prices, and big volume. It employed 20 carhops
11
to provide food service to customers.
The brothers ran the barbecue restaurant successfully for eight years, but then began to find it
difficult to manage such a large scale business with its extensive menus and staff and the huge
crowds that thronged the restaurant. In 1948, they decided to scale down operations. They
discarded their 25-item barbecue menu in favor of a limited menu of just nine items: hamburger,
cheeseburger, three soft-drink flavors, milk, coffee, potato chips, and pie, with French fries and
milkshakes added soon after they resumed operations. They re-engineered their stainless steel
kitchen for mass production and speed with assembly-line procedures. And they slashed the price

7
As on December 1. 2010. 1tUS$1.31 and 1FRF0.2 USD.
8
Jeremy Joseph. 'McDonald`s Succeeding in France Despite Mad Cow Disease.
http://www.jeremyjosephs.com/mcdonalds.htm.
9
Lisa Baertlein and Emily Stephenson. 'McDonald's France Lags in August. Shares Fall.
www.reuters.com, September 9, 2010.
10
Oppenheimer & Co. Inc is a leading investment bank based in New York.
11
A carhop is a waiter or waitress who delivers food to customers in their cars at drive-in restaurants.
Carhops originated in the 1940s when drive-in eateries were popular.
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of their hamburger from a competitive 30 cents to just 15 cents. They shortened the menu to only
hamburgers, cheeseburgers, French fries, and drinks and developed a process to make these
quickly with fewer resources. The process increased the service speed, helping them serve more
customers in the same amount oI time. The carhops were eliminated to make McDonald`s a selI-
serve operation. The savings in preparation time and the resulting increase in volume allowed
McDonald`s to lower the price oI a hamburger from 30 cents to 15 cents.
12

On December 12. 1948. the new revamped McDonald`s restaurant opened. It Iocused on speed oI
service. mass production. and lower prices. The restaurant`s mascot was a man with a cheI`s hat on
top of a hamburger shaped head whose name was Speedee`. The service system used in these
restaurants was known as the Speedee Service System`. and it established the principles oI
McDonald`s Iast Iood restaurants. which were later adopted by several Iast Iood restaurants.
In 1953, the McDonald brothers decided to go in for franchising in order to expand their business.
For a thousand dollars. Iranchisees would receive the McDonald`s name. a basic description oI
their service system, and the services of Art Bender
13
(Bender) at the new restaurant for a week to
help them with the business. Bender trained the people at the franchisee, supervised the installation
oI the equipment. made contact with the butchers and bakeries Ior the supplies. etc. McDonald`s
first franchisee was Neil Fox, who had a drive-in restaurant in Phoenix, Arizona. This restaurant
became the prototype Ior the McDonald`s chain. The red & white building with a slanting rooI and
the Golden Arches` on the sides became the model Ior McDonald`s restaurants. In the years that
Iollowed. McDonald`s grew Irom strength to strength and by the mid-1950s. the Iast Iood chain`s
annual revenues were US$ 350,000.
14

In 1954, Ray Kroc (Kroc), a salesman for a company that manufactured milkshake mixers, noticed
that one of his largest customers was a California-based restaurant owned by the McDonald
brothers. Kroc found out that they used a system resembling an assembly line system for making
hamburgers and sandwiches and that the restaurant already used eight milkshake machines.
Sensing an opportunity for more business, he went to meet the McDonald brothers. One look at the
orderly, efficient restaurant that served a huge customer base was enough to convince him that he
could sell the milkshake mixers to every McDonald`s store that opened. The purpose of his visit
was to persuade the McDonald brothers to open more restaurants so that he could sell milkshake
mixers to them. But the brothers were not interested in expanding the business further and seemed
content with the existing operations. Kroc then expressed his willingness to become the
Iranchising agent oI McDonald`s restaurants.
Kroc applied the knowledge that he had garnered as a salesman to create a successful franchising
business. He retained the McDonald`s Iormula oI a limited menu, high quality, production system,
and fast service and adherence to cleanliness. Quality, Service, Cleanliness, and Value (QSC&V)
went on to become McDonald`s operating principles. Under Kroc`s management. McDonald`s
became one of the largest fast food chains in the US.
AIter achieving success in the US. McDonald`s opened its Iirst international restaurant on June 1.
1967, in Canada in Richmond B.C. This was followed by more restaurants being opened in
Germany, Australia, France, and England in the early seventies. In 1971. McDonald`s entered
Japan through a joint venture with a local partner Den Fujita who was a successful businessman.
On the day of the opening in Japan, the restaurant garnered US$ 3,000 in sales. In 1990,
McDonald`s opened an outlet in Moscow that represented the largest joint venture agreement
between the Soviet Union and a food company. The Russian restaurant served about 50,000

12
At that time, 80 oI the restaurant`s sales were generated by hamburgers.
13
Art Bender was associated with the McDonald brothers and was credited with serving the first
McDonald`s hamburger at their San Bernardino store. He later became a Iranchisee oI McDonald`s.
14
www.mcdonalds.ca/pdfs/history_final.pdf.
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customers each day. To meet the increasing demand in the country. McDonald`s built a US$ 45
million food processing facility near Moscow. This was one of the most modern food processing
facilities in Europe at that time.
By the early 1990s. McDonald`s had established itselI in 58 countries. It operated more than 3.600
restaurants outside the US through wholly-owned subsidiaries, joint ventures, and franchises. The
business was managed as distinct geographic segments which included the US, Europe, and
Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa (APMEA). Its strongest foreign markets were Japan, Canada,
Germany, Britain, Australia, and France, popularly called McDonald`s Big Six`. By 1991. 37% of
system-wide sales came Irom restaurants outside the USA. In 1992. McDonald`s Iirst restaurant in
the AIrican continent opened in Morocco. In 1993. McDonald`s entered the Middle East with the
opening oI a restaurant in Tel Aviv. Israel. Subsequently McDonald`s outlets were started in Saudi
Arabia, Oman, Kuwait, Egypt, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. In 1996, it entered
India. Subsequently, it opened restaurants in other countries like the Czech Republic, Hungary,
and Slovenia. In 1995. McDonald`s had 7.030 restaurants in 110 countries which registered sales
oI US$14 billion. McDonald`s international outlets increased Irom about 3.600 in 1991 to more
than 11,000 in 1998 and the number oI countries with McDonald`s outlets nearly doubled. going
up from 59 in 1991 to 114 in late 1998.
15

