This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

[Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

TOC-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section 1 Line-Frequency Diode Rectifiers 1. 2. 1-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT1) 3-phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers (DBRECT3) Section 2 Line-Frequency Phase-Controlled Converters 3. 4. 5. 6. 1-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT1) 1-phase Thyristor Inverters (THYINV1) 3-phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge (THYRECT3) 3-phase Thyristor Inverter (THYINV3) Section 3 DC-to-DC Switch-Mode Converters 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Step-down (Buck) dc-dc Converter (BUCKCONV) Step-up (Boost) dc-dc Converter (BOOST) Step-down/up (Buck-Boost) dc-dc Converter (BUCK-BOOST) Full-bridge, bipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBBSDCDC) Full-bridge, unipolar-voltage-switching dc-dc Converter (FBUSDCDC) Section 4 Switch-Mode DC-to-Sinusoidal Inverters 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. PWM, bipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHBSINV) PWM, unipolar-voltage-switching, 1-phase (1PHUSINV) Square-Wave, 1-phase (1PHSQINV) Voltage-Cancellation Control, 1-phase (1PHVCINV) PWM Inverter, 3-phase (PWMINV3) Square-Wave Inverter, 3-phase (SQINV3) Section 5 Soft-Switching Converters: Zero Voltage/Current Switching 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Series-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converters Operating Above the Resonant frequency (SLRCM2) Parallel-Loaded Resonant dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency (PLRCM2) Current-Source, Parallel-Resonant Inverters for Induction Heating (CSINV) Zero-Current Switching, Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter (ZCSCONV) Zero-Voltage Switching, Clamped-Voltage (Resonant Transition) Converter (ZVSCV) Section 6 Switch-Mode DC Power Supplies with Isolation 23. 24. 25. Flyback Converters (FLYBACK) Forward Converters (FORWARD) Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled (FOR_CNTL) Section 7 DC-Motor Drives 26. Ripple in the Armature Current (DC_MOTOR) Section 8 Semiconductor Devices 27. Power MOSFET switching characteristics (MOSFET)

1-1 Example 1 1-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d + i load

Ls

+ -

1 Rs is

3

v s

C d 4 2

v d

R load

Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120V at 60 Hz Ls = 1 mH Rs = 10 mΩ Ld = 1µH Cd = 1,000 µF Rload = 20 Ω

Problems 1. 2. Execute DBRECT1 to obtain vs, is and vd waveforms. From the results of the Fourier analysis contained in the output file DBRECT1.OUT, calculate the input power factor and the displacement power factor. Make use of the Fourier analysis in DBRECT1.OUT to plot is, i 1, is3 and i 5. s s Superimpose the distortion current component idistortion = is - is1 on the above plot. Calculate Icap (the rms current though the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload. Plot the current and voltage associated with one of the diodes, for example, d1, and obtain the average and the rms values of the current as a ratio of the average load current.

3.

4.

5.

1-2 6. Vary L as a parameter to investigate its influence on the input displacement power s factor, the input power factor, %THD, and the peak-peak ripple in the dc voltage vd. Vary the filter capacitor Cd to investigate its influence on the percentage ripple in vd, input displacement power factor and %THD. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-topeak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd. Vary the load power to investigate its influence on the average dc voltage. In the nominal circuit input file, remove the limit on the maximum time step during the simulation and observe its influence on the circuit waveforms. Obtain the vs, is and vd waveforms during the startup transient when the filter capacitor is initially not charged. Obtain the peak inrush current as a ratio of the peak current in steady state. Vary the switching instant by simply varying the phase angle θ of the source vs. Replace the dc side of the diode bridge by a current source Id = 10 A, corresponding to a very large Ld. Make Ls almost equal to zero. Obtain Vd(average). Make Ls = 3 mH in Problem 10 and obtain Vd(average), displacement power factor, power factor, %THD, and the current commutation interval.

