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The International Labour Organization

(ILO)
&
International Labour Standards
(ILS)

Tim De Meyer,
Specialist on International Labour Standards &
Labour Law
International Labour Office, Bangkok Subregional Office for
East Asia (SRO Bangkok), Thailand

tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf (ILO)


ESifh
tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;

wif'Dar,m
tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;ESifh
tvkyform;Oya'
rm;Oya' txl;u|rf;usifol
ta&S@tm&Sa'o&kH;cGJ (SRO befaumuf) xdkif;EdkifiH
demeyer@ilo.org
3

Part I
The International Labour Organization

tydkif; (1)
tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf (ILO)

International Labour Organization


 Organization of Governments, Employers and Workers from
181 countries
 Mandate to promote social justice through decent work as a
matter of
 Respect for individual dignity
 Economic and social development
 International peace and stability

tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf (ILO)


 EdkifiHaygif; (181) EdkifiHrS tpdk;&rsm;/ tvkyf&Sifrsm;ESifh tvkyform;rsm;.tzGJ@
 atmufygudpP&yfrsm;twGuf oifhjrwfaom tvkyf rSwqifh
vlr_w&m;r#wr_ udk tm;ay;jrifhwif&ef tcGifhtm%m
 vlwOD;csif;. *k%foduQmudk av;pm;jcif;
 pD;yGm;a&;ESifh vlr_a&; zGH@z;wdk;wufr_
 EdkifiHwum+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh wnf+idrfa&;

ILOs Decent Work Agenda

 Decent work = work which does not only provide men or


women a pass-time and a short-term livelihood, but also
 Rights, i.e. the power to choose and negotiate accordingly
 Protection against the uncertainties of (working) life for workers
and their families
 Participation in the workplace and the wider community

(ILO) . oifhjrwfaomtvkyf vkyfief;pOf


 oifhjrwfaomtvkyf ] trsKd;om;a&m trsKd;orD;twGufyg acwfESifhtnD
a&wdk toufarG;0rf;ausmif;tvkyfudk ay;&kHru
 tcGifhta&;rsm;/ Oyrm- oifhwifh avsmufywfpGm a&G;cs,fcGifh
ndE_dif;aqmif&GufcGifhtm%m
 tvkyform;rsm;ESifh wdk@. rdom;pkrsm;twGuf tvkyftudkifb0 raocsmr_rsm;rS
tumtuG,fay;jcif;
 vkyfief;cGifY omru &yf&GmwckvkH;wGifyg yl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufjcif;wdk@udkvnf;
ay;pGrf;ygonf?
9

Decent Work Strategic Objectives


 To promote and realize fundamental principles and rights at
work
 To create greater opportunities for women and men to secure
decent employment and income
 To enhance the coverage and effectiveness of social protection
for all
 To strengthen tripartism & social dialogue

10

oifhjrwfaom tvkyfenf;AsL[m &nf&G,fcsufrsm;


 tajccHoabmw&m;rsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGif tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
em;vnfoabmaygufI tm;ay;jrifhwif&ef
 oifhjrwfaom tvkyftudkifESifh 0ifaiGudk tmrcHEdkif&ef trsKd;orD;ESifh
trsKd;om;rsm;twGuf ydkrdk}uD;rm;aom tcGifhtvrf;rsm; zefwD;&ef
 tm;vkH;twGuf vlr_a&;umuG,fr_rsm;. xda&mufr_ESifh us,fjyef@r_udk
wdk;csJ@&ef
 okH;OD;zvS,fpHepfESifh vlr_a&; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;r_ tm;aumif;vmap&ef
11

ILO ITUC Relationship

 ILO is an international forum for G, E & W


 ITUC gives a voice to workers

 ITUC is a consultative organization of the ILO, as is







the World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)


The Organization of African Trade Union Unity (OATUU)
The European Trade Union Council (ETUC)
The International Organization of Employers (IOE)

12

ILO ITUC qufqHa&;


 ILO onf tpdk;&/ tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;rsm;twGuf
EkdifiHwumawG@qkHaqG;aEG;r_ rsufESmpmw&yf jzpfonf/ / ITUC onf
tvkyform;rsm;. toHjzpfonf/
 ITUC onf ILO . twdkifyifcH tzGJ@jzpfonf/ ITUC onf





tvkyform;or*~rsm;. urBmhtzGJ@csKyf (WFTU)


tmz&du tvkyform;or*~ nD!Gwfa&;tzGJ@ (OATUU)
Oa&my tvkyform;or*~aumifpD (ETUC)
EdkifiHwum tvkyf&Sifrsm;tzGJ@ (IOE) wdk@ yg0ifaoma=umifh jzpfonf?
13

ILO ITUC Relationship

 Where independent trade unions are absent or weak, ITUC


plays an important role in bringing
 Representations or complaints
 Information on the application of ratified conventions

 ITUC may endorse information from NGOs such as AntiSlavery International or the Global March

14

ILO-ITUC

qufoG,fr_

 vGwfvyfaom tvkyform;or*~rsm;r&Sdaom odk@r[kwf


tm;enf;aomae&mrsm;wGif ITUC onf atmufygwdk@udk
aqmifusOf;&ef ta&;}uD;aom tcef;urS yg0ifonf/
 udk,fpm;yaqmif&Gufay;jcif; odk@r[kwf wdkif=um;jcif;
 twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;udk tokH;y&ef
owif;tcsuftvufay;jcif;

 u|efyjcif; qef@usifjcif; EdkifiHwumtzGJ@ odk@r[kwf


wurBmvkH;csDwufjcif; paom NGO rsm;rS
owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ITUC u twnfyay;Edkifygonf?
15

ILO means of action


 Setting and supervising the application of
international labour standards
 Providing technical cooperation to developing
countries
 Collecting and disseminating information
(knowledge)

16

ILO onf v_yf&Sm;r_udk udk,fpm;yonf?


 EdkifiHwum tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;udk tokH;yjcif;tm;
}uD;=uyfjcif;ESifh ypkcsrSwfjcif;
 zGH@z;qJEdkifiHrsm;odk@ enf;ynmqdkif&m yl;aygif;ulnDr_ ay;tyfjcif;
 owif;tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;ESifh jzef@a0ay;jcif;
(A[koko)
17

Part II
International Labour Standards

18

tydkif; (2)
tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;

19

International Labour Standards

 Conventions
(Protocols)
 States must consider
ratification, but do not
have to ratify
 If ratified, they are
binding under
international law
 ILO does not accept
reservations
 If not ratified, they still do
influence national law &
policy

 Recommendations
 Not open to ratification
 Same authority as
Conventions
 Contain good practices,
guidelines, higher directly
addressed to W & E
organizations

20

tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;
jyXmef;csufrsm; (us
(usifhxkH;rsm;)
 EdkifiHawmfonf twnfyjcif;udk
pOf;pm;&rnf/ odk@aomfrjzpfrae
twnfyay;&efrvdk
 twnfy+yD;ygu EdkifiHwum Oya't&
rjzpfrae vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnf/
 ILO onf cif;csufrsm;udk vufrcHyg/
 twnfryxm;v#ifvnf;
jynfwGif;Oya'ESifh rl0g'rsm;tay:
v$rf;rdk;r_ &Sdonf/

t}uHycsufrsm;
 twnfy&efrvdk
 jyXmef;csufrsm;uJhodk@ vkyfEdkifcGifh &Sdonf/
 tavhtusifhaumif;rsm;/
vrf;!$efcsufrsm;/ tqifhjrifhpHE_ef;rsm;
(odk@) tvkyform;ESifh
tvkyf&SiftzGJ@rsm;udk wdkufcdkuf
OD;wnfaom t}uHOm%frsm;

21

International Labour Standards


 Since 1919, the International Labour Organization has adopted
188 Conventions, 199 Recommendations and 5 Protocols





Fundamental human rights at work


Occupational safety and health
Social security
Employment policy

 Governing Body has extensively reviewed the relevance of the


all ILS since 1995

22

tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;
 1919 rS pwifI ILO onf jyXmef;csuf 188 ck/ t}uHycsuf 199 ck ESifh
usifhxkH; 5 ck csrSwf+yD; jzpfonf?





vkyfief;cGifqdkif&m tajccHvl@tcGifhta&;rsm;
tvkyftudkif vkHcHr_ESifh usef;rma&;
vlr_zlvkHa&;
tvkyftudkif rl0g'

 tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@onf 1995 ckESpfuwnf;u EdkifiHwum


tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm; tm;vkH;udk us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ jyefvnf
avhvmokH;oyfcJh+yD; jzpfonf?
23

ILO Conventions in Asia Pacific


 Ratification average at about 66% of world average, 40% of
OECD average
 60-40-24-15

 East Asia ratifications significantly lower than in the rest of


Asia
 Many countries start to ratify again after long periods of
drought
 Ratification record dominated by older technical Conventions,
but FHR Conventions are on the rise

24

tm&Sypdzdwfa'o ILO jyXmef;csufrsm;


 wurBmvkH;wGif 60 twnfy+yD;/ OECD EdkifiHrsm;. ysrf;r# 40
 60-40-24-15

 ta&S@tm&S twnfyrlonf useftm&SEdkifiHrsm;xuf ododomom


avsmhenf;onf/
 rdk;acgifa&&Sm; jzpfaomumv +yD;qkH;aomtcg EdkifiHtrsm;tjym;
pwiftwnfyvm=uonf?
 twnfyr_rSwfwrf;onf enf;ynm jyXmef;csufa[mif;rsm;. v$rf;rdk;r_
&Sdonf/ odk@aomf FHR jyXmef;csufrsm; ay:aygufvm+yD jzpfonf?

