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Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Certificate

This is to certify that Miss. Snigdha student of M.B.A. Ist Year having Enrollment No 1000122099 has completed her semester project on the subject TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT AT MIDDLE LEVEL EMPLOYEES under my supervision and guidance.

The behavior of the student during the project period was found to be highly appreciable and satisfactory. I wish her all the best for his future endeavours.

Ms TAHSEEN FATIMA, FACULTY GUIDE, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT & RESEARCH.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

PREFACE

The global economy of the day has endangered the survival of every organization and in particular those who want to have a competitive edge over the others. The competitive edge may be a distant dream in the absence of Superior Quality Products which otherwise is the function of welltrained employees. Today resources are scarce and have to be used carefully and trainers of all kinds are required to justify their position and account for their activities. Training activities, which are ill, directed and inadequately focused, do not serve the purpose of the trainers. The trainees or the organization hence identification of training needs becomes the top priority of every progressive organization. Identification of training needs, if done properly, provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered and will lead to multiskilling, fitting people to take extra responsibilities increasing all round competence and preparing people to take on higher level responsibility in future.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

CONTENT
S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CHAPTERS 1 2 3 a) b) c) d) TOPICS Introduction HAL overview Research methodology Research Objectives Sampling Data collection Statistical tool used 8 9 10 11 12 e) f) g) h) Data Analysis and 43-57 Interpretation questionnaire Conclusion Recommendation Bibliography 58-63 65 66 67 40 41 42 38 PAGE NO. 3-26 27-36 37

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. It is being increasing common for individual to change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills go basically unchanged during the forty or so years if his career is extremely unlikely, may be even impossible. In a rapid changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Training being covered in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it.

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Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express the deepest gratitude to Professor Doctor Zeeshan Aamir, Dean and HOD of MBA who helped me throughout the work with deep sincerity and concern and fostered improved thinking and reasoning in regard to this project work. Also, this project would not have been possible without the guidance and persistence of my faculty guide, Ms. Tahseen Mam. I sincerely thank the Integral University for providing me with this invaluable opportunity to carry out a piece of work on my own. I would also like to thank my colleagues and friends who provided me with their suggestions on a regular basis and forced me to re-think and re-evaluate my work and improve it significantly. Finally I would like to thank my parents who showed deepest confidence in me and this project and believed in the importance of this work.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

CHAPTER-1 INTODUCTION OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT


MEANING OF TRAINING:
TRAINING AS A SEQUENCE OF EXPERIENCES OR OPPORTUNITIES DESIGNED TO MODIFY BEHAVIOUR IN ORDER TO ATTAIN A STATED OBJECTIVES.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not and ends in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching or learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. In todays scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization they are the cornucopia of ideas. So it high time the organization realize that train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

LEARNING AND TRAINING


Irrespective of the type or method of training, a trainer has to keep in mind some of the principles of learning or motivation, which would enhance internationalization of what is taught.

PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
MO TIVATIO N Learning is enhanced when the learner is motivated. Learning experience must be designed so learners can see how it will help in achieving the goals of the organization. Effectiveness of training depends on motivation. FEEDB ACK

Training requires feedback. It is required so the trainee can correct his mistakes. Only getting information about how he is doing to achieve goals, he can correct the

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

deviations. REINFO RCEM ENT The principle of reinforcement tells the behaviors that are positively reinforced are encouraged and sustained. It increases the likelihood that a learned behavior well be repeated.

PRACTIC E

Practice increases a trainees performance. When the trainees practice actually, they gain confidence and are less likely to make errors or to forget what they have learned. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

Individual training is costly. Group training is advantageous to the organization. Individuals vary in intelligence and aptitude from person to person. Training must be geared to the intelligence and aptitude of individual trainee.

OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY An instructor can help employees increase their level of performance on their assignment. Increase in human performance leads to increase in the operational productivity and also the increase in the profit of the company. TO IMPROVE QUALITY

Better-trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. It can be in relationship to the company or in reference to the intangible organizational employment atmosphere. TO HELP A COMPANY FULFILL ITS FUTURE PERSONNEL NEEDS The organizations having good internal training and

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

development programmes will have to make less changes and adjustments. When the need arises, vacancies can be easily staffed. TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE An endless chain of positive reactions result from a well planned training programme.

