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Construct a Truth Table for the logical functions at points C, D and Q in the following circuit and identify a single logic gate that can be used to replace the whole circuit.

First observations tell us that the circuit consists of a 2-input NAND gate, a 2-input EX-OR gate and finally a 2-input EX-NOR gate at the output. As there are only 2 inputs to the circuit labelled A and B, there can only be 4 possible combinations of the input (22) and these are: 00, 0-1, 1-0 and finally 1-1. Plotting the logical functions from each gate in tabular form will give us the following truth table for the whole of the logic circuit below.

Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1

Output at C 1 1 1 0 D 0 1 1 0 Q 0 1 1 1

From the truth table above, column C represents the output function from the NAND gate and column Drepresents the output function from the Ex-OR gate. Both of these two output expressions then become the input condition for the Ex-NOR gate at the output. It can be seen from the truth table that an output atQ is present when any of the two inputs A or B are at logic 1. The only truth table that satisfies this condition is that of an OR Gate. Therefore, the whole of the above circuit can be replaced by just one single 2-input OR Gate.

Example No2

Find the Boolean algebra expression for the following system.

The system consists of an AND Gate, a NOR Gate and finally an OR Gate. The expression for the ANDgate is A.B, and the expression for the NOR gate is A+B. Both these expressions are also separate inputs to the OR gate which is defined as A+B. Thus the final output expression is given as:

. Inputs B 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 Intermediates A.B.B)+(A.B). Example No3 Find the Boolean algebra expression for the following system.B into the output expression gives us a final output notation of Q = (A. Again as with the previous example we can write the Boolean notation for each logic function to give us a final expression for the output at Q. This system may look more complicated than the others to analyse but it also consists of simple AND. the whole circuit above can be replaced by just one single Exclusive-NOR Gate and indeed anExclusive-NOR Gate is made up of these individual gates. which is the Boolean notation for an Exclusive-NOR Gate as seen in the previous section.The output of the system is given as Q = (A. but the notation A+B is the same as the De Morgan´s notation A. Then substituting A.B 0 0 0 1 A+B Output Q 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 Then.B) + (A+B).OR and NOT gates.

B. For example.C equal "1" or A is equal to "1" and both inputs B or C equal "0". corresponding to the respective input signals for each gate." and "C" input signals are assumed to be provided from switches. The output from the lower OR gate is only a "1" when one or both inputs B or C are at logic level "0". This type of circuit analysis using Boolean Algebra can quickly identify any un-necessary logic gates thereby reducing the number of gates required. the whole circuit above can be replaced by just one single input labelled A thereby reducing a circuit of 6 individual logic gates to just one single piece of wire.C).B. the power consumption of the circuit and of course the cost.The output from the 3-input AND gate is only a "1" when ALL the inputs are at logic level "1" (A. Inputs C 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 A 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Intermediates A. Let's begin with a semiconductor gate circuit in need of simplification.(B+C). or perhaps other gate circuits. (or Buffer). Where these signals originate is of no concern in the task of gate reduction. This task is easily performed step by step if we start by writing sub-expressions at the output of each gate. while AND gates are equivalent to Boolean multiplication." "B. Remember that OR gates are equivalent to Booleanaddition. sensors.B. Then by using "de Morgan's theorem" inputs B and input C cancel out as to produce an output at Q they can be either at logic "1" or at logic "0". Our first step in simplification must be to write a Boolean expression for this circuit. Then this just leaves input A as the only input needed to give an output at Q as shown in the table below. Then the output at Q is only a "1" when inputs A.C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 B C B+C Output A. The "A. I'll write sub-expressions at the outputs of the first three gates: . The output from the 2-input AND gate is a "1" when input A is a "1" and inputs B or C are at "0". A.(B+C) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Q 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 Then.

