June 19, 2011

Freedom More Important to Happiness than Wealth, Study Finds
SUNDAY, June 19 (Health Day News) -- Personal independence and freedom are more important to people's well-being than wealth, a new study concludes. Researchers at the Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand analyzed the findings of three studies that included a total of more than 420,000 people from 63 countries and spanned nearly 40 years. Their key finding: "Money leads to autonomy, but it does not add to well-being or happiness." The studies looked at data from three different psychological tests familiar to therapists:

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The General Health Questionnaire, which measures distress in terms of anxiety and insomnia, social problems, severe depression and physical symptoms of mental distress, such as unexplained headaches and stomach aches. The Spielberger anxiety inventory, which evaluates how anxious respondents feel at a particular moment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, which screens for emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment.

The analysis revealed "a very consistent and robust finding that societal values of [freedom and autonomy] were the best predictors of well-being," wrote psychologists Ronald Fischer and Diana Boer in an American Psychological Association release. "Furthermore, if wealth was a significant predictor alone, this effect disappeared when individualism was entered," they added. "Our findings provide insight into well-being at the societal level," the researchers concluded. The study appears in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Remember. and other nationalities to learn about our customs. this has allowed the English to learn about unfamiliar lands. It s allowed us all to become much more aware about global issues. the television can drain productive time and efforts and essentially waste time on needless entertainment. with news channels that cover breaking news from all over the world. It is indeed one of the most wonderful things that man has ever invented. television also has its downsides. Short films based on popular stories are often shown which entertain millions of people all over the world. Whilst TV programmes are there to be enjoyed. Students who cannot go to school because of transport or other problems are taught all their lessons at home through television. In some countries television is used to teach pupils and students many useful lessons. One of which is its hypnotising characteristics that draw children and adults alike to its screen to indulge in hours worth of entertainment. Listening requires knowledge of many things. as well as take in information in regards to science and culture. Be sure that you re not wasting productive time when you re watching television. this form of leisure should be enjoyed responsibly. The use of television The outline: A wonderful invention Why it is popular Why it is useful The end Television enables us to see things in distant places. it is fair to say that TV has transformed society. and grow as people. Much like the Internet. One of the main advantages is that we can now take in information quickly. Pictures taken in all parts of the world are also shown on television for entertainment as well as for instruction. the television is a fantastic and quick source of information. As television appeals to the eye instead of the ear. and you ll be able to achieve the perfect balance. and learn about things we would not otherwise have learned about. but what we see with our eyes explains that itself. Through the television. people enjoy watching more than listening to the radio. But of course. Through this wonderful invention we learn about people and events thousands of miles away. just like many other things in life. we can learn about distant lands and their current issues.Television is of course one of the biggest human inventions. It has also provided a great source of media and information for all generations. Thanks to imported shows and satellite crews being able to broadcast live from wherever they are. . Along with the light bulb and the car. allowing us all to watch entertaining shows and take in information. Television not only entertains people but also teaches people a variety of important things.

For all these reasons. I have on occasions switched off the set because no one was watching it only to have my uncle switch it on again almost immediately. However there is always the danger of making a habit of watching television. There is nothing wrong in watching these programs. It is fine we jus use television as a source of entertainment or to be informed about things happening around the world. He used to watch the television a lot but now he just switches on the set and does something else. people glue their eyes on their sets to watch their favorite shows. Someone who must have a cup of coffee every morning would be upset if he could not get one. He finds it unbearable not to have the set on. A habit is something we always do and might get upset if we could not do it for some reason or other. It is of enormous benefit to both . It is quite ridiculous really. For example. that is. but I noticed he is addicted to he sound from the television. One great abuse if television is how it is used by advertisers. I asked him why and he said that he just wanted the set on. So television exerts a large influence on us. a person who makes a habit of watching television would be upset if he misses his favorite programs. Cartoons keep children entertained. its use and abuse Television must be the most popular pastime for human beings today. In fact documentaries are very informative and we do learn many things from such programs. but they must be done in moderation. To be addicted or attached to television is to abuse it. News keeps us up to date with the latest developments. There is no shortage of programs to keep the viewers occupied. These are all symptoms of addiction. Similarly. Every day and night. one feels compelled to have the television on. Just about everyone watches television and just about every house has a television set. the first thing my uncle does whenever he comes home is to switch on the television. In other words one becomes a kind of a slave to it and may spend hours just watching it. like those of a drug addict. Then we use television wisely and do not get attached to it. Word-meaning: Appeals to = attracts Entertain = to interest Distant = far away Invented = made for the first time Enable = make able Requires = needs Television. A man who has made smoking a habit would be very upset if he is not allowed to do so. there is no doubt that television will continue to be popular for a long time.