TO IMPROVE HEALTH AND SAFETY

Proper training can prevent industrial accidents. A safer atmosphere leads to more stable attitudes on part of the employees. PERSONAL GROWTH Employees on a personal basis gain individually from their exposure to educational expressions. Training programmes give them wider awareness and skills

NEED FOR TRAINING

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

To impart to the new entrants the basic knowledge and skills they need for definite tasks. To assist employees to function more effectively in their present positions by exposing them to new concepts. To build a line of competent people and prepare them to occupy more responsible positions. To reduce the supervision time, wastage and spoilage of new material. To reduce the defects and minimize the industrial

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

accidents. To ensure the economical output of the required quality. To prevent obsolescence. To promote individual and collective morale, responsibility and cooperative attitudes etc.

TRAINING INPUTS

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

There are three basic types of inputs; (i)Skills. (ii)Attitude. (iii)Knowledge.

The primary purpose of training is to establishing a sound relationship is at its best when the workers attitude to the job is right, when the workers knowledge of the job is adequate, and he has developed the necessary skills. Training activities in an industrial organization are aimed at making desired modifications in skills, attitudes and knowledge of employee so that they perform their jobs most efficiently and effectively

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


It is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.

TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT

Traditional Approach : Most of the organizations before

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

The modern approach of training and development: is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

TRAINING DEFINED
It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees.

Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. Its not what you want in life, but its knowing how to reach it. Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there. Its not how high you want to rise, but its knowing how to take off. It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome. Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

knowledge to do it. It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision. Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it. Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.

Importance of Training and Development


Optimum Utilization of Human Resources :
Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

Development of Human Resources : Training


and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

Development of skills of employees : Training


and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees

Productivity : Training and Development helps in


increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal

Team spirit : Training and Development helps in


inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and interteam collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Organization Climate : Training and Development


helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

Quality : Training and Development helps in improving


upon the quality of work and work- life.

Healthy work-environment :Training and


Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.

Health and Safety : Training and Development helps

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

Morale : Training and Development helps in improving


the morale of the work force.

Image : Training and Development helps in creating a


better corporate image.

Profitability : Training and Development leads to


improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Training and Development aids in organizational

development i.e.

Organization gets more effective decision

making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVES


The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: 1- Individual 2-Organizational

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

3-Functional 4-Societal.

Individual Objectives : help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.

Organizational Objectives : assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives : maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the Organizations needs.

Societal Objectives : ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.

Importance of Training Objectives


Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives.

1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator

Trainer :
The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Trainee :
The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainees mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is Set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.

Designer:
The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then hell buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately.

Evaluator :

It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Training and Human Resource Management

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.

MODELS OF TRAINING Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. Training is a

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs). THE TRAINING SYSTEM A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives, functions, and aim. It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating, delivering, and evaluating. There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material, time required in every system to produce products or services. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organizations requirement. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems. Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned basis. Out of this planned effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. Organization are working in open environment i.e. there are some internal and external forces, that poses threats and opportunities, therefore, trainers need to be aware of these

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

forces which may impact on the content, form, and conduct of the training efforts. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment; need to be up to date with the latest technologies.

THE THREE MODEL OF TRAINING ARE: 1. System Model 2. Instructional System Development Model 3. Transitional model

System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards.

Model of training are as follows:

1. Analyze and identify the training needs : to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

2. The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. 3. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents. 4. Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. 5. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. 6. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT MODEL (ISD) MODEL Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. ANALYS IS : This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis. 2. PLANN ING :This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. DEVELO PM ENT : This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4.EXECUT IO N : This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments,

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. EVALUAT IO N : The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices.

Transitional model The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e. inner loop is executed.

Vision : focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

promising to meet some other deadlines Mission : explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees, and all other stakeholders. Values :is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

DEVELOPMENT:

Training and development go hand in hand and are often used synonymously but there is a difference between them. Training is the process of learning a sequence of programmed behavior . It is an application of knowledge. It gives people an awareness of the rules and procedures to guide their behavior. It intends to improve their performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.

Development is a related process. It covers not only those activities, which improve job performance, but also those, which bring about growth of the personality. It helps individual in the progress towards maturity and actualization of potential capabilities so that they can become not only good employees but better human beings.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

CHAPTER-2

HAL AN OVER VIEW

MISSION To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving selfreliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of aerospace defence equipment and diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence"

VALUES CUSTOMER SATISFACTION


We are dedicated to building a relationship with our customers where we become partners in fulfilling their mission. We strive to understand our customers

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

needs and wants.

COMMITMENT TO TOTAL QUALITY


We are committed to continuous improvement of all our activities. We will supply products and services that conform to highest standards of design, manufacture, reliability, maintainability and fitness for use as desired by our customers.