25

Governing Body Revision Policy


 Up to date: 79 C (+ 5 p), 79 R
 To be revised: 22 C, 14 R
 Outdated (including withdrawn; replaced or shelved
instruments): 60 C, 69 R
 Requests for info: 5 C, 12 R
 Interim status: 24 C, 26 R
 No conclusion: 1C, 1 R

26

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@ jyifqifcsufrl0g'
 ,ae@txd- 79 pD ( 5 yD) 79 tm
 jyefvnfjyifqif&ef- 22 pD 14 tm
 acwfrrDSawmh (&kyfodrf;/ tpm;xdk;/ acsmifxdk;xm;aom ud&d,mrsm;
tygt0if)
 60 pD/ 69 tm
 owif;tcsuftvuf- 5 pD/ 12 tm twGuf yef=um;csufrsm;
 =um;umv tajctae- 24 pD/ 26 tm
 qkH;jzwfcsufrus- 1pD/ 1 tm
27

ILO: Organizational Structure


 International Labour Conference
 Tripartite world assembly of labour
 (1 E + 2 G + 1 W) x 181
 Adopts Conventions and Recommendations

 Governing Body of the IL Office


 Tripartite executive council
 14 E + 28 G (10) + 14 W
 Sets agenda of the Conference

 International Labour Office


 Secretariat, headed by a Director-General

28

ILO tzGJ@tpnf; zGJ@pnf;ykH


 tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;nDvmcH
 okH;yGifhqdkif tvkyform; (urBmhnDvmcH)
 (1 tvkyf&Sif 2 tpdk;& 1 tvkyform;) 181
 jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh t}uHycsufrsm; twnfyjcif;

 EdkifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJ@&kH;.
;. tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@
 okH;yGifhqdkif tkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpD
 tvkyf&Sif 14 tpdk;& - 28 (10) tvkyform; 14

 EdkifiHwum tvkyform;tzGJ@&kH;
 !$ef=um;a&;r;csKyf OD;aqmifaom twGif;a&;r;tzGJ@

29

IL Standards Terminology
 Adoption ( = creation)
 Submission to the competent authorities ( = dissemination and
orientation)
 Ratification ( = commitment)
 Denunciation (= cancelling commitment)
 Application (= law and practice)
 Supervision (= monitoring application by ILO)

30

EdkifiHwum tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm; a0g[m&rsm;


 wifoGif;jcif; (] zefwD;jcif;)
 Oya'ytm%m&Sdaom tm%mydkiftzGJ@rsm;odk@ tqdkywifjyjcif;
(] today;jcif;ESifh &Sif;vif;wifjyjcif;)
 w&m;0iftwnfyjcif; (] vdkufemaqmif&Gufjcif;)
 oabmwlpmcsKyf &yfpJjcif; (] twnfyvdkufemr_udk zsufodrf;jcif;)
 vufawG@tokH;yjcif; (] Oya'ESifh vufawG@ usifh}uHr_)
 }uD;=uyfuGyfuJjcif; (] ILO u }uD;=uyfI vufawG@tokH;yjcif;)

31

How an international labour standard is adopted


PROBLEM IS
IDENTIFIED

OFFICE PREPARE S LAW AND

GOVERNING BODY

PRACTICE REPORT WITH QUESTIONNAIRE ON


CONTENT OF POSSIBLE NEW INSTRUMENT

PUTS TOPIC ON AGENDA OF


INTERNATIONAL
LABOUR CONFERENCE

REPORT SENT TO GOVERNMENTS,


EMPLOYERS AND WORKERS FOR
COMMENTS

G.E.W
FIRST DISCUSSION OF

OFFICE ANALYZES COMMENTS


AND PREPARES PROPOSED
CONCLUSIONS

PROPOSED CONCLUSIONS
AT THE CONFERENCE

OFFICE PREPARES REPORT


WITH SUMMARY OF
DISCUSSION AND DRAFT
INSTRUMENT

REPORT SENT TO
GOVERNMENTS, EMPLOYERS
AND WORKERS FOR COMMENTS

G.E.W
OFFICE PREPARES REVISED
DRAFT OF INSTRUMENT

SECOND DISCUSSION OF DRAFT


INSTRUMENT AT THE
CONFERENCE

INSTRUMENT IS
ADOPTED BY THE
CONFERENCE WITH A
2/3 MAJORITY VOTE

Who adopts international labour standards ?


The international Labour Conference brings together delegations from all ILO member states. Each delegation comprises:
2 government delegates
1 employer delegate
1 worker delegate
Government, employer and worker delegates each have one vote in plenary.
32

tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;udk twnfyykH


tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
ILO ESpfvnfnDvmcH.
tpDtpOfwGif
acgif;pOfxnfhoGif;

jy\emudkazmfxkwf

tpdk;&/tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;rsm;udk
a0zeft}uHy&ef tpD&ifcHpm ay;ydk@
&kH;rSt}uHycsufrsm;udk qef;ppfI
t}uHyqkH;jzwfcsufudk jyifqif

jzpfEdkifacs&Sdaom ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk
ppfwrf;ar;cGef;v$mESihftwl &kH;uOya'ESihf
vufawG@usihfoHk;ykHukd jyifqifa&;qGJ

tpdk;&
tvkyf&Sif tvkyform;
t}uHyqkH;jzwfcsufukd
nDvmcHY yxrt}udrf
aqG;aEG;

&kH;u aqG;aEG;csuf
tusOf;ESihf pmwrf;
rl=urf;udkjyifqif

tpdk;&rsm;/ tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;rsm;odk@


rl=urf;tpD&ifcHpm wifykd@

&kH;u pmwrf;rl=urf;udk
jyefvnfjyifqifa&;qGJ

tpdk;&
tvkyf&Sif tvkyform;
t}uHyqkH;jzwfcsufukd
nDvmcHY 'kwd,t}udrf
aqG;aEG;

pmwrf;rl=urf;udk nDvmcHY
okH;ykHESpfyHk trsm;pkjzifh twnfy

EdkifiHwum tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;udk b,folawGu twnfy=


y=uovJ/
EdkifiHwum tvkyform;nDvmcHu ILO tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;tm;vkH;rS udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk
nDvmcHodk@ aqmifusOf;vm+yD;
tpdk;& udk,fpm;vS,f 2
tvkyf&Sif udk,fpm;vS,f 1
tvkyform;udk,fpm;vS,f 1
pkHnDtpnf;ta0;wGif tpdk;&/ tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; rJwrJpDom ay;cGihf&dSonf/
33

The regular supervisory process

GOVERNMENTS
SUBMIT REPORTS
ON RATIFIED
CONVENTIONS

COMMITTEE OF
EXPERTS SENDS
DIRECT REQUEST
TO GOVERNMENT,
AND EMPLOYERS
AND WORKERS
ORGANIZATIONS

EMPLOYERS AND
WORKERS MAY
COMMENT

G.E.W
COMMITTEE OF
EXPERTS REVIEWS
REPORTS,
COMMENTS AND
RELATED
DOCUMENTS

TRIPARTITE COMMITTEE
AT THE CONFERENCE
DISCUSSES THE REPORT
AND A SELECTION OF
OBSERVATIONS

COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS
PUBLISHES AN
OBSERVATION IN ITS
ANNUAL REPORT

CONFERENCE DISCUSSES
AND ADOPTES THE
CONFERENCE
COMMITTEES REPORT IN
PLENARY

34

ykHrSef}uD;=uyf
;=;=uyfuGyfuJa&;jzpfpOf
tpdk;&u twnfyxm;aom
jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhywfoufI
tpD&ifcHpmrsm; wifoGif;

u|rf;usifolrsm;aumfrwDu
tpdk;& tvkyf&Sif ESifh tvkyform;
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk wdkuf&kduf
arwWm&yfcHcsufay;ydk@

u|rf;usifolrsm;aumfrwDu
odk@r[kwf tpD&ifcHpmrsm;/
a0zefcsufrsm;ESifhoufqdkifaom
rSwfwrf;rsm;udk jyefvnfavhvm
okH;oyf
u|rf;usifolrsm;aumfrwDu
a0zefcsufrsm;awG@&Sdcsufudk 4if;.
ESpfywfvnftpD&ifcHpmwGif
ykHESdyfjcif;

tpdk;&
tvkyf&Sif/ tvkyform;
okH;yGifhqdkifaumfrwDonf
tpD&ifcHpmESifh avhvmokH;oyfcsuf
tcsKd@udk nDvmcHwGif aqG;aEG;

nDvmcH aqG;aEG;jcif;ESifh pkHnDtpnf;ta0;wGif


nDvmcHaumfrwD. tpD&ifcHpmudk csrSwfjcif;

35

The Representations Procedure


GOVERNING BODY
SENDS
REPRESENTATION TO
COMMITTEE ON
FREEDOM OF
ASSOCIATION

REPRESENTATION BY
EMPLOYERS OR WORKERS
ORGANIZATIONS IS
SUBMITTED TO ILO

OR

ILO INFORMS THE


GOVERNMENT
CONCERNED AND
SUBMITS
REPRESENTATION TO
GOVERNING BODY

GOVERNING BODY
APPOINTS TRIPARTITE
COMMITTEE

GOVERNING BODY
MAKES FINDINGS
ADOPTS REPORT, AND
PASSES CASE TO
COMMITTEE OF
EXPERTS FOR
FOLLOW-UP

TRIPARTITE
COMMITTEE ASKS
GOVERNMENT FOR
INFORMATION AND
SUBMITS REPORT
WITH FINDINGS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

