# METAL CUTTING THEORY All metal-cutting operation can be likened to the process shown in fig 1, where the

tool is wedge-shaped, has a straight cutting edge, and is constrained to move relative to the work piece in such a way that a layer of metal is removed in the form of a chip. Fig. 1b depicts the general case of cutting known as oblique cutting. A special case of cutting, where the cutting edge of the tool is arranged to be perpendicular to the direction of relative work-tool motion(fig 1a), is known as orthogonal cutting. Since orthogonal cutting represents a two-dimensional rather than a three-dimensional problem, it lends itself to research investigations where it is desirable to eliminate as many of the independent variables as possible. The relatively simple arrangement of orthogonal cutting is therefore widely used in theoretical and experiment work.

Fig. 3.1 , (a) Orthogonal cutting; (b) Oblique cutting The wedge-shaped cutting tool basically consists of two surface intersecting to form the cutting edge (fig. 3.2). The surface along which the chip flows is known as the rake face, or more simply as the face, and that surface ground back to clear the new or machined work piece surface is known as flank. Thus, during cutting a wedge-shaped “clearance crevice” exists between the tool flank and the new work piece surface. The depth of the individual layer of material removed by the action of the tool is known as the unreformed chip thickness (fig 3.2), and although in practical cutting operations this dimension often varies as cutting proceeds, for simplicity in much of the research work it is arranged to be constant. One of the most important variables in metal cutting is the slope of the tool face, and this slope, or angle, is specified in orthogonal cutting by the angle between the tool face and a line perpendicular to the new surface (fig 3.2). This angle is known as the rake or, in accordance with ISO terminology, the working normal rake, and fig 3 illustrates how the sign of the angle is defined. The rake angle is measured from the normal to the cut surface, with the positive direction such that the wedge angle is decreased. Negative rake angles result in a stronger cutting edge and consequently are often preferred for rough machining

The flank is the tool surface or surface over which the surface produced on the work piece passes. planers. however. where the angle is the included angle between the face and the flank. shapers. Thus from fig 3.2 the sum of the rake. These are shown in the figure and defined as follows: 1. more precisely. boring mills. In addition.operations. A typical single-point tool is illustrated in fig. . The tool flake plays no part in the process of chip removal. and similar machine tools. turret lathes. 2. Fig. 3. clearance. They are commonly used in lathes.3. and wedge angles is equal to 90 degrees. the working normal clearance.3 The most important feature are the cutting edges and adjacent surfaces. 3. (b) negative rake. (a) Positive rake.2 Term used in metal cutting. negative rake angles usually result in more usable cutting edges for replaceable tool inserts. The face is the surface or surface over which the chip flows. the angle between the flank and the new work piece surface can significantly affect the rate at which the cutting tool wears and is defined as the clearance angle or.2 The layer of material removed by single point cutting tool :single point tools are cutting tools having one cutting part (or chip-producing element)and one shank.

4.3.3 Typical single-point tool. The tool minor cutting edge is the remainder of the cutting edge. Fig. The cutting edge is that edge of which is intended to perform cutting. The tool major cutting edge is that entire part of the cutting edge which is intended to be responsible for the transient surface on the work piece. or it may be the actual intersection of these cutting edges. it may be curved or straight. 3. . The corner is the relatively small portion of the cutting edge at the junction of the major and minor cutting edges.

can vary along the major cutting edge. The resulting of these two tool motions is called the resulting cutting motion and is defined as the motion resulting from simultaneous primary and feed motions. The motion resulting from the primary motion of the machine tool. the angle between the direction of primary motion and the resultant cutting direction is called the resultant cutting-speed angle n. the instantaneous velocity of the resultant cutting motion of the selected point on the cutting edge relative to the work piece. its motion relative to the work piece has two components: 1.Fig. the instantaneous velocity of the primary motion of the selected point on the cutting edge relative to the work piece. which can be called the primary motion of the tool. the cutting speed v. the instantaneous velocity of the fed motion of the selected point on the cutting edge relative to the work piece. The motion resulting from feed motion of the machine. The feed speed . is given by = (2) . 3. Further. 2. Finally. when a tool is applied to a work piece. example). the resultant cutting motion is identical to the primary motion. the resultant cutting speed . Where the feed motion is applied continuously. is constant. This angle is usually extremely small and for most practical purpose can be assumed to be zero. It should be noted that in machine tools where the feed is applied the tool is not engaged with the work piece (as in shaping or planning.4 Resultant cutting motion in cylindrical turning In general.