Mc Donald`s strategy in the international markets was similar to its strategy in the US. but with
slight variations in the menus to suit local tastes. A strong local partner along with the traditional
McDonald`s menu and operating procedures which Iocused on QSC&V were the reasons Ior the
company`s international success, according to analysts. Its worldwide operations centered on a
global strategy called the Plan to Win` that Iocused on the Iive basics oI marketing People,
Products, Place, Price, and Promotion. McDonald`s key to international success was think
global. act local` which helped the company do well in every region in which it opened its fast
food restaurants. It localized its operations depending on the country in which it was operating. For
instance. to make the chain`s name easily pronounceable Ior Japanese consumers. McDonald`s
was changed to Makudonaldo. McDonald`s kept local sentiments in mind. In its restaurants in
Arab countries, Malaysia, and Singapore it maintained halal` menus
16
and did not serve pork,
thereby abiding by Islamic laws for food preparation.
In 2002, the company recorded a fourth-quarter loss of US$ 343.8 million, the first quarterly loss it
had suffered in its 38 years as a public company. Due to sluggish sales, the company dropped its
plans of new store openings and focused on developing its existing restaurants. It closed
underperforming branches in 10 countries, implemented job cuts, and exited three countries in the
Middle East and Latin America. It opened only 600 new fast food outlets in 2001 compared to
2000 openings in 1996. As oI September 2007. there were a total oI 32.065 McDonald`s outlets of
which 9,405 restaurants were owned by it while the remaining were run by franchisees and
independent operators who Iunded the businesses and paid royalties to McDonald`s.
17,18
In 2007,
the company recorded a growth in its global performance and it generated US$ 4.9 billion of cash
from operations. In the first quarter of 2007, in Europe, McDonald`s recorded sales growth of
8.9%, surpassing the growth in the American market. In Europe, McDonald`s offered signature
menu items at lower prices, remodeled its restaurants, and expanded operating hours, thereby
contributing to the segment`s results. said experts.

15
www.answers.com/topic/mcdonald-s.
16
Halal is an Arabic term meaning permissible.` It usually reIers to Iood that is permissible according to
Islamic law. McDonald`s underwent rigorous inspections by Muslim clerics to ensure that its Iood was
halal. The chain was then awarded the halal certificate indicating the total absence of pork products.
17
'McDonald`s to Issue Franchise Licenses Slowly. www.newagebd.com. February 11. 2007.
18
In 2007. in the APMEA region. McDonald`s had 2.616 Iranchised stores oI a total oI 7.822 outlets. In the
US, 11,007 of 13,774 stores were franchised. In Europe, 3,756 of 6,403 were franchised, and in Latin
America, 477 of 1,656 were franchised.
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As oI 2009. McDonald`s served about 58 million on an average every day. By the end oI 2009.
McDonald`s had about 32.478 restaurants in 117 countries, out of which 26,216 were operated by
franchisees and 6,262 were operated by the company. In 2009, despite the economic downturn,
McDonald`s reported strong sales and increased its global market share. (Refer to Exhibit I for
consolidated operating results and Exhibit II for income statement). In 2009, global comparable
sales increased 3.8% with strong gains in the US (+2.6%), Europe (+5.2%), APMEA (+3.4%),
Latin America (+5.3 %), and Canada (+5.8%) (Refer to Exhibit III for region-wise revenues).
Earnings per share for the year increased 9% to US$4.11 while operating income increased by
6%.
19
The US, Europe, and APMEA segments accounted for 35%, 41%, and 19% of total
revenues, respectively in 2009. In Europe, results were driven by strong performance in France,
the UK, and Germany as they collectively accounted Ior approximately 55 oI Europe`s revenues.
In August 2010. the Iast Iood chain`s global same store sales were up by 4.9%. In the third quarter
that ended October 2010. McDonald`s Europe and APMEA segments registered comparable sales
increase by 3%.
McDONALD`S ENTRY I NTO FRANCE
The Iirst McDonald`s restaurant in France was opened in 1972 at Crteil, near Paris by Raymond
Dayan (Dayan), who had acquired exclusive franchise rights from the company. As there was low
demand for American fast food chains in France, McDonald`s granted a master franchise to Dayan to
open 166 stores in the country for a reduced fee. By 1982, Dayan had opened 12 restaurants in Paris.
However, field inspectors who were sent by the company to inspect these franchises found that menu
items were not prepared with the prescribed recipes and that food was cooked in stale oil and served
cold. It was reported that Dayan ignored McDonald`s specifications on food products, including the
quantity and quality of ingredients to save costs. McDonald`s terminated Dayan`s license on the
grounds that he had failed to maintain strict standards of quality, service, and cleanliness (QSC) and
that the reputation of the chain was at stake. In response, Dayan filed a lawsuit but the court ruled in
McDonald`s Iavor. McDonald`s then decided to enter the French market independently. In 1979, it
built its first restaurant in Strasbourg, a city in north eastern France.
The entry oI McDonald`s into France was considered as a cultural encroachment and many analysts
felt that the American fast food would not go down well with the French who were proud of their
food culture and cuisine (Refer to Exhibit IV for a brief note on the fast food industry in France).
However, these apprehensions proved wrong. The French visited McDonald`s outlets in large
numbers as the food was economical, quick, and hygienic. 'We hate it and go to it. It`s our paradox.
We`re very anti-American in principle, but individually, if you`re going to the movies and have to eat
in 10 minutes, you go to McDonald`s.
20
said Alice Mrieux, a magazine journalist.
In 1988, McDonald`s reopened its first restaurant in Paris. By the 1990s, the novelty of fast food
had worn off in France. The scares over the Foot and Mouth
21
and Mad Cow
22
diseases, increasing
concerns about fatty diets, and growing anti-American sentiment kept customers away from fast
food outlets. Though McDonald`s was aggressively expanding in France, sales were sluggish, as
the French began to preIer organic Ioods. The shiIt in consumer behavior led McDonald`s France
to invite the media to their kitchens in order to reassure their customers that they were particular
about quality and cleanliness and realized the potential dangers of the diseases.