Instead of watching television. First. French. First. we may sit around together after dinner and actually talk to one another to know and like each other better. television. German. television helps us enrich our spiritual lives.advertisers and television station to have advertisement on television. the situation on television now is such that the time allocated for advertisement is about the same as that for the actually programs. television plays an important role in our daily activities: it keeps us informed of all current affairs in the world. The advantages and disadvantages of television Nowadays many people all over the world spent most of their free time watching television. the station spend more time screening advertisements than the actual show. Our knowledge is broadened in many ways. homework undone and lessons unprepared. . The world seen through television is only the restricted one: It separates us from the real world. So we watch television. Humorous stories and funny films bring us minutes of relaxation after a hard day s work. For me. Without the distraction of television. This is sheer abuse. Events through television are more vivid than those through books and magazines. Whichever it is we reap the results of our actions. Second. Finally only we know whether we are making use of it wisely or we are abusing it. Apart from its advantages. We can become skilful and clever at doing jobs. Second. However. with its fascinating power. Pupils and students are so absorbed in television that they neglect their school activities. television is a source of recreation. Food is left uneaten. Television may be a splendid media of communication. Housewives are so keen on watching television that they neglect their duties toward their husbands and their children. but since its appearance. sitting comfortably in an arm-chair to watch an international football match on television is more interesting than having to queue for tickets at a crowded stadium. television has brought to man many advantages as well as disadvantages. we may use the time for a real family hour. Through language teaching programs. in some popular programs. In fact. No one wants to have their programs interrupted so often by repetitions of advertisement that become so boring after a while. however. makes people of all ages sink into oblivion: whole generations are growing up addicted to the telly. making cakes or arranging flowers through practical courses taught on television. we can learn the language we like such as: English. television also brings lots of disadvantages to viewers too. but it prevents us from communicating with each other or with the outer world. Chinese. television viewers gradually become passive in their action. Japanese and so on. The viewers also get to know what product are available and the advertisers get to sell their products. Finally.

the must "discussion of family every day" before going to bed vanish. spoiled b*tch Paris Hilton ."The Simple Life" is the ultimate front-runner for this.Sexual : i don't see it much on T.A bad effects .Finally. Innoscence gives happiness. Spectacles of sadism and violence on television lead them to robbery.V . 2. killings and bombings.It be the first information source for a lot of people .Because of this they become more matured at an early age.Not Healthy : watching TV . less exercise don't learn to talk don't learn to communicate Learn something you should learn . 3. Time limits and monitoring it for children are some ways of keeping control of what they learn. especially with that ugly. and that make them away from the first really clean source THE BOOKS ! It kills innoscence in children. television is useful to us when we know how to use it: Be careful not to overindulge ourselves in it and use it in a discerning manner. rape and murder. In a nutshell.They lose their innoscence and childish behaviour which is a boon to mankind. the evil influence of television on the young generation is inevitable. theft.Some of the companies use it for sex TV films and programs . But also there are some adults as well that are boob tube watchers.The children are forced to know everything which is not necessary or suitable for their age. Because of watching TV.on the kids . we sometimes lose our confidence to go out.horrify movie : this kind of movie will teach people to do crazy stuff. . 2. Because of violent news. do nothing Things being blown out of proportion Things being distorted and perceived the way the networks want it to be Celebrities' private lives being intruded upon Trash programs that promote idiodicy-. it encourages them to commit crimes. Disadvantages Some of the disadvantages are : 1.But the kids are not enjoying this happiness in the present world. and that of course case a lot of social problems .becouse they learn every bad thing shows on the TV . but it is my favorite type of movie. 1.

weather.etc. sound and motion Disadvantages Message is temporary.You can see some news.. as most ads are only thirty seconds long or less.. and motion. but i love my tv cos it has good shows on it 4 entertainment!!! im not really concerned about the "getting glasses" part of tv. production and airtime costs There are more disadvantages than advantages. it offers the ability to convey your message with sight.information. less audience selectivity Advantages Chris Hall Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences Television being an image-building and visual medium.education programs.Advantages: good mass-market coverage.etc Chris Hall also some disadvantages is that:the children can become abuse (really really fat) they can damage their eyesight and learn unnecessary things Read more: . combines sight. high clutter.frightening/scary films & if you use it for a long time it may be dangerous to watch more. sound. low cost per exposure. fleeting exposure. which limits the amount of information you can communicate Relatively expensive in terms of creative. You can see some advertisements for many things. appeals to the senses Disadvantages: high absolute costs.culture. Advantages: *You can use the televion to see many channels. Disadvantages: *you can see some of the harmful ideas. and may require multiple exposure for the ad to rise above the clutter Ads on network affiliates are concentrated in local news broadcasts and station breaks Preferred ad times are often sold out far in advance Limited length of exposure.

