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CONTENTS 2/99
EXCLUSIVES
Russian "Desert Fox" hunters ......................................8 Pantsyr-SI air defense missile-gun system and its modifications .................14

9

43

14

Navy
Transas: Electronic technologies take effect ................................52 Prime manufacturer of control systems for unique naval weapons Complexes .................56

IDEX ’99

46
Modernization of Russian close-in air defense system ......18 Start launchers at sea and in air ........................22 Combined ECM operations ........................24 Control system to improve missile complex effectiveness ............................26 Upgraded P-18 radar offers new capabilities ..............28 Projectile or armor: Which is stronger? ....................32 Modernization of battle tanks and infantry combat vehicles via upgrading their electrical equipment ................................36 TMM-6 heavy mechanized bridge ...................38 Bagira and Varyag to replace Makarov ...................42

History
Levkov's hovercraft ...................62

63

Aviation
Meet the Kamov Ka-60 Kasatka helicopter ....................46
Photos and sketches by: Vyacheslav Afonin, Vassily Aldakushkin, Alexander Belyayev, Vadim Bondarev, Yevgeny Bulakevich, Arkadi Chiryatnikov, Victor Drushlyakov, Yefim Gordon, Pavel Maslov, Alexei Mikheyev, Yuri Pakhomov, Sergei Pashkovsky Albert Pushkarev, Artur Sark isyan, Vladimir Sulzhenko, Leonid Yakutin. Also photos contributed by Alexei Sokolov from his personal archives and by ITAR-TASS, design bureaus, research institutes and plants.

EXCLUSIVES

Vladimir Svetlov, Member of the Russian Academy of Rocket and Artillery Sciences, General Designer of Fakel Engineering Design Bureau

RUSSIAN «DESERT FOX» HUNTERS
The military actions that have taken place over the last decade have typically been limited-scale, air offensive operations which were well-coordinated both in time and space, and involving the mass employment of precision-guided munitions. It should be emphasized, however, that such operations are only possible if the opposing action initiated by a defender’s air defense assets are insignificant. Today, one can hardly name a state in which just a few precisely delivered missile-bomb attacks on their most vulnerable installations —such as nuclear power plants, dams, control centers, warehouses, etc.—would not mean a nationwide disaster resulting in serious environmental devastation, as well as other extremely grave consequences. The ravage caused by such attacks is comparable with nuclear aftermath, causing irreparable damage both to the nature and economic infrastructure. In the light of this situation, the development of air defense missile systems has been given top priority over the last few years. Indeed, their availability and conformity with up-to-date standards, or, conversely, their obsolescence or mere deficiency, predetermine, to a large extent, the behavior of a state on the international arena and influence its ability to respond adequately to the emerging conflicts in which air attack assets are likely to be used. Such countries and regions as Lybia, the Balkans, Sudan, Afghanistan or Iraq, which has now turned into a testing ground for the latest technological developments in the field of air attack capabilities, are just a few examples over the past years, con firming this premise. The events materializing around the Russianmade S-300PMU 1 air defense missile (ADM) system, planned to be delivered to Cyprus, may be added to the list. What all this means is that effective protection against possible air attacks must continue to be of vital importance to all nations. The strategic, tactical and maritime aviation airplanes and helicopters armed with various precisionguided missiles and bombs, as well as the missiles fired from ships are the basic components of modern air attack assets. Today, any modernization or development program envisions extensive use of «stealth» technology to make aircraft undetectable by radar and enhance their rates of survivability (use of armor-protected pilot cabins; protection of fuel tanks, autopilots, control systems against fragments, etc.). The effectiveness of modern air defense (AD) systems is largely dependent upon their ability to counter tactical ballistic missiles currently operational in more than a dozen states. The substantial differences between aircraft and missiles in their performance characteristics and methods of combat employment, demand a solution of specific and, often, almost contradictory problems. Ballistic missiles are primarily noted for their high speed and the extremely short time that they are in an AD coverage zone, the unpredictability of their employment due to the difficulty of detecting mobile missile launchers, and the inability to detect a missile launch. The low vulnerability of ballistic missiles, achieved due to their specific design features and small dimensions of main components, is also becoming a factor. This was vividly demonstrated by the repulsion of Iraqi Scuds by U.S.-made Patriot missles. Cruise missiles, and other precision-guided missiles, may be considered somewhat antipodal to ballistic missiles. They fly at an extremely low altitude (including in the terrain-following mode), and their large radius of action and high target accuracy alone presents a severe problem for the defender. Furthermore, recent dramatic breakthroughs in electronics have allowed designers to create highly accurate weapons with a

In the near future, the latest versions of the ADM systems, ground based and shipborne, will receive the new 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles developed by the Fakel Engineering Design Bureau.
8 MILITARY PARADE

-1. These systems integrate.8 t (U. These missiles are a new step in the creation of ADM systems. Obviously. as well as Russian-made 9M96E and 9M96E2). and their shipborne versions. The 9M96E and 9M96E2 The Rif missile lift-off 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 9 . The world’s best ADM systems which can perform a whole range of missions are the Russian S-300. ground-based and shipborne.1. the employment of low-sensitivity explosive compounds to enhance survivability and. This tendency manifests itself most vividly in the replacement of medium-range SAMs which constitute the backbone of air defense systems in the majority of the world’s most developed nations. the development of a new missile is a fairly long process and.-made Patriot RAS-1 and RAS-2. i. will receive the new 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles developed by the Fakel Engineering Design Bureau and incorporat ed in the Oboronitelnye Systemy (Defense Systems) Ffinancial and Industrial Group. Presently. multipurpose ADM systems have.standoff launching range far beyond the reach of the majority of AD systems currently in service. to a maximum possible degree. it is very important for its designers to make a correct assessment of current trends in the evolution of air attack and air defense weapons.S. and design bureaus. designat ed Rif and Rif-M. a sort of a kinetic weapon. Today. the abilities that make them effective against ballistic and aerodynamic targets. basically. Franco-Italian Aster-15. -2. the latest versions of the ADM systems. Modernization and development programs of such weapons call for the introduction of «stealth» tech nology into their design. Another feature of these new missiles is the significant reduction in their launching weight: from 1 . to increase the weight of the warhead and the flight range. consequently. been developed by an association of manufacturers. New generations of SAMs feature a combination of active homing heads with devices ensuring their high agility. e.S. Naturally. for years. surface-to-air missiles have made a dramatic qualitative leap forward in their development. a whole range of antiship and other low-fly ing supersonic missiles capable of performing intensive approach maneuvers are either in the design or flight-test stages.-made Patriot (version RAS-2) and Patriot RAS-3 nearing adoption for service. and Russian-made S-300PMU SAM systems) to 300 .S. therefore. This innovation has brought about a drastic increase in the missile target accuracy and has made it. In October 1998. In recents years. as well as the Franco-Italian SAMP/T with the Aster-15 and Aster-30 missiles. and command posts are being improved gradually. This is primarily attributed to the revolutionary advances that have been made in the missile flight control methods and in the onboard equipment itself. While basic components of the ADM systems such as radars. tactical and economic viewpoints. new generation of surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) have come to replace their predecessors. Russi a n m i s s i l e s w e r e d i splayed for the first time in October 1998 at the Defendory ‘98 exhibition in Athens. communications systems. In the near future. U.500 kg (U. research institutes. designers of ADM systems the world over are trying to solve the complex engineering problem of countering targets of various classes through the use of multipurpose ADM systems which are capable of effectively engaging ballistic and aerodynamic targets. their cooperative effort has led to such operational ADM systems as the S-300PMU. a weapon that kills its target with a direct hit. In Russia. the Russian missiles stood out from the rest in terms of their performance characteristics.made Patriot RAS-3. and Aster-30. With such advanced foreign counterparts as the RAS-3 and Aster. Development of weapons systems suited for this role can be justified from the engineering. the reduction of the weight of onboard equipment.

The new missile concept and architecture have been chosen in close cooperation with the country’s leading research and design organizations. Fakel developed the required technical documentation for the missiles. The Each container holds four 9M96E or 9M96E2 missiles experience gained by Fakel in developing reliable high-rate-of-fire missiles was also taken into account. Confident of the precision and soundness of the assessments made. The flight tests performed in the late 1980s demonstrated the basic advantages of these new missiles. the 9M96E (9M96E2) missile uses the so-called «cold» vertical lift-off: before its sustainer motor is started the missile is expelled from its container to a height of over 30 m.g. in the event of an insignificant miss. 10 MILITARY PARADE . near an electric power station or ship). The primary aim of an air defense missile is to destroy the incoming missile’s payload in the interception phase. review previous experience and investigate current trends. outperforming their foreign counterparts. Unlike foreign counterparts. The attacking missile’s payload can be destroyed either by a direct hit on the payload section or. the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles may engage targets at a range of 1 to 40 km (9M96E) and 120 km (9M96E2) and at an altitude of 5 m to 20 km (9M96E) and 30 km (9M96E2).The 9M96E missile missiles carry similar onboard equipment. engi neers and designers had to revise traditional approaches. As the work on the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles was going on. Owing to this coordinated effort. devise fun damentally new engineering solutions. the new developments incorporate the latest engineering advances and have been devised with a view to virtually all major SAM development trends. all efforts were focused on creating highly effective surface-to-air missiles capable of destroying all currently operational and future missiles and aircraft. With little difference in size and weight. To understand how this mission can be accomplished by new missiles. To develop new missiles. The only difference between the two missiles is that the 9M96E2 model is equipped with a more powerful propulsion motor featuring a greater power-to-weight ratio. lest it should fall in the area of a protected installation (e. by the SAM’s warhead splinters. payload and are identical in construction. using the most advanced CAD methods. consider the principle of their operation in the target interception phase.