7.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

Reference: Section 5-3-4, pages 95 - 99. PSpice Schematic: DBRECT1 [Copyright © 2003, Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.mnpere.com]

5. Investigate the influence of Ld on the input displacement power factor. By means of Fourier analysis of ia. 4. Ia1. vd and id waveforms.5 Ω Problems 1. (a) (b) Obtain vab. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Ia1. %THD in the input current. 3.1 mH Rs = 1 mΩ Ld = 0.5 mH Rd = 5 mΩ Cd = 500 µF Rload = 16. the input power factor and the average dc voltage Vd. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2. How do the results compare with the 1-phase diode-bridge rectifier of Example 1. Calculate Ia.1 mH to 10 mH. Compare the results with that in Example 1. Calculate Icap (the rms current through the filter capacitor) as a ratio of the average load current Iload.2-1 EXAMPLE 2 3-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifier i Ld d R d i load + Ls 1 Rs ia 3 5 C d 4 6 2 v d R load Nominal Values: VLL (rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls = 0. Idis. input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Suggested range of Ld: 0. .

7.000 µF. pages 103 112. Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF to 2. Suggested range of Cd: 100 µF and 2. Suggested range of Rload: 50 Ω to 8 Ω. Plot the percentage ∆Vd (peak-to-peak)/Vd(average) as a function of Cd. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic: Dbrect3 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.2-2 6. Reference: Section 5-6. Investigate the influence of Cd on the percent ripple in vd.com] . Investigate the influence of Cd on the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Plot the average dc voltage as a function of load.000 µF. 8.

obtain the commutation interval u and the dc-side current at the start of the commutation. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1. By means of Fourier analysis of is.0 mH Ld = 20 mH Rload = 5 Ω delay angle α = 45° Problems 1. Obtain vs and is waveforms. 5. (a) (b) (c) Obtain vs. Calculate Is.3-1 EXAMPLE 3 1-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d R load 4 2 Nominal values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0. At the point of common coupling.2 mH Ls2 = 1. 4. From the plots. obtain the following from the voltage vm waveform: (a) Line-notch depth ρ(%) 3. Obtain vm and is waveforms. vd and id waveforms. 2. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. %THD in the input current. .

π where first use the average value of i for Id and then its value at the start of the d commutation interval as calculated in Problem 2.3-2 (b) (c) 6. pages 126 . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.com] .9 Vs cosα Id.134. Reference: Section 6-3. Verify that 2ωLs Vd = 0. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd. Line-notch area and. voltage %THD.mnpere. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect1 [Copyright © 2003.

2. vd and id waveforms. Obtain vs and is waveforms. (a) (b) Obtain vs. Calculate Is.0 mH Ld = 20 mH E = 88 V (dc) delay angle α = 135° Problems 1. vd and id waveforms using Thyinv1. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° (for example.2 mH Ls2 = 1. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 135°. 3. Reference: Section 6-3-4. 150°) and look at the vs. %THD in the input current. PSpice Schematic: Thyinv1 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Plot the average dc current Id versus α. pages 135 .138. Study the startup of inverter operation.4-1 EXAMPLE 4 1-Phase Thyristor Inverter i d + Ls1 + v s + - Ld Ls2 is 1 3 vm _ v d + E 4 2 Nominal Values: Vs(rms) = 120 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0.com] .

Obtain va and ia waveforms. (a) (b) (c) Obtain va.5-1 EXAMPLE 5 3-Phase Thyristor Rectifier Bridge i + 1 L a s1 b c L s2 d 3 5 Ld ia v d R load 4 point of common coupling 6 2 VLL(rms) = 208 V at 60 Hz Ls1 = 0.2 mH Ls2 = 1. obtain the commutation interval u and id at the start of the commutation. From the plots. 4. %THD in the input current. 2. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation. Calculate Is. calculate its harmonic components as a ratio of Is1. . (vab)pcc and ia waveforms. For Id.0 mH Ld = 16 mH Rload = 8 Ω delay angle = 45° Nominal Values: Problems 1. vd and id waveforms using Thyrect3. Obtain (va)pcc. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. 3. By means of Fourier analysis of is. Verify the following commutation equation: cos(α+u) = cos α 2ωLs Id 2 VLL where Ls = Ls1 + Ls2.

com] .5-2 5. use the average value of id or its value at the start of the commutation. π For Id. obtain the following from the voltage vpcc waveform: (a) (b) (c) Line-notch depth ρ(%) Line-notch area and. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Verify the following equation: Displacement power factor ~ cos(α + 6. Obtain the average dc voltage Vd. Reference: Section 6-4.35 VLL cos α 3ωLs Id.mnpere. pages 138 . voltage THD% 7. Verify that Vd = 1. PSpice Schematic: Thyrect3 [Copyright © 2003.148. u cosα + cos(α+u) ) ~ 2 2 At the point of common coupling.

