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ABSTRACT: In modern days, we must use various high-tech machineries and equipment‟s to get our Jobs done and make the life easier. These machineries should be controlled by the homeowner from any location as the homeowner might be away from home at workplace or traveling in a different place in the weekend. Thus a system of remote monitoring and controlling are very much necessary. Smart home is one of these types of system equipped with home appliances which we wish to control smartly from anywhere. Some products are commercially available which allow remote home appliance controlling through internet which is undoubtedly emerging. But it lacks the true sense of real mobility and security, making the remote home appliances controlling a limited term that is supposed to be. In search of a true remote and adequately secure solution to be really effective and practicable, mobile telephony is better than any other solution. Mobile phones have become almost an inseparable part of civil lives today. In this paper we introduce a new mechanism so that the ordinary services of the mobile phones can be leveraged to communicate with and control the home appliance and make our homes a really smart one…..![1] 1.1 Problem Statement: The objective of this project is to develop a device that allows for a user to remotely control and monitor multiple home appliances using a cellular phone. This system will be a powerful and flexible tool that will offer this service at any time, and from anywhere with the constraints of the technologies being applied. Possible target appliances include (but are not limited to) climate control systems, and lights; anything with an electrical interface.

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1.2 Assumptions: The following is a list of assumptions for the project: 1. The user and control unit will establish communication via GSM. 2. All services charges from service provider apply. 1.3 Aim of the Project:  To provide switching capability of up to nine electrical appliances through telephone lines.   To overcome the short range limitation of infrared and radio remotes To provide switching using a low budget effective technique that can be readily used in any household.

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2. INTRODUCTION: Controlling devices using switches are common. From a few decades controlling devices using remote control switches like infrared remote control switch, wireless remote control switches, light activated switches re becoming popular. But these technologies have their own limitations. Laser beams are harmful to mankind. Some technologies like IR remote control are used for short distance applications. In such case if we have system which does not require any radiations or which is not harmful, long remote control switch. Here we are introducing such a system which does not require any radiations, any laser beam which has no limitation of range; it means it can be used from any distance from meters to thousand kilometres using a mobile phone. Here we are using a telephone as a media, which serves main part of this system. By using home phone as a local phone and another phone - either landline or mobile phone as a remote phone we are controlling devices. Features:1. You can control up to 10 devices. It may be any electric or electronic appliances or devices with simple to heavy appliances. Each device is given a unique code. 2. It makes accurate switching, any false switching of device are not done. 3. There is no risk for false switching. 4. To perform any operations through remote phone line, the user needs to dial to the local telephone (to which the interfacing circuit is connected) then the respective code of the device is dialled.

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5. This circuit does not require any complex IC, so any one with little knowledge electronics can construct this circuit, because it does not need any programmable IC's or programming. 6. This system detects the ringing signal from your exchange with the help of ring detector and automatically switches ON. 7. You can control devices from local telephone. It can also be controlled by PCO. Once it is heard, the user may select which of the trigger relays to turn on or off. Now you can call home and, when your answering machine picks up, control lights, security systems, or just about any number of other custom applications! The DTMF controller offers full control from any telephone anywhere in the world! The Telephone remote controller system board utilizes the Dual Tone Multi Frequency Tone (DTMF) encoding or touch-tone dialling technology, which was invented by the Bell System many years ago. When you press a numeric button in the telephone keypad, the keypad starts up two oscillators and generates two tones at the same time. These two tones are taken from a row frequency and a column frequency. The resultant frequency signal is called “Dual Tone Multiple Frequency.” A DTMF signal is the algebraic sum of two different audio frequencies. Each of the low and high frequency groups comprise four frequencies from the various keys present on the telephone keypad, two different frequencies, one from the high frequency group and another from the low frequency group are used to produce a DTMF signal to represent the pressed key.[1]

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2.1 History: WHAT IS DTMF? When you press a button in the telephone set keypad, a connection is made that generates a resultant signal of two tones at the same time. These two tones are taken from a row frequency and a column frequency. The resultant frequency signal is called "Dual Tone Multiple Frequency". These tones are identical and unique. A DTMF signal is the algebraic sum of two different audio frequencies, and can be expressed as follows:

f(t) = A0sin(2*П*fa*t) + B0sin(2*П*fb*t) + ...........(1)
Where fa and fb are two different audio frequencies with A and B as their peak amplitudes and f as the resultant. DTMF signal fa belongs to the low frequency group and fb belongs to the high frequency group. Each of the low and high frequency groups comprise four frequencies from the various keys present on the telephone keypad; two different frequencies, one from the high frequency group and another from the low frequency group are used to produce a DTMF signal to represent the pressed key. The amplitudes of the two sine waves should be such that

(0.7 < (A/B) < 0.9)V ……….(2)
The frequencies are chosen such that they are not the harmonics of each other. The frequencies associated with various keys on the keypad are shown in figure.