A considerable reduction in their size and weight has made it possible to accommodate four missiles into one container. kg: missile warhead container with four missiles Average velocity. augmented by their enhanced guidance accuracy. They incorporate the advances of Russia’s missile-building industry.700 1. The 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles carry a 24-kg warhead which produces a controlled killing zone. component units and assemblies on the ground in the most realistic operational and fly ing conditions.e. special electronic. and to destroy (disable) the payload carried by remote-piloted vehicles (RPVs). A multitude of laboratory and rig tests (fire. weath er. The introduction of a considerable number of new components in the new missiles called for a profound optimization of their design features.300 750 0. Whenever the missile has to perform a maneuver to get to its ren dezvouz point it can activate a «superagility» mode. and incorporate the latest technological advances in the field made by the militaryindustrial complexes of the USA and Western Europe.9 0. In the target interception phase. the warhead’s explosive charge is initiated at the center and fragments scatter symmetrically in all directions. despite the economic and financial crisis. The directed spray is achieved with the aid of a controllable blastfragmentation warhead using a multipoint initiation system.While the missile is ascending. Fakel’s designers and engineers have developed missiles which outperform their foreign counterparts. is still one of the world’s leading missile-producing nations.) were carried out. If there is no «miss» information in the system. and allows it to remain operational for a longer time before running out of missiles as a result of heavy attacks conducted by the enemy using precision-guided munitions or RPVs.9 0. i.005 30 420 24 2. The provision of the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles with the dataware-controlled payload is another way to enhance the effectiveness of modern air attack means.000 0. as well as the lethality of the missile’s payload. environmental. and demonstrate that Russia. The system increases the missile’s aerodynamic overload capacity by about 20 units within 0. The 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles are fully adapted for use in air defense systems of the Air Force and Navy. The payload is activated via radio fuze which uses all the data available on board the missile for its adaptation to the conditions of the target-missile rendezvous. m/s First shot hit probability: piloted target unpiloted target target’s payload 9M96E2 1 40 0. science and technology made over the past decade. the missile switches over to the radar homing mode. its gas-dynamic system causes the weapon to tilt towards the target. the set time must agree with the velocities of fragments and fragmentation spray direction. The results of the tests indicated the ability of the new missiles to destroy the payload of the Scud ballistic missile (or its updated version) and the Harpoon antiship missile with a probability of 70 percent. provides a guided path most suitable for target engagement by the missile. Once the radio fuze generates a command for the initiation of the warhead in the controlled mode in the presence of the «miss» information. the system activates initiation of the explosive charge at peripheral points facing the required direction (towards the target). The radio fuze sets the time the pay load should be detonated. These new missiles fully meet the requirements of the 21st century.7 the target. This kind of payload is designed to «stop» a piloted target.8 0. extensive use was made of advanced computer-aided modeling methods which allowed the designers to use the results of the ground and flight-rig tests of individual components as the input data.005 20 333 24 2.025 seconds. 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 11 . While development work on the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles was in progress. including American and French ones. The greater number of missiles at hand makes the system more flexible in action. which has the same dimensions as the one used by the S-300PMU.8 0. km: Range: minimum maximum Altitude: minimum maximum Weight. for which purpose the gas-dynamic control system is enabled. To destroy the vulnerable portion of BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 9M96E AND 9M96E2 MISSILES 9M96E Target engagement envelope.7 1 120 0. heat resistance. the energy of the explosion is concentrated in this direction and the bulk of the fragmentation field is flung towards the target at an increased velocity. etc. cause its structural disintegration upon interception. The use of such a warhead makes these missiles highly effective against all aircraft types. As a result. It should be pointed out here that the «superagility» feature of the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles. Once the sustainer motor is start ed the missile assumes inertial control via radio link at the initial and mid-course legs of the flight path (to assure maximum noise protection). Rif-5V55R. 48N6E and 48N6E2 ADM systems.

000 . IR direction finder Range. economy and power idustry throughout the entire depth of a country. strategically important military and industrial facilities BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMBAT VEHICLE Targets to be engaged strategic and tactical aircraft. cruise missiles. relatively low cost.4. onboard precision-guided weapons. medium-range systems such as the HAWK and Buk and long-range sys tems such as the Patriot and S300. remotely piloted vehicles missiles and guns Armament Ammunition load: missiles on launchers 8 . First Deputy General Designer. km: aircraft detection 36 . s 4-6 Missile salvo fire ensured Engagement of ground targets ensured Combat crew 3 14 MILITARY PARADE . the medium. operation on the move during protection of mechanized convoys.and long-range systems can not implement their capabilities in fighting small-size low-flying targets in the close zone and varied terrain environment. Being highly effective in terms of combat employment.000 SAM guidance system radio commands with IR and radio direction finding Number of simultaneously engaged targets 2 (within 90 x 90o in azimuth and elevation) Reaction time. Such a universal system is repre sented by the Pantsyr-S1 air defense missile-gun system devel oped by the Tula Instrument Design Bureau and intended for air defense of mobile units. Chief Engineer of the Instrument Design Bureau Vladimir Obrazumov. target and missile tracking radar (centimetric and millimetric). especially that of SAMs) and medium-range systems (capa bility of fighting air attack weapons before their use of onboard ammunition. m/s 1. General Designer and Head of the Instrument Design Bureau Vyacheslav Dudka.000 guns: range 200 . Branch Chief Designer PANTSYR S1 AIR DEFENSE MISSILE GUN SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATIONS In modern military operations. The organization of effective air defense. air attack weapons can deal strikes at vital facilities of the armed forces. Roland and Crotale systems.000 altitude 5 .3. Such a system must meet strin gent requirements pertaining to combat effectiveness at a relatively low cost. In addition. Tor.000 altitude 0 . The number of such systems is always insufficient owing to their high cost.400 SAM guidance system components TAR. is based on the echeloned air defense including close-range systems such as the Tunguska.10.12 artillery rounds 1. a tactical stratagem is used against such sys tems to expend sophisticated and expensive surface-to-air missiles (SAM) by using cheap and massive targets such as various remotely piloted vehicles (RPV). thermal imaging sight.EXCLUSIVES Arkady Shipunov. The reliable protection of many vital military and industrial facilities is possible only in case of using a close-in air defense system.38 aircraft tracking 24 .30 Engagement zones.000 Maximum speed of engaged targets. m: missiles: range 1. as is acknowledged in the world. high capacity to engage targets per unit of time and jamming immu nity) will allow the organization of two-level air defense based on a universal close-in system and longrange systems. The development of a system possessing the properties of a close-range system (engagement of low-flying and surprise targets.18. resolve strategic tasks and predetermine the outcome of war before the beginning of ground combat actions. helicopters.

kg: warhead explosive Fuze type Fuze radius of action. Absolute jamming immunity attained via a common multimode and multispectral radar and optical control system operating in the decimetric. military bases.PANTSYR-S1 ENGAGEMENT ENVELOPE (airfields. high speed of SAM flight and the availability of two independent guidance channels operating in a wide sector (90 x 90 o in azimuth and elevation). The command system of SAM guidance ensuring high effective ness of the small-size agile missile. The capability to fire on the m o v e of gun and missile system which no other air defense system in the world can do (the Tunguska sys tem can deliver only gun fire on the move).300 780 85 71 3. The small-size surface-to-air missile with high flight and ballistic characteristics (Vmax = 1. mm: sustainer booster Weight. adaptive 9 engaged per time unit due to the short reaction time. The universal nature of target engagement. i. The passive mode of operation and superhigh accuracy of guid ance due to the use of the long-wave band IR channel with logical signal 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 15 . PANTSYR-S1 SYSTEM FEATURES The integrated missile and gun armament creating an uninterrupted engagement zone of 18 to 20 km in range and of up to 10 km in altitude.5 contact + proximity.. mm Diameter.e. engagement of a wide range of air targets: aircraft and helicopters before they fire their weapons.200 90 170 20 5. m 1. which improves time characteristics and reduces psychological and physiological loads on crew members. m/s: maximum average at range of 18 km Weight. The great number of targets PANTSYR-S1 VERSIONS BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SAM Speed. small-size guided missiles. Autonomous operation due to the fact that each combat vehicle contains equipment for detection. The completely automatic mode of battle performance of a separate combat vehicle and several combat vehicles acting as part of an air defense unit. radar. kg: in container launch Length of container. centimetric. communication nodes and industrial facilities) and surface ships under any battle environment.300 m/s) and a highly powerful fragmentation rod warhead (it weighs 20 kg with the sustainer weight being 30 kg). tracking and engagement of targets. millimetric and IR wave bands. as well as lightly armored ground targets and manpower.

Availability of the air-dynamic con trol actuator (without limitations in terms of service life). in stationary structures and shelters. — surface-to-air missile. Short reaction time (4 to 6 s) owing to automatic tracking of up to 20 targets by the target acquisition radar (TAR) and target desig nation accurate to 0. 57E6YE SURFACE-TO-AIR MISSILE FEATURES Short flight time at the boost phase (t = 1. weapon selection and assignment of the kind of fire.MAINTENANCE FACILITIES: SPTA vehicle Repair and maintenance vehicle Maintenance vehicle Adjustment vehicle processing and automatic target tracking. which make it possible to install the system on tracked and wheeled vehicles and in shelters. Heavy weight of the warhead (20 kg) at the small launch weight of the SAM. Implementation of the full cycle of battle performance from search of targets until their defeat in the auto matic mode. MAINTENANCE FACILITIES: — maintenance vehicle (for maintenance and repair of mechanical assemblies). Vmax = 1. centimetric. Microminiature onboard equipment. — repair and maintenance vehicle (for maintenance and repair of electronic equipment). SYSTEM COMPONENTS COMBAT ASSETS: — combat vehicle (up to six in a battery). — mobile trainer. The modular construction and compactness. — transloader (one for two com bat vehicles). High immunity to any type of interference due to the integration of radar and optronic means into a unified system operating in the decimetric. MAIN PROPERTIES OF GUIDANCE SYSTEM Simultaneous engagement of two targets approaching from different directions owing to two independent posts (radar post and optical post). TRAINING AIDS: — classroom trainer. surface ship decks. — adjustment vehicle (for adjustment operations).5 s. 0.300 m/s). Expanded engagement zones up to 20 km in range and up to 10 km in altitude.7 o in elevation and 50 m in range ensuring rapid target search and lockon by the target and missile tracking radar and the TV-optical system. — 30mm round. Computation of target dynamic parameters and its motion. Two-missile salvo at one target in the radar mode of operation. — SPTA vehicle (for transportation of group SPTA set). Employment of rod subprojectiles in the warhead ensuring positive engagement of a broad class of targets. buildings. Small ballistic deceleration during post-boost flight (40 m/s for 1 km of flight). High agility after separation of the booster. millimetric and IR wave bands. Operation of the system by the crew in the semiautomatic mode. 2A38 AUTOMATIC GUN The gun armament comprises two 2A38 twin-barrel automatic guns of the Tunguska air defense system capable of engaging air and ground .4 o in azimuth. POSSIBLE VERSIONS OF PANTSYR-S1 AIR DEFENSE MISSILE-GUN SYSTEM The main structural feature of the 16 MILITARY PARADE system is a unified turret which can be installed on tracked and wheeled vehicles.

— detect faulty units of the com bat vehicle with the aid of built-in test devices. — reliable protection from all directions. the Pantsyr-S1 system can operate in one of the following modes.000 Feed belt VARIANTS OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT Proceeding from the expected intensity of strikes by air attack weapons. SYSTEM MAINTENANCE FACILITIES These are designed to: — ensure constant combat readiness. Potential use of different types of ammunition (AP-T. — the use of terrain conditions to the best advantage. The leading combat vehicle operates as a command post and also performs the functions of a combat vehicle as in the case of autonomous operations. FEATURES High rate of fire (up to 5. MODES OF OPERATION Depending on local conditions in the area of combat operations and variants of combat employment. one of which is assigned as a leader and the others as followers. — recover units by replacing faulty functional assemblies with those taken from the system SPTA set. COMBINED OPERATION The battery operates as a unit of six combat vehicles interconnected by telecoded communication. Each variant must comply with an assigned mission and ensure: — the utmost use of the armament capabilities. HEF-I). m/s 970 Barrel life.targets up to 4 km in range and up to 3 km in altitude. — ease of control.000 rds/min). — prompt maneuvering. TRAINING AIDS Mobile trainer Classroom trainer 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 17 . — inspect SAMs during their stor age. mm 30 Weight of one automatic gun. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS Caliber.400 rounds). target designation. Large ammunition load (1. reduced strength employment (three combat vehicles) and autonomous operation of the combat vehicles. lockon. identification. peculiarities of facilities under defense and relief of the terrain. detection. supplemental search. Each combat vehicle accomplishes the full cycle of battle performance against selected targets and sends information on the selected targets to the other battery’s vehicles that exclude them from the list of the targets to be handled. — electromagnetic compatibility. — detect faulty functional assem blies in the units with the aid of special maintenance facilities. dangerous target selection. tracking and target engagement by missiles and guns. rds at least 8. Each follow-on combat vehicle receives target designation data from the leader and operates under the control of the battery command post in all other respects. AUTONOMOUS OPERATION Each combat vehicle operates independently and ensures the implementation of the full operating cycle: search.6. — uninterrupted cooperation with objects under protection and adjacent units. Engagement of aircraft and helicopters with a probability of 0. Delivery of fire in the automatic and semiautomatic modes. F-T.230 Muzzle velocity. the most typical variants of combat employment of the Pantsyr-S1 system will be the following: full strength employment (six combat vehicles). kg 2. OPERATION UNDER BATTERY COMMAND POST CONTROL Each of the six combat vehicles accomplishes all the stages of battle performance beginning from acquiring target designation data from the command post. TRAINING AIDS OF PANTSYR-S1 SYSTEM The training aids are designed to instruct and practice combat vehicle crews in the basic procedures of battle performance and maintenance and are represented by the classroom and mobile versions of train ers. OPERATION ON THE LEADERFOLLOWER PRINCIPLE The battery operates as a unit of six combat vehicles.