19
McDonald`s 2009 Annual Report.
20
Jacob Gershman. 'McDonald`s Takes Paris. www.nysun.com. July 2. 2007.
21
Foot and-Mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including
domestic animals such as cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs.
22
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly called as Mad Cow Disease is a fatal,
neurodegenerative disease in cattle. It can be transmitted to people if they eat meat that came from a cow
infected with BSE.
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However, the problems were far from over for McDonald`s. In 1999, Jose Bov (Bov), a sheep
farmer, led a group of angry protesters and demolished a McDonald`s outlet that was under
construction in the town of Millau after the US imposed a 100% tariff on the import of the
Roquefort cheese made by the farmers in France. It was reported that the tariff was increased in
retaliation to France`s ban on hormone-treated American beef. Moreover, Bov contended that
McDonald`s promoted industrially produced food which affected traditional farmers and was bad
for health. He considered McDonald`s as a symbol of globalization. To counter Bove`s claims,
McDonald`s launched a print advertising campaign in France assuring its customers that
McDonald`s restaurants in France used meat that came from the French farms rather than from
factories.
In order to expand McDonald`s business in France, Hennequin
23
was appointed as president for
McDonald`s France in 1996. It was reported that Hennequin, the principal architect oI McDonald`s
in France, handled the Bov crisis sensibly and was responsible for the growth and expansion of
the chain in France. Hennequin and his team embarked upon a massive program of expansion with
a goal of opening thirty stores annually. He invested significantly in market research and
overhauled the entire operation which included upgrading the decor, modifying recipes, using
more organic ingredients, providing nutrition labeling, and extending the opening hours of the
outlets. To attract customers, Hennequin launched the concept of McCafe. He adopted an open
doors` policy of inviting customers to take tours of franchise kitchens and meet executives and
suppliers. By 1999. McDonald`s France had become the premier restaurant chain in the country,
accounting for 70% of the hamburger market with about 640 outlets and an annual turnover of 8.8
billion French francs.
In 2001, Hennequin opened a McDonald`s booth at the Salon de l`Agriculture
24
. During this time,
McDonald`s France was sourcing 75% of its ingredients domestically and the French farmers were
doing large business with McDonald`s. In 2005, there were about 800 McDonald`s outlets in
France and they procured 80% of their ingredients locally, thereby sustaining 45,000 French beef
producers.
In 2004, the release of the documentary 'Super Size Me
25
once again turned the spotlight on
American junk food in France. Fast food was blamed for increasing obesity rates among both
children and adults in France. In order to cater to health conscious customers, McDonald`s France
launched the salad menu in 2004. This was followed by the inclusion of fresh fruit and mineral
waters on its menu. The fast food chain provided nutritional analysis of its menu items and
displayed the number of calories per menu on the food packages. To advertise its health products,
McDonald`s spent about t37 million. 'Investment in health marketing media account for 25 to
30% of our investment in communications. They represent 4.5% of turnover.
26
said Petit.

23
Denis Hennequin ioined McDonald`s in 1984. when the company was relaunching itselI in France. AIter
stints as an assistant store manager, training and recruiting consultant, and the Paris regional director,
Hennequin was named president oI McDonald`s France in 1996. In 2004. Hennequin was promoted to
executive vice president oI McDonald`s Europe. and a year later he was put in charge of European
operations, overseeing more than six thousand restaurants in forty countries.
24
The International Exhibition oI Agriculture reIerred to as Salon de l`agriculture is an annual trade Iair
held in Paris. It is the largest farm fair in France.
25
Released in 2004, Super Size Me is an American documentary film starring Morgan Spurlock, an
American independent filmmaker. The film follows a 30-day period during which Spurlock eats only
McDonald`s Iood and gains twenty Iour and a halI pounds during the thirty days. The film documents the
adverse eIIects oI Iast Iood on Spurlock`s physical and psychological well-being.
26
'France. Second Best Market Ior McDonald`s. www.20minutes.Ir. January 28. 2009.
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EXPANSI ON
In France, McDonald`s boosted its operations by increasing the number of restaurants annually.
By 2005, there were over 800 McDonald`s outlets in France. In 2006, the company`s sales in
France grew by 8%, almost double the growth compared to that in the US. In 2007, despite the
global economic downturn, McDonald`s France generated profits of around t3 billion and became
the second most profitable market in the world for McDonald`s. Some analysts opined that
McDonald`s had benefited from the economic crisis as more people opted for its food as it was
cheaper and reliable. As oI 2007. McDonald`s had about 1,100 restaurants in France serving over
one million customers per day. 'People forced to economize by forgoing outings to restaurants
will visit McDonald`s to compensate, while lower-income people already frequenting McDonald`s
will tend to choose cheaper menu options there rather than giving it up. McDonald`s has
successfully marketed itself as a festive and affordable dining option to young and less-affluent
people. That is now starting to spread to other segments as people in most socioeconomic
categories feel less affluent due to the recession,
27
said Raphael Berger (Berger), deputy director,
Research Center for the Study and Observation of Living Conditions
28
in France.
In 2008. McDonald`s sales in France increased by 11.2% compared to the previous year. While in
the first half of 2008, 3,000 restaurants filed for bankruptcy in France and traditional brasseries
and bistros Iailed to do business. McDonald`s opened 30 new outlets and served about 450 million
customers, 11% more than the previous year. By the end oI 2008. McDonald`s had about 1,140
restaurants in France, which made it a market leader along with Quick
29
. 'In the short term, we
will probably benefit from the current economic crisis. Offering food at accessible prices and
correcting our negative image helped us win over clients who used to eat only in traditional French
restaurants. It`s never good to have an economic crisis because sooner or later it will catch up with
you. That`s why we aren`t just offering cheap meals. We are also offering a wider selection of
products.
30
Petit said.
In 2009. McDonald`s celebrated its 30th year oI presence in France. It generated sales oI t3.6 billion
(US$ 5 billion) in France, an 8.5% increase compared to 2008. By the end of 2009. McDonald`s had
1,161 restaurants in France. In July 2009, the French government reduced value-added tax (VAT) on
meals at fast food outlets from 19.6% to 5.5% which further increased McDonald`s sales
31
and gave
it a competitive advantage over brasseries, bistros, and cafs. McDonald`s became a cheap
alternative and an easy choice for French people. According to Nicolas Herpin, a French sociologist,
'Few companies have resisted the global recession like the fast-food chains. In France, people who
never came to McDonald`s before are now customers. The French used to come to cafs between
meals to eat a hard-boiled egg. Now they eat a sandwich at McDonald`s.
32