COST AND TIME CONSCIOUSNESS


We believe that our success depends on our ability to continually reduce the cost and shorten the delivery period of our products and services. We will achieve this by eliminating waste in all activities and continuously improving all processes in every area of our work.

INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY


We believe in striving for improvement in every activity involved in our business by pursuing and encouraging risktaking, experimentation and learning at all levels within the company with a view to achieving excellence and competitiveness.

TRUST AND TEAM SPIRIT


We believe in achieving harmony in work life through mutual trust, transparency, co-operation and a sense of belonging. We will strive for building empowered teams to work towards

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

achieving organizational goals.

RESPECT FOR THE INDIVIDUAL


We value our people. We will treat each other with dignity and respect and strive for individual growth and realisation of everyone's full potential.

INTEGRITY
We believe in a commitment to be honest, trustworthy, and fair in all our dealings. We commit to be loyal and devoted to our organization. We will practice self discipline and own for our actions. We will comply with all requirements so as to ensure that our organization is always worthy of trust.

HISTORY

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) came into existence on 1st October 1964. T he Company was formed by the merger of Hindustan Aircraft Limited with

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur. The Company traces its roots to the pioneering efforts of an industrialist with extraordinary vision, the late Seth Walchand Hirachand, who set up Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore in December 1940. The Government of India became a shareholder inMarch 1941 and took over the Management in 1942.

Today, HAL has 19 Production Units and 9 Research and Design Centers in 7 locations in India. The Company has an impressive product track record 12 types of aircraft manufactured with in-house R & D and14 types produced under license. HAL has manufactured over 3550 aircraft 3600en gin es and overhauled over 8150 aircraft and 27300 engines. HAL has been successful in numerous R & D programs developed for both Defense and Civil Aviation sectors.

HAL has made substantial progress in its current projects:

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Dhruv, which is Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Tejas - Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) Various military and civil upgrades.

HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs by participating in the manufactureof structures for Satellite Launch Vehicles like: PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) GSLV (Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle)

IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) INSAT (Indian National Satellite)

Apart from these seven, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas Turbine and Airport Services. Several Co production and Joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defense Services, Coast Guards and Border Security Forces. Transport Aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness. HAL has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, Managerial Performance, Exports, Energy Conservation,

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Quality and Fulfillment of Social Responsibilities.

HAL was awarded the INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD for CorporateAchievement in Quality and Efficiency at the International Summit (Global Rating Leaders 2003), London, UK by M/s Global Rating, UK in conjunction with the International Information and Marketing Centre (IIMC).

HAL was presented the International -ARCH OF EUROPE Award in Gold Category in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, Technology and Innovation.

At the National level, HAL won the "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management, instituted by the Standing Conference of Public Enterprises (SCOPE). The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2006-07 with a turnover of Rs.7,783.61 Crores.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

HAL PRODUCT PROFILE

Su 30 MKI /Air

Twin-seater, Multi-role, Long range Fighter / Bomber Superiority Aircraft. MiG-27 M

Single-seater Tactical Fighter / Bomber with variable sweep wings EJECTION SEAT The Ejection Seat is installed to provide safe escape to the Pilot from the Aircraft while catapuling is effected with the help of a combined Ejection Gun. The Division has the facilities and expertise in the manufacture and overhaul of ejection seats for both MiG-27M and MiG-21 variants. Jaguar International HAL commenced production of Jaguar International - deep penetration strike and battlefield tactical Support Aircraft in 1979 under licence from British Aerospace, including the engine, accessories and avionics.Jaguar aircraft is designed with 7 hard points ( 4 under wing, 2 over wing and 1 under fuselage) capable of. Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) With a proven track record and established technology for

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

manufacture of helicopters and its components, the Helicopter Division commenced series production of Dhruv (Advanced Light Helicopter) in 2000 - 2001. to FAR 29 specifications.