Media theorist Joshua Meyrowitz argues that the medium has guided its viewers to areas and subjects to which they were previously denied access.[5] . and teach them to understand complex social aspects of communication. that television can be a very powerful and effective learning tool for children if used wisely. Similarly. The Good Things about Television. it can be considered that printing was the medium considered the main channel to access information and knowledge.[2] Just as an individual would spend time with a real person sharing opinions and thoughts. watching a favorite TV show was able to create a cushion and prevent the individual from experiencing reduced self-esteem and feelings of inadequacy [2] that can often accompany the perceived threat. For example Elspeth Van Veeren argues that the television show 24 helps audiences to understand the global war on terror. when an event such as a fight or argument disrupts a personal relationship. and Kurt Hugenberg of Miami University found that when an individual is not able to participate in interactions with real people.[3] They refer to this finding as the Social Surrogacy Hypothesis.com/Q/What_are_the_advantages_and_disadvantages_of_television#ixzz1QlRfLcW T Positive effects Before TV. [edit] Educational advantages Several studies have found that television has many educational advantages. The Media Awareness Network.[4] Dimitri Christakis cites studies in which those who watched "Sesame Street" and other educational programs as preschoolers had higher grades. they are less likely to indicate feelings of loneliness when watching their favorite TV show.answers. while those exposed to negative role models suffered. The article states that television can help young people discover where they fit into society. By providing a temporary substitute for acceptance and belonging that is experienced through social relationships TV is helping to relieve feelings of depression and loneliness when those relationships are not available. Jaye Derrick and Shira Gabriel of the University of Buffalo. were reading more books. develop closer relationships with peers and family. explains in its article. Furthermore. placed more value on achievement and were more creative. those exposed to positive models behaved better. This benefit is considered a positive consequence of watching television as it can counteract the psychological damage that is caused by isolation from social relationships. pseudo-relationships are formed with TV characters by becoming personally invested in their lives as if they were a close friend [2] so that the individual can satiate the human desire to form meaningful relationships and establish themselves in society.http://wiki.[1] [edit] Social surrogacy hypothesis Current research is discovering that individuals can employ television to create what is termed a parasocial or faux relationship with characters from their favorite television shows and movies as a way of deflecting feelings of loneliness and social deprivation.

He asserted that.000 people during the period between 1975 and 2006. although the direction and value of this change are disputed.[11] [edit] Physical effects Studies in both children and adults have found an association between the number of hours of television watched and obesity. Television. A study conducted by Herbert Krugman found that while viewers are watching television the right side of the brain is twice as active as the left which causes a state of hypnosis.[8] According to recent research.or readership.´ and will acquit criminals of charges unless presented with impressive physical evidence. The research was conducted with 30. including "boob tube" and "chewing gum for the mind". which concluded that watching TV was the happiest time of the day for some people.[6] Newton N. This new study slightly contradicted previous research. Milton Shulman. and lack of alibi are presented by the prosecution. Robinson commented that watching TV could bring a short-time happiness. even when motive. as well as influencing its viewers. juries today expect to be ³dazzled. people who are not satisfied with their lives spend 30% more time watching TV than satisfied people do.[10] although this remains a controversial conclusion. even by the 1970s. writing about television in the 1960s. Minow spoke of the "vast wasteland" that was the television programming of the day in his 1961 speech. Complaints about the social influence of television have been heard from the U. when a person plays video games or watches TV.´ and noted that on-air vulgarity was highly frowned upon.[7] Television has also been credited with changing the norms of social propriety. television was shaping the ideas of propriety and appropriateness in the countries the medium blanketed. prof.´ They complain that. conducted by John Robinson and Steven Martin from the University of Maryland.[edit] Negative effects There are many pejorative terms for television. showing the disdain held by many people for this medium. testimony. because of the popularity and considerable viewership of CSI and its spin-offs. television could create a comfortable familiarity with and acceptance of language and behavior once deemed socially unacceptable. wrote that ³TV cartoons showed cows without udders and not even a pause was pregnant. Some scientists believe that release of high amounts of dopamine reduces the amount of the neurotransmitter available for other purposes. which would be just a result of an overall dissatisfaction. justice system as investigators and prosecutors decry what they refer to as ³the CSI Syndrome. the basal ganglia portion of the brain becomes very active and dopamine is released. evoked an imitative response from other competing media as they struggle to keep pace and retain viewer.S.[12] A study found that watching television decreases the . However. Shulman suggested that. as a particularly ³pervasive and ubiquitous´ medium.[9] [edit] Psychological effects Some studies suggest that.

