The Perspectives Of Franchising The Perspectives Of Franchising

In the epoch of internationalization, the entire world became a universal village. The next result of GATT (General Agreement on Tariff and Trade) and WTO (World Trade Organisation) is the globalization of commercial activities. The need of the hour is to expand the business activities within the country and also to penetrate the overseas market. This is possible only through the concept of franchising. There was a boom in 1950’s and 1960’s in USA., and in Europe in the franchising industry. The Multinational Corporations of the first world spread their business tentacles by adopting the concept of franchising. It is impossible for a single company located to one place to distribute its products throughout the world effectively. An imperative part which determines the viability of any franchising business in a country relates to the class of consumers it caters to. India is a multi cultural country with the second largest population in the world. Indian consumers have experienced the standard of services offered overseas and have sufficient exposure through media, which has further fuelled their expectations. They now want to avail of the benefits that a foreign franchisor can generate for them. One of the primary factors which control the success of franchising business in an emerging like India is the ability of a foreign franchisor to identify and seize the appropriate moment when the business environment is favourable and reap it rewards. Home to over a billion people, including a flourishing class of urban consumers possessing considerable amounts of disposable income together with the continued growth of the economy have strengthened India’s claim to be viable and beneficial destination for a foreign franchisor. There is no specific legislation regulating franchise arrangements in India, but there are various laws which affect the relationship between the franchisers an franchisees, including intellectual property laws, taxation, labour regulations, competition laws, property and exchange control. A deep understanding of the laws related to the business of franchising is imperative for a foreign franchisor which is planning a foray into the Indian market.
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The term ‘franchise’ has its origin in the French word ‘affranchir’ which means to ‘to free’. In its simplest terms a franchise can be considered a licence from owner of trade mark or trade name permitting another to sell a product or service under that name or mark. The usefulness of franchising lies in the fact that it helps the mega corporations to expand their business and popularize their brand names without investing large amounts of money. These corporations act as ‘franchisers’. It is the local dealer who acts as a ‘franchisee’ and operates at a lessor cost by using his local market knowledge. But this franchisee runs the business with the help of financial and local market knowledge. But this franchisee runs the business with the help of financial and technical knowledge given to him by the franchiser.

International Franchise Association (IFA) of America defined the expression: “A franchising operation is a contractual relationship between the franchiser and franchisee in which the franchiser offers or is obligated to maintain a continuing interest in the business of the franchisee in such area as know-how and training. 3 Contrary to popular belief. Here the franchiser permits the entity known as franchisee to establish a franchise of his business. It has the right to grant licence for the establishment of franchises to other parties relating to its business. You should have it reviewed by a lawyer familiar with franchise matters--especially since most agreements are extremely 4 . laying out the rights and obligations of each. and in which the franchisee has or will make a substantial capital investment in his business from his own resources ”. marketing strategy. Who is Franchiser and Franchisee? The one who grants a franchise is known as franchiser. Franchiser is the owner of the franchised system.e. franchising is not an American invention . The one who granted a franchise is known as franchisee. wherein the franchisee operates under a common trade name. It is this document that is legally binding on both parties.it first emerged in Britain during the Middle Ages when certain high church officials would pay a lump sum to the Government and would agree to provide continuing personal support and services in return' for the right (i. Franchisee is the entity to which the franchiser grants licence to carry on business. you are entitled to receive it as a prospective franchisee five business days before signature. 2 Franchising means paying some one for his business strategy. in exchange for a fee . What is Franchise Agreement? The franchise agreement is the cornerstone document of the franchisee--franchiser relationship. Definition of Franchise: A form of business organization in which a firm which already has a successful product or service (the franchisor) enters into a continuing contractual relationship with other businesses (franchisees) operating under the franchisor's trade name and usually with the franchisor's guidance. the franchise) to collect local taxes. Either way.The franchisee will be able to do business successfully without risks by utilizing the good-will attached to the brand name of the franchiser. Then. It is the proprietor of the concept of that business and the brand name. A sample agreement may either be attached to the disclosure statement or presented separately. operations strategy and use of his brand name. format and procedure owned and controlled by the franchiser. by permitting it to use the know-how and brand name.