6-1 EXAMPLE 6 3-Phase Thyristor Inverter i + 1 a b c Ls d 3 5 Ld ia v d + E 4 6 2 - Nominal Values: VLL(rms) = 480 V at 60 Hz Ls = 1. the input displacement power factor and the input power factor. Obtain va and ia waveforms 2.com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic Thyinv3 [Copyright © 2003. pages 148 . Reference: Section 6-4-4. vd and id waveforms using Thyinv3. %THD in the input current. vd and id waveforms. Plot the average dc current Id versus α. Rd = 1 ohm E = 630 V delay angle α = 160° Problems: 1. (a) (b) Obtain va. 3.mnpere. Repeat the above procedure by reducing α slowly to its nominal value of 160°.0 mH Ld = 16 mH.150. Calculate Is. Study the startup of the inverter operation. Increase the delay angle to a value close to 180° and look at the va.

Check if the results agree with the following equation: Vo = Vd D2 Io 1 D2 + 4 ILB. 3. Increase the load resistance to 10 Ω.5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. where Vd ILB.max 2.max = . obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Vo. iL and ic waveforms Obtain voi waveform and by means of Fourier analysis.8V and IL(0) = 0]. (b) vo. 8Lfs . Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(0) = 5. obtain the following waveforms using Buckconv: (a) vL and iL waveforms.7-1 EXAMPLE 7 Step-down (BUCK) dc-dc Converter + i V d + voi _ L v _ ic C L + v o _ R load io + L _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8 V (dc) L = 5 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 0.75 Problems 1. In steady state.

7-2 4. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 5. Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage in the presence of the output capacitor Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) [Suggested ESR = 100 mΩ].com] . Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations.mnpere. Reference: Section 7-3.168. PSpice Schematic: Buckconv [Copyright © 2003. ESR and the total ripple in vo. 6. Plot the ripple across C. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. pages 164 .

Reference: Section 7-4. Increase the load resistance to 50 Ω. change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 5 Ω to 50 Ω.178. PSpice Schematic: Boost [Copyright © 2003.8-1 EXAMPLE 8 Step-Up (Boost) dc-dc Converter i i L v L + + V d _ + _ ic C L D io v o _ R load Nominal Values: Vd = 9 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 50 µF Rload = 5 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. After 10 ms. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values.625 Problems 1. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use Vo(0) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0]. Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis.com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. 4. iD and ic waveforms 2. 3. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with the analytical calculations. pages 172 . In steady state obtain the following waveforms using Boost: (a) vL and iL waveforms (b) vo.mnpere. Obtain vL. 6. 5. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io.

Increase the load resistance to 80 Ω. Obtain the peak-to-peak ripple in the output voltage and check to see if the results agree with analytical calculations. change the load resistance as a step from its nominal value of 8 Ω to 80 Ω. 5. io and ic. obtain its harmonic components as a ratio of its average value Io. . Obtain vL. Obtain iD waveform and by means of Fourier analysis. 3. iL and vo waveforms as they reach their new steady state values.75 Problems 1. obtain the following waveforms using Buck-Boost: (a) vL and iL (b) vo. 4.9-1 EXAMPLE 9 Step-down/Up dc-dc (Buck-Boost) Converter + i V d v _ D _ + L i L L i C c vo + io R load _ Nominal Values: Vd = 8.5 V L = 10 µH rL = 10 mΩ C = 100 µF Rload = 8 Ω fs = 100 kHz switch duty ratio D = 0. After 10 ms. Check if the results agree with the analytical calculations. 2. In steady state. Obtain vL and iL waveforms in the discontinuous conduction mode [Hint: use V(o) = 28 V and IL(0) = 0].

com] . Calculate the rms value of the current through the output capacitor as a ratio of the average load current Io. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic: Buck-Boost [Copyright © 2003. Reference: Section 7-5. pages 178 .9-2 6.184.mnpere.