OR
GOVERNING BODY DECIDES
NOT TO RECEIVE THE
REPRESENTATION

OR
GOVERNING BODY
ASKS FOR A
COMMISSION OF
INQUIRY TO DEAL
WITH THE MATTER AS
A COMPLAINT

36

udk,fpm;yr_
m;yr_ vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;
tvkyf&Sifrsm;/
tvkyform;rsm;.
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u ILO
udk,fpm;yr_udk wifjy

ILO u
oufqdkfif&m
tpdk;&udk
ta=umif;=um;I
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@odk@
udk,fpm;yr_udkwifjy

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
vGyfvyfpGmtoif;tyif;zGJ@pnf;cGifh
aumfrwDudkudk,fpm;yr_ay;ydk@

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
okH;yGifhqdkifaumfrwDcef@tyf

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
udk,fpm;yr_udk
vufrcH&efqkH;jzwf

okH;yGifhqdkifaumfrwDu
tpdk;&udkowif;tcsuf
tvufawmif;IawG@&Sd
t}uHycsuftpD&ifcHpm
ay;ydk@

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
awG@&Sdcsufrsm;avhvm
tpD&ifcHpmudk
twnfy
u|rf;usifolrsm;tzGJ@odk@
qufvufaqmif&Guf
&efay;ydk@
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
TudpPtm; wdkif=um;csufw&yf
taejzifh qufvufudkifwG,f&ef
pkHprf;ppfaq;a&;aumfr&Sifudk
awmif;qdk
37

The Complaints Procedure


MEMBER STATE OR
INTERNATIONAL
LABOUR CONFERENCE
DELEGATE OR
GOVERNING BODY
INITIATES COMPLAINT

GOVERNING BODY MAY


APPOINT A
COMMISSION OF
INQUIRY

COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
INVESTIGATES COMPLAINT
AND ADOPTS REPORT WITH
RECOMMENDATIONS

OR
GOVERNING BODY
FORWARDS COMPLAINTS
CONCERNING TRADE UNION
RIGHTS TO COMMITTEE ON
FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION

GOVERNING BODY NOTES


REPORT AND PASSES CASE
TO COMMITTEE OF
EXPERTS FOR FOLLOW-UP

ILO PUBLISHES REPORT

GOVERNMENT ACCEPTS
RECOMMENDATIONS OR MAY
APPEAL TO THE
INTERNATIONAL COURT OF
JUSTICE

GOVERNING BODY MAY TAKE


ACTION UNDER ARTICLES 33

38

wdkif=um;csuf vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;rsm;
tzGJ@0ifEdkifiH (odk@) ILO ESpfvnfnDvmcH
tvkyform; (odk@) tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rS
wdkif=um;jcif;

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@onf
pkHprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sifudk
cef@tyfEdkif

pkHprf;ppfaq;a&; aumfr&Sifonf
wdkif=um;csufudk pkHprf;avhvmI
t}uHycsufrsm;jzifh tpD&ifcHpm
a&;qGJ twnfyonf

(odk@r[kwf)
tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u tvkyform;or*~
tcGifhta&;ESifhqdkifaom wdkif=um;csufrsm;tm;
FAO aumfrwDodk@ v$Jajymif;ay;onf

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rS tpD&ifcHpmudk
rSwfcsufa&;I u|rf;usifolrsm;
aumfrwDodk@ qufvufaqmif
&Guf&ef ay;ydk@onf

tpdk;&u t}uHycsufrsm;udkvufcH
(odk@) tjynfjynfqdkif&mw&m;&kH;odk@
qufvufyef=um;

ILO rS tpD&ifcHpmudk
xkwfa0onf

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@rS yk'fr 33 t&


ta&;,lonf

39

The Freedom of Association Procedure


DIRECT CONTACTS
MISSION MAY BE
INITIATED

COMPLAINT IS
SUBMITTED TO THE
COMMITTEE ON
FREEDOM OF
ASSOCIATION BY
EMPLOYERS OR
WORKERS
ORGANIZATIONS

GOVERNING BODY
APPROVES
COMMITTEES
RECOMMENDATIONS

G. E. W
COMMITTEE REVIEWS
COMPLAINT AND
EITHER RECOMMENDS
NO FURTHER, OR
ISSUES
RECOMMENDATIONS
AND REQUESTS
GOVERNMENT TO
KEEP IT INFORMED

FOLLOW-UP BY THE
COMMITTEE ON
FREEDOM OF
ASSOCIATION

IF THE GOVERNMENT
HAS RATIFIED
RELEVANT
CONDITIONS, THE
CASE MAY ALSO BE
REFERRED TO THE
COMMITTEE OF
EXPERTS

40

vGyfvyfpGm toif;tzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;jcif; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;


wdkuf&kdufqufoG,f
aqmif&Gufaom
vkyfief;wm0efudk
aqmif&Guf

tvkyf&Sifrsm; (odk@)
tvkyform;rsm;.
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u
FAO aumfrwDodk@
wdkif=um;csufrsm;
ay;ydk@onf

tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u
aumfrwD. t}uHycsufrsm;udk
twnfy

vGyfvyfpGm toif;tzGJ@
zGJ@pnf;jcif; aumfrwDu
qufvufaqmif&Guf

tpdk;&/
;&/ tvkyf&Sif/ tvkyform;
rm;
aumfrwDu wdkif=um;csufrsm;udk jyefvnfokH;oyfI
aemufxyfta&;,laqmif&Gufr_rsKd; xyfrHyvkyf&ef
t}uHy (odk@) t}uHycsufrsm;xkwfjyefI tpdk;&udk
owif;ay;ydk@&ef arwWm&yfcHonf

tpdk;&u oufqdkif&m
jyXmef;csufrsm;udk
twnfy+yD;jzpfygu
u|rf;usifolrsm;tzGJ@odk@
v$Jajymif;ay;Edkifonf

41

Submission: what is it ?
 To bring newly adopted Conventions and Recommendations
before the national authorities competent to legislate or take
other action to give effect to the C. & R.
 Government must send Report of Submission to the ILO
 Copy of governments report must be sent to most representative
workers and employers organizations

42

tqdkywifjyjcif;qdkwm bmvJ
 xyfrHwifoGif;xm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh t}uHycsufrsm;udk
Oya'tm%m&Sdaom EdkifiHawmftm%mydkif tzGJ@rsm;odk@ wifjyjcif; odk@r[kwf
jyXmef;/ t}uHycsufrsm; xda&mufr_ &Sdvm&ef ta&;,laqmif&Gufjcif;
 tpdk;&rsm;u tqdkywifjyr_ tpD&ifcHpmudk ILO odk@ ay;ydk@&rnf?
 tpdk;&. tpD&ifcHpm rdwWLudk tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform; tzGJ@rsm;. udk,fpm;jyK
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;xHodk@ ay;ydk@&rnf?

43

Submission: why ?
 Obtaining a decision from the competent authorities on action
to take
 Submission must be accompanied by a statement of the governments
view
 (C. 144 = consultation !)
 Legislature should hold debate

 Informing and mobilizing public opinion, thus submission to


the legislative assembly even when
 this assembly is not vested with legislative power or
 the instrument does not require legislative action

44

bma=
bma=umifh tqdky wifjy&wmvnf;
 vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdaom tm%mydkifrsm;xHrS ta&;,laqmif&Guf&ef qkH;jzwfcsuf
&,ljcif;
 tqdkywifjyjcif;wGif tpdk;&.oabmxm;tjrif azmfjycsuf yg&rnf?
 (jyXmef;csuf 144 ] wdkifyifESD;aESmjcif;)
 Oya'ytzGJ@onf vGyfvyfpGm aqG;aEG;jiif;ckHEdkifonf

 atmufygtajctaersm;wGif jynfolwdk@. oabmxm;udk &,l+yD; Oya'y


nDvmcHodk@ wifoGif;Ekdifonf
 TOya'ytzGJ@u Oya'ytm%m r&SdcJhv#if (odk@)
 pmwrf;onf Oya'y&ef

45

Submission: when ?
 DG sends a certified copy of the authentic text of the
instruments to the Government
 Labour and/ or foreign affairs ministers

 Submission within 12 or, in exceptional circumstances, 18


months of adoption for
 Unitary states
 Federal states that consider the Convention or Recommendation
appropriate for federal action

 Submission within 18 months for federal states if constituent


states are competent to deal with the matter

46

b,ftcsdef tqdkywifjy&wmvJ
 !$ef/csKyf u pmwrf;. rl&if;rdwWLrSefudk ay;ydk@onf?
 tpdk;&tzGJ@. tvkyform;ESifh odk@r[kwf EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD;rsm;odk@ wifoGif;

 12 v twGif; tqdkywifjyjcif; odk@r[kwf xl;jcm;aom atmufygtajc


taersm;twGuf tqdkyv$m vufcHcsrSwf+yD; (18) vtwGif; twnfyonf
 wjynfaxmif EdkifiHrsm;
 jynfaxmifpktaejzifh oifhawmfaomjyXmef;/ t}uHycsufrsm;udk pOf;pm;&ef

 jynfaxmifpkEdkifiHrsm; jy\em&yfudk aqmif&Guf&ef pGrf;tif&Sdonfh


jynfe,fEdkifiHrsm;twGuf (18) v twGif; tqdkywifjy&ef

47

Art. 19 Reports: Features


 in respect of unratified Convs & Recoms, by topic
 every year the ILO Governing Body selects a different subject
matter
 follows a report form from the GB
 Govt reports due by 1 April of the year for which the GB has
requested the report
 Committee of Experts analyses reports with comments in a
General Survey

48

yk'fr 19 tpD&ifcHpm/
m/ vuQ%m&yfrsm;
 twnfryxm;aom jyXmef;/ t}uHycsufrsm;. acgif;pOftvdkuf
 ESpfpOf ILO tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@u uGJjym;aom ta=umif;t&mudpPudk
a&G;cs,fonf
 tkyf/zGJ@ . tpD&ifcHpm ykHpHudk vdkufem&onf/
 tkyf/zGJ@ u yef=um;xm;aom tpD&ifcHpmudk tpdk;&u ESpfpOf {+yDv (1)
&ufae@ aemufqkH;xm; ay;ydk@&onf?
 a,sbk,s pDppfjcif; wGif u|rf;usifolrsm; aumfrwDu tpD&ifcHpmudk
a0zefokH;oyfI rSwfcsufrsm; azmfjyonf?