textile industry. So the company allowed the financially sound independent persons to have the rights regarding selling and servicing of singer machines within the specified areas for a consideration. There is no standard form of franchise agreement because the terms. the first classic instance of franchising relates to Singer sewing machine company. hotels. settlement of disputes. and attorney fees. in considerable detail. Historical growth of Franchising:. watches. Immediately after civil war in the United States of America. computer services. operating practices. Singer Company was mass producing the sewing machines. automobiles etc. As we discussed earlier. employment agencies. courier services. advertising policies. immediately it was emulated by the general motors and other companies of Automobile Industry and achieved instant success. convenience stores. by the company. In the modern times. Franchising at present is common in all types of industries and services like fast food centres. In the same way King John of England granted ‘franchises’ to his barons to collect taxes. how you must deal with things such as trademarks. patents and signs. financial services. the peasant slaves were given rights to become ‘freemen’ by the land owners subject to the fee paid to them. the obligations of the franchiser (the company) and franchisee (you) regarding operating the business. conditions. the initial duration of the franchise and any renewal rights. Later in 1950’s the same concept of franchising was adopted by hundreds of American and European companies to the extent establishing franchises all over the world to great success. what happens if you should want to sell or transfer the franchise. publishing industry. At present all most all the ‘blue chip corporations’ of the world got the franchise out lets across the globe in so many countries. For example. how much you must invest. The Roman Catholic church franchised the right to run a parish to the local clergy on the condition that a part of ‘tithes’ (church taxes) collected by them must be given to Rome. During the time of feudalism in the middle ages in Europe. and automotive products will differ from the franchises for fast food service. America was the mother of the modern concept of franchising where 50% of all retail sales are through franchise outlets. and the methods of operations of various franchises vary widely depending on the type of business involved. what royalties and service fees you will pay. or clothing. fashion industry. the training and operational support the franchiser will provide (and at what cost). your territory and any exclusivity. franchises for printing. The agreement will contain provisions covering. The scheme was so successful. tax issues.one-sided in favor of the franchiser. Some of the most famous . But the company allowed the financially sound to distribute and service those machines. cancellation. No one should enter into a franchise and expect to have an evenly drawn contract. franchisee termination issues.Modern Franchising is an American idea that has become the most enduring and successful business concept in the history of the world. But this franchising had its rudimentary origins in the past.

retailers and packers. 1986 has got substantial impact on the franchising system in India. the product manufactured or produced by the franchisee under the supervision of the franchiser may cause personal injury to the consumers of the products or may cause damage to the properties of the consumers. The agreement to the franchise is a standard printed agreement which deals with rights and obligations of the licensor and licensee. Donald’s. he has got the remedy under the Consumer Protection Act.The individual or company who owns the exclusive rights to develop a specific continent for the franchising company. in that case also the Consumer Protection Act helps the consumers to get compensation for that personal injury or loss of property. 1872. The franchise agreement must be lawful and not against the public policy in India. Holiday Inn Worldwide. The Consumer Protection Act. 5 Legal aspects in Franchising: The laws relating to franchising are excellent so far as Western Countries are concerned. (b) Regional franchisee:. erectors. wholesalers. Sometimes. and repairers of goods. Some of the laws that indirectly cover the area of franchising in India are(1) Consumer Protection Law in India:. Concept of Franchising and its nature: The franchising concept can be understood as licence type transactions. K. assemblers.F.corporations that utilize the concept of franchising far expanding their commercial activities are: Mc. Types of franchisees:There are many types of franchisees: (a) Unit franchisee:.The Consumer Protection Act. When the product purchased by the consumer from a franchise outlet is not of the same quality or standard as that provided by the franchiser. Generally the law of contracts is applicable to franchise agreements. . (c) Master Franchisee . The franchising agreement is considered licensing contract in India with a single difference relating to the territorial operation of the business. They are manufacturers.In this franchiser grants right to the franchisee to operate one unit or outlet of the franchised business. It is also applicable to installers. In India the concept of franchising is in its nascent stages.C. all the contracts come under the purview of the Indian Contract Act. So the franchiser or the franchisee of goods can fall into this category. Pizza Hut Burger king etc.Here the franchiser grants right to the franchisee to operate the business in the whole of a region. distributors. 1986 is the most relevant enactment to the common law who is the consumer of the franchised product. which is based mainly on the English Law Principles. Some unit franchisees operate several units in a City or in a State. In India.. So the rights and liabilities of the franchiser and the franchisee have not been dealt with elaborately under any law. The Act makes liable various categories of persons.