By means of Fourier analysis.10-1 EXAMPLE 10 Full-Bridge. 3. Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo and check it with the analytical calculations. calculate the average value and the harmonic components in vo. By means of Fourier analysis. Obtain the following waveforms using FBBSDCDC: (a) vo.5 V Ra = 0. .708 ^ (∴ vcontrol = 0. 2. calculate the average value of id and the rms value of the ripple.37 Ω La = 1. 4.416 V with V tri = 1.5 mH Io(avg) = 10 A fs = 20 kHz duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0. Bipolar-Switching dc-dc Converter id + A1 A V d B A2 _ Nominal Values: N Vd = 200 V VEMF = 79. io and po(t) = voio (b) vo and id Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in io.0 V) B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF Problems 1.

200 Calculate parts (a) through (c) of Problem 5 [Hint: use Io(0) = -11.379.67A]: (a) vo.5 . Calculate the following [Hint: use Io(0) = -1. Therefore.8 Vcontrol = x 1. Let VEMF= 79. (c) In part (a). Therefore. 6. In the regenerative mode. (b) peak-to-peak ripple in i .37x10 = 75. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. the power flows from the load to the dc-bus at Vd.0 = 0. With VEMF = 0 and Ia(avg) = 0.0. Ia(avg) = 10A in the reverse direction. Vcontrol = 0.192.com] .67 A]. and Vo(avg) = 79.8V. pages 190 . label the intervals during which various devices are conducting. 75.5V. io and po(t) waveforms.mnpere.10-2 5. PSpice Schematic: FBBSDCDC [Copyright © 2003. and that in o Problem 2. Vo(avg) = 0 V. Reference: Section 7-7-1. Compare it with its analytical value.

11-1 EXAMPLE 11 Full-Bridge. Unipolar Switching dc-dc Converter i + A1 A V d B A2 _ N B2 d B1 L + vo _ a i Ra o + V EMF Nominal Values: Same as that in Example 10 except for unipolar-voltage switchings. Obtain the plot of vo and io Obtain the peak-peak ripple in io. PSpice Schematic: FBUSDCDC [Copyright © 2003.com] . 2.194. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Problems 1. pages 192 . vB and vo using FBUSDCDC. Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 2 of Example 10. Check it with its analytical value and compare it with Problem 3 of Example 10. Obtain the plot of vA. Reference: Section 7-7-2.mnpere. 3. Obtain the rms value of the ripple in vo. 4.

5 sin (2πx40xt .866 pf (lagging).peak = 216.12-1 EXAMPLE 12 1-Phase.peak / ma = 271 V and.39o V and vTH = 175. Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH I o1 + Vo1 (at f ) 1 + _ V TH _ Therefore. Vo1(rms) = 153. . Inverter and Controller for Sinusoidal PWM: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz .33 V. Vd = Vo1. LTH = 10 mH. Bipolar-Voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Frequency f1 = 40 Hz. RTH = 2Ω. vcontrol = 0. VTH (rms) = 124. Frequency modulation ratio mf = 1000 / 40 = 25.8.8V.1 /-5. Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0. Io1(rms) = 10 A at a 0.39o).8 sin (2πx40t). Therefore. Vo1.5.

the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. 3. 5.12-2 Problems 1. Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phbsinv: (a) vo and io. pages 212 . Calculate its rms value. [Copyright © 2003. (c) vo. 4. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform. Reference: Section 8-3-2-1. (b) vo and id. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. Using the results of Problem 2.com] . obtain the high frequency ripple component id. PSpice Schematic: 1Phbsinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.mnpere. Using the results of Problem 6. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current.ripple in the input dc current. 2.30o A. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform.215. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. Using the results of Problem 4. Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. io and po. 6. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 7.

. (b) vo and id. io and po. Compare them with their precalculated nominal d values. 6. Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. Obtain Id(avg) and id2 (the component at the 2nd harmonic frequency) by means of the Fourier analysis of the i waveform. Similar to Example 12. Obtain the following waveforms using 1Phusinv: (a) vo and io. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current.13-1 EXAMPLE 13 1-Phase. 4. 2. Compare the peak-to-peak ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. Compare i 1 with its 0 o 0 precalculated nominal value. Unipolar-voltage Switching Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Problems 1. Obtain i 1 by means of Fourier analysis of the i waveform. obtain the ripple component v ripple waveform in the output voltage. Using the results of Problem 2. 3. (c) vo. Using the results of Problem 4. Compare v01 with its precalculated nominal value. 5. Obtain v01 by means of Fourier analysis of the vo waveform.