49

Art. 19 Reports: Purpose


 to document comparative law and practice on a topic of
current interest
 to renew interest in an important, but forgotten standard
 to identify obstacles to ratification
 e.g. verify if certain provisions are too prescriptive

 to establish need for renewed promotion or revision of the


instruments concerned

50

yk'fr 19 tpD&ifcHpmrsm; &nf


&nf&G,fcsuf
 vwfwavm tusKd;&Sdap&ef acgif;pOfjzifh Oya'ESifh vufawG@tokH;csr_wdk@udk
E_dif;,SOf rSwfwrf;ypkjcif;
 ta&;}uD;aomfvnf; usefvSyfaeonfh pHE_ef;rsm;. tusKd;rsm;udk
jyefvnfqef;opfjcif;
 w&m;0ifjzpfatmif twnfy&mwGif ay:aygufvmonfh tcuftcJrsm;udk
azmfxkwfjcif;
Oyrm- tcsKd@jyXmef;csufrsm;onf usOf;ajrmif;vGef;aeovm;[k pkHprf;jcif;
 oufqdkif&m pmwrf;rsm;tm; jyefvnfjyifqifjcif; odk@r[kwf xyfrHqef;opf
tm;ay;jcif; twGuf vdktyfcsufudk azmfxkwfjcif;
51

Art. 19 Reports: Topics


 2002 Protection of Wages C., 1949 (No. 95)
 2003 Employment Policy C., 1964 (No. 122) & R. 122, 169
& 189 (Job Creation in SMEs)
 2004 Hours of Work (Industry) C., 1919 (No. 1) & the
Hours of Work (Commerce and Offices) C., 1930 (No. 30)
 2005 Labour Inspection C., 1947 (No. 81) & Labour
Inspection C., 1969 (No. 129)
 2006 Forced Labour C., 1930 (No. 29) & Abolition of
Forced Labour C., 1957 (No. 105)
 2007 Labour Clauses (Public Contracts), 1949 (No. 94)
 2008 Occupational Safety and Health C., 1981 (No. 155)

52

yk'fr 19 tpD&ifcHpmrsm; - acgif;pOfrsm;


 2002- vkyftm;crsm; tumtuG,fay;jcif;/ jyXmef;csuf-1949 (trSwf 95)
 2003- tvkyfcef@xm;r_qdkif&m rl0g' jyXmef;csuf-1946 (trSwf 122) ESihf t}uH 122196 ESifh 189 (SME rsm;Y tvkyftudkif azmfxkwfjcif;)
 2004- tvkyfcsdef (pufr_vkyfief;) (jy)-1919 (trSwf 1) ESifh tvkyfcsdefrsm;
 (0gdZ ESifh &kH;rsm;) (jy)-1930 (trSwf 30)
 2005- vkyfief;qdkif&m ppfaq;jcif; (jy)-1947 (trSwf 81) ESifh
 vkyfief;qdkif&mppfaq;jcif; (jy)-1969 (trSwf 129)
 2006- t"rRtvkyfapcdkif;r_ (jy)-1930 (trSwf 29) ESifh
 t"rR tvkyfapcdkif;r_ zsufodrf;jcif; (jy)-1957 (trSwf 105)
 2007- tvkyfqdkif&mursm; (tpdk;& ydnmOf) 1949 (trSwf 94)
 2008- vkyfief;cGif ab;tEW&m,f uif;&Sif;a&;ESifh usef;rma&; (jy)-1981 (trSwf 155)
(jy) ] jyXmef;csuf
53

Ratification
 Formal requirements: must clearly identify the Convention, be
an original document, signed by a person with authority to
engage the State, and clearly convey the intention to be bound
 Compulsory declaration to be included for certain Conventions
 Optional declarations as to the use of permitted exclusions,
exceptions or modifications
 Entry into force: one year after ratification is registered

54

w&m;0iftwnfyjcif;
 w&m;0if vkdtyfcsufrsm;- jyXmef;csufudk xif&Sm;pGm azmfjy&rnf/
 ,cifu r&Sdbl;aomrSwfwrf; jzpf&rnf/ EdkifiHawmftqifh tm%mydkifu
vufrSwfa&;xdk;&rnf/ vdkufemaqmif&Guf&rnfh &nf&G,fcsufudk &Sif;vif;pGm
jyo&rnf/
 tcsKd@ jyXmef;csufrsm;twGuf rjzpfrae azmfjy&rnfh a=ujimcsuf
 cGifhyxm;aom cif;csufrsm;/ odk@r[kwf jyifqifcsufrsm; tokH;yjcif;twGuf
a&G;cs,fI&aom a=ujimcsufrsm;
 vufawG@oufa&mufr_- w&m;0iftwnfyjcif;/ rSwfykHwif+yD; wESpft=um

55

Reports Ratified Conventions


 Based on article 22 of the Constitution
 Periodic reports:
 Two-yearly reports: 8 fundamental Conventions, 4 priority
ones
 Five-yearly reports: other Conventions
 Exemption from reporting for certain outdated Conventions
 Must reach the Office between 1 June and 1 September

56

tpD&ifcHpmrsm;- twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;


 tajccHzGJ@pnf;ykH/ yk'fr 22 ay: tajccHonf
 ykHrSef tpD&ifcHpmrsm;
 ESpfESpfw}udrf tpD&ifcHpmrsm;- tajccHjyXmef;csuf 8 ck/ OD;pm;ay; jyXmef;csuf
4 ck
 ig;ESpfw}udrf tpD&ifcHpmrsm;- tjcm;jyXmef;csufrsm;
 acwfESifh ravsmfnDaom jyXmef;csufwcsKd@twGuf tpD&ifcHpm uif;vGwfjcif;
 ZGefv (1) &ufESifh pufwifbmv (1) &uf t=um;wGif &kH;odk@a&muf&rnf?

57

Reports Ratified Conventions


 First report due one year after the entry into force
 form approved by the Governing Body
 Copies of relevant laws and regulations
 Position on permitted exclusions, exceptions or Detailed
report
 Must reply to all questions set out in the report
 Information on application in practice

58

tpD&ifcHpmrsm;- twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;


 yxrqkH; tpD&ifcHpmonf tzGJ@0ifa&muf+yD; wESpft=umwGif
pwif&rnf?
 tkyf/zGJ@ rS twnfyxm;aom ykHpH
 oufqdkifaom Oya'ESifh pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;. rdwWLrsm;
 cGifhyxm;aomcif;csuf/ uif;vGwfcGifh odk@r[kwf tao;pdwf
tpD&ifcHpmESifh ywfoufaom oabmxm;
 tpD&ifcHpmwGif ar;jref;xm;aom ar;cGef;rsm;udk ajz=um;&rnf/
 vufawG@usifhokH;r_ESifh ywfoufaom owif;tcsuftvuf

59

Reports Ratified Conventions


 Subsequent reports
 Simplified: indicate minor changes, provides information
on practical application
 Detailed: in reply to comments made by the CEACR can
be out of reporting cycle in case of failure to report or to
reply to earlier comments (footnote of the CEACR or the
Conference Committee)

60

tpD&ifcHpmrsm;- twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;


 aemufqufwGJ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;
 &Sif;vif;atmifyvkyfjcif;- tao;tzGJ@ ajymif;vJr_rsm; azmfjy/ vufawG@
usifhokH;r_ESifh ywfoufaom owif;tcsuftvufazmfjy
 tao;pdwf azmfjyjcif;- CEAR . rSwfcsufrsm;udk ajz=um;jcif;
 tpD&ifcH&ef ysufuGufjcif; odk@r[kwf tapmydkif;rSwfcsufrsm;udk
ajz=um;&ef ysufuGufjcif; jzpfygu tpD&ifcHpm wifoGif;csdefrsm;ESifh
rudkufnDEdkifyJ jzpfEdkifonf/ (CEAR odk@ nDvmcH aumfrwD.
atmufajcrSwfpk)

61

Representation (art 24 Constn)


 Can be filed by national or international organizations
of workers or employers
 examination
 by a tripartite committee (3 members), reporting to the
Governing Body (GB) on the basis of written information
 representation
 reply, if any, of the Government

62

udk,fpm;y azmfjyjcif; (yk


(yk'fr 24 tajccHOya')
ya')
 tvkyform; odk@r[kwf tvkyf&Sifrsm;.EdkifiH odk@r[kwf EdkifiHwum
tzGJ@rsm;rS owfrSwfEdkifonf/
 avhvmppfaq;jcif;
 okH;yGifhqdkif aumfrwD (tzGJ@0if 3 OD;) rS pmjzifh a&;om;xm;aom
owif;tcsuftvufudk tkyf/zGJ@ odk@ tpD&ifcHjcif;
 udk,fpm;y azmfjyjcif;
 tpdk;&udk jyefvnfajz=um;jcif; (ajz=um;p&m&Sdv#if)