According to some analysts, McDonald`s appealed to the budget conscious and attracted people of
all ages in France. Pensioners, for instance. were among the chain`s loyal customers. It was
reported that the French visited McDonald`s outlets more oIten. especially during lunch and dinner

27
Bruce Crumley. 'Supersizing Europe: The McDonald`s Stimulus Plan. www.time.com. January 26.
2009.
28
Research Center for the Study and Observation of Conditions of Life (CREDOC) is an organization
which analyzes and anticipates the behavior of individuals from multiple spheres of life.
29
Founded in 1970, Quick is a Belgium-based fast food chain represented mainly in Belgium, France, and
Luxembourg.
30
Ladka Bauerova. 'French Bistros File Record Bankruptcies as Le Big Mac Reigns.
www.bloomberg.com, October 20, 2008.
31
Lisa Baertlein and Emily Stephenson. 'McDonald`s France Lags in August. Shares Fall.
www.reuters.com, September 9, 2010.
32
'More French Saying oui` to McDonald`s. www.washingtontimes.com. February 2. 2010.
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hours. 'The French population uses McDonald`s in a very French way; it is fast food, but not that
fast. We have a food culture in France; eating is not a feeding moment, it is a social moment.
33

said Eric Gravier, vice president oI McDonald`s France.
McDONALD`S EXPERI ENCE
Initially in France, McDonald`s outlets were similar to their American counterparts and the menu
items mostly similar. However, over the years, McDonald`s promoted itself in accordance with the
tastes of the French customers. In order to attract French customers, McDonald`s renovated its
stores and created an image of a family fast food restaurant. It changed the settings of its stores and
localized some of its menu items. According to a McDonald`s spokesman. 'The Frenchman is not
a typical customer. Unlike in the United States, his relationship with food is linked with pleasure.
He does not come here too often, only about once every three weeks. But every time he comes, he
will take a full menu. We changed the design, the lighting, the furniture. We want them to spend
some time in the restaurant.
34

In France, McDonald`s operational strategy was to entice customers with an attractive decor and
menus at reasonable prices. The McDonald`s outlets had leather upholstery seating, gas fireplaces,
candles, hardwood floors, and tables surrounded by wood panels. There were television screens
showing environment friendly messages, and computer terminals through which customers could
order food quickly and collect their meal at the counter when ready. McDonald`s also offered free
wi-fi at its restaurants. Hennequin created a design studio for McDonald`s franchisees wherein
franchise owners could select from a choice of 10 schemes with names like Eternity` and
Origins`, for their outlets. In some of the McDonald`s restaurants, nutritional messages scrolled
along a teleprompter
35
. There were McDonald`s play areas, called Ronald Gym Club` equipped
with bicycle simulators and basketball hoops with electronic scoreboards. Talking about
McDonald`s stores in France, Hennequin said, 'Brand expression is in the store more than
anything else. McDonald`s has ignored for too long the restaurant. When you enter the restaurant,
you enter the brand.
36

In November 2008. the red and yellow template oI McDonald`s was changed to green. Talking
about the change, Petit said. 'Our logo (the Golden Arches) stay the same, but the change of
background (from red to green) follows the evolution of our restaurants settings redesign strategy,
and their integration in their local surroundings. The brand is less visible, but better integrated in
the landscape.
37

Though most of other places in France offered breads and cheese for breakfast, the breakfast menu
at McDonald`s included egg McMuffins. The emphasis was more on desserts and salads on the
menu. In 2008, salads made up 10% of sales and the Big Mac was the biggest selling item. For
calorie conscious women, McDonald`s introduced a low calorie burger and grilled chicken without
sauce. McCafs, which served coffees and pastries, occupied a little section of McDonald`s outlets
wherein customers could sit back and relax. According to a student Layan Malshi, 'Here we can
stay studying for hours, the food is cheap, and no one is going to tell you to leave.
38