The difference is that the switches in the converter-leg A depend on the control voltage vcontrol.30o A.mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. [Copyright © 2003. Compare the rms value of the dc-side current ripple to that in the bipolar-voltage switching inverter. Calculate its rms value. obtain the high frequency ripple component id.ripple in the input dc current. whereas the switches in the converter-leg B depend on (.com] . Reference: Section 8-3-2-2.13-2 7. as in Example 12 is used.218. Controller: The same controller PWM_TRI.vcontrol). PSpice Schematic: 1Phusinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /. pages 215 . Using the results of Problem 6. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.

com] . each of which is gated on for alternate half periods. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal Values: Same as in Example 12 except.27 V 4 4 Problems Similar to Example 12 but compare the results with both Examples 12 and 13. page 218. Reference: Section 8-3-2-3. [[Copyright © 2003. B2) and (B1.peak = 216. PSpice Schematic: 1Phsqinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.14-1 EXAMPLE 14 1-Phase. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Controller: Switches (A1. Also. π π Vd = V01.8 = 170.mnpere. A2) form two switch pairs.30o A. obtain the lower order harmonics in vo as a ratio of Vo1. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A.

219.10 2 Problems Same as in Example 14.15-1 EXAMPLE 15 1-Phase. Voltage-Cancellation Inverter i + d B1 L TH A V d B A2 _ N B2 + vo _ i R TH o + V TH A1 Nominal values: Same as in Example 14. Reference: Section 8-3-2-4.9° and α = 180−2β = 102.8 = 4 271 sin β π ∴ β = 38. ^ For Vd = 271 V and V 01 = 216. at h = 1 216. See the definitions of α and β. pages 218 .2° α =51.8V.30o A. the initial value Io(o) = -7 A. . PSpice Schematic: 1Phvcinv Based on Io1(rms) = 10 /.

mnpere. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.15-2 Controller: A1 0 0 180 o A2 360 o B2 0 0 180 o B1 360 o [Copyright © 2003.com] .

54 V.A)1 = 74. Ls = 10 mH.612 ma . Phasor Diagram: R TH jX TH IA 1 Rs = + V An1 (at f1) + _ V TH .39 V = 105. 60 Hz. 1 3 rms IA = 10 A at a lagging power factor of 0. ∴ Xs = 2πx47. rms 47.619 VLL = x 230 = 182.16-1 EXAMPLE 16 Three-Phase PWM Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 N n V . 3-phase motor is operating at a frequency f1 = 47. A 1 _ ∴ (VTH.0 V 0.619x10x10-3 = 3Ω.36° V (rms) Inverter and Sinusoidal PWM Controller: Switching frequency fs = 1 kHz. Therefore.866 = 10 /-30° A. rms VLL ^ 1 ∴ Vd = = 313. 60 1 rms VLL rms 1 VAn = = 105. With V tri = 1.95 .97 V. Amplitude modulation ratio ma = 0.39/0°.76 /-12.619 Hz.A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal Values: Load: A 230 V. 1 2Ω .

Obtain Id(avg) by means of Fourier analysis and obtain the high frequency ripple id. Obtain the load neutral voltage with respect to the mid-point of the dc input voltage. 6. Reference: Section 8-4. Obtain the following waveforms using : (a) vAN and iA. pages 225 . the initial value IA1(o) = -7. Obtain vAn1 by means of Fourier analysis of the vAn waveform. (b) van and iA.236. Controller: Three sinusoidal control voltages. Obtain iA1 by means of Fourier analysis of iA waveform. [Copyright © 2003. Problems 1.ripple = id . are compared with a switching-frequency triangular waveform in PWM_Tri_3PH_Subcircuit.95 cos (2πf1t .mnpere. 5.30o A. Using the results of Problem 4. 3. obtain the ripple component vripple waveform in the output voltage. 7.90°) V. 4. 2. obtain the ripple component iripple in the output current. Compare vAn1 with its precalculated nominal value. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.com] .07 A. Compare iA1 with its precalculated nominal value. Using the results of Problem 2. one for each phase. PSpice Schematic: PWMINV3 Based on IA1(rms) = 10 /.16-2 vcontrol.Id(avg) in the input current.A = 0. (c) vAN and id.