63

Art. 24 Procedure
 (1) Office informs the Government and sends the
representation to the GB
 (2) Officers of the GB report to the GB on fulfillment of
conditions of receivablity





writing
workers or employers organization
reference to art. 24 ILO Constitution
against an ILO member State
 (and ex-member State)

 that has ratified the Convention


 indication of violation of the Convention

64

yk'fr 24 vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;
(1) ILO &kH;rS tpdk;&odk@ ta=umif;=um;I udk,fpm;y azmfjycsufudk tkyf /zGJ@
odk@ ay;ydk@onf?
(2) tkyf /zGJ@ t&m&Sdrsm;u tkyfzGJ@odk@ vufcHEdkifzG,f&m tajctaersm; jynfhpkHjcif;
&Sdr&Sd tpD&ifcHonf





pma&;om;azmfjyjcif;
tvkyform; (odk@) tvkyf&Sifrsm;. tzGJ@rsm;
yk'fr 24 ILO zGJ@pnf;ykHodk@ udk;um;
ILO tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHodk@ OD;wnfI
 (tzGJ@0ifa[mif;odk@)

 jyXmef;csufudk twnfyxm;aom
 jyXmef;csufudk azmufzsufa=umif; !$ef;qdkaom
65

Art. 24 Procedure
 (3) tripartite Committee with GB members OR reference to the
Committee on Freedom of Association
 (4) tripartite committee conducts private examination, and
proposes to the GB conclusions and recommendations, but
 committee may hear complainant
 government may request
 to be heard
 direct contacts

66

yk'fr 24 vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;
 (3) okH;yGifhqdkifaumfrwD (odk@) vGyfvyfpGm toif;tyif;zGJ@pnf;a&;
aumfrwDodk@ &nf!$ef;csuf
 (4) okH;yGifhqdkifaumfrwDu oD;jcm;avhvm ppfaq;r_yvkyfI
awG@&Sdaom aumufcsufESifh t}uHycsufrsm;udk tkyf/zGJ@ odk@
wifjyonf/ odk@aomf
 aumfrwDonf wdkif=um;csufrsm;udk =um;Edkifonf/
 tpdk;&onfvnf;
 =um;emcGifh&&ef
 wdkuf&kduf qufoG,faqmif&GufcGifh&&ef awmif;qdkEdkif =um;Edkifonf/
67

Art. 24 Procedure
 (5) GB considers the matter in private in the presence of the
Government
 (6) GB decides on whether to publish the representation and
the reply, if any, in the Official Bulletin
 GB can at any moment decide to have the representation further
examined under the complaints procedure
 e.g. C.111 Germany

 (7) Office notifies the decisions of the GB to the Government


and the complainant

68

yk'fr 24 vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;
(5) tkyf/zGJ@ onf tpdk;&tzGJ@. a&S@arSmufwGif jy\emudk oD;jcm;aqG;aEG;a&;udk
pOf;pm;onf
(6) tkyf/zGJ@ u xkwfa0onfh owif;jzef@csDr_ pmapmifwGif udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@
wifjycsufESifh jyef=um;csufwdk@udk xnfhoGif;pOf;pm; qkH;jzwfonf/
- tkyf/zGJ@ u wdkif=um;csufrsm; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;twdkif; udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJ@
wifjycsufrsm;udk tcsdefra&G; xyfrHppfaq;&ef qkH;jzwfEdkifonf/ Oyrm- pD
111 *smr%D
(7) ILO &kH;u tkyf/zGJ@ . qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk tpdk;&ESifh wdkif=um;olwdk@xH
today; ta=umif;=um;onf?

69

Complaint (art. 26 ILO Constn)


 Can be filed by
 (1) another ratifying Member State
 (2) a delegate to the Conference, representing workers or employers
 (3) the Governing Body

 Examination by Commission of Inquiry


 members are appointed by the Governing Body in their personal
capacity (not necessarily tripartite)

70

wdkif=um;csuf (yk'fr 26 ILO tquf)


wdkif=um;Edkifolrsm;rSm
(1) jyXmef;csufudk twnfyxm;aom tzGJ@0ifEdkifiH
(2) tvkyform; (odk@) tvkyf&Sifrsm;udk udk,fpm;yonfh nDvmcH
udk,fpm;vS,fwOD;
(3) tkyfcsKyfa&;tzGJ@
pkHprf;ppfaq;a&;
q;a&; aumfr&Sif. avhvmpkHprf;r_r_
- tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk tkyf/zGJ@ u yk*~Kdvfa&; t&nftcsif;t& cef@tyfonf?
(okH;yGifhqdkifjzpf&ef rvdk)

71

Complaint (art. 26 ILO Constn)


 basis COI establishes its own procedure
 (evidence, hearing, local visits)

 result
 (a) report published with recommendations (R)
 (b) govt accepts (R) or government does not accept (R) within 3
months
 = International Court of Justic

 (c) govt does not comply with (R)


 = any appropriate measures proposed by GB

72

wdkif=um;csuf (yk'fr 26 ILO)


 tajccH COI u . vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;udk a&;qGJonf (oufao/
=um;emjcif;/ jzpfyGm;&m a'oodk@ oGm;a&mufjcif;)
 &vm'f
 (u) t}uHycsufrsm; (R) ESifh xkwfa0aom tpD&ifcHpm
 (c) tpdk;&u (3) v twGif; (R) udk vufcHjcif;/ vufrcHjcif;
 ] EdkifiHwum w&m;&kH;

 (*) (R) udk tpdk;&u rvdkufavsm


 ] tkyf/zGJ@ u tqdkyaom oifhawmfaom tpDtrH udk csrSwf

73

Committee on Freedom of Association of GB


 Set up in 1951
 originally to examine complaints for referral to Fact-Finding &
Conciliation Committee
 but involved without consent of States
 it began examining the substance of cases

 composition: tripartite 9 Governing Body members


 meeting: 3 reports a year

74

tkyf/zGJ@ . vGyfvyfpGm toif;tyif; zGJ@pnf;jcif; aumfrwD


1951 wGif xlaxmifonf
- tcsuftvuf &SmazGpkaqmif;a&;ESifh aphpyfndE _dif;a&; aumfrwDodk@
v$Jajymif;ay;&eftwGuf yxrOD;pGm wdkif=um;csufrsm;udk
ppfaq;avhvmonf?
- EdkifiHrsm;. oabmwlnDr_ rygyJ aqmif&Gufonf
- jy\emrsm;. t"duta=umif;udk pwifavhvmonf/
zGJ@pnf;xm;ykH- okH;yGifhqdkif- tkyf/zGJ@ 0if 9 OD;
tpnf;ta0;- wESpfv#if tpD&ifcHpm (3) }udrf

75

Committee on Freedom of Association of GB


 examines
 documentary evidence from complaints and replies
 sometimes direct contacts

 scope of action

76

tkyf/zGJ@ . vGyfvyfpGm toif;tyif; zGJ@pnf;jcif; aumfrwD


 atmufygwdk@udk avhvmppfaq;onf?
 wdkif=um;csufrsm;ESifh jyef=um;csufrsm;rS oufao/ rSwfwrf;rSwf&m
 wcgw&H wdkuf&kduf xdawG@qufqH

 aqmif&Gufr_ e,fy,f

77

CFA - Receivability
 which organizations ?
 national with direct interest
 international with consultative status (IOE, ICFTU, OATUU, WCL,
WFTU, ETUC)
 international for directly affiliated






NO RATIFICATION REQUIRED
specific infringements, no purely political allegations
no bound by national recognition of unions
not bound by withdrawal of complaint

78

CFA

vufcHEdkifr_

 b,ftzGJ@tpnf;awG vufcHovJ
- wdkuf&kduftusKd;pD;yGm;&Sdaom EdkifiHtqifh tzGJ@rsm;
- twdkiftyifcH tqifh&Sdaom EdkifiHwum tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
(IOE, ICFTU, OATUU, WCL, WFTU, ETUC)

- wdkuf&kduf r[mrdwfyxm;aom EdkifiHwumtzGJ@rsm;


 w&m;0if twnfy&efrvkd
 wdusaom azmufzsufr_rsm;/ EdkifiHa&;pGyfpGJcsufoufouf r&yg/
 jynfwGif; vkyfxkH;vkyfenf;jzifh tcsdefukef&ef rvdktyf
 or*~rsm; udk EdkifiHtqifh todtrSwfyr_jzifh rcsDaESmifxm;yg/
 wdkif=um;csufrsm;udk &kyfodrf;jcif;jzifh rcsDaESmifxm;yg/
79

CFA Scope of Action







no general conclusions
no interpretation of Conventions
no conviction of Governments or levelling of charges
recommendations, to be approved by the Governing Body
 no call for further examination
 interim or definitive conclusions
 request to keep informed of progress on specific issues

80

CFA

aqmif&Gufr_ e,fy,f

 a,bl,s tESpfcsKyfjcif; r&Sd/


 jyXmef;csufrsm;udk t"dy`g,f zGifhjcif;r&Sd
 tpdk;&rsm;udk tjypfay;jcif; r&Sd (odk@) pGyfpGJcsufrsm;udk tqifhydkif;jcm;jcif; r&Sd
tkyf/zG@J u twnfy&efvdkaom t}uHycsufrsm;
 aemufxyf ppfaq;ar;jref;&ef awmif;qdkjcif; r&Sd
 =um;jzwf (odk@) t"dy`g,fzGifhaom tESpfcsKyf
 owfrSwfxm;aom udpP&yfrsm;. wdk;wufajymif;vJr_udk avhvmrSwfxm;&ef
arwWm&yfcH

81

Involvement of Employers and Workers


Organizations
 Constitutional obligation of the Govt to communicate copies
of information and reports sent to the ILO to the most
representative organizations (article 23, paragraph 2, of the
ILO Constitution)
 Allows these organizations to the transmit their own views, to
the Government or to the ILO