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Fig. 2 Telephone keypad with frequency

When you send these DTMF signals to the telephone exchange through cables, the servers in the telephone exchange identifies these signals and makes the connection to the person you are calling.[1] When you press the digit 5 in the keypad it generates a resultant tone signal which is made up of frequencies 770Hz and 1336Hz. Pressing digit 8 will produce the tone taken from tones 852Hz and 1336Hz. In both the cases, the column frequency 1336 Hz is the same. These signals are digital signals which are symmetrical with the sinusoidal wave. Due to its accuracy and uniqueness, these DTMF signals are used in controlling systems using telephones. By using some DTMF generating IC‟s (UM91214, UM91214, etc.) we can generate DTMF tones without depending on the telephone set.[2]

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3. circuit Description 3.1 List of Equipment’s:
S.No. Equipment’s name Rating Manufacturer Quantity Cost per unit Total cost

1
2 3 4 5 6 7

Mobile Phone
IC IC IC IC

Crystal Oscillator
Resistance Elm College Maple Academy Pine College Oak Institute Total

Undergraduate 1 Nokia 8870 MITEL 74154 2803 4049 1.579KHz 24 20 43 53 3 11 9 4 53 52 998 908

1 1 1 1 1

10 18 7 5 4

10 18 7 5 4 +4 -10 -8 +5 +1 90

Source: Fictitious data, for illustration purposes only

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3.2 Circuit Diagram for DTMF Controller:

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3.3 Circuit description: 3.3.1. Ring detector circuit: The ring detector circuit essentially “picks up the phone” automatically after a set period of time. This circuit identifies the ringing signal sent from the telephone exchange. 3.3.2 Signal decoding section: After passing through the ring detector, the circuit is ready to receive a DTMF signal from the remote telephone or touch-tone encoder. The MT8870 DTMF decoder chip is the heart of the Telephone Controller. The output of the Touch-Tone decoder is then fed to the 4-16 line decoder IC74154. This IC takes the BCD number and decodes. According to that BCD number it selects the active low output line from 1 to 16 which is decimal equivalent of the BCD number present at its input pins. The output of the 74154 the needs to get inverted to get a logical high output. This inversion is carried out by TTL hex inverter IC 4049. This IC inverts the data on its input terminal and gives inverted output. 3.3.3. Relay driver circuit: In order to switch the appliances on or off, small PC board type relays were used we use relays which can handle a high voltage of 230 V or more, and a high current in the rate of 10 A to energize the electromagnetic coil of the relays +5 V is sufficient 3.3.4Power supply section: In order for the DTMF Controller to operate, the circuit must have a power supply and a permanent back up power supply. This is achieved by using a 5 V regulated power supply from a voltage regulated IC 7805. This 5 V source is connected to all ICs and relays, and the IC gets a backup from a 9 V battery.[3]

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4.

Description of Components:

4.1. Mobile Phone: A mobile phone allows its user to make and receive telephone calls to and from the public telephone network which includes other mobiles and fixed line phones across the world. It does this by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator. A key feature of the cellular network is that it enables seamless telephone calls even when the user is moving around wide areas via a process known as handoff or handover.

4.2 IC MT 8870DE Features:    Complete DTMF Receiver Low power consumption Applications: Receiver system for British Telecom (BT) or CEPT Spec (MT8870D-1)    Remote control Personal computers Telephone answering machine

The MT-8870 is a full DTMF Receiver that integrates both band split filter and decoder functions into a single 18-pin DIP. Its filter section uses switched capacitor technology for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection. Its decoder uses digital counting techniques to detect and decode all 16 DTMF tone pairs into a 4-bit code. External component count is minimized by

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provision of an on-chip differential input amplifier, clock generator, and latched tri-state interface bus. Minimal external components required include a low-cost 3.579545 MHz crystal, a timing resistor, and a timing capacitor. The MT-8870-02 can also inhibit the decoding of fourth column digits. MT-8870 operating functions include a band split filter that separates the high and low tones of the received pair, and a digital decoder that verifies both the frequency and duration of the received tones before passing the resulting 4-bit code to the output bus. The low and high group tones are separated by applying the dual-tone signal to the inputs of two 6th order switched capacitor band pass filters with bandwidths that correspond to the bands enclosing the low and high group tones.