2009) has indicated that.[17] [edit] Alleged dangers See also: Media violence research Legislators. the backbone turns to water and the fingers slowly and methodically pick the designs out of brocade furniture.[22] The same paper noted that there was a significant negative association between time spent watching television per day as a child and educational attainment by age 26: the more time a child spent watching television at ages 5 to 15. A 2002 article in Scientific American suggested that compulsive television watching. A longitudinal study in New Zealand involving 1000 people (from childhood to 26 years of age) demonstrated that "television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with poor educational achievement by 12 years of age". the less likely they were to have a university degree by age 26.[23] .[18][19] Bushman & Anderson[18] among others have claimed that the evidence clearly supports a causal relationship between media violence and societal violence. television addiction. was no different from any other addiction. contrary to previous thought. scientists and parents are debating the effects of television violence on viewers. and "television addiction" is not a diagnoseable condition according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual -IV -TR. television viewing appears to have little to no impact on cognitive performance.[13] Author John Steinbeck describes television watchers: "I have observed the physical symptoms of television-looking on children as well as on adults.[21] However this view has not yet received widespread acceptance among all scholars.. the eyes take on a hypnotized or doped look. Such is the appearance of semiconsciousness that one wonders how much of the message of television is getting through to the brain. the nose runs rather more than usual. Fifty years of research on the impact of television on children's emotional and social development have not ended this debate. once other factors are controlled for. The mouth grows slack and the lips hang open.[15][16] TV watching and other sedentary activities is associated with greater risk of heart attack. a finding backed up by reports of withdrawal symptoms among families forced by circumstance to cease watching."[14] The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that children under two years of age should not watch any television and children two and older should watch one to two hours at most. Children who watch more than four hours of television a day are more likely to become overweight. However other authors[19][20] note significant methodological problems with the literature and mismatch between increasing media violence and decreasing crime rates in the United States. particularly youth. However recent research (Schmidt et al.metabolic rate in children to below that found in children at rest.

less sexual experience amongst both male and female adolescents. undermining democracy: "Americans are the best entertained and quite likely the least- . Numerous studies have also examined the relationship between TV viewing and school grades. the American Psychological Association. Many studies have found little or no effect of television viewing on viewers[28] (see Freedman. news and current affairs. 2000 the American Academy of Pediatrics. The Cultivation Hypothesis suggests that some viewers may begin to repeat questionable or even blatantly fictitious information gleaned from the media as if it were factual. and that parental television involvement may influence self-esteem and body image. The US military and State Department often turn to media to broadcast into hostile territory or nation.[24] A study published in the Journal of Sexuality Research and Social Policy concluded that parental television involvement was associated with greater body satisfaction among adolescent girls. however. 2002) [edit] Propaganda Television is used to promote commercial. advertorials and talk shows are used to influence public opinion. social and political agendas. using propensity score matching to control for other variables. the American Academy of Family Physicians.[31] [edit] Politics While the effects of television depend on what is actually consumed. creates a politically ignorant society.[25] However a more recent article by Christopher Ferguson. the American Medical Association. television viewing of sexual media had no impact on teen sexual behavior in a longitudinal analysis [27]. scholars have since analyzed several statements in this release. in part by increasing parent-child closeness. Benjamin Winegard. the effectiveness of television for propaganda (including commercial advertising) is unsurpassed. and found many errors (Block & Crain.However this study was limited to cognitive performance in childhood. and a comparison with medical effects. and Bo Winegard cautioned that the literature on media and body dissatisfaction is weaker and less consistent than often claimed and that media effects have been overemphasized [26]."[30] However. 2007. however. Use of public service announcements (including those paid for by governing bodies or politicians). Considerable debate remains. both about the number of studies conducted. For example a recent long-term outcome study of youth found no long-term relationship between watching violent television and youth violence or bullying [29] On July 26. and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry stated that "prolonged viewing of media violence can lead to emotional desensitization toward violence in real life. television advertisement. but not informative programming. 2002). Freedman. Neil Postman argues that the dominance of entertaining. whether the Cultivation Hypothesis is well supported by scientific literature. Similarly recent work by Laurence Steinbrerg and Kathryn Monahan has found that.