82

tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;
rm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. yg0ifywfoufr_
 udk,fpm;yr_trsm;qkH; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;odk@ ILO odk@ ay;ydk@aom
owif;tcsuftvufESifh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;. rdwWLrsm;udk qufoG,fay;ydk@&ef
zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya't& wm0ef&Sdjcif; ( ILO zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'.
yk'fr 23 tydk'f 2 )
 TtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; wdk@. udk,fydkiftjrifrsm;udk tpdk;& (odk@) ILO odk@
ay;ydk@&ef cGifhyjcif;

83

Involvement of Employers and Workers


Organizations
 Under Convention No. 144, obligation to consult these
organizations on:





Replies to questionnaire and comments on proposed new instruments


Submission of instruments to competent authorities
Re-examination of unratified Conventions and Recommendations
Reports on Ratified Conventions
 (according to Recommendation No. 152, on reports on unratified
Conventions and Recommendations as well)

 Proposals for denunciation of Conventions

84

tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;
rm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. yg0ifyufoufr_
 jyXmef;csuftrSwf 144 t& TtzGJ@rsm;ESifh atmufygwdk@udk
wdkifyif&ef 0wW&m;&Sdjcif;
 tqdkyxm;aom pmwrf;topftwGuf ar;cGef;v$mESifh rSwfcsufrsm;udk
jyef=um;jcif;
 tm%mydkif tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;odk@ pmwrf;udk wifoGif;jcif;
 twnfryxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh t}uHycsufrsm;udk
jyefvnfavhvmppfaq;jcif;
 twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;
 (t}uHycsuf trSwf 152 t&/ twnfryxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifh
t}uHycsufrsm;ESifh ywfoufonfh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;yg)

 jyXmef;csufrsm; zsufodrf;&ef tqdkyv$mrsm;


85

Involvement of Employers and Workers


Organizations
 Any organization of employers or workers (not only the most
representative ones) can make comments on the application of
ratified Conventions
 At any time
 Whether they have been consulted on the Governments report or not
 Without any formal requirements (just indicate the Convention dealt
with), by a letter to the Director General of the ILO

86

tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;
rm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. yg0ifyufoufr_
 rnfonfh tvkyf&Sif (odk@) tvkyform; tzGJ@rqdk (udk,fpm;yr_
trsm;qkH;tzGJ@rsm; omruyJ) twnfyxm;aom jyXmef;csufrsm;udk
vufawG@tokH;csykHtm; a0zef t}uHyEdkifonf/
 rnfonfhtcsdefrqdk
 tpdk;&. tpD&ifcHpmudk wdkifyifjcif; &Sdr&Sd
 w&m;0if vdktyfcsufrsm; rygyJ (oufqdkifaom jyXmef;csufrsm;udkom
!$ef+yD;) ILO . !$ef=um;a&;r;csKyfxH pmjzifhay;ydk@

87

Involvement of Employers and Workers


Organizations
 When organizations make comments on the application of
ratified Conventions, these comments are
 Transmitted to the Government, which is asked to provide its own
views
 Submitted to the CEACR
 Mentioned in the report and often reflected in the comments of the
CEACR

88

tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;
rm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. yg0ifyufoufr_
 tzGJ@rsm;u twnfyaom jyXmef;csufrsm;tm;
vufawG@usifhokH;r_tay: a0zeft}uHyEdkifaom tcsufrsm;rSm
 . udk,fydkifoabmxm;udkawmif;&ef tpdk;&tm; ay;ydk@jcif;
 CEACR odk@ wifjyjcif;
 tpD&ifcHpmwGif azmfjyjcif;ESifh CEACR . a0zefcsufwGif azmfjyjcif;

89

Part III
Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights
at Work (1998) & ILO Fundamental Human
Rights Conventions

90

tydkif; (3)

ILO . tajccHrl0g'rsm;ESifh tvkyfcGif tcGifhta&;rsm;qdkif&m

a=unmcs
a=unmcsuf (1998) ESifh
ILO . tajccH vl@tcGifhta&;rsm; jyXmef;csuf

91

Declaration: Politics ?
 Builds on Berlin, Marrakesh, Copenhagen and Singapore
 Reaffirms the constitutional value of ILO FPR in the context
of the global economy
 Does not change international labour standards (ILS), but
affirms the pivotal role of FPR in the promotion of ILS
 Establishes an official dialogue on FPR channel in the absence
of ratification
 Mobilizes resources in support of FPR

92

a=unmcs
a=unmcsuf/ EdkifiHa&;ESifh ywfoufovm;
vm;
 bmvif/ rm&muuf/ udkAifa[*if ESifh puFmylwGif tajccHonf
 urBmvkH;qdkif&m pD;yGm;a&;tajctaersm;ESifh vdkufavsmnDaxGjzpfatmif
ILO FPR . tajccHzGJ@pnf;ykH wefzdk;rsm;udk jyefvnftwnfy
 tjynfjynfqdkif&m tvkyform;pHE_ef;rsm;udk rajymif;vJ odk@aomf
xdkpHE_ef;rsm; tm;ay;jrifhwif&mwGif FPR . ta&;}uD;aom tcef;uudk
twnfy
 twnfyEdkifjcif; r&Sdaom umvwGif FPR . vrf;a=umif;jzifh
w&m;0ifaqG;aEG;r_rsm;yvkyf
 FPR udkaxmufcHI t&if;tjrpfrsm; pkaqmif;

93

Declaration: economics ?
 Economic growth is essential but not sufficient to ensure
equity, social progress and the eradication of poverty
 In seeking to maintain the link between social progress and
economic growth, the guarantee of fundamental principles and
rights at work is of particular significance in that it enables the
persons concerned to claim freely and on the basis of equality
of opportunity their fair share of the wealth which they have
helped to generate, and to achieve fully their human potential

94

a=unmcs
a=unmcsuf/ pD;yGm;a&;ESifh ywfoufovm;
vm;
 pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufr_onf ta&;}uD;rnf/ odk@aomf r#wr_ vlr_b0
wdk;wufr_ESifh qif;&JrGJawr_ wdkufzsufa&;wdk@udk tmrcH&ef rvkHavmuf
 vlr_b0wdk;wufr_ESifh pD;yGm;a&;zGH@z;r_wdk@t=um;&Sd qufoG,fr_udk
xdef;odrf;&ef tajccHrl0g'rsm;ESifh tvkyfcGif tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tmrcHr_onf
txl;ta&;}uD;rnf/ rS oufqdkifaomolrsm;tm; wef;wlnDr#aom
tcGifhtvrf;rsm; tajccHay:wGif wdk@. r#wonfh "e a0pkudk
(wdk@wlnD azmfxkwfcJhaom) vGyfvyfpGm awmif;qdk&efESifh wdk@.
vlom;. pGrf;&nfjzpfEdkifajc&Sdoa&G@ jynfh0&ef ta&;}uD;jcif; jzpfonf?

95

Declaration and Constitution


 All ILO Member States have an obligation to respect, promote
and realize the fundamental principles and rights.
 This obligation derives from the ILO Constitution, which
countries accept when they join the Organization.
Fundamental
Principles and
Rights

96

a=unmcs
a=unmcsufESifh tajccHzGJ@pnf;ykH
 ILO tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHtm;vkH;onf tajccHrl0g'rsm;ESihf tcGifhta&;rsm;udk
av;pm;&ef tm;ay;jrifhwif&efESifh vufawG@taumiftxnfazmf&ef
wm0ef&Sdonf?
 Twm0efonf EdkifiHrsm;u ILO 0ifaomtcg vufcHxm;aom
tajccHzGJ@pnf;ykHrS qif;oufonf?
tajccHrlrsm;
ESifh
tcGifhta&;rsm;
97

The Declaration and Follow-up: Key Features


Is promotional in nature
Is NOT to be used for protectionist purposes, nor to question
comparative advantage of countries (paragraph 5 of the
Declaration)
Supports member States in their efforts to realize principles
& rights

98

a=unmcs
a=unmcsufESifh aemufqufwGJ t"du toGiftjyifrsm;
 obm0t& tm;ay;wdk;wufonfh oabm &Sdonf
 tusKd;pD;yGm;umuG,fa&; &nf&G,fcsufjzifh tokH;cs&efr[kwf (odk@)
wdkif;jynfrsm;. tm;omcsufrsm;udk E_dif;,SOfar;cGef;xkwf&efr[kwf
(a=ujimcsuf tydk'f 5)
rl0g'rsm;ESifh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;.
tm;xkwfr_udk axmufcHtm;ay;&ef jzpfonf

99

4 Categories of Fundamental Principles and


Rights at Work
 Freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to
collective bargaining
 Elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labour
 Effective abolition of child labour
 Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and
occupation
Fundamental
Principles and
Rights

100

tajccHrl0g'rsm;ESifh tvkyfcGif tcGifhta&;rsm;. trsKd;tpm;


tpm; 4 ck
 vGyfvyfpGm toif;tzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;cGifhESifh pkaygif;ndE_dif; ta&;qdkr_ tcGifhta&;udk
xda&mufpGm todtrSwfyr_
 t"rR tvkyfapcdkif;r_ (odk@) rvkyfrae& vkyfudkif&jcif;ykHpHtm;vkH;udk
zsufodrf;jcif;
 uav;tvkyform;udk xda&mufpGm zsufodrf;a&;
 tvkyftudkifcef@vma&; tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifh ywfoufI cGJjcm;qufqHr_rsm;udk
zsufodrf;a&;

101

Part IV
ILO Fundamental
Conventions

102

As of 1 September 2007 / ILO: 181 Member States

Year

No.