in any season and at any time of day or night.IDEX’99 Vyacheslav Abanin. The principal lines of modernization of these systems are described below. Integration of the modernized Shilka gun mounts into a unified army information system of air target reconnaissance and designation by organically assigning a mobile air target reconnaissance and control post (MRCP). The most successful type of these weapon 18 MILITARY PARADE systems is Russia’s famous Shilka selfpropelled AD gun mount developed in the early 1960s and designed to fight primarily tactical aircraft and helicopters. Sborka. the modernization potentialities of such systems as the Shilka and Tunguska have not yet been exhausted and optimal updating can considerably extend their service life. The modernization envisages: 1. operating on the same frequency band but based on solid-state components: all units and systems of the radar have been subjected to modernization and the radar equipment is accommodated in five cabinets (instead of seven). to the battery as its command post (BCP). ZSU-23-4 Shilka Self-Propelled Air Defense Gun Mount The modernization seeks for state-ofthe-art design and technologies to update the self-propelled (SP) air defense gun mounts and make them effective in heavy electronic countermeasures (ECM) environments. the RPK-2U. The intense development of air attack weapons has changed the approach to the modernization of this class of AD weapons. The radar has been virtually replaced by a new one. 2. while their combat effectiveness canl satisfy the present-day requirements. in any season and at any time of day or night. the renowned Tunguska AD gun-missile system was . Improvement of the gun mount’s main part—the RPK-2 radar-computer complex (85 percent of the equipment accommodated in the turret) and creation of a new complex. in adverse weather and dust-laden conditions. As a consequence. Besides. practical close-in fighting requires that the systems be outfitted with effective AD guns capable of engaging both air and ground targets. in adverse and dust-laden conditions. Their primary task is to provide air defense of motorized and tank units and subunits in maneuvering combat and on the march by delivering fire on the move. Shilka SP gun mount developed by the Tula Instrument Design Bureau and built in the 1980s. The RPK-2U complex incorporates: — digital computer system (DCS) Close-in air defense (AD) systems play special role among field air defense weapons. According to experts. The advent of tactical precision-guided weapons (PGW) called for the introduction of a missile channel to fight aircraft and helicopters before they could fire PGW. Director of the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIAN CLOSE IN AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS The modernization seeks for state-of-the-art design and technologies to update self-propelled air defense mounts and make them effective in heavy electronic countermeasures environments.

moving target indication (MTI) by radar angular coordinates. 3. — reduce the surveillance time of the fire control system. The implementation of the above modifications has enhanced the effectiveness of fighting high-speed (up to 500 m/s) and small targets maneuvering at altitudes down to 25 m (0 m with the introduction of the ORS) rather than 100 m. — improve the precision characteristics of the follow-up systems and groups of the radar-computer complex systems.3 to 0. (c) trainer for radar operators.12) and depends on the organization of Ranzhir 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 19 . — redistribute regular and random errors and pass bands of the follow-up systems and groups of the radarcomputer complex systems.74 (rather than 0. — automated control of the gun mount battle performance from a higher command post (HCP). (e) commander’s guidance unit (CGU). (d) built-in equipment for check and adjustment of the RPK-2U complex lowfrequency automatics and turret laying drives (2E2) in static and dynamic conditions. units and assemblies by up-to-date ones boasting higher technical and operating characteristics.07 to 0. (b) digital-to-analog and analog-todigital converters. — change the principle of error determination in the generation of total laying angles of the automatic guns. The following innovations have been introduced: – modes of operation to handle low-flying tar gets in heavy ECM environments (by the stored rate of range variation. — modify some existing modes of battle performance. — mode of radar operators’ training.which jointly with the radar makes up a fire control radar system (base system). The fire control radar system has been modified with the aim to: — extend the air situation information field by integrating the gun mount into the unified field AD system. — improve the radar immunity to passive jamming (with the introduction of angular automation channel protection and modernization of the MTI system range channel). helicopter) kill probability during one pass of the engagement zone at an ammunition expenditure of up to 300 rounds per gun mount constitutes 0. corrections for changes in the muzzle velocity due to barrel bore wear. — equipment. corrections in orientation and others (all refer to know-how). including: (a) data receiving/transmitting (DRT) equipment for the gun mount to exchange information with the Sborka battery command post via a telecoded communication channel for reception of external target designation signals and operational control of the Shilka battery engaging a target by one. — introduce and automatically account for meteorological data. two. active range deception jamming and tracking a jammer by angular coordinates (with the introduction of modes of tracking by the stored rate of target range variation and its inertial range and angle-aided tracking by signals from the digital computer system). — built-in check of the electronic equipment. — provide the security of operation in heavy ECM environments (with the introduction of the optical-radar system). — change the method of processing secondary information. three and more gun mounts. The air target (aircraft. — reduce the time of information processing in the fire control system (dead time). — television-aided sight and laser rangefinder which together with the radar and digital computer system form an optical-radar fire control system (ORFCS) operating in the passive mode both day and night (moonlight at a quarter of the moon). The above innovations have made it possible to: — cosiderably enhance the air target search potential and acquisition probability. Updating of the base tracked vehicle and crew life support system. 4. stored target coordinates received from the digital computer system. — change the principle of introducing corrections for the angles of tilt and turn of the mount on the move. Replacement of a number of sysBattery command post: Sborka MRCP tems.

which is essential for engagement of a target by a missile as in this case the miss value should not exceed 5 m. Tunguska-M1 Air Defense Gun-Missile System Compared to the Tunguska-M. the kill probability. 2. — increase of the engagement zone within a range of 8 to 10 km. The modernization of the Shilka SP gun mount changes the latter into a modern AD system which fits readily into training. The employment of the new missile extends the target engagement range up to 10. — batter immunity of the missile guidance channel (engagement of targets using optical decoys). the 9M311-1M is noted for: — installation of a radar proximity target sensor in place of the 8-beam laser one. Introduction of reception and automatically controlled external target designation equipment in the SP mount.000 m. As compared to the 9M311 air defense missile. — better habitability conditions. the Tunguska-M1 system ensures: — automatic guidance of AD missiles (with manual correction for minor guidance deviations). the leading producer of renowned and advanced close-in and medium-range air defense weapons. — installation of a pulsed light on the sustainer in place of the flare. The Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant. Ulyanovsk 432008. In addition to better technical characteristics. Modified system for measurement of tilt. 3. The modernization package for the series-produced Tunguska-M system includes: 1. gradient and course angles to allow an appreciable reduction in the perturbing action on gyros which occurs during movement of the SP mount. — automatic exchange of information with the battery command post (for higher efficiency of battery activity). — higher reliability of starting the traction engine. enhance the automatic gun fire control loop stability and. Russia Phone: +7 (8422) 31-7558 Fax: +7 (8422) 32-6168 . in any season and at any time 20 MILITARY PARADE of day or night where other systems outfitted with optical guidance and control systems prove ineffective. — engagement of small targets (cruise missiles of the ALCM type) owing to the use of a radar proximity target sensor (PTS) with circular radiation pattern. consequently. three and more mounts. with spare parts being supplied.Tunguska-M1 SP mount control over the combat activity of the battery gun mounts from the higher command post and engagement of the target by one. two. units and assemblies has been extended. Should you accept them. The equipment is interfaced with the battery command post over a radio channel which allows automatic distribution of targets among the battery SP mounts from the Ranzhir battery command post and considerably enhances the system combat effectiveness to repel mass attacks. This considerably reduces tracking errors. These are our offers for your consideration.3 to 1. — means to upgrade training and practice of radar operators in handling air targets in heavy ECM environments without aircraft flights (up to five targets with simulation of operation under conditions of passive and noise jamming). ULYANOVSK MECHANICAL PLANT 94 Moskovskoye Shosse. — better controllability and maneuverability of the tracked vehicle and reduced labor content required to maintain and operate the vehicle.5 times higher than that of the Tunguska-M system. The Tunguska-M system can be modernized by the manufacturing plant up to the Tunguska-M1 level. Improvement of the coordinate determination equipment due to the application of a new type missile outfitted with a pulsed light in addition to the source of continuous light. This innovation significantly enhances the immunity of the equipment to optical decoys and the kill probability of targets using optical decoys. Introduction of a relief circuit to significantly facilitate the gunner’s work in optical tracking of a moving air target as if it were a stationary one. The service life of a modernized gun mount after the overhaul of non-modernized systems. reduce errors in measurement of tilt and course angles of the SP mount. repair and operating structures of clients and can provide cover of stationary installations. the operating characteristics have been also improved by providing: — prompt functional check of the radar-computer complex and its components. the combat effectiveness of the Tunguska-M1 system in ECM environments is 1. tank and motorized columns on the march in adverse weather and dust-laden conditions. offers modernized versions of the Shilka and Tunguska-M systems. — increased operating time of the missile components which has allowed the firing range to be extended from 8 to 10 km. 4. Overall. you will acquire highly effective air defense systems to ensure your country’s national security.

Director General of the Start Research and Production Enterprise START LAUNCHERS AT SEA AND IN AIR Througout its semicentennial history. The Grad-M system launcher. In the same years. Start devel oped multiple launchers for the Grad-M and Ogon systems intended to attack enemy coastal positions by fire before landing operations commence. and it was one of its priority tasks. and the reload rounds can be arranged under deck. if required. features servo drives used to direct the launcher towards the target as the ship is rolling and pitching. The MS-227 launchers of the Ogon system have a small weight and size. The system’s design allows loading the tubes in the underdeck position. designated MS-73. 20 rockets each.IDEX’99 Gennady Muratshin. The rockets can be fired in ripples with a separation interval of 0. the empty blocks are lowered into the drum. The launcher is intended to equip medium-dis placement amphibious assault ships. the launcher is raised above the deck and rockets are fired in ripples with a separation interval of 0. in a drum. The high rate of fire and the long firing range of up to 20 km assure effective support to a landing party. while the next pair is transported onto the rails. antisubmarine rocket launchers fitted with loading mechanisms were developed for the Vikhr and Metel systems. After each ripple. targets are hitted out to a range of The MS-227 launchers of the Ogon system 22 MILITARY PARADE . These launchers featured automatic loading of rockets onto launch rails and their remote direc tion towards a target.2 s.5 s. In action. One such launcher carries a block of 22 rockets. as they are intended to equip high-speed small-displacement landing craft. In the 1960s and 1970s. The beginning of the work dates back to the 1950s when a multiple antisubmarine rocket launcher was under development. It accommodates eight rocket blocks. the Start Research and Production Enterprise has been involved in the development of weapon launchers for the Navy. In action. the rocket blocks are transported in pairs onto the launch rails. Depending on the rocket type.