significantly affects the power required to perform the operation. can be measured normal to the direction of primary motion. From fig 3. thus in Fig 3. as described above. Strictly. 3. where will be measured this way. therefore. the instantaneous engagement of the tool cutting edge with the work piece measured in the direction of feed motion.5. The thickness of the layer of material being removed at the selected point on the cutting edge.5 single-point tool operation. since n is small. where = .5 called the major cutting edge . However. is given by is equal to the is the feed engagement.But since for most practical operations n is very small. sin . For single-point cutting operations feed f. for all practical purposes. and therefore = The cross-section area of the layer of material being removed (cross-sectional area of the uncut chip) is approximately given by =f …(5) Fig.5 and all subsequently figures. known as the unreformed chip thickness . . this dimension should be measured both normal to the cutting edge and normal to the resultant cutting direction. it can generally be assumed that = (3) One of the important tool angles when considering the geometry of a particular machine operation is the angle in Fig 3.

A particular difficulty in formulating an analysis of the metal-cutting process is the lack of constraint in the process that reduces the range of boundary conditions that can be applied. In general the back engagement determines the depth of material removed from the work piece in a single-point cutting operation. Fig. cutting ratio. depend on the conditions that exist when the tool first contacts the work piece. = cutting . Fig. the simplify analysis of metal cutting developed do predict many of the general trends observed in the process. = shear force on shear plane resultant tool force. and so on that occur in a particular case. It has been suggested that a unique solution does not exist for a particular set of cutting conditions and further that parameters such as the cutting forces.3 THE APPARENT MEAN SHEAR STRENGTH OF THE WORK MATERIAL Many analyses of the metal-cutting processes have been developed. The back engagement is the instantaneous engagement of the tool with the work piece. In general. 3. previously known as depth of cut. A further complication is that different forms of chip formation mechanism occur at various cutting conditions.6 shows the idealized model of continuous chip formation employed in much of the previous work on the mechanism of the cutting process. It has been suggested that a unique solution does not exist for a particular set of cutting conditions that reduces the range f boundary conditions that can be applied. assumptions have to be made which are often valid only for a restricted range of conditions. However.4). measured perpendicular to the plane containing the directions of primary and feed motion (fig 3. where = force. A further complications that exist when the tool first contacts the work piece.Where is the back engagement. 3.3.6 Shear-plane model of continuous chip formation.

the working normal rake and the unreformed chip thickness are known. all the shear plane. or primary deformation zone.6 this force may be expressed in terms of cutting ( ) and trust ( ) components of the resultant tool force: =( cos ) – ( sin ) The area of shear is given by = = = /sin …(6) …(7) calculated in this way.2. and the chip thickness can be measured either directly with a ball-ended micrometer or obtained from the weight of a known length of a chip as follows: = Where = mass of the chip specimen = length of the chip specimen =width of the chip = density of the work piece material If the resultant tool force is resolved in a direction parallel to the plane. that at small feed . could be reasonably represented by a plane.3.3 From fig. As shown in fig. The angle of inclination of the shear plane to the direction of cutting. the force required to shear the work material and form the chip is obtained.Two of the earliest workers to employs this model where Ernst and merchant. …(3) …(2) Experimental work has shown that over a wide variety of cutting condition. however. could be determine as shown in the equation 1 . the length of the shear plane is given by … (1) And after rearrangement tan = the ratio is known as the cutting ratio and is denoted by tan = Where = shear angle = cutting ratio (given by = unreformed chip thickness = chip thickness = working normal rake In experimental work. who suggest that the shear zone. called shear angle φ. 3. remains constant for a given work material increases …(5) …(4) thus. It has been observed.6.

the strain rates are on the order of 103 to 105 s-1. is constant and independent of the cutting speed and rake angle under the range of this condition normally encountered in metal cutting. = …(8) It has been shown that if the components of are used to calculate the apparent shear strength of the work material.with decrease in feed (or unreformed chip thickness). This shear strength characteristic. However. is obtained . this apparent shear strength remain constant with respect to changes in feed. and under this conditions the shear straight of the metal could be expected to be constant and independent of strain rate. strain . Thus. strain rate and temperature is important.temperature. explain why in metal cutting the value of . …(9) . the trend to words the use of higher cutting speed means that accurate modeling of the constitutive behavior materials taking in to account strain. = Where = cutting component of = thrust component of = constant property of the work material Steady of the deformation of metals at high strain rates have shown that a material deforms at a relatively constant stress when the strain rate is sufficiently large. This exception to the constancy of explained by the existent of a constant plowing force force and . In metal cutting. it is suggest. the mean shear strength of the work material. If can be is subtracted from the resultant cutting the force required to remove the chip and acting on the tool face.