Major Features
Designed to perform both utility and attack roles

Twin engine configuration which allows continued flight virtually throughout the flight envelope

Incorporates a number of advanced technologies: Integrated Dynamic System (IDS) , Anti-resonance Vibration Isolation System (ARIS) , Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) , Hingeless Main Rotor, Bearingless Tail Rotor and Automatic Flight Control System

7 Dhruv Helicopters were delivered to Indian Defence Forces in 2000-2001 Exports :

Airbus A320 Forward Passenger Doors Boeing 757 Over Wing Exit Doors Boeing 777 Uplock Box Assembly Boeing 767 Bulk Cargo Doors Boeing 737 Freighter Conversion Kits BAE Systems Tornado Pylons Fokker Aerostructures F50 Horizontal

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Stablizers Boeing -3D-Modelling / Digitisation of Drawings

IN INDIA

Corporate Office Bangalore Liaison Offices Mumbai Delhi Chennai Manufacturing Units Bangalore Hyderabad Lucknow Korwa ( UP) Koraput (Orissa )

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Kanpur Nasik ( Maharashtra) Design Centers Bangalore Hyderabad Nasik. Liaison Offices out of India London Moscow

FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Rupees in Crores Particulars 2007-08 2008-09 Growth over Previous Year Sales 8625 10373 20.27% VOP 8791 11811 34.35% Profit before tax 2164 2335 7.90% Profit after tax 1632 1740 6.62% Gross Block 2255 2638 16.98%

CHAPTER-3

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Everyprojectwork is basedon certain methodology,which is a way to systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is avery important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data collection and data analysis . According to Clifford Woody, Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems, collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching to conclusions. Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows: Defining the objectives of the study Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives) Feedback from the employees Analysis of feedback

Conclusion, findings and suggestions.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The first & foremost step in any research work is to identify the problems or objectives on which the researcher has to work on. MAJOR OBJECTIVE To analyze the existing training practices, its effectiveness and recommend measures to improve the training practices in HAL. MINOR OBJECTIVES To study the frequency of training, training methods and their effects on the trainees and recommend certain measures for improvement.

To understand the present practices enforced in respect of training at the personnel department and recommend any changes if necessary.

To take feedback and analyze the level of satisfaction amongst the employees in respect of training activities and suggest alternatives.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formats being followed and is limited to the company HAL and its employees. The different training programmes incorporated/facilitated in HAL through its faculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


The broad objective of the study of training policies in HAL is to study the impact of training on the overall skill development of workers. The specific objectives of the study are: 1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce. 2. To examine the impact of training on the workers. 3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. 4. To measure the differential change in output due to training 5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY Defining the objectives of the study

Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives) Feedback from the employees Analysis of feedback Conclusion, findings and suggestions.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE In order to take a reasonable sample size and not to disturb the functioning of the organization, a sample size of reasonable strength of the Company has been taken in order to arrive at the present practices of training in the Company. Accordingly, 125 officers have been selected at random from all the departments of the organization and feedback forms (questionnaire) have been obtained. The data has been analyzed in order to arrive at present training practices in the organization.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED The technique of Random Sampling has been used in the analysis of the data/Random sampling from a finite population refers to that method of sample selection, which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being included in the sample. This sampling is without replacement, i.e. once an item is selected for the sample, it cannot appear in the sample again. DATA COLLECTION To determine the appropriate data for research mainly two kinds of data was collected namely primary & secondary data as explained below: PRIMARYDATA Primary data are those, which were collected afresh & for the first time and thus happen to be original in character. However, there are many methods of collecting the primary data; all have not been used for the purpose of this project. The ones that have been used are: Questionnaire

Informal Interviews Observation SECONDARY DATA

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Secondary data is collected from previous researches and literature to fill in the respective project. The secondary data was collected through: Text Books Articles Journals Websites

STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are: Pie Charts Tables

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The following are the limitations of the study: The sample size was small and hence the results can have a degree of variation. The response of the employees in giving information was lukewarm.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY Training Effectiveness is the process wherein the management finds out how effective it has been at training

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

and developing the employees in an organization. This study gives some suggestions for making the present training and development system more effective. It gives organization the direction, how to deal differently with different employees. It identifies the training & development needs present among the employees.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


1) How many training programmes have you attended in last 5 years? No. of Programmes Responses 0-5 6-10 10-15 More than 15 Total 50 32 25 18 125 40% 26% 20% 15% 100% No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

INTERPRETATION 45% of the officers have attended 6-15 training programmes in the last 5 years, which is an indication of an effective training policy of the organization. However, 40% of the officers have attended only 0-5 training programmes, which needs to be evenly monitored by the organization.

2) The programme objectives were known to you before attending it. Options No. Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree 7 25 31 43 19 25% 35% 15% 5% 20% no. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Total

125

100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

INTERPRETATION 35% of the respondents moderately agree to the fact of knowing the training objectives beforehand, in addition to 25% who strongly agree. But a small population disagrees as 20% strongly disagree to this notion. Training objectives should therefore be made known compulsorily before imparting training in the organization.