The aiming drives angular rate is 46 deg/s in elevation and 84 deg/s in azimuth. The ZS-90 launcher developed by Start for the Shtil ADM system carries 24 missiles. As a result.and large-displacement ships. Operation of these systems by Air Force units for over 10 years proved their outstanding perfor mance characteristics and high reliability.The Klinok ADM system 4. Start welcomes cooperation with Russia’s defense industry enterprises and foreign partners in military technical field. the rate of fire being 5 shots per minute. The raming rate is 3 m/s. The launcher directs the missiles of the Tor-M1 type in azimuth. The missiles can be loaded onto the launcher rails automatically. Having studied different variants of the system. which made it possible to increase the overhaul life by 20 percent at a later stage. the choice was made in favor of a rotary version with a catapult fitted inside a drum accommodating six lever-motion mechanisms designed to hold the mis siles and guide them when they are being ejected from the missile bay of the carrier aircraft. An airhydraulic accumulator chargeable from the platform’s hydraulic sys tem and capable of being quickly reloaded for firing single missiles or missile salvos was used as the catapult. The rate of fire of 24 launches per minute allows simultaneous engagement of several targets. Start began developing an internal rotary launcher (IRL) for firing cruise missiles from aircraft. Following a series of experiments the system underwent rig tests and was accepted. It was followed similar systems developed for Tu22Ms and Tu-160s. in research and development of various kinds of air-to-air missile launch catapults.5 to 10 km. The drum had a rotary The Tu-22M3 bomber drive to set any of the six missiles to the firing position. the company has been engaged. the company took part in the development of the Shtil and Klinok shipborne air defense missile (ADM) systems intended for medium. There were no analogs of this equipment in Russia or abroad at that time. 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 23 . jointly with the Sukhoi Design Bureau. the MKU-56 system entered service with the Tu-95MS aircraft. The 3S95 launcher of the Klinok ADM system comprises 3 or 4 modules of 8 container-launchers each. Presently. The challenging task called for the diversification of the entire pilot production to the aviation specifics. The system was ordered by the Tupolev Design Bureau. including equipment deliveries. in an underdeck drum. Since 1983. type 9M38 (Buk-M1). Maintaining its engineering and intellectual potential. design and experimental work had to be carried out to develop the design. Start performs full-scale overhauls of the systems. along with the development of IRLs for air-to-surface missiles. In 1975. In the 1970s. so an extensive research.

Studies made in this field indicate that joint employment 1. At the preparatory and delivery stages the ALPGWSs are supported by various electronic systems designed to provide intelligence. despite their broad abilities. verify the obtained data. establish communication between units and guide the weapons towards their targets. SPN-2 (SPN-4) high-power jammer Block diagram COMBINED AKPB-D AKPB SW and USW communications jamming company 24 MILITARY PARADE Airborne radar jamming battalion Electronic reconnaissance company Radar reconnaissance company . Director of Gradient Research Institute Gennady Kapralov. even make it completely impracticable. the electronic systems have one serious disadvantage: they are susceptible to an adverse affect of various natural and man-made interferences.IDEX’99 Valery Blokhin. Intelligence-gathering radio-electronic systems are sensitive to specific types of jamming signals which can either hinder the use of weapons by the enemy or. Director General of Kvant Production Association ECM OPERATIONS Recent local wars and armed conflicts which involved modern arms indicate that major strikes against enemy forces were delivered by airlaunched precision-guided weapon systems (ALPGWS). Electronic countermeasures (ECM) systems are finding ever increasing use by the world’s leading armies. Automated Battalion Command Post (AKPB) /Automated Company Command Post (APUR) 2. However. sometimes.

or from the automated company-level control post. This command post is appropriately modified to control different-purpose reinforced companies (AKPB-D). The core of the reinforced battalion is the airborne radar jamming battalion tasked to suppress air borne side-looking. A possible variant of an reinforced (combined) ECM battalion is presented on the chart. The radar reconnaissance com pany can be equipped with the Nebo-SV modern surveillance radars. and weapon management radars. T h e S W a n d U S W c o m m u n i c ations jamming company is equipped with the R-330K (T). The battalion compris es three companies equipped with the SPN-2 and SPN-4 high-power jammers which can be activated either by the operator via a control console. As a rule. lowaltitude flight. ECM elements and units and subdivided into two independent groups. The Gradient Research Institute (Rostov-on-Don) in partnership with the Kvant Production Association (Veliky Novgorod) and subcontractors. Although dedicated employment of different assets sometimes looks very attractive. Rostov-on-Don 344010. have developed the equipment for combined ECM units and now offer it for export. The command post of the reinforced battalion is represented by the automated command post (AKPB) organic to the airborne radar jamming battalion. This system can also incorporate radars in service with the client’s armed forces. The ‘combined ECM unit’ approach helps the unit comman der to vary the composition of his ECM unit to respond to the specific tactical environments adequately and allows clients to order the equipment assortment they need or can afford. The battalion’s capabilities were described in more detail in Military Parade #6. The airborne radar jamming battalion is capable of suppressing up to 50 aircraft radars simultaneously approaching from any direction at an altitude of 30 meters to 30 kilo meters. The electronic reconnaissance company incorporates the RTR-85V6 mobile automatic station and Avtobaza reconnaissance station. — airborne radar jamming battalion. R-325U. each of which performs a unique task: (a) one group suppresses enemy radio communications and (b) the other group is responsible for his radar and electronic facilities. — SW and USW communications jamming company. Fax: +7 (8632) 32-0345 KVANT PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION 73/1 Bolshaya Sankt-Peterburgskaya St. This battalion incorporates: — modified automated battalion command post (AKPB-D). — radar reconnaissance company. Russia Phone: +7 (8632) 32-4770. Russia Phone: +7 (81622) 27-117. The information exchange between battalion elements is accomplished by telecoded and radio telephone links. 1997. The proposed structure of the reinforced (combined) ECM battal ion provides for automatic accom plishment of the whole range of missions: from air space electronic and radar reconnaissance to opti mal target distribution among organic jamming assets. the use of com bined ECM units (or elements) is more desirable in certain situations. navigation. provided a highly automated control of their joint operations is attained. as well as Obzor and Kupol 3D radars which transmit (via the PORI radar data processing post) the entire package of processed aerial situation data to the AKPB-D command post.RTR-85V6 station of combat and ECM systems con siderably increases the overall warfighting capability. Veliky Novgorod 173001. Fax: +7 (81622) 24-333 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 25 . GRADIENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE 96 Sokolov Prospect. — electronic reconnaissance company. R-378A and R-934U jamming stations..

and computed at a data processing post (DPP). To meet the requirements for missile accuracy. To ensure high missile efficiency. An effective engagement zone for all elementary targets in the enemy area is unattainable owing to excessive missile expenditure. The scope of fire missions increases as well. multiple launchers and transporter-loaders have been developed. Hence the notions «destroyed combination» and «engagement with pinpoint accuracy» to describe fire missions. terrain comparison and map matching guidance systems (TCMMGS) and reference preparation posts (RPP) have been established.IDEX’99 Alexander Zimin. Attaining this aim calls for radically new target designation (TD) technologies to be embodied in the missile complex control system. when the destruction of one or several elementary targets makes the entire group objective ineffective in terms of its main functions. The augmented scope of fire mis sions executed by precision-guided missiles has changed the approach to combat planning. Deputy Chief Designer CONTROL SYSTEM TO IMPROVE MISSILE COMPLEX EFFECTIVENESS The current tendency to reduce nuclear and conventional forces and arms generates a need for substantial changes in fire missions executed by advanced theater missiles. First Deputy Director and Chief Designer of the Central Research Institute of Automatics and Hydraulics Anatoly Shapovalov. while the nature and scope of missions performed by the control system during combat employment 26 MILITARY PARADE . They are based on information derived from space and air-based reconnaissance facilities and other reconnaissance carriers.

Russia Phone: (095) 971-2944. The main functions of the control system for a precision-guided theater missile complex can be illustrated by a diagram. this problem can be radically solved on the basis of technical supplemental reconnaissance and monitoring facilities integrated into the missile complex control loop. terrain comparison and map matching guidance system. a forecast of losses in fire weapons when affected by hostile fire and an estimate of reserves to compensate for these losses. reference preparation post. 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 27 . as well as variants on the disposition of firing elements and organization of the launch area ensuring the minimum time to deliver a fire attack. CENTRAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AUTOMATICS AND HYDRAULICS 5. an outline of strike delivery and assets needed for its implementation. This has called for the creation of an automated control equipment complex (ACEC) which is mounted on the command and staff vehicle (CSV). It would appreciably enhance the fire attack effect. These facilities are recommended as a foundation for future control systems. It should also provide recommendations for echelonment and control. Such an approach to the precision-guided missile complex control system is essential not only for the creation of more advanced and modernized theater missile complexes. while minimizing the losses inflicted by defensive counteraction. A high rate of changes in the disposition and state of firing elements during fire attack delivery necessitates the processing of a large volume of data for control over units and subunits. In our opinion. Soviet Army St. ground-based control system (GCS). Here.. onboard control system (OCS). The most important factor of «selective strikes» by precisionguided weapons against the vital elements determining the fighting efficiency of an objective as a whole is the check of missile strike effect which helps close control over precision-guided missiles on the feedback principle. information is processed and submitted to authorities in a form suitable to make decisions with regard to all the factors reflecting the real combat situation.and air-based precision-guided weapons has called for due account of defensive counteraction while delivering a strike. data processing post. The Central Research Institute of Automatics and Hydraulics has accumulated the required scientific and engineering potential and has developed requisite technical facilities: a command and staff vehicle.Data bank Space. air-based and other reconnaissance facilities Check of missile strike effect MCAO battle management commands MISSILE COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MCISS DPP RPP ACEC CSV GCS Missile CS OCS TCMMGS TD References OCCS Information on disposition and state Functional Diagram of Control System for Precision-Guided Missile Complex planning have been radically revised. and an operational control and com munications system (OCCS). Therefore. Moscow 127018. The advent of highly efficient reconnaissance facilities and ground. Fax: (095) 281-9534. the planning of combat employment of the precision-guided missile complex control system must include an estimate of the mini mum essential manpower and equipment. but for the troops and weapons control systems at the operational and tactical levels.

Director General of the Nitel Company Valery Brailovsky.IDEX’99 Vladimir Kazakov. — radar data readout and air target track generation have been automated. reliability and simplicity of operation.Digital MTI equipment 28 MILITARY PARADE . Moscow. emergence of new air threats and advanced electronic countermeasures (ECM) has spurred the development of more capable ground-based radars. processing 1 . — clutter rejection system operating efficiency and stability have been enhanced owing to the replacement of analog equipment by digital equipment. the Nitel JSC. However. Nizhni Novgorod. the P-18 radar is still one of the principal surveillance and targeting radars used by Russia’s air defense (AD) and air traffic control (ATC) systems.Antijamming equipment 4 Ë 5 .P-18 radar 3 . have made the following improvements to the radar: — the radar’s jamming immunity has been increased by more than a factor of 100. — the radar is provided with remote air data collection. To raise the P-18 radar capabilities to the level of existing and future requirements. President of the Technological Cooperation Center of Radio and Electronics Complex UPGRADED P 18 RADAR OFFERS NEW CAPABILITIES Developed in the 1970s.Automatic data readout equipment 2 . and the Technological Cooperation Center of Radio and Electronics Complex JSC. and to extend its service life. The radar has won fame owing to its prominent technical characteristics.