33
Mike Steinberger. 'How McDonald`s Conquered France. www.slate.com. June 25. 2009.
34
'More French Saying oui` to McDonald`s. www.washingtontimes.com. February 2. 2010.
35
A teleprompter is an electronic device used primarily to display text to be read. It is often used in
television or public speaking.
36
Jacob Gershman. 'McDonald`s Takes Paris. www.nysun.com. July 2. 2007.
37
'McDonald`s Going Green ? www.zlok.net. August 1. 2009.
38
'More French Saying oui` to McDonald`s. www.washingtontimes.com. February 2. 2010.
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At McDonald`s, the French could grab a quick lunch or eat in the traditional French style, by
socializing and enjoying the whole experience. The outlets stayed open for a longer time compared
to traditional restaurants. It was reported that inspired by McDonald`s operational strategy in
France. McDonald`s executives in America redesigned many oI its Iranchises and adopted the
open doors` policy. 'We truly became an international company. We were a global company, but
I`m not sure we valued the experiences of other parts of the world. You can tell them yes, we are
born in the USA, but we are made in France, made in Italy, made in Spain.
39
said Hennequin.
LOCALI ZATI ON
When McDonald`s entered Paris. its policy was not to adapt to Ioreign cultures. but rather to
change the cultures to Iit McDonald`s. However. it soon learned that in order to succeed in France,
it had to follow the ways of the French and tailor its menu to local tastes. In order to satisfy the
French palate and attract customers. McDonald`s made some adaptations to the items on its menu.
Though McDonald`s France did not completely adapt the items on the menu, the chain added its
own flavors to the list. The Iood served at McDonald`s France outlets was mostly American but
with French characteristics. For example, in France, the burger was accompanied by mustard sauce
to cater to the traditional French mustard tastes. The popular Mc Burger featured Emmenthal
cheese and a Ciabatta-style roll baked in a stone oven while 'Mc Deluxe contained a whole grain
mustard sauce on top of the standard beef patty, cheddar, and vegetables.
In addition to Big Macs and French fries, McDonald`s also offered steak fries served with the
traditional mayonnaise. Other offerings included salads, local cheeses, yoghurts, fruit compotes,
and croques monsieurs. In France, McDonald`s sold beer as well as soft drinks. It offered Evian
Water along with Coke and the other carbonated beverages. To cater to the tastes of fans of the
French traditional coffee, McDonald`s introduced espresso in its outlets and as part of the early
afternoon drink, it offered Kronenbourg beer along with the lunch meal (Refer to Exhibit V for
McDonald`s menu in France).
As the French breakfast normally comprised a croissant and coIIee. McDonald`s included
breakfast menu options such as mini croissants and chocolate bread. McDonald`s also added
Dannon brand yogurt to its offerings. The regular lunch and dinner menu also had their
adaptations. For instance, among its value menu options, it offered a vegetable platter or salad
shaker instead oI Iries. McDonald`s recreated the traditional French Croque Monsieur in its own
style. Round as opposed to square. the 'Croque McDo comprised toasted grilled slices oI bread
with the traditional melted Emmental cheese and ham. For the health conscious French consumer,
McDonald`s oIIered a range oI healthy products ranging Irom salads to cartons of cherry tomatoes.
McDonald`s introduced more salads on its menu with multiple options and twists. It added less
sugar and more mustard to its salad dressings to suit the French palate. Commenting on the chain`s
efforts to include nutritious food on its menu, Berger said, 'It has introduced salads. begun using
certain traditional French cheeses on burgers, and told clients, Our food is good food, but it isn`t
meant to be eaten every day and can`t replace the regular diet you`ll get at home,` Basically,
McDonald`s and France have worked out an understanding that [its] kind of fast food is all right
albeit in moderation.
40

In 2007. McDonald`s introduced a version oI the macaroon
41
, a traditional French delicacy, in its
McCafs. Earlier these macarons had been available only at high end French patisseries such as
Laduree and Pierre Herme. These macarons were shipped Irozen to McDonald`s restaurants Irom
Groupe Holder, a subsidiary of Ladure. According to the company, the macarons, priced at about

39
Jacob Gershman. 'McDonald`s Takes Paris. www.nysun.com, July 2, 2007.
40
Bruce Crumley 'Supersizing Europe: The McDonald`s Stimulus Plan. www.time.com. January 26. 2009.
41
Macaroons are meringue based cookies made with egg whites, ground almonds, and sugar.
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US$1.25 each, sold well. Some of the other items on the menu were Le P`tit Moutarde, a small
hamburger patty with a mustard sauce and slice of tomato on a ciabatta bun; the Premio au
Parmesan, a premium McDonald`s item featuring a ciabatta bun, a thick all-beef patty, parmigiano
reggiano cheese, diced seasoned tomatoes, a leaf of Batavia lettuce, and a creamy sauce; the
Crumble & Poire Williams Sundae, a pear-flavored syrup with a crumble topping on a swirled cup
of soft-serve ice cream; and Poire Williams, a sweet pear liquor made from Barlett pears. Frappes
were available in different flavors such as cappuccino, banana caramel, framboise, and vanilla. At
McDonald`s France, prices were slightly higher compared to the US. A Big Mac in Paris cost
US$4.95, compared with US$4.12 in New York.
42

The company emphasized the French origin of the beef and vegetables in its restaurants and
worked with local suppliers to produce many special menu items. In 2001, 75% of food supplies
and raw materials were sourced from local suppliers with an eye on quality. Testing of its food
supplies was done in a manner similar to that in the US. For instance, buns were tested for crown-
seed coverage, heel color, shape, and symmetry. According to a spokesman from the
communication department. 'We still have some work to do on the quality. But more than 70
percent of our products come Irom France.
43

McDonald`s reIurnished its restaurants in accordance with the local culture. McDonald`s outlets
were made to look like French bistros, with chic interiors. It was reported that sales at remodeled
McDonald`s restaurants increased between 3 to 20 annually. Traditionally, McDonald`s used
Ronald McDonald to attract children, but in France, the chain replaced the character with French
cartoon characters Asterix and Obelix. According to some analysts, the change was carried out in
an attempt to play down the chain`s US roots.
According to some experts, McDonald`s success in France could be attributed to the company`s
efforts to adapt to local tastes, adapt menus, maintain hygiene, and communicate with customers
regarding the nutritional contents of its food. Affordable prices and convenient service also played
an important role in its success, they said.
CHALLENGES
Though McDonald`s was able to establish its presence in France, some French consumers were of
the view that the Golden Arches were a symbol of globalization and a threat to the refined palates
of the French. McDonald`s was committing cultural treason in a country renowned for its rich
cuisine, they said. Moreover, the chain was held responsible for the growing obesity rates in
France. Some experts also felt that McDonald`s was a threat to traditional eateries and was to some
extent responsible for the downfall of the traditional French restaurants and bistros. Defending
McDonald`s, Hennequin said, 'I don`t think it`s true or fair to say that we are responsible, directly
or indirectly, for the decreasing numbers of cafs in France. We are offering an entirely different
product no croque Messieurs or baguettes from us. And besides, who wants to go into a grotty
old caf where the toilets are dirty and waiters are rude too that place should be out of business
in any event. People don`t deserve to be treated as iI they are rubbish simply because they might
happen to ask for a glass of water.
44

In October 2009, the opening of a McCaf in the food court of the Carrousel du Louvre, the
shopping center under the famous Parisian art museum, the Louvre, raised eyebrows. The
announcement was greeted by outrage by some French citizens, including some museum staff.
'This is the last straw. This is the pinnacle of exhausting consumerism, deficient gastronomy, and
very unpleasant odors in the context oI a museum.
45
said an art historian working at the museum.