3) The training programme was relevant to your developmental needs. Options Responses No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
%of r espondents

37 50 19 12 7 125

30% 40% 15% 10% 5% 100%

37 50 19 12 7 125

INTERPRETATION 70% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were in accordance to their developmental needs. 15% respondents could not comment on the question and 15% think that the programmes are irrelevant to their developmental needs and the organization must ensure programmes that satisfy the developmental needs of the officers.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

4- The period of training session was sufficient for the learning. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 38 26 27 20 14 125 31% 21% 21% 16% 11% 100% No. of Respondents % of

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION 52% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 25% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 21% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be beneficial and the

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

organization should plan for this to be implemented in the near future.

5) The training methods used during the training were effective for understanding the subject. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
no. of respondents

No. of Respondents

% of

25 50 19 19 12 125

20% 40% 15% 15% 10% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION 40% of the respondents believe that the training methods used during the programmed were helpful in understanding the subject, yet 25% disagree to this notion. The organization should use better, hi-tech methods to enhance

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

the effectiveness of the methods being used during the training programmes.

6) The training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
no. of respondents

No. of Respondents

% of

32 50 12 19 12 125

25% 40% 10% 15% 10% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION 65% respondents believe that the training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience. 10% respondents

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

could not comment on this while 25% differ in opinion. They feel that the training sessions could have been more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.

7) The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
no. of respondents

No. of Respondents

% of

25 32 44 18 6 125
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

20% 25% 35% 15% 5% 100%

INTERPRETATION

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

40% of the respondents believe that the training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness, yet 20% disagree to this notion. 35% respondents did not comment on the issue. Yet the total mindset of the respondents was that the organization should use better scientific aids to enhance the presentation and acceptance value of the training programme.

8) The training was effective in improving on- the- job efficiency. Options No. Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total
no. of respondents

of Respondents

% of

19 38 25 25 18 125

15% 30% 20% 20% 15% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

INTERPRETATION 45% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 35% disagree to this. The view of the respondents were towards having more technological and current topics for the training programmes which could help them satisfy their creative urge and simultaneously increase their on-the-job efficiency.

9) In your opinion, the numbers of training programmes organized during the year were sufficient for officers of HAL. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 13 19 31 12 50 125 10% 15% 25% 10% 40% 100% No. of Respondents % of

no. of respondents

1 2 3 4 5 6

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

INTERPRETATION 25% respondents have the opinion that the frequency of the training programmes is sufficient but 50% of the respondents differ to this. They believe that the number of training programmes organized in a year should be increased and some in house training programmes should also be organized by the organization regularly.

10) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year? No. of Programmes Responses Upto 2 3-5 6-8 More than 8 Total
no. of respondents

No. of Respondents

% of

78 31 12 4 125

62% 25% 10% 3% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

INTERPRETATION 35% of the workers have attended 3-8 training programmes in the last year, which is the clue of a useful training policy of the organization. However, 62% of the workers have attended only 0-2 training programmes, which should be effectively seen by the organization. Also, every worker should be given chances to attend as many training programmes as possible.

11) The training given is useful to you. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree
no. of respondents Strongly Disagree

No. of Respondents

% of

59 30 16 16 4 125
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

47% 24% 13% 13% 3% 100%

Total

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

INTERPRETATION 71% of the respondents feel that the training programmes were useful. 13% respondents could not comment on the question and 16% think that the programmes were irrelevant to their objective of being useful. The organization must ensure programmes that are useful and prove to cater to the developmental needs of the workers.

12) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 23 42 16 19 25 125 18% 34% 13% 15% 20% 100% No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

no. of respondents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

INTERPRETATION 42% respondents feel that the time limit of the training programme was adequate but 35% feel that it was insufficient. Also, 13% could not comment on the question. All the respondents though felt that increase in time limit of the programmes would certainly be advantageous and the organization should take some steps in this direction.

13) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree 56 25 13 25 45% 20% 10% 20% No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Strongly Disagree Total


no. of respondents

6 125

5% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION 65% respondents feel that the increase in the duration of the training programmes would be beneficial but 25% differ to this opinion. Going by the majority, the organization should make required changes to increase the duration of the programmes and also take the opinion of the workers to have an effective training session.

14) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency. Options Responses Strongly agree Moderately agree 46 31 37% 25% No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total

17 18 13 125

13% 15% 10% 100%

no. of respondents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION

62% respondents believe that the training programmes increase their job efficiency but 25% disagree to this. The respondents were of the opinion that having current topics for the training programmes and also some sessions by an external faculty would help them increase their on the job efficiency.

15) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme. Options Responses Strongly agree 31 25% No. of Respondents % of

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Moderately agree Cant Say Moderately Disagree Strongly Disagree Total


no. of respondents

13 37 25 19 125

10% 30% 20% 15% 100%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

INTERPRETATION 35% respondents believe that the training aids were effective in improving the overall efficiency of the programme. Contrary to this, 35% disagree and 30% could not comment on the issue. The organization should ensure positive awareness about the training aids used. Also, the use of better presentation aids should be facilitated. CHAPTER-7

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Sir / Madam I am a student of INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY. I am doing my MBA. As part of my curriculum I have selected the subject Training and Development at HAL as my project work. Thus, I am submitting my questionnaire to your kind opinion. This questionnaire is only for the study purpose. Thanking you Yours Faithfully Snigdha

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

QUESTIONNAIRRE ON TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN HAL AT MIDDLE LEVEL EMPLOYEES 1)How many training programmes have you attended in last 5 years? a) 0-5 b) 6-10 c) 10-15
d)

More than 15

2) The programme objectives were known to you before attending it. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

3) The training programme was relevant to your developmental needs. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

e) Strongly Disagree

4) The period of training session was sufficient for the learning. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 5) The training methods used during the training were effective for understanding the subject. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree 6) The training sessions were exciting and a good learning experience. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

e) Strongly Disagree 7) The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

8) The training was effective in improving on- the- job efficiency. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

9) In your opinion, the numbers of training programmes

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

organized during the year were sufficient for officers of HAL. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree c) Cant Say d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

10) How many training programmes have you attended during the last year? a) Upto 2 b) 3-5 c) 6-8 d) More than 8

11) The training given is useful to you. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree
c)

Cant Say

d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

12) The time limit of the training programme was sufficient a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree
c)

Cant Say

d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

13) The time limit of the training programme, if increased would make it more effective. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree
c)

Cant Say

d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

14) The training was effective in improving your on-the-job efficiency. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree
c)

Cant Say

d) Moderately Disagree

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

e) Strongly Disagree

15) The training aids used were effective in improving the overall effectiveness of the programme. a) Strongly agree b) Moderately agree
c) Cant Say

d) Moderately Disagree e) Strongly Disagree

Please suggest any changes you would like to have in the existing training programmes.
The major suggestions for changes in the existing training programmes are as follows: The frequency of the training programmes organized in a year should be increased. The duration of the training sessions should be

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

amplified. New programmes for personal as well as professional development of the officers should be developed. Officers should be referred for the training programmes as per their developmental needs. The training programmes should be organized outside the office in order to avoid disturbance in the work. Some training sessions should also be organized in house for the officers who find it difficult to attend them if held outside the office premises. Better presentation technologies should be used in order to increase the effectiveness of the programmes. The course curriculum for the training programmes should be current in terms of the new developments in the world.

CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS


The major findings of the project are enumerated as follows:

Training is considered as a positive step towards augmentation of the knowledge base by the respondents.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

The objectives of the training programmes were broadly known to the respondents prior to attending them.

The training programmes were adequately designed to cater to the developmental needs of the respondents.

Some of the respondents suggested that the time period of the training programmes were less and thus need to be increased.

Some of the respondents also suggested that use of latest training methods will enhance the effectiveness of the training programmes.

Some respondents believe that the training sessions could be made more exciting if the sessions had been more interactive and in line with the current practices in the market.

The training aids used were helpful in improving the overall effectiveness of the training programmes.

The training programmes were able to improve on-thejob efficiency. Some respondents also recommended that the number of training programmes be increased

RECOMMENDATIONS

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Based on the data collected through the questionnaire and interactions with the Officers of HAL the following recommendations are made for consideration: The organization may utilize both subjective and objective approach for the training programmes. The organization may consider deputing each employee to attend at least one training programmes each year. The In-house training programmes will be beneficial to the organization as well as employees since it will help employees to attend their official work while undergoing the training. The organization can also arrange part time training programmes in the office premises for short durations, spanning over a few days, in order to avoid any interruption in the routine work. The organization can arrange the training programmes department wise in order to give focused attention towards the departmental

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Effective Planning in Training and Development (Leslie Rae ) World Class Training (Kaye Thorne) Training in Practice (Blackwell ) Human Resource Management (C.B.Gupta ) Human Resource Management (T.N.Chabra )

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.

Study Of Training And Development At Middle Level Employees At Hindustan Aeronautics Limited.