NITEL JSC Nizhni Novgorod. For the upgraded P-18 radar char acteristics. dB 20 design elements storage tubes Automation of data readout: automatic primary and secondary signal processing and MTI mode no automatic detection and tracking of jammers no automatic measurement and indication of target altitude no Target positioning errors: horizontal coordinates at least 3. Russia Phone: (8312) 65-5159 Fax: (8312) 65-5019 TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION CENTER OF THE RADIO AND ELECTRONICS COMPLEX JSC Moscow. compared to those of the basic version. km 0-150 clutter suppression coefficient.000 m altitude at least 2. the Nitel JSC.000 fails to detect Number of suppressed jamming vectors no Cancellation ratio (at signal/noise ratio of 25-40 dB) 0 Passive noise immunity: operating range.P-18 Radar Performance Characteristics Characteristic Basic version Active jamming immunity: target acquisition range in the presence of enemy electronic countermeasures with the total spectral density of 200 W/MHz and nominal range of 200 km at target altitude. — some units are based on modern components providing for higher performance characteristics. maintain its competitiveness until 2010. refer to Table 1. The proposed comprehensive modernization (retrofit) of the P-18 radar will significantly enhance its capability to detect current and future air threats in severe ECM conditions.000 fails to detect 10.9 Remote data reception and display kit Table 1 Upgraded version 84 km 150 km 162 km 4 23-33 0-350 30 microcircuits yes yes Upgraded ground radar interrogator yes and display facilities. The upgrades to the P-18 radars and their modificatios can be done stage-by-stage in 1999 to customer specifications directly at their operating sites. km 6-12 data exchange between several systems no data recording no IFF system: international mode no simulation resistance no identification accuracy not more than 0. m: 3. manufacturer of the P-18 radar. — ground radar interrogator is built around new circuit components and can be operated as part of the international identification system. which is particularly important for countries with limited financial resources.97 6 APRIL 29 . Russia Phone/Fax: (095) 253-7733 1999 MARCH 400 m 800 m 20 m/s no 20-30 s 10 s 120 0. and extend its service life for 15 to 20 years.000 m speed component no Automatic data collection and processing: situation plotting board yes data delay (after target acquisition) 5-8 min or more data update rate 2-4 min simultaneously tracked targets 10-15 coordinate indication error. including stealth aircraft.000 fails to detect 20. Moreover.8 yes yes yes yes at least 0. offers renovation packages to extend its service life for another 10 years and guaranteed supply of spare parts.

Since that time. The nature of this anomaly rests mainly in the active destructive effect of the cavity-surrounding filler on the cumulative jet. the competition proceeded by increasing the dimensions of the gun caliber. the competition has progressed with variable success. T-80) which were provided with combined frontal armor that included such fillers as glass textolite and ceramics. This development can be traced to battles between German and Soviet tank armaments and armor during World War II. The problem of armor enhancement could not be resolved conventionally owing to the unacceptable increase in tank weight. Director General of the Steel Research Institute Valery Grigoryan.IDEX’99 Dmitry Rototayev. or the armor inclination angles. Deputy Director General PROJECTILE OR ARMOR: WHICH IS STRONGER? This question has arisen after the advent of armored vehicles which consequently involved the problem of their protection. The advent of such combined armor became possible 32 MILITARY PARADE T-72A tank T-72S tank with apron ERA . This gave an impetus to the development of a new generation of Soviet tanks (T-64. the armor thickness. The effect is due to the release of energy accumulated by the filler during the passage of the cumulative jet. Shaped-charge projectiles made a revolution in terms of their penetrating power compared to the protective abilities of homoge neous steel armor. The advent of hard-core armor-piercing projectiles for tank and antitank guns brought little change to the protection concept. as well as to the released internal energy of the filler itself when glass and ceramics are used as fillers. While the main destruction weapons were kinetic energy armorpiercing projectiles. They ensured abnormally high protective anticumulative properties which correspond with those predicted by the hydrodynamic theory of Academician M. who had substantiated the advantage of relatively light fillers over steel armor when affected by a cumulative jet. Lavrentyev. T-72.

In the late 1970s. Only the availability of completely pre pared technical.2 to 1. structural and technological approaches made it possible to equip the main tank fleet of the Soviet Union with this explosive reactive armor (ERA) within shortest time. At the same time.cialists. Its installation onto tanks was hampered by the psychological unpreparedness of some brass hatters in both the army and industry. as well as against the high-explosive squash head (HESH) projectiles which contained plastic explosive.e. Condition of APDS projectile core after penetration of new-generation ERA due to the purpose-oriented and well-coordinated work of a host of fundamental and applied science institutes working under the supervi sion of talented scientists and spe- charge ammunition but against the most massive ammunition of the time. the arsenals of all countries continued to accumulate antitank guided missiles with HEAT warheads whose penetrating ability was 1. Further upgrading of fillers ensured the protection against HEAT projectiles from 120mm rifled guns. But the emergence of explosive reactive armor (which was developed by Doctor M. Since then. and was based on the principle of counterexplosion. such as the HEAT projectiles for the 105mm tank and the antitank gun. It should be noted that the combined frontal armor of the Soviet tanks in the 1970s ensured their protection not from the entire range of shaped- 1. i. Condition of cumulative jet after penetration of ceramics 2. The competition of the tank armor with antitank ammunition continued until the early 1980s.5 times higher than that of HEAT projectiles and. armor protection had to be designed while keeping in mind two rival destruction weapons: the APDS projectiles and the HEAT (shaped charge) ammunition. whose penetrators contained tung sten carbide or tungsten cores. hence. At the same time. The instal1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 33 . exceeded the protective properties of tank armor. whose original development dated back to the 1950s. the prob lem was solved for protection against fin-stabilized armor-piercing discarding sabot (APDS) projectiles. Held for the M48 and M60 tanks in service with the Israeli army) during the 1982 Arab-Israeli war finally removed any objections from the project’s opponents. and shaped-charge grenades. the Soviet Union practically obtained HEAT-proof armor. Condition of cumulative jet during ERA penetration 3. within one year.

The M829 APDS projectile failed as well. However. and the analytical assessment of destruction 34 MILITARY PARADE weapon development testifies to unprecedented efforts in creating new threats to tanks. they were on a par with the frontal armor of the Soviet tanks. New problems for the developers of protective armor were set up by the technological breakthrough in the creation of tandem shapedcharge ammunition for TOW-2A. Moscow 127411. Along with the intensified development of ammunition for penetrating a tank’s frontal armor. that already had suffi ciently powerful armor plating. such as the M829 (USA). which allows tank protection from ATGMs of the TOW-2 and HOT-2 type. Steel Research Institute 81A Dubninskaya St. that is. The power is increased and the range is extended for a relatively new class of ammunition based on the round impact-shot principle and intended to defeat the tank from the light armor surfaces such as the roof. the offered reinforcement of their protection imparts principally new combat qual ities and considerably increases their combat efficiency. at the Abu Dhabi ‘99 show we are going to exhibit to our potential clients the complex of thirdgeneration explosive reactive armor which ensures the survivability of the T-90 tank from the M829A2 and DM43A1 APDS projectiles for the guns of the American M1 and German Leopard-2 tanks. The use of ERA triggered the intensified development of new antitank weapons throughout the world. The offered ERA package. T-72A and T80B tanks. was ensured by installing the Kontakt-V universal ERA complex which virtually neutralized even this threat. Russia Phone: (095) 484-6361 Fax: (095) 485-4395 . However. Thus..000 to 1. ITOW and even TOW2 of a larger caliber) failed to overcome. sides and bottom. As for antimine protection.250 mm of steel armor behind an apron ERA. it marked a qualitatively new step in the projectile-versus-armor competition. The complexity of resolving this problem is that an increase in the equivalent light armor thickness per conventional unit leads to an increase in tank weight several times more than the identical increase in frontal armor. Not at all. A real possibility arose to influence an emerging destruction weapon as actively as it had previously acted upon passive armor. In was a great leap forward in terms of the concentrated blast resistance that subsequently modernized ATGMs (TOW. The technical problems pertaining to the protection against particular weapons attacking the tank from the top are also resolved. However. while the protection against more powerful APDS projectiles. new concepts are being developed to incapacitate tanks by unconventional methods. The projectile-versus-armor competition continues. developed by the Olin Company for the guns of the M1 and Leopard-2 tanks. The expert estimation of APDS Projectiles. PARS-3 antitank missiles and others. it would be naive to think that the development of ammunition will stop. in addition to increased resistance to single shaped-charge warheads. features antitandem properties. capable of penetrating 1. we are ready to offer a package of electro magnetic protection causing premature explosion of mines with magne tometric fuzes. virtually depreciated at once the existing arsenals of antitank guided weapons of potential adversaries and brought to the foreground the armor-piercing f i n stabilized discarding sabot projectiles.T-80U tank with built-in ERA lation of ERA on T-64A. is indicative of virtually linear growth of their armor penetrating ability with a proportionality coefficient of about 36 mm per year. the «defenders» are ready to meet new chal- lenges. In a package of measures to upgrade Russian tanks. HOT-2T.

survivability and fuel efficiency) are directly depend on the development of new-generation power supply systems and their components. These figures prove the importance of electrical equipment and indicate that its upgrade is the correct way for modernization of armor materiel. Director General of the Electromashina JSC MODERNIZATION OF BATTLE TANKS AND INFANTRY COMBAT VEHICLES VIA UPGRADING THEIR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT The all-round modernization of existing models and the development of new-generation weapon systems and military equipment are among the most important aspects of the Russia’s military and technological policy for the years immediately ahead. Currently. T h e E l e c t r omashina JSC and the Rotor Design Bureau offer the modern T-55 battle tank 36 MILITARY PARADE . increase in their tactical capabilities. The improvement of weapon systems and military equipment. technical parameters and operating performance (specific and weight-to-volume indices. Related to armor materiel. T-55. effectiveness and reliability. A huge fleet of obsolete battle tanks (T-54. up to 40 percent of weight and size. mobility. etc.) is still in service with armies o f m a n y c o u n t r i e s . T-72. these requirements assume rais ing the automation level of the combat and working processes which can only be provided by the increase in quantity and quality of automatic and electronic systems. up to 90 percent of electric power losses and up to 50 percent of all probable troubles and failures are related to electrical and power generation systems of the weapons and military equipment.IDEX’99 Oleg Bochkarev. T-62.