the opportunity to access current or historical political views. These "other lives" portrayed on television left many women unsatisfied with their current socialization. The Japanese manufacturer Scalar has developed a very small TV-system attached to the eyeglasses. even the most homebound women can experience parts of our . such as the Videocassette recorder and the Digital video recorder."[32] However some broadcasters do offer Americans intelligent political narrative and argument. [edit] Technology trends In its infancy. called "Teleglass T3-F". The representation of males and females on the television screen has been a subject of much discussion since the television became commercially available in the late 1930s. Both mobile phone networks and the Internet can give us video streams. men¶s feminine sides are tapped by the emotional nature of many television programs. Journalist Susan Faludi suggested. The term appointment television was coined by marketers to describe this kind of attachment. insecure little household drudge who spends her martyred mindless.[33] [edit] Gender and television While women. Although most of the women portrayed on television conformed to stereotypes. fleeting medium. Television service providers also offer video on demand.´ As women started to revolt and protest to become equals in society in the 1960s and 1970s. television also showed the lives of men as well as news and current affairs. In 1964 Betty Friedan claimed that ³television has represented the American Woman as a ³stupid. a set of programs which could be watched at any time.[34] Television played a significant role in the feminist movement. Fans of regular shows planned their schedules so that they could be available to watch their shows at their time of broadcast. This offers otherwise ignorant viewers.´ Through television. their portrayal on the television was an issue that they addressed. video sharing websites have become popular. for example. who may not read about politics elsewhere. ³The practices and programming of network television in the 1980s were an attempt to get back to those earlier stereotypes of women. it acted on the schedule of the institutions that broadcast the television signal or operated the cable. television was a time-dependent. boring days dreaming of love²and plotting nasty revenge against her husband. Consumers could watch programs on their own schedule once they were broadcast and recorded. who were ³traditionally more isolated than men´ were given equal opportunity to consume shows about more ³manly´ endeavors. The viewership's dependence on schedule lessened with the invention of programmable video recorders.informed people in the Western world. unattractive.

television can show children what adults may not want them to know. law. much research and development is being dedicated to regain control.[38] Critics such as Jean Kilborne have claimed that television. monitor and restrict children's consumption of television. This is evident in a 1999 study by Lauzen and Dozier showing that "43% of all major characters on television are female". in 1973. offensive or indecent.[37] Often.´ In 1972 they challenged the licences of two network-owned stations on the basis of their sexist programming. The inherent intimacy of television makes it one of the few public arenas in our society where men routinely wear makeup and are judged as much on their personal appearance and their "style" as on their "accomplishments. Now you have female leads playing superheroes. medicine.[39] George Gerbner has presented evidence that the frequent portrayals of crime." From 1930 to 2007 daytime television hasn¶t changed much. war. They formed a task force to study and change the ³derogatory stereotypes of women on television. Prime time television since the 1950s has been aimed at and catered towards males. the literacy level required to understand is substantially lower as well as it being difficult to monitor a child's use of the device and anticipate the content that will be delivered through it. In 1970 the National Organization for Women (NOW) took action. as well as other mass media images. In the 1960s the shows I Dream of Jeannie and Bewitched insinuated that the only way that a woman could escape her duties was to use magic. the view among frequent viewers of television that crime rates are much higher than . or super business women. ³For years. harm the self image of young girls. However. has led to the Mean World Syndrome.[35] [edit] Suitability for audience Almost since television's inception there has been claims that some programming is. especially minority crime. 68% of characters in primetime dramas were male. deliberately try to. In 1952. Topics unsuitable for children would be written for a higher level of literacy and when most children would try to read these books they would be beyond their literary capabilities. Other commentators such as Sut Jhally make the case that television advertisers in the U. A key example of this is in the television show Father Knows Best where children are let in on perhaps the biggest secret: that adults keep secrets from them. such as sports. when men were behind the camera.S. This was not as much of a problem when books were the main source of information because the literacy level of books would often correspond with the "appropriate" topics for children. Soap operas and talk shows still dominate the daytime time slot. women were really ditsy. 74% of characters in these shows were male. in one way or another.´ Current network broadcasting features a range of female portrayals. business. inappropriate. Industry analysis Shari Anne Brill of Carat USA states.[36] With television. and politics.culture once considered primarily male.

political or otherwise. In addition. a lot of television has been charged with presenting propaganda. and being pitched at a low intellectual level. .the actual data would indicate.

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