Fig. 3 IC 8870 Block diagram

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Fig. 4 Pin Diagram of IC 8870 The filter also incorporates notches at 350 and 440 Hz, providing excellent dial tone rejection. Each filter output is followed by a single-order switched capacitor section that smoothest the signals prior to limiting. Signal limiting is performed by high gain comparators provided with hysteresis to prevent detection of unwanted low-level signals and noise. The MT-8870 decoder uses a digital counting technique to determine the frequencies of the limited tones and to verify that they correspond to standard DTMF frequencies. When the detector recognizes the simultaneous presence of two valid tones (known as signal condition), it raises the Early Steering flag (ESt). Any subsequent loss of signal condition will cause ESt to fall. Before a decoded tone pair is registered, the receiver checks for valid signal duration (referred to as character- recognition-condition). This check is performed by an external RC time constant driven by Est. A short delay to allow the output latch to settle, the delayed steering output flag (StD) goes high, signalling that a received tone pair has been registered. The contents of the output latch are made available on the 4-bit output bus by raising the three state control input (OE) to logic high. Inhibit mode is enabled by a logic high input to pin 5 (INH). It inhibits the detection of 1633 Hz. The output code

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will remain the same as the previous detected code. On the M- 8870 models, this pin is tied to ground (logic low). The input arrangement of the MT-8870 provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source (VREF) to bias the inputs at mid-rail. Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op-amp output (GS) for gain adjustment.[4] The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard 3.579545 MHz crystal. 4.3 DM74LS154 : 4-Line to 16-Line Decoder/ Demultiplexer General Description: IC 74154 is a 4-16 line decoder, it takes the 4 line BCD input and selects respective output one among the 16 output lines. It is active low output IC so when any output line is selected it is indicated by active low signal, rest of the output lines will remain active high. This 4-line-to-16-line decoder utilizes TTL circuitry to decode four binary-coded inputs into one of sixteen mutually exclusive outputs when both the strobe inputs, G1 and G2, are low. The Demultiplexing function is performed by using the 4 input lines to address the output line, passing data from one of the strobe inputs with the other strobe input low. When either strobe input is high, all outputs are high. This Demultiplexer is ideally suited for implementing high-performance memory decoders. Features:   Decodes 4 binary-coded inputs into one of 16 mutually exclusive outputs Performs the Demultiplexing function by distributing data from one input line to any one of 16 outputs.

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Function Table of IC 74154:

Fig. 5 IC 74154 (4-16 line decoder)

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4.4 MC14049UB(Hex Inverter/Buffer): General Description: The CD4049UBC and CD4050BC hex buffers are monolithic complementary MOS (CMOS) integrated circuits constructed with N- and P-channel enhancement mode transistors. These devices feature logic level conversion using only one supply voltage (VDD). The input signal high level (VIH) can exceed the VDD supply voltage when these devices are used for logic level conversions.[4]

Fig.6 Pin Diagram of IC 4049 Fig.7 Logic Diagram of IC 4049

Features:   High–to–Low Level Converter Supply Voltage Range = 3.0 V to 18 V

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4.5

IC 2803:

General Description: ULN 2803 high voltage, high-current Darlington arrays are ideally suited for interfacing between low-level logic circuitry and multiple peripheral power loads. Typical power loads totalling over 260 W (350 mA x 8, 95 V) can be controlled. Typical loads include relays, solenoids, stepping motors, magnetic print hammers, multiplexed LED and incandescent displays, and heaters. All devices feature open-collector outputs with integral clamp diodes.[4]
Fig. 8 IC 2803

Features:    Output Current to 500 mA
Output Voltage to 95 V Transient-Protected Outputs

4.6 Capacitor: A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors, a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance, measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them.

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Theory of operation: A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region called the dielectric medium though it may be a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them.

Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: Fig. 9 Capacitor Mechanism

Energy storage: Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the conductors in a capacitor. When the external influence is removed the charge separation persists in the electric field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed to return to its equilibrium position.[6]

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The work done in establishing the electric field, and hence the amount of energy stored, is given by

A ceramic capacitor is a capacitor constructed of alternating layers of metal and ceramic, with the ceramic material acting as the dielectric.

Fig 10. Ceramic Capacitor 4.7 IC Sockets (DIL sockets): ICs (chips) are easily damaged by heat when soldering and their short pins cannot be protected with a heat sink. Instead we use an IC holder, strictly called a DIL socket (DIL = Dual In-Line), which can be safely soldered onto the circuit board. The IC is pushed into the holder when all soldering is complete. IC holders are only needed when soldering so they are Not used on breadboards.[10] 4.8 Relays: A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. Fig. 11 IC Socket

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The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram.[8] Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical.[7] The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The relay's switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO: Fig. 13 Relay COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

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Advantages of relays:     Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC. Relays can switch higher voltages than standard transistors. Relays are often a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A). Relays can switch many contacts at once.