Algeria. India. Many BMP-1 and BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles (ICV) need upgrading to the modern level in the similar way by installing: — ZETs15 firefighting equipment which provides for fire extinguishing and detonation suppression in the engine and personnel compartments. etc. Iraq. The Electromashina JSC and the Rotor Design Bureau are steadily raising the technological level of their products and are ready to expand their production and commercial contacts with all interested parties. For example. The Electromashina JSC and the Rotor Design Bureau (electrical equipment developer) will provide the modernization of the armored vehicles. etc. Another important trend in the modernization of battle tanks is equipping them with the following additional systems (installed on follow-on models): — system intended for automatic smoke screening against laserguided weapons. South Korea and a number of other countries. — antiaircraft machine gun stabilization and control system. Finland. BMP-3 ICV and ZETs15 firefighting equipment components 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 37 . — ammunition loading gear automatic control system. their guarantee and post-guarantee service. Libya. Kuwait. — other systems and electrical equipment components. — automatic smoke-screen laying system. For 50 years now these enterprises have been involved in the development and production of electrical equipment for military and transport vehicles which have been exported to the former Warsaw Treaty countries.T-80U battle tank and automatic ammunition loader control panel TShU-1S automatic smoke-screen laying system components ization of these vehicles by upgrading their electrical equip ment developed and manufactured at their enterprises. United Arab Emirates. Yugoslavia. training of personnel. SPT&A supply. — ammunition loading gear automatic control system. replacement of obsolete firefighting equipment by the ZETs13-type modern quickacting systems ensures not only quick fire extinguishing but also detonation suppression ensured by a more than ten-fold decrease in time needed for fire detection and extinguishant discharge. Syria.

developed by the Omsk Machine-Building Design Bureau and manufactured by the Transport Machine-Building Plant. etc. The TMM-6 heavy mechanized bridge is designed for laying bridges over water barriers and dry-valley obstacles of up to 100 m wide and up to 5 m deep to be negotiated by troops and wheeled and tracked materiel weighing up to 60 t. Since the construction of bridges requires time and materials.). prime movers. The TMM-6 heavy mechanized bridge consists of a bridge layer and bridge members. evacuation activities and elimination of the aftermath of accidents and natural disasters. The solution of the problem lies in the use of mechanized bridges. Staff Editor TMM 6 HEAVY MECHANIZED BRIDGE Modern combat operations are characterized by high dynamics and complicated road conditions owing to a great number of artificial and natural obstacles and barriers. A heavy mechanized bridge (designated TMM-6).IDEX’99 Anatoly Ilyin. The mechanized bridges are used during combat operations. provides one such solution. The bridge layer is a cross-country (8 x 8 wheel configura tion) all-wheel-drive truck carrying 38 MILITARY PARADE . it is frequently unacceptable in a rapidly changing situation. motor vehicles. Their negotiation may involve construction or laying of bridges and ferries for heavy combat materiel (battle tanks.

The cost of the bridge member of its kind is lower than that of the hydraulically operated one. the width of the bridge member for transportation.equipment and mechanisms to transport and lay the bridge members. earth moving and bottom work. Basic Characteristics Crew Bridge length. if required. The span folding/unfolding mechanisms are hydraulically driven from the bridge layer’s hydraulic system which can automatically be coupled to (uncoupled from) the hydraulic system of the bridge member. The bridge member design and the bridge layer-mounted special mechanism enable the crew to decrease. When there is no more need for the bridge. m Time to lay 102 m long bridge. provision is made for a cable-pulley drive to unfold the bridge member halves. The bridge laying mechanisms are provided with a hydraulic drive and power takeoff from the chassis engine. The bridge laying procedure is controlled by one crewmember from the control panel arranged in the rear part of the bridge layer or remote-controlled with the use of a 30 m long cable. km 2 17 to 102 60 up to 5 50 20 to 30 35 to 40 70 1. km/h: bridge crossing by transport means bridge layer: average maximum Fuel distance. The bridge layer is equipped with a system to protect the crew from dust when moving over a radioactively contami nated terrain and furnished with communication facilities: a radio set and an intercom system. ts Depth of obstacle to be negotiated. The bridge can be disassembled from either end. The bridge is assembled by subsequently laying several bridge members. The time to lay one bridge member is 5 min. min Speed. the spur leg can be self-adjusted to a height of 2 to 5 m. The bridge member consists of a folded-in-two double-track span and a spur leg.100 The bridge layer is environmentally safe since the bridge laying is carried out without river bed blocking. The TMM-6 heavy mechanized bridge may be completed with a nonhydraulically operated bridge mem ber. 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 39 . In this case. m Bridge capacity. it is disassembled by the bridge layer and carried to another place where it can be laid again over an obstacle. The unfolded span is 17 m long.

which. Main loads are received by steel inserts that are connected to the frame by means of detachable joints. In this setup. the tempting idea to create a gamut of models chambered for different cartridges and based on the same design is fraught with internal contradictions: a model chambered for low-power car tridges may appear excessively heavy or. The MR-444 Bagira model is conceived as a basic model for the family of light pistols chambered for 9mm cartridges from the 9x19 Luger to less powerful 9mm Makarov and 9x17 Browning. Locking is obtained by engaging the barrel lug. of course. Therefore. Second. such as the Glock 17. The front guide is locked in position by the slide stop pin. In the late 1980s and early 1990s. Both basic models are provided with plastic frames. during this time a number of armies fielded pistols with enlarged capacity magazines rated for 13 to 15 rounds. it was decided to develop two basic models that may be conventionally called light and heavy. and the magazine capacity was increased to contain 12 cartridges. the Makarov. the barrel is moved by interaction of the bevel on the lower barrel lug with the bevel on the base of the recoil and buffer mechanism. This design feature enables the shooter to manually cock the striker and thus Bagira . a model chambered for enhanced-power cartridges may have insufficiently long life. Leading Design Engineer of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant BAGIRA AND VARYAG TO REPLACE MAKAROV In terms of handling qualities and technical characteristics the new models of pistols produced by the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant are on a par with and in some respects outperform their foreign counterparts. Therefore. with the ejection opening of the slide. with its eightround magazine and a cartridge considerably inferior to the 9mm Parabellum cartridge in terms of power. First. stamped front and rear guides are inserted into the pistol frame. Beretta 92F and P7M13 Heckler and Koch. Russian small arms designers faced a problem to find a replacement for the battle-tested production model of the Makarov pistol. The striker-type percussion mechanism is provided with a special striker cocking device which resembles the hammer of a usual pistol. At present. The pistol frame is made of highly strong molded thermoplastic. located above the cartridge chamber. It was chambered for the modernized 9mm cartridge. designers at the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant set out to develop a new pistol model chambered for powerful cartridges. vice versa. To guide the slide. the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant. was a temporary way out of the situation. Both models operate on short recoil principles. With these considerations taken into account. turned obsolete. The Makarov pistol was modernized by the design bureau of the world’s largest pistol manufacturer.IDEX’99 Mikhail Dragunov. a need arose in a more powerful pistol cartridge owing to the spread of individual body armor. the world witnesses a host of pistol cartridges differing in overall dimensions and power. Experts note in particular that the Glock model cham42 MILITARY PARADE bered for the 9x17mm cartridge possesses excessive weight and dimensions. The latter absorbs the shocks of the barrel and slide in the rearmost position. and the rear one by the screw. During locking and unlocking.

. The family based on the MR-445 model (which may be conventionally classed as heavy) comprises three modifications: MR-445 chambered for the .0 IZHEVSK MECHANICAL PLANT 8 Promyshlennaya St. The fixed sights bear three contrast dots (one dot on the foresight and two dots on the backsight). Russia Phone: +7 (3412) 76-4433 Phone/fax: 76-5830 (Marketing Department) +7 (3412) 75-3829 Phone/fax: 76-3360 (Sales Department) Fax: +7 (3412) 76-4590 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 43 . When in the upper position. hammer and slide.5 <67. one can carry the weapon in the cocked condition and. trigger. Basic Characteristics Model MR-444 Bagira Caliber 9x19mm Luger Overall dimensions. The function of a loaded chamber indicator is performed by the extractor whose contour during aiming is easily discernible even in the twilight. The magazine catch is located behind the trigger guard and is dis placed laterally. a minimum perimeter of grip grasp and arrangement of the main control elements of the pistol within an arc described by the thumb. therefore. and the MR-444 is provided with the manual striker cocking device. if necessary. rapidly open aimed fire at a light trigger pull.40 S & W 210x142x38 125 0.0 MR-446 9x19mm Luger 196x140x38 111 0.40 S & W 188x132x38 103 0. The pistol safety catch is not automatic. while the MR-445S and MR-446 model have fixed sights. it operates as a lever to uncock the firing mechanism. in this case. Izhevsk 426063. the MR444 and MR-445 models have a nonautomatic safety catch which is absent on Glock pistols. It can be installed for right.40 Smith & Wesson cartridge. The trigger mechanism is arranged in the front and rear guides. The function of the loaded chamber indicator is performed by the extractor which noticeably protrudes from the slide surface when a cartridge is chambered. N: single action firing <25.0 MR-445 Varyag .9 17 <24. The safety lever can be moved beyond its fixed position.5 double action firing <57. The hammer can be blocked in the cocked or released condition. In particular. which enables one to carry the weapon in the cocked condition and. The hammer-type firing mechanism is designed for double action firing and provided with a helical mainspring. When engaged.85 13 <24. kg 0. The safety catch in the lowermost position permits delivery of fire. The two-sided lever-type magazine catch is located at the front wall of the grip near the trigger guard. rds 15 Trigger pull. mm 101 Empty weight. The pistol design embodies a number of rational approaches from the point of view of ergonomics: an elastic protrusion on the rear end of the grip with embossed serrations transmitting a recoil pulse to the hand. During locking and unlocking. In terms of handling qualities and technical characteristics the new models of pistols produced by the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant are on a par with and in some respects outperform their foreign counterparts. if necessary. MR-445S compact version of the same caliber and MR-446 version chambered for the 9x19 Luger cartridge. The base of the firing mechanism limits recoil and counterrecoil of the moving parts and is provided with front and rear guides for the slide.5 <57. It has an ambidextrous control lever located on the frame. the safety catch interlocks the sear. The base of the firing mechanism is locked in position by two pins in the frame which is manufactured from highly strong plastic. The safety device comprises the non-automatic safety catch located on the slide and the automatic striker interlock which prevents the striker to transmit the blow to the cartridge primer when the trigger is not completely squeezed.0 MR-445S . When the safety catch is applied.5 <57. The safety catch is returned to its locked position by the spring.9 15 <24. The magazine has a double-row steel body with two-position feed arrangement of cartridges. Udmurt Republic. it interlocks the firing mechanism without uncocking the striker. The magazine has a double-row steel body with single-position feed arrangement of cartridges.or left-handed use. mm 186x126x35 Barrel length. to rapidly open aimed fire at a light trigger pull. The MR-445 model has sights clickadjusted in deflection and elevation.Varyag fire by single or double action. the barrel is moved by interaction of the cam slot on the lower barrel lug with the lock secured in the base of the firing mechanism. the hammer does not go off cock.68 Magazine capacity.

Chief Designer MEET THE KAMOV Ka 60 KASATKA HELICOPTER The Kamov company has set out to test a new Kamov Ka-60 multirole army aviation helicopter designed for accomplishing various combat missions. The maximum internal load-carrying capacity is 2.000 kg. designated Ka-62. specially created for the Ka-60 by the Rybinsk Motors company. A civilian version. The maximum takeoff weight is 6. In the ambulance version. For operations over water areas. the helicopter is equipped with a searchlight and a LPG-300 hoist with a load-carrying capacity of 300 kg that is able to lift two persons or cargo. The Ka-60 may be used in other capacities when provided with special equipment and weapons.250 x 1. The engines. at altitudes of up to 6. In the search and rescue version. develop a takeoff power of 1.AVIATION Vyacheslav Krygin. Two sliding doors (one on each side of the cargo cabin) measuring 1. The helicopter can fly in a wide range of contrasting temperatures. The modu lar design features and promising technological/design solutions 46 MILITARY PARADE .000 m and high cruising speeds to a range of 600 km. is being developed on the basis of the Ka-60 helicopter.8 m3 . the helicopter is equipped with inflatable ballonnets.This helicopter also includes retractable landing gear and two RD-600 engines. the Ka-60 helicopter can carry six stretchers with wounded persons and three medical attendants. The helicopter can carry a rifle squad with full combat gear in its passenger cabin which features a volume of 9.300 hp each and are the most upto-date Russian engines.300 mm make it possible to perform embarkation/debarkation of nine troopers within 5 to 6 seconds. The helicopter’s performance.500 kg. as well as up to 14 sitting patients. reliability and power-to-weight ratio has been considerably improved in comparison with its counterparts due to an updated aerodynamic configu ration of the airframe.