42
Nadim Audi. 'France. Land oI Epicures. Gets Taste Ior McDonald`s. www.nytimes.com. October 29. 2009.
43
'More French Saying oui` to McDonald`s. www.washingtontimes.com. February 2. 2010.
44
Jeremy Joseph. 'McDonald`s Succeeding in France Despite Mad Cow Disease.
www.jeremyjosephs.com/mcdonalds.htm.
45
Henry Samuel. 'McDonald`s Restaurants to Open at the Louvre. www.telegraph.co.uk. October 4. 2009.
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In February 2010. McDonald`s came under sharp criticism in France. A complementary booklet
KidPaddle containing games and puzzles given along with Happy Meals for children, upset a
Catholic priest in the Tarn region of France. According to the priest, the booklet contained a
game
46
which was blasphemous and hurt the sentiments oI Christians. 'Once again, the Christian
faith is ridiculed. Marriage is violated, the bishop is mocked, and the crucifix is represented in a
form that is offensive to belieIs that are at the heart oI our Christian Iaith.
47
he said. The incident
led to a boycott oI McDonald`s outlets in the Gaillac and Lavaur towns in France. As a result, the
booklet containing the game was withdrawn and the priest received an apology Irom McDonald`s
management.
This was followed by another controversy when McDonald`s released a gay-themed
advertisement
48
in France as part oI its 'Come as You Are campaign in June 2010. The ad made
exclusively for France was criticized for its gay theme. The ad angered gay-rights groups as well
as they charged McDonald`s with hypocrisy as the Iast Iood chain had distanced itselI Irom the
gay community in the US and at the same time ran an ad which promoted homosexuality in
France. After the ad was aired the National Gay & Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (NGLCC)
49

sent a letter to McDonald`s calling the French ad 'blatant geographic pandering to the LGBT
community
50
. NGLCC wrote that it was severing its ties with the company and would decline any
future financial support the company might oIIer. 'The French TV ad has truly been the last straw.
To allow people to believe that McDonald`s is the kind oI partner portrayed in this ad would be a
complete failure on our part to serve as an honest and trusted resource for LGBT people and our
Iamilies to help make inIormed decisions in the marketplace.
51
the group wrote.
However, according to the company, the ad depicted the diversity of McDonald`s customers in
France and was intended to show that McDonald`s welcomed people from all walks of life. The
idea was to give a positive image to the brand in France where homosexuality was not a big issue,
the company said. According to Nathalie Legarlantezec, brand director at McDonald`s France,
'We wanted to take a look at how French society is today. We`re very comfortable with the topic
of homosexuality, there is obviously no problem with homosexuality in France today. The point
was not to show someone who is troubled, especially a teenager. We know it can be difficult for
some people, but we wouldn`t have dared show someone who is struggling. Our target today is
very broad. Our clientele is the entire French population ... we don`t need to target anyone
speciIic.
52


46
As part of the game, readers had to try to break a code to discover what a bishop was saying as he
addressed a couple about to be married. The bishop was drawn in the form of a misshapen potato holding
a crucifix depicting Jesus as a frog.
47
Johnny Summerton. 'Not Such a Happy Meal` Ior McDonald`s France. www.digitaljournal.com,
March 22, 2010.
48
The ad opened with a young boy talking on the phone with his lover and looking at their class picture.
The boy quickly hangs up when his father returns with the ordered food. The father sees the class photo
and says. 'You look iust like me at your age. Let me tell you. I was quite the ladies` man! Too bad your
class is all boys ... you could get all the girls. Then the boy smiles to himselI. and the slogan Come as
You Are` appears on the screen.
49
The National Gay & Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (NGLCC) is a US-based not-for-profit advocacy
organization dedicated to expanding the economic opportunities and advancements of the LGBT
(Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transvestite) business community.
50
Carol Tice. 'Why McDonald`s Gay Ad in France Pissed OII. Wait Ior it. Gays. www.bnet.com. June
8, 2010.
51
Carol Tice. 'Why McDonald`s Gay Ad in France Pissed OII. Wait Ior it. Gays. www.bnet.com. June
8, 2010.
52
Maxime Donzel. 'McDonald`s France Denies Targeting Gays. www.huIIingtonpost.com, June 7, 2010.
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OUTLOOK
In August 2010, McDonald`s European sales growth was not up to expectations and showed just a
2.2% increase in same store sales. This was attributed to weakness in France, which generated the
company`s biggest European sales in 2009. Some experts opined that one of the reasons for
McDonald`s weak sales in France could be roll over of VAT reduction. A year ago when the VAT
on restaurant meals was reduced, sales were high. However, when the VAT reduction was rolled
over, there was a slump in sales, they added. On the other hand, some analysts felt that
McDonald`s sales in France were slightly negative due to less effective promotions compared to
earlier years. According to them, McDonald`s needed better marketing of its low priced menu
options in France.
However, in October 2010, sales at restaurants recovered in Europe as September same store sales
rose 6.1% worldwide, with Europe recording an increase of 4.9%. Sales in Europe, which
accounted for above 40% of McDonald`s revenue in 2009, recovered with help from spiffier
restaurants and new products like frappes. Executives said they expected worldwide sales at
restaurants open at least 13 months to rise 5% to 6% in October 2010. 'McDonald`s is full-steam
ahead, and they`ll continue to take market share domestically and on an international basis,
53
said
Pete Saleh, an analyst with Telsey Advisory Group LLC.
54

In future, McDonald`s France planned to expand its drive thru business and to open new
restaurants in busy areas. The company planned to invest in new decor, provide technology such as
free wireless in every restaurant, and introduce new menu items. In order to enhance customer
experience and speed up the service, McDonald`s planned to upgrade technologies such as self
order kiosks, hand held order devices, and drive thru customer order displays at its outlets. The
aim of McDonald`s was to enhance its local relevance in France by complementing its menu with
limited time food events as well as new snack and dessert options. The company planned to come
out with new ways of engaging with customers and chalking out a more transparent marketing
strategy in order to communicate with customers, understand their requirements, and educate
consumers about the quality and origin of its food. McDonald`s planned to focus on building
market share in Europe by refurbishing approximately 1,000 restaurants, primarily in France and
the UK.
McDonald`s planned to increase the number of McDos in France with increased spending each
year. Talking about McDonald`s Iuture plans. Hennequin said. 'We are happy with the way things
are going in France. But that does not mean that we intend to sit back and rest on our laurels. Far
Irom it. I would like McDonald`s to emerge as more oI a themed restaurant rather like Jo Allen`s
in London. It should be more than just about eating French fries it should also be an experience.
Of course we should keep everything that has made us successful cleanliness, good value, and so
on but at the same time we need to move on from that to make it clear that we are selling more
than mere burgers but also a dream. It`s the American dream, of course |..|.Tomorrow`s
society will be all about multi-culturalism and you can rest assured that it will take much more
than a beef burger to kill off French culture.
55