A TH A1 A V d A2 _ B2 Nominal values: N The same as in Example 16.54 Vd = = 234.mnpere. PSpice Schematic: SQINV3 Controller: A1 0 0o B2 0 -60o C1 0 60 o 120 o C2 240 o 180 o B1 300 o C1 A2 360 o B2 [Copyright © 2003. Square -Wave Inverter i + d B1 C1 L TH R TH iA B C C1 n V .com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.03 V 0.17-1 EXAMPLE 17 Three-Phase. 1 Problems Same as in Example 16.230.78 rms where VLL = 182. Reference: Section 8-4-2. except 182.54 V. pages 229 .

18-1 EXAMPLE 18 Series-Loaded Resonant (SLR) dc-dc Converter Operating Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C SW1 + Lr A 1 Cr iL + _ vc C out v o V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V. 3.32. iD2. 2. Cr = 96. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms. Lr = 45. fs /fo = 1. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors. Snubber Capacitors Cs1 = Cs2 = 0. 4. obtain and plot vAB1 and iL1.8µs.9 nF ∴ fo = 132 kHz.1 nF Vo(0) = 69. . isw2 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot).5 µH. RLoad = 50 Ω. Obtain the voltage across and the current through the lower switch.75 V Problems 1. iL. By Fourier analysis. fs = 100 kHz. Cout = 50 µF.8µs to 5. C1. In a time range of 4. Check for zero voltage/current switchings. Note that the current lags in phase with respect to the voltage. C2 = Large.

18-2 5.262. respectively. 7. pages 261 . change the switching frequency to fs = 80 kHz. Obtain the voltage vc and the current iL waveforms. Without changing the circuit parameters. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Hint: Estimate the output voltage and use it as initial condition in the simulation. Remove both the snubber capacitors and reexamine the switching interval between 4.com] . PSpice Schematic: SLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003. 6.mnpere. Normalize the results by Vbase = Vd and Ibase = Vd / zo. Obtain Io(avg) and compare the normalized vc and iL / Io(avg) with those in Problem 3.8 µs in Problems 3 and 4.8 µs to 5. References: Section 9-4-1-3.

fs / fo = 1. Obtain the voltage across and the current through the bottom switch.96 µH. by how many degrees and why? In a time range of 6.1 . Problems 1. Check for zero voltage/current switchings.5 µs to 7. pages 266 . 2.74 kHz. Cr = 8. iL. Reference: Section 9-4-2-3.9926 A. .267. fs = 300 kHz Lr = 37. 5. Does the current lag the voltage? If so. 3.19-1 EXAMPLE 19 Parallel-Loaded Resonant (PLR) dc-dc Converter Above the Resonant Frequency id + Vd _ 2 io D1 CS1 + C 1 SW1 + Lr A V d V _d 2 _ B + C SW2 D2 + vAB _ CS2 iL Cr + vc _ v o C out R Load _ _ 2 _ Nominal Values: Vd = 155 V.5 µs. Plot the fundamental frequency components of the inverter voltage vAB and the current iL. isw1 and the gate signals to switches 1 and 2 (all on the same plot). Obtain vc and iL waveforms. . 4.97 nF ∴ fo = 272. plot the currents ics1 and ics2 through the snubber capacitors. Obtain vAB and iL waveforms. Io = 0. iD1.

com] . Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.19-2 PSpice Schematic: PLRCM2 [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.

11 . fs fo = 3.20-1 EXAMPLE 20 Current-Source. fo id ~ Id = 25 A Problems 1. = 1. Obtain the waveform of the voltage across the dc input to the inverter. Calculate the angle by which the current leads the voltage. Lc = 20 µH 2 Cr = 25 µF. . Compare with the average power input (Vd Id) calculated in Problem 3. Compare this value with the phase angle of the impedance (at the switching frequency) seen from the output of the converter. Calculate its average value Vd and the average power input VdId. Rload = 20 Ω. 3.6 kHz. 4. 2. Obtain the voltage across the load and the average power supplied to the load. Parallel-Resonant Inverter for Induction Heating i Ld d + 1 3 + Lc io C r L r R Load v d v o _ 4 Nominal values: fs = 4 kHz Lr = 78 µH. Obtain vo and io waveforms. Obtain the fundamental frequency components of the output voltage vo and the output current io.

Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. PSpice Schematic: CSINV [Copyright © 2003.20-2 5. Plot the voltage across one of the thyristors and calculate the reverse recovery time (= γ/ωs) in µs available to the thyristors. Reference: Section 9-4-4. pages 269 .com] .270.mnpere.