1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 47 . For our customer convenience. the engine and the main-rotor gearbox can operate in emergency power conditions exceeding the takeoff power by 20 to 25 percent. the Russian certificate for the development and production. The engine inlet duct is fur- nished with a dust-protection device. as well as training facilities. The main-rotor blades. logistic support. Its maintainability. retain their survivability when hit by a 23mm projectile. training of flight personnel and technical staff. the employment of maintenance-free bearings. Its main systems and units are duplicated. In the pilot’s cabin two sets of controls enable the crew to fly the helicopter from either of the two seats. considerably increases the operating reliability of the power source. Should one engine stop during the takeoff or during regular flight. Its high operating qualities have been achieved due to a wide use of composite materials. If required.7mm bullets. Having a wide experience in the development of various-class and various-purpose helicopters. the safety of the crew and passengers is ensured by an additional (emergency) stroke of the landing gear shock struts. while the engine inlet devices are also equipped with a hot-air anti-icing system. One of the Russian helicopter manufacturing plants has set out to begin serial production of the Ka-60. together with cooperating production plants. Provision is made in the fuselage nose section for the installation of a radar and a night vision system. and by the energyabsorbing seats for the crew and passengers. The main rotor blades are provided with an electrical anti-icing system. to offer high-quality services for users of the unique Kamov helicopters. up-to-date diagnostics methods. made of composite materials. Its gearboxes can operate without oil for an appreciable length of time. In case of an emergency landing while flying on low altitudes. the main and backup systems are arranged on different sides of the airframe to prevent their being damaged by one projectile. etc.62mm and 12. the Kamov company is committed to provide helicopter sales. The design of the personnel compart ments allows for injury-free impacts. The helicopter’s standard equip ment includes navigational facilities. The helicopter is not susceptible to ice and high dust content. a guarantee of continuous after-sales servicing. An automated onboard monitoring system along with the powerplant control unit. the Kamov company is ready. output to the other engine increases automatically (without pilot’s intervention) thus enabling the flight to continue. as well as the foreign certificate for production of aviation materiel. and a system-oriented arrangement of equipment in maintenance zones. The selfsealing fuel tanks are provided with an explosion-proof system. The control system rods and drive shafts have been proven to continue functioning when pierced by the 7.ensure a high fuel efficiency and maintainability of the engines. as well as for improving one’s flying technique. The digital two-channel automatic control system provided with the backup hydromechanical channel and developed monitoring and diagnostics system. and ease of servicing make it possible to sustain the required level of combat readiness. The strong fuselage and heavily secured units exclude injuries to the crew and passengers possibly caused by the airframe and equipment during crash impact. The leading edges of the main rotor blades are provided with an erosionresistant coating. make it possible to promptly detect problems and represent the required information via the onboard or ground-based display system. This makes it ideal for the initial training of pilots. flight control equipment and data display systems.

mooring a vessel. awarded the world’s first prize to Transas for its notable contribution to the develop ment of marine training devices. participate. making it possible to conduct training in a common time and space environment. shore-based radars. To train conning tower personnel in maneuvering their One of the critical tasks of the Navy of any state is to maintain the tactical performance of its marine specialists at a highly professional level. The Russian company Transas is one of the world’s leading producers of simulator-trainers where naval specialists from virtually all profes sions can undergo training. submarines. The following training devices are currently available for naval spe cialists: — surface ship (submarine) con ning tower simulator designed to train naval personnel in navigating through narrow waters. captain TRANSAS: ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGIES TAKE EFFECT The Russian company Transas is one of the world’s leading producers of simulator-trainers where naval specialists from virtually all professions can undergo training. Training devices manufactured by Transas are currently operational at more than 200 training centers worldwide. In February 1998. it may include devices designed to train naval personnel in operating the Global Maritime Dis tress Signal System). Lloyd’s List. Such exercises are effective but very costly.NAVY Yevgeny Komrakov. — specific weapon type simulatortrainers. maneuvering within a formation. This can be primarily achieved via integrated exercises in which surface ships. leaving/ entering a naval base. — sonar simulator-trainers. an important question arises: how can one maintain high combat readiness of naval units at a lower cost? The answer is: personnel must maintain and develop their skills by means of 52 MILITARY PARADE . All shipboard simulator-trainers are networked. and to simulate a surface ship or a submarine. — ship propulsion and electric power plant simulator. maritime aviation. — communications trainer (for example. simulator-trainers. headquarters of fleets and task forces. Consequently. They operate within a common information field. as well as the Main Naval Headquarters. and performing an attack maneuver. the famous maritime newspaper.

sonar and other equipment simulation methods are identical and conventionalized for all ship classes.vessel within a formation of ships. These trainers are comparatively cheap and can be delivered to the customer within a short period of time. Passing through narrow waters or between skerries please contact: TRANSAS Phone: +7 (812) 3253131 Fax: +7 (812) 5671901 e-mail: aotm@transas. Transas offers an inexpensive singlecomputer trainer. Transas’s trainers will prove to be the right choice. — oil pollution response center trainers. The marketed equipment list includes Employment of weapons navigation and surface surveillance systems. Currently. The trainer is designed and manufactured with the participation of the developer of a real ship or air craft. If the special-purpose trainer is preferred. The naval and maritime aviation trainers are available in the following two basic versions: — versatile trainer designed for installation on board a certain class of ship. Transas offers a trainer for naval pilots. Trainers manufactured by Transas are designed to simulate this equipment. this company also offers the following devices for the training of specialists at shore-based installations: — shore-based surveillance radar operator trainers. The price of this trainer is higher and the delivery term is longer. which provides possibilities for holding joint exercises in common time and space environment. Transas supplies the equipment to the navies and coast guard units of over 25 states. the delivery term will depend on the ship construction dates. All controls and control consoles. shore-based surveillance radar stations. T r a n s a s h a s d e v e loped a trainer for the Project 1241 ship. although the effective ness of the personnel’s motive skill development is higher. Should the trainer be ordered while a ship (submarine) is under construction. Moreover. and head quarters-level surface surveillance radar stations. — headquarters duty officer trainers. This trainer can also be integrated into the naval network. Generally. F o r m o r e d e t a i l s . and another trainer intended for submarines under development. — special-purpose trainer designed for a specific ship or aircraft. the advantages stemming from its economic viability are enhanced by the possibility for training the crews of different ships and aircraft. a greater effect is likely to be achieved if the trainer is ordered together with a new ship (aircraft) or a group of ships or air craft. In the event of the versatile trainer.com Defense of military installation 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 53 . Every ship can be equipped with a combination of one integrated training system and a few single-computer trainers (each playing the role of another ship). shows different ship bow shapes. this trainer is suited mostly for the training of a crew of a specific ship class. as well as hear one another over radio com munication channels. which can view one another on their displays and on a radar display. and the price of the equip ment will insignificantly change the contract value. and should the naval and coast guard units operate the abovementioned systems. one should Training scenarios bear in mind that. In this case. Transas can develop new designs of training systems to customer specification. This trainer provides maximum simulation of the equipment of all battle stations of a specific ship class. These trainers are also networked with the naval and maritime aviation training assets. This version features different mathematical support models. and presents various naval base and water area visualization scenes. as well as the radar. navigation system. there is a good chance for the crew to undergo training well before the construction is completed and the ship (submarine) is Ships leaving their base commissioned.

its primary objective was to provide the Navy with shipborne armament control devices. and a testing center. Lot). coastal artillery control radars (Redan-3).NAVY Vadim Makashev. and currently the prime manufacturer of control systems for shipborne gun/missile complexes. surface target detection and torpedo firing data radars (Zarnitsa). In the late 1940s and early 1950s. metrological support. Soyuz-30 bis). Before and during WWII. mature tool production. Director General. Ratep JSC PRIME MANUFACTURER OF CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR UNIQUE NAVAL WEAPONS COMPLEXES Ratep company has built up a powerful production and engineering potential covering virtually all kinds of manufacturing and adjustment facilities. The company has an impressive record. In 1998. increased firing range and enhanced noise Main assembly shop 56 MILITARY PARADE . the former radio engineering factory. the factory produced electromechanical control systems for large-caliber shipborne gun mounts (Soyuz. coastal and ship-borne surveillance and target designation radars (Lin. Founded in 1938 as an instrument-making factory. as well in the first years after the war. the Ratep JSC. the factory focused on development of shipborne artillery control radar systems featuring improved automation. These facilities allow the company to carry out almost all types of mechanical and weather tests of various items ranging from miniature devices and instruments to the control systems of whole complexes. turned 60.

precision instrument making. 1984 . At that time.immunity. metrological support. as well as large shipborne structures. Until now. To this end. overhauls and services the control systems of missile and Assembly of radio projectors for the Shtil SAM complex 1999 MARCH 6 APRIL 57 . In the 1980s and 1990s the company joined the Altair State Research and Production Association (the prime contractor) in the development and assimilation of series production of control systems for modern shipborne multichannel SAM complexes. Klinok and Shtil SAM complexes continue to be the key defensive weapons of Russ ian naval ships. Smeta. Before and after the disintegra tion of the Soviet Union the company has been giving much consideration to the establishment of economic ties with foreign partners. Soyuz-30 bis. the only way of maintain ing the military hardware currently in service with the Navy up-to-date is its modernization. Libya. These radars are still in service with the navies of some countries.1998). and Shtil. The ships exported to Syria. Egypt. Generally. the company preserves and further develops its fleet-based production capacities. The MR-105 fire control systems used with the Volna SAM complexes are opera tional on board the Project 61ME warships now in service with the Indian Navy. Concurrently. Ethiopia were equipped with the Soyuz. production of such fire control radars as the Fut-B and MR-105 was launched. Zarnitsa. capable of providing protection to both individ ual ships and formations of ships against aircraft and missiles under dense attacks. is among the company’s main lines of business. the optimized production models of the Rif. such as antenna stations.). These complexes and control systems. The company has built up a powerful production and engineering potential covering virtually all kinds of manufacturing and adjustment facilities. Considering that the present portfolio of orders for the manufacture of new armament systems for the Ministry of Defense of the Russ ian Federation has dramatically dried up. the company was awarded the highest state orders: the Order of the Red Banner (1963) and the Order of Lenin (1984). Assimilation of series production of control systems for these complexes encompassing the elements of radio location. In acknowledgment of the com pany’s contribution to the development of sophisticated electronic systems for the Russian Navy. The system operates trouble-free under various climatic conditions. These facilities allow the company to carry out almost all types of mechanical and weather tests of various items ranging from miniature devices and instruments to the control systems of whole complexes. radiofrequency units and components. these 5P10 multipurpose multitarget electronic system SAMs are not inferior to their for eign counterparts while in terms of some basic parameters they outperform them. mature tool production. which entered service with many Russian and foreign warships at different times. Algeria. Soobrazitelny and Provorny class large antisubmarine ships. and a testing center. gyroscopic stabilization systems and the Musson radars designed to guide antisubmarine rocket-assisted torpedos. one of the first cruise missile onboard control and homing systems (developed by the Almaz Design Bureu) rolled off the factory’s production line.1986. In the late 1950s. etc. the factory launched production of a radar control system for the first shipborne close-in surface-to-air (SAM) complex. Klinok. as well as the MR-105 radar undergo regular upgrades and have become the principal weapons of the Navy’s combatant ships (Grozny and Admiral Zozulya class missile cruisers. called for the radical retooling of the enterprise and construction of new proAntenna station of the Klinok SAM complex duction capacities. and Fut-B systems manufactured by our company. microelectronics. 1960 . Production of shipborne passive jamming control systems (Tertsiya. Indonesia. such as the Rif.