53
Lisa Baertlein and Ben Klayman. 'McDonald`s Eats Rivals` Lunch as U.S. Gains. www.reuters.com.
October 21, 2010.
54
Telsey Advisory Group LLC is a US-based equity research firm.
55
Jeremy Joseph. 'McDonald`s Succeeding in France despite Mad Cow Disease.
www.jeremyjosephs.com/mcdonalds.htm.
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Exhibit I
McDonald`s Consolidated Operating Results
(Dollars in millions except per share data)
2009 2008 2007
Revenues
Sales by Company-operated restaurants
Revenues from franchised restaurants

15,459
7,286

16,561
6,961

16,611
6,176
Total Revenues 22,745 23,522 22,787
Operating costs and expenses
Company-operated restaurant expenses
Franchised restaurantsoccupancy expenses
Selling, general & administrative expenses
Impairment and other charges (credits), net
Other operating (income) expense, net

12,651
1,302
2,234
(61)
(222)

13,653
1,230
2,355
6
(165)

13,742
1,140
2,367
1,670
(11)
Total operating costs and expenses 15,904 17,079 18,908
Operating income
Interest expense
Nonoperating (income) expense, net
Gain on sale of investment
6,841
473
(24)
(95)
6,443
523
(78)
(160)
3,879
410
(103)
-
I ncome from continuing operations before
provision for income taxes
6,487 6,158 3,572
Provision for income taxes 1,936 1,845 1,237
I ncome from continuing operations
Income from discontinued operations
(net of taxes of $35)
4,551
-
4,313
-
2,335
60
Net I ncome 4,551 4,313 2,395
I ncome per common share-diluted
Continuing operations
Discontinued operations
Net income

4.11
-
4.11

3.76
-
3.76

1.93
0.05
1.98
Weighted-average common shares outstanding-
diluted
1,107.4 1,146.0 1,211.8
Source. McDonalds 2009 Annual Report


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Exhibit I I
McDonald's Consolidated Statement of I ncome
Dollars and shares in millions, except per share data
Quarters ended September30, 2010 2009 %
Revenues
Sales by Company-operated restaurants 4,246.6 4,093.6 4
Revenues from franchised restaurants 2,058.3 1,953.1 5

Total Revenues 6,304.9 6,046.7 4

Operating costs and expenses
Company-operated restaurant expenses 3,354.0 3,299.8 2
Franchised restaurants-occupancy expenses 344.4 338.6 2
Selling, general& administrative expenses 556.3 549.6 1
Impairment and other charges (credits), net 3.6 (1.5) n/m
Other operating (income) expense, net (49.9) (72.6) 31
Total operating costs and expenses 4,208.4 4,113.9 2

Operating Income 2,096.5 1,932.8 8

Interest expense 114.8 117.8 (3)
Nonoperating (income) expense, net 7.2 (6.0) n/m
Gain on sale of investment (0.6) n/m

Income before provision for income taxes 1,974.5 1,821.6 8
Provision for income taxes 586.1 560.6 5

Net Income 1,388.4 1,261.0 10

Earnings Per Share-Diluted 1.29 1.15 12

Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted 1,074.9 1,098.2 (2)
*n/m not meaningful
Source: http://phoenix.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=97876&p=irol -newsarticle&ID=1485461

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Exhibit I I I
McDonald`s Region Wise Revenues
(In millions of US Dollars)
2009 2008 2007
Company operated sales:
US 4,295 4,636 4,682
Europe 6,721 7,424 6,817
APMEA 3,714 3,660 3,134
Other Countries & Corporate 729 841 1,978
Total 15,459 16,561 16,611
Franchised revenues:
US 3,649 3,442 3,224
Europe 2,553 2,499 2,109
APMEA 623 571 465
Other Countries & Corporate 461 449 378
Total 7,286 6,961 6,176
Total revenues:
US 7,944 8,078 7,906
Europe 9,274 9,923 8,926
APMEA 4,337 4,231 3,599
Other Countries & Corporate 1,190 1,290 2,356
Total 22,745 23,522 22,787
Source. McDonalds 2009 Annual Report

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Exhibit I V
Fast Food I ndustry in France
Over the years, France had been well known for its rich culinary heritage and French cuisine
was considered to be the finest in the world. Though French consumers enjoyed their food, they
had a reputation for being hard to impress. The traditionalistic French society was resistant to
change. Foreign fast food was considered as an aspect of globalization.
However, during the 1960s, the French began to change their eating habits. They adapted to new
patterns of societal norms and began experiencing fast food for the first time. The first type of
fast food restaurants in Paris were the Bistros. Viennoiseries
56
outlets were also considered as
fast food joints though they did not constitute the same concept as fast food. It was in 1972 with
the entry oI McDonald`s that real Iast Iood was introduced in France. McDonald`s was
responsible for popularizing fast food in France. Other US fast food chains such as Starbucks
Corporation
57
, KFC Corporation
58
, and Burger King Corporation
59
followed.
Fast Iood chains such as McDonald`s, Quick, and KFC dominated the fast food market in
France. All these chains adapted themselves to suit local tastes. During the 1990s due to the
arrival of Foot and Mouth and Mad Cow disease in Europe, the demand for fast food went
down. The French went organic due to fears over these diseases, genetically engineered
produce, and awareness about eating habits. During this time, health food stores popped up all
over France and most supermarkets had a health food department featuring organic produce
such as eggs, milk, pasta, olive oil, meat, wine, and oysters.
In the new millennium, France became one of the fastest growing markets for fast food. Fast
food chains began to expand beyond the big cities and into the smaller towns throughout France.
In 2003, consumers spent more than t180 billion on Iast Iood. According to some reports, the
French foodservice industry grew at a CAGR of 2.6% between 2004 and 2008. By 2008, the fast
food market in France had reached a value of more than five billion dollars. The economic crisis
fueled demand in this sector with the American type fast food dominating the market, experts
said (Refer to Table I for Top 10 Companies in the French Fast Food Sector).
Table I
Top 10 Companies in the French Fast Food Sector
Groups/Brands Sales
2008
(US$
1,000)
Sales
2007
(US$
1,000)
%
Change
2008/
2007
Total
Outlets
2008
Total
Outlets
2007
McDonald`s Corporation 4,832 4,075 +18.6 1134 1109
Financiere Quick (SAS Quick) 1,072 976 +9.8 354 337
Groupe Holder ( Paul,Saint Preux) 405 364 +11.2 358 348
Contd.