This enactment is intended to protect the proprietors of novel and original designs. Careful planning and evaluation of the Indian market by foreign franchisors combined with an increase in the confidence in the entrepreneurial skills of the Indian businessmen will provide them a platform to gain entry into the Indian market. (5) The Copyright Act. This legislation helps the franchiser to protect his exact design and goodwill. The manual contains the entire technique of running the franchise business. 2000:. When a franchise outlet is closed or shut down.com/Articles/files/Franchising%20in%20India%20-%20The %20Time%20is%20Right. 1999:. Labour laws govern the day-to-day conditions of employment in a franchising system.(2) Intellectual Property law and franchising in India:. All franchising contracts are amenable to labour laws in India.The Copy right Act can be used successfully by the franchiser when he wishes to protect his franchising manual. The manual should not be used unauthorisedly or improperly by any other person without having the permission of the franchiser as it amounts to violation of copy right being held by the franchiser. The need of the hour is for the foreign franchisors to realize the unparalleled prospects which franchising in India can offer to the expansion of their businesses. 6 1 Srijoy Das. The Act further makes it possible for the proprietors to enforce their right against the violators. then the labour laws play a vital role in determining the compensation to be paid to the employees of that franchise outlet by the master franchisee. raising the awareness of their products and services. its product may be copied.Intellectual Property rights should be protected very carefully in any country so as to make the franchising system successful. there is transfer of know-how by the franchiser to the franchisee. In the concept of franchising. (4) The Designs Act. Otherwise when the franchiser enters into new territory with its products. brand name may be misused which in turn affects good will of the franchiser. The business and social climate in India is ready for foreign franchisors and they must awake up to the fact that now the time is right. 2010). 1957:. The best way to protect a trademark must get it registered property in India. (6) Labour Laws and franchising:.intelproplaw.pdf (Last Visited on June 17. Thus as a quick conclusion. (3) The Trade Marks Act. prospective franchise buyers should be careful in doing their market research and manage their financial liquidity well. which should be protected. “FRANCHISING IN INDIA: THE TIME IS RIGHT”. available athttp://www. Kartik Srivastava. . franchiser or franchisee. the foundation is the design and good will of the franchiser. otherwise it results in loss of economy and reputation of the franchiser.There are various enactments concerning labourers in India.This Act has been enacted to provide for the registration and better protection of trade marks and for the prevention of the use of fraudulent marks on merchandise. For the existence of the franchise system.

Total shows: 114 Author: V.B. available at http://www.93 .2 Franchise.com/franchiseglossary.investorwords. 2010).youfranchise. 2010). available at http://businesslaw. 2010). Rating: 2.R. 6 Srijoy Das. 4 Franchise Law.com/franchise_law/agreement_franchise. 2010). Padala Rama Reddi Law College.com/BOFranchisee.pdf (Last Visited on June 17.com/2078/franchise.html (Last Visited on June 17. Kartik Srivastava. 5 Franchise Glossary.html (Last Visited on June 17.freeadvice. 2010).Ranganath working as an Assistant Professor. Hyderabad and Research Scholar(part-time).htm (Last Visited on June 17. “FRANCHISING IN INDIA: THE TIME IS RIGHT”.Ambedkar College of Law. Andhra University.com/Articles/files/Franchising%20in%20India%20-%20The %20Time%20is%20Right. 3 Theoretical Info: Basic Definitions.intelproplaw. Visakhapatnam. available at http://www.asp(Last Visited on June 17. Dr. Definition available at http://www.ableseducations. available athttp://www. ABLES Franchisee Program.G.

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