1930
1948

29
87

1949
1951
1957
1958
1973
1999

98
100
105
111
138
182

Official Title
Forced Labour
Freedom of Association and Protection of
the Right to Organize
Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining
Equal Remuneration
Abolition of Forced Labour
Discrimination (Employment & Occupation)
Minimum Age
Worst Forms of Child Labour

Ratifications
(172)
(148)
(158)
(164)
(170)
(166)
(150)
(165)

103

29

87

98

100

111

105

138

182

Cambodia

1969

1999

1999

1999

1999

1999 1999

2006

Indonesia

1950

1998

1957

1958

1999

1999 1999

2000

Lao PDR

1964

2005

2005

Malaysia

1957

1961

1997

2000

Myanmar

1955

1955
1960 1998

2000

Brunei

Philippines 2005

1953

1997

1953

1960

1965

2002

Singapore

1965

Thailand

1969

1999

Vietnam

2007

1997

1953

1997

2005

2001

1969 2004

2001

2003

2000
104

29

100

111

China
(1919/25)

1990

2006

1999 2002

Rokorea
(1991/22)

1997

1998

1999 2001

Japan
(1919/48)

1932

87

1965

98

1953

1967

1972

1972

138

182

2000 2001

US
(1934/14)
Canada
(1919/30)

105

1964

1991

1999

1959

2000

105

Ratification FHR Conv. in AP


 Ratification of all 8 FHRC consistently well below world
average, although
 > 50% of ratifications since 1995
 25% child labour, starting 1997
 Freedom of association & CB Conventions lag behind, in
particular in terms of population (China, India, Vietnam,
Thailand, IR Iran, Rokorea)
 Forced labour Conventions lag behind in transition economies

106

FHR jyXmef;csuftay:
ay: oabmwl vufrSwfa&;xdk;jcif;
 FHRC 8 ckvkH; jyXmef;vufrSwf a&;xdk;&mwGif urBmysrf;r#
ta&twGuftm;jzifh- 1995 ckESpfwGif oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xdk;r_rSm 50
&mcdkif;E_ef;atmuf &Sdonf
 uav;tvkyform;ESifh ywfouf+yD; 1997 ckESpfrS pEdkifaomfvnf;
vufrSwfa&;xdk;r_ 25 &mcdkifE_ef;yJ&SdcJh
 vlOD;a&ta&twGufESifh ywfouf+yD; vkyfaqmifonfhtcgrSmvnf;
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; vGyfvyfcGifhESifh CB jyXmef;csufwdk@onf
aemufususefcJhonf
 txl;ojzifh (w&kyf/ tdENd,/ AD,uferf/ xdkif;/ tD&ef/ udk;&D;,m;) pD;yGm;a&;
toGiful;ajymif;onfh EdkifiHawGrSmvnf; t"rRvkyftm;ay; jyXmef;csuf
udpP&yfawGrSmvnf; aemufususefcJhw,f

107

Freedom of Association C. 87
 E & W should be free
 to defend and further their interests through independent
organizations
 to select the type of organization they think is appropriate
 to elect their representatives
 to join national / international federations
 not to see their organizations dissolved than by an independent
judicial authority
 to have their organizations protected against an arbitrary
application of law and order
 to organize the activities of their organizations (including
going on strike)

108

vGyfvyfpGm toif;tzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;cGifh C 87


 tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform; vGyfvyfr_ &SdrSomv#if wdk@. tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
vGyfvyfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; zGJ@pnf;jcif;jzifh umuG,fEdkifonf?
 rnfonfhtzGJ@tpnf; ykHpHrsKd;onf rdrdwdk@ESifh oifhavsmfaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
jzpfonfudk a&G;cs,f Edkifonf?
 wdk@ udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;cs,fEdkifonf?
 EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mESifh tjynfjynfqdkif&m tzGJ@csKyfwdk@wGif tzGJ@0if jzpfEdkifonf?
 vGyfvyfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;qdkif&m tm%mydkifwdk@rSvGJI
wdk@tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; rnfolr# zsufodrf;ydkifcGifh r&SdEdkif?
 w&m;r#waom Oya'rsm;ESifh trdef@rsm;rS wdk@. tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk
umuG,fay;Edkifonf?
 oydwfarSmufjcif; tygt0if v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufjcif;rsm;udk wdk@.
tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u aqmif&GufEdkifrnf?
109

Collective bargaining C. 98
 the law must protect workers against acts of anti-union
discrimination by employers
 the law must protect workers against acts of interference by
employers
 the Government must operate machinery to ensure that the law
protecting workers against anti-union discrimination is
complied with
 the Government must promote collective bargaining to
determine terms and conditions of work

110

pkaygif;ndE_Edi_ f; ta&;qdkjcif;

C 98

 tvkyf&Sifrsm;rSaeI tvkyform;or*~rsm; qef@usifa&; cGJjcm;qufqHr_


rvkyfEdkifap&ef Oya't& tvkyform;wdk@tm; tumtuG,f ay;&rnf?
 tvkyf&SifrSaeI tvkyform;rsm;tay: pGufzufcs,fvS,fjcif; r&Sdap&ef
Oya'rS tumtuG,f ay;&rnf?
 tvkyform;or*~ cGJjcm;qufqHr_ESifh ywfoufI tvkyform;rsm;tm;
Oya't& umuG,fr_ay;onfh ,EW&m;udk tpdk;&rS vnfywfap&rnf?
 tvkyfESifhywfoufonfh qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;udk qkH;jzwfEdkif&eftwGuf
pkaygif;ndE_dif; ta&;qdkjcif;udk tpdk;&rS jrifhwifay;&rnf jzpfonf?

111

Collective bargaining C. 98
 States must promote voluntary collective bargaining between
employers and workers as a means of regulating terms &
conditions of employment through collective agreements
 Bargaining (<<the market>>) not legislating (<<the Government>>) is
the proper way of determining price and contents of labour
 Collective bargaining must be preferred over individual bargaining if
workers so want
 Further standards are laid down in the Collective Bargaining
Convention (No. 154), 1981

112

pkaygif;ndE_Edi_ f; ta&;qdkjcif;

C 98

 pkaygif;oabmwlnDr_rS tvkyftudkifcef@xm;a&;ESifh ywfoufI owfrSwfcsufrsm;udk


csrSwfa&;twGuf rdrdwdk@qENtavsmuf tvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;=um;wGif aqmif&Guf&ef
pkaygif;ndE_dif; ta&;qdkr_udk tpdk;&rS jrifhwiftm;ay;&rnf?
 ndE_dif;ta&;qdkjcif;onf Oya'yjcif;r[kwf/ aps;E_ef;ESifh tvkyform;a&;&mESifh ywfoufI
qkH;jzwf&mwGif rSefuefpGm enf;vrf;usap&ef jzpfonf?
 tvkyform;rsm;rS vdkvm;v#if wOD;csif; awmif;qdkndE _dif;r_xuf pkaygif;ndE_dif;
vkyfaqmifjcif;udk OD;pm;ay; aqmif&Guf&rnf?
 ydkrdkus,fjyef@aom pHE_ef;rsm;udk pkaygif;ndE_dif; ta&;qdkr_ trSwf 154/ 1981 ckESpfwGif
csrSwfxm;onf?

113

Forced Labour C. 29
 Define in C. 29, identical for C. 29/C. 105
 does not cover one specific situation, but a qualitative characteristic of
potentially every working (or even non-working) relationship

 Contains three elements


 all work or service
 which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty

 and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily

114

t"rRtvkyfapcdkif;jcif;

C 29

 C 29 udk t"dy`g,fzGifhr_onf C 29/C . 105 ESifh xyfwlxyfr# jzpfonf?


 tajcaew&yfudk rcHikHrdap&ef odk@aomf vkyfief;tm;vkH; qufEG,faer_wGif
t&nftcsif; vuQ%m&yf toD;oD;udk cHikH&ef tvm;tvm &Sdonf?
 tcsuftvuf (3) ck tygt0if
 tvkyftm;vkH; (odk@) 0efaqmifr_ -- +cdrf;ajcmufr_ESifh '%fcwfr_jzifh vkyftm;udk &,ljcif;
 azmfjyygolonf . oabmqENtavsmufvkyfr_ r[kwfjcif;

115

IS NOT Forced Labour (C. 29)


 compulsory military service for work of a purely military
character
 minor communal services
 normal civic obligations
 prison labour: work or service exacted as a consequence of a
conviction in a court of law (provided )
 emergency

116

t"rRtvkyfapcdkif;r_r_ r[kwfjcif; C 29
 ppfr_a&;&mESifhom vkH;0oufqdkifonfh ppfr_rxrf;rae&
wm0efxrf;aqmifr_
 vkyftm;ay;r_ tao;pm;rsm;
 EdkifiHom;wdk@. wm0eft& vkyfaqmif&rnfh omrefwm0efrsm;
 tusOf;om;vkyftm;- w&m;&kH;rS pD&ifcsufcsxm;onfh
jypf'%ft& vkyf&onfhtvkyf odk@r[kwf 0efaqmifr_
 ta&;ay:tajctae

117

No Forced Labour, never (C. 105)








Forced Labour for political mainstreaming


Forced Labour for purposes of economic development
as a means of labour discipline
as a punishment for having participated in a strike
as a means of racial, social, national or religious
discrimination

118

rnfonfhaomtcgr# t"rRtvkyfapcdkif;jcif; ry&


ry& C 105
 t"duusonfh EdkifiHa&; vkyfief;&yfrsm;twGuf t"rRtvkyf
cdkif;apjcif;
 pD;yGm;a&; zGH@z;wdk;wuf&ef &nf&G,fcsufESifh t"rRcdkif;apjcif;rsKd;
 tvkyform; pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;t& t"dy`g,foufa&mufr_rsKd;
 oydwfarSmufqef@usifjcif;wGif yg0ifjcif;a=umifh jypf'%fay;jcif;
ykHpHrsKd;
 vlrsKd;a&; vlr_a&; EdkifiHa&; bmoma&; taejzifh
ESdrfhcscGJjcm;vkyfonfh ykHpHrsKd;
119

Equal Remuneration C. 100


 1. To bring member States to promote and to ensure equal
remuneration for men and women workers for work of equal
value
 2. To promote acceptance that the contents of the job, and not
the sex of the worker, is the correct basis for the calculation
and payment of remuneration

120

wlnDaom vkyftm;c ay;jcif; C 100


1? usm;r vkyfom;rsm;. wlnDaom tvkyfwefzdk;ay:wGif tajccHI
wlnDr#waom vkyftm;crsm; &&Sda&;twGuf tzGJ@0ifEdkifiHrsm;taejzifh
jrifhwifaqmif&Guf&rnf?
2? vkyftm;crsm;ay;&ef wGufcsufonfhtcgwGif rSefuefonfh
tajccHrsm;jzpfonfh tvkyfESifhom ywfoufonfudk axmuf&SL+yD; usm;r
rcGJjcm;yJ owfrSwfjcif;rsKd;udk jrifhwifjcif;tm; vufcH&rnf?