. we need to apply the rules of Boolean algebra to reduce the expression to its simplest form (simplest defined as requiring the fewest gates to implement): . the output ("Q") is seen to be equal to the expression AB + BC(B + C): Now that we have a Boolean expression to work with. then another sub-expression for the next gate: Finally.. .

is much simpler than the original. Remember again that OR gates are equivalent to Boolean addition. and C. To do this. we would begin with the sub-expression "A + C". we can easily design a logic gate or relay logic circuit based on thatexpression: . B. operations inside parentheses before anything else). following proper mathematical order of operations (multiplication before addition. which is an OR gate: The next step in evaluating the expression "B(A + C)" is to multiply (AND gate) the signal B by the output of the previous gate (A + C): Now that we have a Boolean Sum-Of-Products expression for the truth table's function. In this case. The two truth tables should be identical. If you would like to verify this. B(A + C). yet performs the same function. for both circuits. and draw gates for each step. while AND gates are equivalent to Boolean multiplication. evaluate the expression. we must generate a schematic diagram from this Boolean expression. you may generate a truth table for both expressions and determine Q's status (the circuits' output) for all eight logic-state combinations of A. Now.The final expression.

in either gate or relay form: Whereas a Sum-Of-Products expression could be implemented in the form of a set of AND gates with their outputs connecting to a single OR gate.As a result of the simplification. a Product-Of-Sums expression can be implemented as a set of OR gates feeding into a single AND gate: Michael Obcemea . we can now build much simpler logic circuits performing the same function.

Postulates and Theorems of Boolean Algebra Assume A. and NOT[A] means NOT A. "+" means OR. "·" means AND. and C are logical states that can have the values 0 (false) and 1 (true). B. Postulates (1) A + 0 = A (2) A + NOT[A] = 1 (3) A + B = B + A (4) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C A·1=A A· NOT identity complement commutative law associative law [A] = 0 A·B=B·A A · (B · C) = (A · B) · C (5) A + (B · C) = (A + B) · (A + C) A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) distributive law Theorems (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) A+A=A A+1=1 A + (A · B) = A A + (NOT[A] · B) = A + B (A · B) + (NOT[A] · C) + (B · C) = (A · B) + (NOT[A] · C) NOT A·A=A A·0=0 A · ( A + B) = A A · (NOT[A] + B) = A · B A · (B + C) = (A · B) + (A · C) NOT [A + B] = NOT[A] · NOT[B] [A · B] = NOT[A] + NOT[B] de Morgan's theorem .

Another type of mathematical identity. This property tells us we can associate groups of added or multiplied variables together with parentheses without altering the truth of the equations. . and it applies equally to addition and multiplication. In essence. the commutative property tells us we can reverse the order of variables that are either added together or multiplied together without changing the truth of the expression: Along with the commutative properties of addition and multiplication. we have the associative property." describes how differing variables relate to each other in a system of numbers. called a "property" or a "law. One of these properties is known as the commutative property. again applying equally well to addition andmultiplication.

Lastly. and in reverse shows us how terms may be factored out of Boolean sums-of-products: . illustrating how to expand a Boolean expression formed by the product of a sum. we have the distributive property.

and distributive. associative.To summarize. here are the three basic properties: commutative. .

rules and theorems for Boolean Algebra are given in the following table. For example. we can also use them as constants for a permanently "Open" or "Closed" circuit or contact respectively. Boolean Algebra uses these "Laws of Boolean" to both reduce and simplify a Boolean expression in an attempt to reduce the number of logic gates required. but each variable can ONLY be a 0 or a 1.A=A A in series with A = A Indempotent NOT A = A NOT NOT A (double negative) = A Double Negation A+A=1 A in parallel with not A = CLOSED Complement . C etc. Truth Tables for the Laws of Boolean Boolean Expression Description Equivalent Switching Circuit Boolean Algebra Law or Rule A+1=1 A in parallel with closed = CLOSED Annulment A+0=A A in parallel with open = A Identity A. giving us a logical expression of A + B = C. Examples of these individual Boolean laws. a "0" and a"1" but an expression can have an infinite number of variables all labelled individually to represent inputs to the expression. Boolean Algebra is therefore a system of mathematics based on logic that has its own set of rules which are used to define and reduce Boolean expressions. B.The Laws of Boolean As well as the logic symbols "0" and "1" being used to represent a digital input or output. Laws or rules for Boolean Algebra expressions have been invented to help reduce the number of logic gates needed to perform a particular logic operation resulting in a list of functions or theorems known commonly as the Laws of Boolean.1=A A in series with closed = A Identity A. The variables used in Boolean Algebra only have one of two possible values.0=0 A in series with open = OPEN Annulment A+A=A A in parallel with A = A Indempotent A. variables A.