4.9 Regulator IC 7805: In order for the DTMF Controller to operate, the circuit must have a power supply and a permanent back up power supply. This is achieved by using a 5 V regulated power supply from a voltage regulated IC 7805. This 5 V source is connected to all ICs and relays, and the IC gets a backup from a 9 V battery. The 7805 is a three-terminal positive regulator with Fig. 14 IC 7805

Several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal current limiting, thermal shut down and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, they can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.[4] Features:     Output Current up to 1A Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V Thermal Overload Protection Short Circuit Protection

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4.10 Resistor: A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance, the tolerance, the maximum working voltage and the power rating. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient, noise, and inductance. Less well-known is critical resistance, the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current, and above which the limit is applied voltage. Critical resistance is determined by the design, materials and dimensions of the resistor.[5] 4.11 Crystal Oscillator: A crystal oscillator is an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers. The most Fig. 15 Resistor

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common type of piezoelectric resonator used is the quartz crystal, so oscillator circuits designed around them became known as "crystal oscillators." Quartz crystals are manufactured for frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. More than two billion (2×109) crystals are manufactured annually. Most are

small devices for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, computers, and cell phones. Quartz crystals are also found inside test and measurement equipment, such as counters, Fig. 17 Crystal Oscillator

signal generators, and oscilloscopes. The frequency of the crystal is slightly adjustable ("pullable") by modifying the attached capacitances. A varactor, a diode with capacitance depending on applied voltage, is often used in voltage-controlled crystal oscillators.[9] 4.12 Connectors: Connectors are used to take connections from the IC‟s to another component.

Fig. 18 Connector

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4.13 Headphone: We should connect the device parallel to the mobile, so we make a connection with the headset.

Fig. 19 Headphone 5. Testing of the Device: Once the DTMF Controller has been assembled and connected to the mobile and power supply, you will be ready to begin testing the DTMF Controller circuit now place a call to your mobile Controller set using a remote telephone set or mobile phone. The signal goes to the telephone exchange and the exchange sends a ringing signal to your set through the phone line. The ring detector unit detects the ringing signal and with help of mobile function, local control section of then connected to the telephone for a time interval of 60 s. Now follow the steps below to test the proper sequence of the DTMF Controller. First, press the respective code of the device whose status is to be checked. The device is now on state. And “5” is used to disconnect all the loads in OFF state.

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6. Applications:  The DTMF Telephone Controller is a very useful project with many possible home or office switching applications.  By using this project we can construct the personally branched telephone exchange (PBEX). In many of the PBEX we seen in the offices require one operator to divert the incoming calls to the respective internal telephone line. Here it does not require any such operator to operate this exchange. The person from a remote section is only to press the extension number to get connected to the respective number. In this type of PBEX only 12 extensions can be used.  In advertising board or sign board used for display the company product purpose at the road sides requires the focus light on the dusk time. To control the light of this sign board a person is needed to switch on the lights in the evening and switch off it in the morning time. By using this system we can control the light from a control room or by the cell phone of the marketing person.  In industries or plants, Where the mains switching is required in extreme conditions such as high conditions (temperatures), under pressure, gaseous condition or extremely cool conditions, where human interpretation is not possible.  The most practical example of this system is “Horoscope on telephone”. In this the record of particular „Rashi‟ is switched ON by dialling particular number after the telephone number.

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7. Future Trends: The same can be fused in a microcontroller and attached with land line so that there will be no need to use pc and mobile phone in controlling side. By using 3g mobiles we can watch video of what is going on in home…. And we can also control the devices via Pc‟s with the connecting the device in USB port.

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Conclusion

We are living in an absolute world of technology rocketing at a greater speed searching for more and more instruments to make life of humane even sophisticated. Computer engineering and Instrumentation with clenched fists had made a lot of successful like PLCC…. hope this will make the next Generation. Remote control system by telephone presented in this paper is based on DTMF principle and has very secure structure. Designed circuit is isolated electrically; therefore it does not create any effect on telephone line. In this application, secure, cheap and safe remote control system for intelligent houses has been presented.

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Reference

1. http://electrosofts.com/dtmf/ 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dual-tone_multi-frequency_signaling 3. http://www.scribd.com/25772845.pdf 4. http://www.datasheetarchive.com/ 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistor 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Relay 8. http://www.autoshop101.com/forms/hweb2.pdf 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal_oscillator 10. http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/index.htm

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