121

Equal Remuneration C. 100


 C. 100 requires action & acknowledgement
 that indirect and direct discrimination does occur against
women,
 that discrimination must be eliminated,
 and that the correction entails an analysis of pay systems
and establishment of corrective mechanisms

122

wlnDaom vkyftm;cay;jcif; C 100


 C 100 t& atmufygwdk@udk aqmif&Guf&efESifh todtrSwfy&ef
vdktyfonf?
 trsKd;orD;wdk@tay: wdkuf&kduf (odk@) oG,f0dkufI cGJjcm;ESdrfhcsjcif;rsKd;rsm; vkyfaqmifjcif;
r&Sdap&?
 xdkodk@ cGJjcm;ESdrfhcs owfrSwfjcif;rsm; yaysmufap&rnf?
 vkyftm;cay;jcif;tm; jyefvnfpDppf okH;oyfI rSefuefaom,EW&m;udk
taumiftxnf azmfjcif; rSefuefpGm aqmif&Gufjcif;rsm;wGif yg0ifap&rnf?

123

Equality at Work C. 111


 States must declare & pursue a national policy designed to promote
equality of opportunity & treatment in employment & occupation
 Promoting equality at work means promoting that people can fully develop
their human capital, can allocate that capital where return is the highest,
and that they effectively get that return without interference of criteria
irrelevant to potential or performance (e.g. sex, religion)
 Employment & occupation essentially means the sphere of economic
activity








access to vocational training


access to credit
access to employment or occupation
conditions of employment
remuneration for work of equal value
career progression in accordance with experience, ability
job security

124

vkyfief;cGifnDr#r_ C 111
 vkyfief;cGifqdkif&m tvkyftudkif ae&mcscef@xm;r_ wef;wlnD tcGifhta&; &Sdr_wdk@tm;
jrifhwifa&;twGufwdk@udk EdkifiHawmftpdk;&rsm;taejzifh EdkifiHawmfrl0g'tjzpf owfrSwf
a=unmjcif;wdk@udk aqmif&Guf&rnf?
 vkyfief;cGif wlnDr#wr_udk jrifhwifjcif;t"dy`g,frSm- vlom;t&if;tjrpfudk zGH@z;wdk;wuf&ef
vkyfaqmif&mY usm;r/ bmoma&; cGJjcm;jcif;r&SdyJ wdk@. taumif;qkH;
aqmif&Gufcsuft& tjrifhrm;qkH;cHpm;cGifhrsm; &&Sdap&rnf?
 tvkyftudkifcef@xm;a&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;twGuf vdktyfcsufrsm;rS








toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_qdkif&m oifwef;rsm; wufcGifh&Sdjcif;


*k%fyjcif; todtrSwfyjcif; cH&aprnf?
tvkyftudkif &&Sdap&rnf?
tvkyfcef@xm;r_ tajctae
tvkyfwefzdk;ay:rlwnfaom vkyftm;c
tawG@t}uKHESifh t&nftcsif;ay: udkufnDaom toufarG;r_ wdk;wuf&rnf?
tvkyftwGuf tmrcHr_ &Sd&rnf?

125

Equality at Work C. 111


 C. 111 specifically requires national law to prohibit discrimination based
on race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social
origin
 Discrimination is not any distinction, exclusion or preference based on
 inherent requirements of the job
 justifiable suspicion of activities threatening the security of the State (provided
the suspect can defend him or herself)
 special measures of protection or assistance provided for in other Conventions
 affirmative measures for persons who, for reasons such as sex, age,
disablement, family responsibilities or social or cultural status, are generally
recognized to require special protection or assistance

126

tvkyfwGif wef;wlnDr#r_ C 111


 C 111 . txl;vdktyfcsufonf vlrsKd; tom;ta&mif vdif usm;r
bmoma&; EdkifiHa&; cH,lcsuf vlr_a&;rsm;tay: tajccHI cGJjcm;jcif;rsm;udk
EdkifiHawmfOya't& wm;jrpfay;&rnf?
 xl;jcm;jcif; ESpfoufjcif; OD;pm;ay; vkyfaqmifjcif;rsm;tay: tajccHI
 tvkyfwGif vdktyfaomtcsuf
 EdkifiHawmfvkHcHa&;twGuf xdcdkufonfh tvkyfrsKd; &Sdaeonf[k oHo,&Sdygu
w&m;cHaejzifh udk,fudk ckcHcGifh&Sd&rnf?
 tjcm;jyXmef;csufrsm;tm; tumtuG,fay;&efESifh taxmuftulay;&eftwGuf
txl;aqmif&Guf&rnf?
 vlw,muf. usm;r uGJjcif; csKd@wJhjcif; rdom;pkwm0efrsm;jcif; vlr_a&; ,Ofaus;r_
tajctaersm;tay: a,bl,srsm;udk wGufcsufI vlr_a&;tumtuG,f
ay;a&;twGuf tcdkiftrm aqmif&Guf&rnf?

127

Minimum Age System C. 138


 Commitment towards gradual, but total elimination of child
labour
 Enactment & enforcement of a legal system of minimum ages
from which onwards children may be admitted to work
 System must be harmonized with the end of compulsory schooling

 3 benchmark minimum ages


 General
 Light Work
 Hazardous Work

128

tedrfhqkH;touf owfrSwfr_ pHepf C 138


 uav;oli,fvkyftm;udk jznf;jznf;jcif; aomfvnf;aumif;
vkH;0aomfvnf;aumif; yaysmufa&;twGuf wm0efcHaqmif&Guf&ef
 uav;oli,fwa,muf. tvkyfvkyfcGifh&Sdaom toufudk
Oya'yjyXmef;jcif; Oya'udk vdkufemjcif;wdk@&Sdonfh Oya'pHepfw&yfwGif
owfrSwf+yD;rSom tm; tvkyfvkyfcGifhyrnf?
 roifrae& ynma&;udk oif=um;+yD;rSom tvkyfvkyfcGifhyjcif;rsKd;udk pHepfwGif
xnfhoGif;&rnf?
 atmufyg tcsuf (3) csuf tay: tajccHI owfrSwfonf
 taxGaxGtvkyf
 ayghyg;aomtvkyf
 ab;tEW&m,fr&Sdaomtvkyf

129

C. 138 Minimum Ages

General Minimum Age


(Article 2)

Normally

Developing
Countries

End of
compulsory
schooling
(minimum 15)
14

Light Work
(Article 7)

Hazardous
Work
(Article 3)

13

18
(16 as an
exception)

12

18
(16 as an
exception)

130

131

Priority for Worst Forms C. 182


 Give priority to the prohibition & elimination of the worst forms of child
labour





slave-like work (including trafficking)


sexual exploitation
illicit activities (e.g. drugs trafficking)
hazardous work (to be determined)

 Action must include


 monitoring mechanisms (e.g. data collection)
 programmes of action
 time-bound measures in three categories
 prevention
 withdrawal
 rehabilitation

 special attention for girls & the vulnerable (e.g. ethnic minorities)
 international cooperation
132

tqdk;qkH; ykHoefudk OD;pm;ay;


pm;ay; a&G;cs,fjcif; C 182
 tqdk;qkH; ykHoef&Sdaeaom uav;oli,fvkyftm;
m; uef@owfjcif;/;/ yaysmufapjcif;wdk@wGif
OD;pm;ay;
pm;ay; aqmif&Guf&rnfrSm





u|efwa,mufuJhodk@aom tvkyfrsKd; (vlukeful;jcif;)


umrtay: tjrwfxkwf qufqHjcif;
w&m;r0ifonfh vkyfaqmifr_tvkyf (rl;,pfaq;0g;arSmifcdk)
tEW&m,f&Sdaomtvkyf

 vkyfaqmifcsufwGif yg0if&rnfhtcsuf









avhvmapmifh=unfhjcif;pHepf (tcsuftvufpkaqmif;jcif;)
ta&;,lvkyfaqmifaom tpDtpOfrsm;
tcsdeftuef@towf vkyfaqmifonfhtcsuf (3) ck &Sdonf
umuG,fjcif;
&kwfodrf;
jyefvnfypky;axmifay;jcif;
rdef;uav;rsm;ESifh xdcdkufvG,folrsm;tay: txl;owdy&ef
tjynfjynfqdkif&mESifh yl;aygif;vkyfaqmifr_

133