56
Viennoiseries are baked items made from yeast based dough similar to bread.
57
Based in Seattle. Starbucks Corporation is one oI the world`s largest coIIee house chains with over
16,000 stores in more than 50 countries as of 2009.
58
KFC Corporation, based in Louisville, Kentucky, is one of the largest fast food chains. Owned by Yum!
Brands, KFC has more than 13,000 restaurants in more than 80 countries worldwide.
59
Burger King Corporation is a US-based global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants with 12,200
outlets in 73 countries.
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Contd.
Elior/Eliance Restauration rapide
(Pomme de Pain, Cafe Route,
Station Sandwich, Phileas,
Quick .)
404 329 +22.7 378 359
Groupe Yum (KFC, Pizza Hut) 395 369 +7.0 163 148
Autogrill (Cia, Spizzico,
Pain a la Ligne, Time Cafe,
Foodissimo. PastGo. .)
350 316 +10.7 523 510
Groupe Le Duff (La Brioche
Doree, Le Fournil de Pierre)
319 293 +8.8 349 333
La Mie Caline (La Mie Caline) 180 146 +23.2 174 164
Lagardere (Relais H Cafe, Relay) 143 122 +17.2 192 189
Domino`z Pizza Entreprise
(Domino`z Pizza)
129 93 +38.7 146 126
Source: Neo Restauration Magazine Estimates
Compiled from various sources

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Exhibit V
McDonald`s Menu in France`
Breakfast Express, tonique, brunch
Menus Best of max menu
Menu best of crudites
Happy meal
Salad menu box
Beef Big Mac
Bog Mac in bread
Royal deluxe
Royal cheese
Double cheese
Royal bacon
Cheese burger
Hamburger
Chicken Chicken shake
Chicken Mcnuggets
McChicken
Fish Filet-o-fish
Royal-O-fish
Ham Croque McDo
Salads Farmer salad
Caesar salad
Spicy west salad
Dishes French fries
Deluxe potatoes
P`tite salade
P`tite tomates
Cool drinks Coca cola light, coca cola zero,
sprite, Fanta Lipton ice tea,
mineral water
Hot drinks Classic
Milk
Gourmet
Sweets Mousse
Crumble
Muffin
Mandise
Chocoglace
Pine apple crunch
Desserts McFlurry
Frappes
Sundae
* The list is not exhaustive
Source: www.mcdonalds.fr
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McDonaId's in France
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References and Suggested Readings:
1. Lisa Baertlein and Ben Klayman, ~McDonald`s Eats Rivals` Lunch as U.S. Gains.
www.reuters.com, October 21, 2010.
2. Lisa Baertlein and Emily Stephenson, ~McDonald`s France Lags in August. Shares
Fall. www.reuters.com, September 9, 2010.
3. Carol Tice, ~Why McDonald`s Gay Ad in France Pissed Off. Wait for it. Gays.
www.bnet.com, June 8, 2010.
4. Maxime Donzel, ~McDonald`s France Denies Targeting Gays.
www.huffingtonpost.com, June 7, 2010.
5. Johnny Summerton, ~Not Such a Happy Meal` for McDonald`s France.
www.digitaljournal.com, March 22, 2010.
6. ~More French Saying oui` to McDonald`s. www.washingtontimes.com, February 2, 2010.
7. Nadim Audi, ~France. Land of Epicures. Gets Taste for McDonald`s.
www.nytimes.com, October 29, 2009.
8. Henry Samuel, ~McDonald`s Restaurants to Open at the Louvre.
www.telegraph.co.uk, October 4, 2009.
9. ~McDonald`s Going Green ? www.zlok.net, August 1, 2009.
10. Sarah Gilbert. 'McDonald`s at the Louvre? Critics Complain. but the French Can`t
Say No. www.dailyfinance.com, July 10, 2009.
11. Mike Steinberger, ~How McDonald`s Conquered France. www.slate.com, June 25, 2009.
12. Niamh Cremin. ~France Becomes McDonalds` Largest European Market.
www.bordbia.ie, February 13, 2009.
13. ~France. Second Best Market for McDonald`s. www.20minutes.fr, January 28, 2009.
14. Bruce Crumley, ~Supersizing Europe: The McDonald`s Stimulus Plan.
www.time.com, January 26, 2009.
15. McDonald`s 2009 Annual Report.
16. Ladka Bauerova, ~French Bistros File Record Bankruptcies as Le Big Mac Reigns.
www.bloomberg.com, October 20, 2008.
17. Andrew Shanahan, ~Why Did France Fall in Love with McDonald`s?
www.guardian.co.uk, July 24, 2008.
18. Jacob Gershman, ~McDonald`s Takes Paris. www.nysun.com, July 2, 2007.
19. ~McDonald`s to Issue Franchise Licenses Slowly. www.newagebd.com, February 11,
2007.
20. Carol Matlack and Pallavi Gogoi, ~What's This? The French Love McDonald's?
www.businessweek.com, January 13, 2003.
21. Jeremy Joseph, ~McDonald`s Succeeding in France Despite Mad Cow Disease.
www.jeremyjosephs.com/mcdonalds.htm.
22. www.mcdonalds.ca/pdfs/history_final.pdf.
23. www.answers.com/topic/mcdonald-s.
24. http://phoenix.corporate-ir.net.
25. www.mcdonalds.com
26. www.mddonalds.fr
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