The high-quality household appliances manufactured by Ratep were awarded the gold medal at the exhibition. 58 MILITARY PARADE . Recently. The company is prepared to launch production of satellite communica - Household appliances produced by Ratep tions equipment (antenna devices. the company’s engineers have developed design and technological documentation to manufacture consumer goods. a first of the class 5P10 Ametist-designed multipurpose multitarget system intended to The Kashtan gun/missile complex control fire of shipborne guns of various calibers at surface. The EMSh35/130 electric meat mincer has been issued an international certificate (CB).P. November 1998). The World of Household Appliances ‘98 (Yekaterinburg. The design of these items was developed by the Italian firm Gjuigiaro Design. Ratep is continually building up its production potential and is ready to export armament. shorebased and air (including low-flying) targets has come out of the production line. the company has purchased the CAD/CAM equipment to develop end-to-end designs of products. To broaden the capabilities and be able to produce designs of vari ous kinds of high-quality domestic appliances and other civilian products quickly. The expanded production capacities have allowed Ratep to launch production of the Podacha multi purpose fire control system (developed by the Ametist Design Bureau) designed to equip the Bereg selfpropelled artillery complex (devel oped by the Titan Central Design Bureau) and other artillery systems currently in service with the armed forces.Equipment for end-to-end designing of products gun/missile complexes. the company is preparing fire control systems of the Shtil-1 and 5P10 SAM complexes and of the Kashtan gun/missile complex for the Project 11356 frigates in service with the Indian Navy. In partnership with the Altair State R&P Association. In addition to sophisticated defense-oriented equipment. Ametist Design Bureau and Tula Instrument-Making Design Bureau. radio conversation and channel communication devices) designed by the Radio Research Institute. including those manufactured by the ship building industry of the former USSR. electric meat mincers) under license of Italy’s Rachetto S. the company has been producing ecologically friendly. the company produces kitchen tools (food processors. The company has also acquired the Codick electroerosion machines and signed contracts with the Dutch firm NMA for the delivery of modern technological equipment for the production of printed circuit boards of high accuracy class and density. along with the main production items. For greater confidence and stability under the present conditions and with a view to converting the production to civilian output. energy saving equipment for control of the electric drives of subway carriages in Moscow.A. Ratep has been actively participating in the development of the Klinok complex fire control system upgraded by Altair and will soon complete construction of the first unit in this series and the Moskit system for export. mili tary equipment and commercial products. As part of the Russian Federa tion’s city transport development program. On the basis of advanced tech nologies the company has launched production of fundamentally new fire control systems built around multilayer microstrip antenna modules with a digital beam formation mech anism.

is popularly considered to be the founding father of air-cushion vehicles. In 1932. Work was immediately begun for the construction of a larger model of craft which was about 2. Tests of this model were also a success. The first prototype was a very simple design which consisted of two small wooden catamarans that were powered by three prop engines. it seems that Levkov specifically pursued his air-cushion hovercraft to be used as a fast «flying» naval ship. circular in plane. also an air-cooled M-11. development of these unusual vehicles is associated with the name of Vladimir Levkov who was born in the industrial city of Rostov-on-Don in 1895. In Russia. This historical event was given great publicity by the world press. Air cushion was produced by the horizontally-placed engines. his experimental hovercraft successfully crossed the English Channel between the ports of Dover and Kalais. for example. Eight years later he was appointed professor at the Applied Aerodynamics Department. with a diameter of only 700 800 mm.5 m long. the Pleshcheyevo Lake. In 1927. oblong shape. In December of that year Professor Levkov was put in charge of a specialized technical department at the MAI. Two M-11 radial aero-engines were installed horizontally in the funnel-shaped wells on the platform which connected the catamaran hulls together. The third engine. was placed in the aft part of the craft on a removable four-strut pylon. Air Drag and Express Train which was published in Kaluga in 1927 and immediately sent to the DPI library where Levkov spent much of his time. His miniature model was built according to what is now referred to as a chamber configuration design. it failed to acknowledge that the first hovercraft was actually launched in the Soviet Union long before Cockerell’s maiden voyage. Christopher Cockerell.HISTORY Gennady Chernenko. He might have been inspired by Tsiolkovsky’s work. In the summer of 1921. Vladimir Levkov was transferred to the Moscow Aviation Institute (since at that time the Novocherkask Aviation Institute was closed) where he became a professor of experimental aerodynamics. he began research into the dynamics of air-cushion vehicles by testing a symmetric model. The first hovercraft was built at the Institute’s workshops and prepared for trials by the summer of 1935. here Levkov and his team began preparing blue-prints for the L-1 air-cushion vehicle. Russia. The new model featured an elongated. In June of 1959. rather than circular one. however. How did the young Levkov come up with the radical notion for air-cushion vehicle? Unfortunately. an attack torpedo craft. Vladimir Levkov graduated from the Donskoi Polytechnic Institute (DPI) in Novocherkassk. history does not provide us with any definite answers. trials of a new air-cushion vehicle model began. October 1935 62 MILITARY PARADE . In May 1934. In retrospect. The first ever air-cushion vehicle L-1 before trials. The young researcher set for himself a simpler and more realistic task. Historian LEVKOV’S HOVERCRAFT The British engineer. and hand somely equipped with two prop engines—one mounted in the nose section and the other in the aft section of the hull.

state trials of the L-1 air-skimmer (this was the official term adopted for the craft) began on the Pleshcheyevo Lake (the Jaroslavl Region. and 38 knots when powered by two. I. by the order of the People’s Commissar of the Shipbuilding Industry. In the midship area there was a streamlined pilot house/cabin for the pilot and mechanic followed by a troop compartment and then by a turret equipped with a ring for a twin machine-gun mount. However. crosswind and downwind. reported to the Chairman of Defense Council. Over a distance of one mile. 1935. Trial results of this first prototype hovercraft were acknowledged as satisfactory. Tukhachevsky. The maximum speed of the first hovercraft was approximately 60 knots when powered by three engines. M. To introduce this type of fast attack craft into service. this hovercraft accelerated to a speed of over 70 knots (about 130 km/h)... This was truly a unique naval boat.. Overwater runs were performed using either two horizontal engines (with the pylonmounted engine shut down) or all three engines running simultaneously. glazed cabin. Russia). 1939. He wrote that the 1936 Prototype Construction Plan should encompass the production of two such skimming boats: one to be used as a fast attack torpedo craft and the other as a marine landing craft. previously involved in glider production. The craft had a good shape.» This report was approved by the Deputy People’s Commissar of Defense. second right) among DPI students. Frinovsky wrote: «The trial results indicated that the tactical and technical characteristics of this new attack craft significantly surpassed those of fast torpedo craft in service with the Red Navy. a full-metal (duralumin) fast torpedo craft.Performance trials of the L-5 fast attack craft. Building on previously gained knowledge. V. It was indicated in the report that the «principle for air-cushion vehicles has been proven feasible. Trials were conducted in calm and windy weather. 1937 On October 2. the Gulf of Finland. Novocherkassk. turret machine-gun mount and large tail fins. Following the commencement of construction of combat craft. At that time nobody had experience in operating such vehicles.. M.» On March 11. that the Chief Military Council of the Red Navy had discussed the results of trials of the fast attack craft built according to Professor Levkov’s design. Vladimir Levkov (first row. designated L-5. Professor Levkov was appointed Head and Chief Designer of the newly established TzKB-1 (Central Design Bureau #1). Once the hovercraft’s engines failed and the vehicle landed in a deep swamp. Plant #445 in Tushino near Moscow. 1924 the Chief Military Council of the Red Navy considers it necessary to build the first prototype series of nine such craft and distribute them among all fleets to train personnel and develop techniques of tactical employment of this new weapon system. The hovercraft could also carry eight depth charges. Tevosyan. In December 1938. Frinovsky. Torpedo attachment points were arranged under the center section in the dome space. soon the engines were restarted. over flat shore and swampy areas covered with sedge. was built in 1937. the boat ascended and recovered itself from the swamp. Molotov. the People’s Commissar of the Red Navy. The tests lasted for 10 days. a need 1998 MARCH 6 APRIL 63 . was chosen as the new hovercraft production facility.

. he left Pilot house cross-section of the L-9 fast attack craft. 1939 the shipbuilding industry to start working permanently at the MTIIP as a professor. as the German forces continued their advance. In 1941. all of these craft were transferred to the Kronshtadt’s Litke base and remained there until 1947. the impact of the craft with waves changed the setting of louvers and occasionally damaged them. In October 1941. vessel’s operation was limited to sea state 4. ASW and troop landing missions. Despite apparent success. Levkov in 1935 for the manufacture of training boats emerged. In vary ing maritime conditions. As fierce fighting approached Moscow.Assault hovercraft proposed by V. The discouraging reports stated that pressure under the craft was low due to air escape through the vessel’s open extreme ends which reduced the craft’s load-carrying capacity. as enemy forces penetrated Russia. Levkov was appointed Chief Engineer of the plant which was ordered to produce troopcarrying gliders. they were not sufficiently air-cooled and would subsequently overheat if run for long periods of time. pilots. Vladimir Levkov held one of his positions at the Hydraulics Department of Moscow Food Industry Institute (MTIIP). an old city in the Urals. they were considered obsolete and subsequently scrapped. And since the engines were positioned horizontally. Designers worked on these units. On the eve of 1954. designated L-9. it was World War II which ultimately brought Levkov’s ambitious project to the ground. From 1944. patrol. which had already received about a dozen of various types of air-cushion vehicles. Finally. Arrangement of water-cooled engines in a row required the introduction of angled reduction gear units to drive propellers. The same sad fate took the only six-engine hovercraft. Vladimir Levkov was buried at the Golovinskoye cemetery in Moscow. on the 2nd of January. This was just the time when Christopher Cockerell began experimenting with his first elementary hovercraft models. Levkov suffered an apoplectic attack at his institute and two days later. he died of a hemorrhage of the brain. A training boat. mechanics and gunners. the main problem involved the aeroengines. soon appeared. An attempt to transport it from Moscow to Gorky unfortunately failed. However. Vladimir Levkov realized that his hovercraft had some serious shortcomings. It was designed for the training of its commanders. Levkov’s Design Bureau and Plant 64 MILITARY PARADE #445 were evacuated to Alapayevsk. and could also be used for liaison. they often sputtered and stalled when water penetrated into the exposed carburetors. In May 1952. In 1947. Hovercraft built before the war were assigned to the Baltic Fleet. but the task turned out to be too complicated for the time. sprays produced by the powerful engines limited visibility. the unique craft was destroyed. remaining a consultant of the Central Design Bureau involved in the development of hovercraft. Both good and discouraging reports were coming from the Baltic Fleet.

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