Compare the results and comment on how the switching frequency should be changed to bring Vo back to its nominal value.9 nF fs = 0. Check for zero voltage/current switchings. . 4. Obtain the average value of the voltage across the switch to check if Vo equals 10 V as the specified nominal value.5 A. io = Io = 1 A. 1 fo = = 1 MHz 2π LrCr Lr = 10 Ω Cr Zo = ∴ Lr = 1.21-1 EXAMPLE 21 Zero-Current-Switching. Obtain vc.0 A. 3. Quasi-Resonant Buck Converter Lr i sw V d + v L f io Cr Dr C f + vo _ R + - c _ Load Nominal Values: Vd = 15 V. Cr = 15. isw and idiode waveforms. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 0. 2.614 MHz ∴ Ts = 1.59 µH. Plot the voltage across and the current through the switch. Look at the first switching frequency cycle and discuss the need for turning off a finite amount of current by the switch rather than the zero-current switching obtained earlier. 5. Vo = 10 V. Obtain Vo/Vd and the corresponding Rload/Zo.624 µs Problems: 1. Change Io in the PSpice circuit to 2.

Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.05 µs is produced. Obtain the voltage vc and the inductor current iL by putting a diode in anti-parallel with the switch. pages 274 .mnpere.21-2 6. [Copyright © 2003.com] . The switch is turned off when the current through it tries to reverse direction. a short pulse of 0. Obtain Vo/Vd. PSpice Schematic ZCSconv: Controller: At the beginning of each cycle.278. Reference: Section 9-5-1.

Clamped-Voltage dc-dc Converter id + SW1 D1 CS1 Lf V d A + CS2 A io iL C f + vo _ R Load v SW2 D2 _ Nominal Values: _ Vd = 21 V. 5. 4. pages 280 . Rload = 10 Ω. Problems: 1. What should its value be to provide zero voltage switching? Change Cs1 and Cs2 to be 2. Obtain the average value of vA.283. Around the blanking time. Reference: Section 9-6-1. Comment on the zero voltage/current switchings. . Vo = 10 V fs = 100 kHz. How much lower is it compared to the nominal value of 10 V for Vo? Calculate the peak-to-peak ripple in the inductor current as a ratio of the average inductor current. Obtain vA and iL waveforms. Repeat Problems 1 through 4. 2.5 nF.22-1 EXAMPLE 22 Zero-Voltage-Switching. 6. 3. Obtain the voltage across and the current through one of the switches. Lf = 20 µH Cs1 = Cs2 = 5 nF Cf = 1000 µF. obtain the currents through one of the switches and through its associated diode and the snubber capacitors.

Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.com] .5 us vgate2 0 0 0.5 us 5 us 10.22-2 PSpice Schematic: ZVSCV Controller: vgate1 0 0 5.5 us 15 us [Copyright © 2003.mnpere.5 us 10 us 15.

Calculate the average values of id and iD in Problem 1 and verify that Id Vo = . Vo ~ 4 V switch duty-ratio D = 0. Change the load resistance to 50 Ω and repeat Problems 1 and 2 after a steady state is reached.4. Verify the results with the following equation: Vd vsw = . Neglect the leakage inductances. . Rload = 1 Ω Transformer: N1/N 2 = 4. Obtain waveforms for v1. id. and iD. C = 100 µF. and iD during a switching transition. 3. Obtain the waveform for the switch voltage vsw. Io Vd 4. fs = 200 kHz. isw. 2. Magnetizing inductance Lm = 30 µH. Plot v1. 1-D 5. Problems: 1.23-1 EXAMPLE 23 Flyback dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ N2 C iD = i o + vo _ R Load V d _ Nominal Values: Vd = 32 V.

875 µH.23-2 Reference: Section 10-4-2. and L2 = L1 / (N 1/N 2)2 = 1.mnpere. Therefore. 3. the coefficient of coupling (k) is assumed to be nearly 1. [Copyright © 2003. An R-C snubber is included across the switch. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.310.com] . 2. The transformer of the Flyback converter is represented by a component XFRM_Linear in the Analog library. L1 = 30 µH. pages 308 . Since the leakage inductances are ignored. PSpice Schematic Flyback NOTE: 1. A 1 MEG resistor is connected to ground at the output to satisfy connectivity requirements.