1.A. as well as the distributive Law allowing the factoring of an expression. are the same as in ordinary algebra. Description of the Laws and Theorems Annulment Law . A . A variable OR'ed with its complement is always equal to 1.An input AND´ed with itself or OR´ed with itself is equal to that input. 1. 1.A term OR´ed with a "0" or AND´ed with a "1" will always equal that term. A . 2. The order in which two variables are AND'ed makes no difference. Indempotent Law . A . 2. Identity Law . A brief description of the Laws of Boolean is given below. A variable AND'ed with 0 is always equal to 0. A = A. 1. A variable AND'ed with its complement is always equal to 0. A variable AND'ed with itself is always equal to the variable. Complement Law . A variable OR'ed with 1 is always equal to 1. . B = B . Commutative Law .A term that is inverted twice is equal to the original term. A + A = 1.A=0 A in series with not A = OPEN Complement A+B = B+A A in parallel with B = B in parallel with A Commutative A.B = B. A + 0 = A. 1 = A. The above laws can be used to prove any given Boolean expression and for simplifying complicated digital circuits. 0 = 0. A. A variable OR'ed with itself is always equal to the variable.B A. the Associative Law allowing the removal of brackets for addition and multiplication. A . A + 1 = 1. A variable AND'ed with 1 is always equal to the variable. 2. Double Negation Law .A term AND´ed with its complement equals "0" and a term OR´ed with its complement equals "1".A A in series with B = B in series with A Commutative A+B = A.A term AND´ed with a "0" equals 0 or OR´ed with a "1" will equal 1. A . A variable OR'ed with 0 is always equal to the variable. Each of the laws above are given with just a single or two variables. The order in which two variables are OR'ed makes no difference. A + A = A.B = A+B invert and replace OR with AND invert and replace AND with OR de Morgan's Theorem de Morgan's Theorem The basic Laws of Boolean Algebra that relate to the Commutative Law allowing a change in position for addition and multiplication. A = 0. but the number of variables defined by a single law is not limited to this as there can be an infinite number of variables as inputs to the expression. A + B = B + A. 1.The order of application of two separate terms is not important. 2. 2.

2. A. 6. B. (2) Two separate terms NAND´ed together is the same as the two terms inverted (Complement) and OR´ed for example.B A. 9. 10.This law permits the multiplying or factoring out of an expression. A double complement of a variable is always equal to the variable. 7. A+B = A. 13. 3. simple 2-input AND.This law enables a reduction in a complicated expression to a simpler one by absorbing like terms. Function 1. 8.B A+B A+B A+B . 4. A = A.There are two "de Morgan´s" rules or theorems. 5. Other algebraic laws not detailed above include: Distributive Law .B A.B = A +B. de Morgan´s Theorem .B A. Description NULL IDENTITY Input A Input B NOT A NOT B A AND B (AND) A AND NOT B NOT A AND B NOT A AND NOT B (NAND) A OR B (OR) A OR NOT B NOT A OR B Expression 0 1 A B A B A. (1) Two separate terms NOR´ed together is the same as the two terms inverted (Complement) and AND´ed for example. Associative Law . 11. Boolean Algebra Functions Using the information above. OR and NOT Gates can be represented by 16 possible functions as shown in the following table.1. Absorptive Law . 12.This law allows the removal of brackets from an expression and regrouping of the variables.

Distributive law .1 + BC Q = A + BC .Identity AND law (A.Distributive law .B A.14.Distributive law . NOT OR (NOR) Exclusive-OR Exclusive-NOR A+B A.A = A) .B Example No1 Using the above laws.B + A.Identity OR law (1 + B = 1) . simplify the following expression: (A + B)(A + C) Q = (A + B)(A + C) AA + AC + AB + BC A + AC + AB + BC A(1 + C) + AB + BC A.1 + AB + BC A(1 + B) + BC A.Identity AND law (A. 15.1 = A) Then the expression: (A + B)(A + C) can be simplified to A + BC .B + A.Identity OR law (1 + C = 1) . 16.

Truth Tables As well as a standard Boolean Expression. when dealing with Boolean expressions we do not general use ON or OFF but instead give them values of logic level "1" or logic level "0"."OFF" or ( 1. There are "four" possible input combinations 2 or 2 of "OFF" and "ON" for the two inputs. (Q = A or B). (Q = A and B). In order to keep things simple to understand."OFF" . OR input B is true. a 2-input OR Gate and a NOT Gate are given as 3 4 2-input AND Gate The output Q is true if both input A. and so on as n the number of inputs increases. consider a single 2-input logic circuit with input variables labelled as A and B.1 ) Therefore. but the principals are still the same for gates with more inputs.0 ) Input Combination 2.1 ) Input Combination 3.0 ) Input Combination 4. AND input B are both true. a 3-input logic circuit would have 8 possible input combinations or 2 and a 4-input logic circuit would have 16 or 2 ."ON" ."OFF" or ( 0. Then a logic circuit with "n"number of inputs would have 2 possible input combinations of both "OFF" and "ON"."ON" or ( 0. .B Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 0 0 1 Read as A AND B gives Q 2-input OR (Inclusive OR) Gate The output Q is true if either input A."OFF" . . The Truth tables for a 2-input AND Gate. . However. Logic gate truth tables shows each possible input to the gate or circuit and the resultant output depending upon the combination of the input(s). . The four possible combinations for a two-input gate are given as: Input Combination 1. Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Boolean Expression Q = A. the input and output information of any Logic Gate or circuit can be plotted into a table to give a visual representation of the switching function of the system and this is commonly called a Truth Table. For example. Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 1 1 1 . we will only deal with simple 2-input logic gates."ON" or ( 1."ON" .

the output is the inverse or complement of the input (Q = NOT A). as they are widely used functions. 2-input EX-OR (Exclusive OR) Gate . Symbol A 0 1 Boolean Expression Q = NOT A or A Truth Table Q 1 0 Read as inverse of A gives Q The NAND and the NOR Gates are a combination of the AND and OR Gates with that of a NOT Gate or inverter.B Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 1 1 1 0 Read as NOT A or NOT B gives Q 2-input NOR (Not OR) Gate The output Q is true if both input A and input B are not true. Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Boolean Expression Q = A. 2-input NAND (Not AND) Gate The output Q is true if both input A and input B are not true. Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Boolean Expression Q = A+B Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 1 0 0 0 Read as NOT A and NOT B gives Q As well as the standard logic gates there are also two special types of logic gate function called anExclusive-OR Gate and an ExclusiveNOR Gate. The actions of both of these types of gates can be made using the above standard gates however. (Q = not(A or B)).Boolean Expression Q = A+B Read as A OR B gives Q NOT Gate The output Q is only true when the input is NOT true. they are now available in standard IC form and have been included here as reference. (Q = not(A and B)).

either true or false.B) + (A. The following Truth Table compares the logical functions of the 2-input logic gates above.B A+B NOR 1 0 0 0 EX-OR 0 1 1 0 EX-NOR 1 0 0 1 Logic Function Boolean Notation (A.B) + or A B B . but not both (Q = (A and NOT B) or (NOT A and B)). Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Boolean Expression Q = A B Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 0 1 1 0 2-input EX-NOR (Exclusive NOR) Gate The output Q is true if both input A and input B are the same.B A+B A A. (Q = (A and B) or(NOT A and NOT B)).The output Q is true if either input A or if input B is true. Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AND 0 0 0 1 AND OR NOT NAND NOR EX-OR EX-NOR Truth Table Outputs for each Gate NAND 1 1 1 0 OR 0 1 1 1 A. Symbol A 0 0 1 1 Boolean Expression Q = A B Truth Table B 0 1 0 1 Q 1 0 0 1 Summary of all the 2-input Gates described above.B) or A (A.

laws and derivations.0 = 0 1+1=1 0+0=0 1. The symbol ³.´ represents the operation AND and ³+´ represents the operation ³OR´. We will discover their properties and have a look at some of the examples in separate articles. Here are the Boolean postulates for you. y y y y y y y X = 0 or X = 1 0. an English mathematician came up with some propositions whose outcome would either be true or false. So here is a quick start guide for you to read Boolean expressions.1=1 1.1=0 1+0=0+1=1 Laws of Boolean Algebra Here we will have a quick look at some of the laws. 0 refers to a truth value of ³FALSE´ whereas 1 refers to a truth value of ³TRUE´. Some simple postulates can help us in simplifying seemingly complex Boolean expressions.0=0. The major laws are y y y y y y Commutative Law Associative Law Distributive Law Identity Law Redundance Law De Morgan¶s Theorem .Boolean Algebra Postulates Simplification of Boolean expressions can be carried out in the same fashion as numeric algebraic expressions. For the moment it is all about having a taste of what the subject has to offer rather than getting in depth into the subject. You must be aware of the Boolean jargon before getting into postulates. George Boole.

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