verify that tm N3 = Ts N1 D 2.. 4. =1 N2 N3 fs = 200 kHz. Problems: 1.314. = 4. RLoad = 1 Ω. 3. pages 311 .4 . isw and i3 waveforms. Reference: Section 10-4-3.5 µH Cf = 100 µF. Obtain the waveforms for iL and the voltage input to the output stage (i. show that the average value of v1 equals zero. From the results of Problem 2.5 V. Lm = 100 µH.e. and Ts is the switching time period. In problem 2. Vo ~ 4.24-1 EXAMPLE 24 Forward dc-dc Converter id + + v1 N1 _ D3 i3 i D1 N3 N2 D1 D2 + Lf vL iL _ + vo _ R Load V d _ Cf Nominal Values: N1 N1 Vd = 50 V. PSpice Schematic: Forward . the voltage across diode D2). where tm is the time interval during which i3 flows. Lf = 7. Obtain v1. Switch duty-ratio D = 0.

L2 and L3 with almost perfect magnetic coupling. The 3-winding transformer is represented by three inductors L1.mnpere.com] . [Copyright © 2003. The 1-MEG resistor is for satisfying the connectivity requirement. It is represented by a component XFRM_3W. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. 2.24-2 Notes: 1.

RLoad = 200 mΩ.05 V in the nominal value of the output voltage Vo equal to 4 V at 200 µs. Repeat Problems 1 through 4 with a Type-3 controller which provides a phase boost of 60 o with the same crossover frequency as before.25-1 EXAMPLE 25 Forward Converter: Voltage-Mode Controlled i + N 1 V d _ N 2 d D1 D2 rc rL Lf + vo _ R Load Cf Nominal Values: rc = 10 mΩ. N1 / N2 = 3. Vd = 24 V. fs = 200 kHz. Vo = 4 V. 3. Lf = 5 µH. 5. PSpice Schematic: For_Cntl [Copyright © 2003. Repeat Problem 1 by applying an additional load resistance of 800 mΩ in parallel with the nominal load resistance.34 ( -9. Cf = 2. Observe the system response. apply a step increase of 0.com] . Using the switching model in For_Cntl.000 µF. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www.37 dB ) Voltage-Mode Controller: Designed with crossover frequency ω c =105 rad/s and phase margin φ pm = 45o . 2. pages 322 . Repeat Problem 1 by applying a step increase of 1 V in the nominal value of the input voltage Vd. Reference: Section 10-5.336. rL = 10 mΩ (ignore).mnpere. PWM Modulator: Tm (s) = 0. Problems: 1.

6V at 0.com] . Unipolar Voltage Switching KE = KT = 0. 3. Problems: 1. Obtain the armature current waveform. pages 388 . PSpice Schematic: DC_Motor [Copyright © 2003. B2 B1 La + vo _ Ra io + V EMF 4.5 mH fs = 10 kHz.5 ms and observe the system response.75 duty-ratio D1 of TA1 and TB2 = 0.37 Ω La = 1.708 ^ (vcontrol = 0. Compare the results with the unipolar-voltage switching scheme here. Apply a step increase in the control voltage to 0. 2.416 V with V tri = 1.mnpere.0 V) The motor-load is as represented in the schematic DC_Motor. Calculate peak-to-peak ripple in ia. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. Repeat Problems 1 and 2 using a Bi-polar-voltage switching scheme. Reference: Section 13-6-3.26-1 EXAMPLE 26 Ripple in the DC Motor Armature Current id + A1 A V d B A2 _ N Nominal Values: Vd = 200 V Ra = 0.389.

Problems 1. A pulse voltage is applied to the gate of the MOSFET where the rise and fall times are specified as 100 ns. Adapted with permission from “Power Electronics Modeling Simplified using PSpice™ (Release 9)”: http://www. The stray inductance is represented by Lstray. 3.27-1 EXAMPLE 27 MOSFET Switching Characteristics In the schematic of MOSFET. PSpice Schematic: MOSFET [Copyright © 2003. Vary Lstray in a range of 20 nH to 200 nH and observe its effect on the switching waveforms. The diode model within PSpice is used (where all its parameters have default values and rs = 1mΩ). the MOSFET is represented by IRF150 MOSFET in EVAL library of PSpice.com] .mnpere. Vary Rgate in a range of 10 Ω to 200 Ω and observe its effect on the switching waveforms. 2. Look at the MOSFET switching waveforms.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd