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MA Design & Branding Strategy 2002
I would like to thank everyone who has helped with material for this research project, in particular the Design Week, Wallpaper and Design Management Journal. To Ray Holland, John Boult and Darren Southee, thank you for giving me your time and tutorship to help me in writing this project. And many thanks to Tricia Eldridge for all her help. I am also extremely grateful to all of my family, friends, and classmates who gave me many tremendous ideas, and were nothing but always accommodating to my deadline. I would particularly like to thank the founder of Fluid Lighting – Tim Becker for his tremendous patience on cooperating with me for the interview by e-mails and his great input on my research.
As the title suggests, this research project investigates how the uses of lights can be applied to a brand or a product and how light branding can best discover, evaluate and communicate in today’s fast changing market. Through literature and research it examines that light design from many different landscape architectures to variety of products, may have raise value which can be transferable to help in product design and in developing a relationship between a brand and customers, then to help the brand to gain brand recognition through its light branding. The purpose of this research project is to discover the possibility of using light as a tool in branding strategy. This notion is explored further in the following section, which addresses the key issues for this report.
53 Can consumers recognize a product through its light brand? ………………. 56 Why use light? ………………………………………………………………. 39 Methodology ……………………………………………………………………… 40 4. 46 The Initial Impact of Light ………..4 3 .……………………………………………...……… 21 Emotional Branding ………………………………………………………..2 Observations ………………. 60 How should light be used? ………. 55 6.………………………………………………………………………...………………….7 2..2 2. 48 Car Colours ………………………………………………………………….. 44 Findings from the Questionnaires …………………….… 40 4..2 Questionnaires ………………………………………………………………... 40 4..6 2.………………………………………… 47 Case Study: Ford GloCar …………………………………………………….4 5.3 6.… 26 Light in Design …………………………………………………………….2 5. 11 Light and Health …………………………………………………………… 15 Colour and Brand ……………………………………………………………17 Sensory Branding ………………………………………………….… 9 2.5 Case Study: Apple Computer ………………………………..1..1 Research Methods ………………………………………………………….1 2. 9 Light. 41 4.8 3 4 Light and Colour ……………………………………………………………..1 5. 40 Interviews ………………………………………………………………….4 2. 55 Can light be a key product and brand differentiator? ………………………..... Colour and Emotion …………………………….5 2.………………………………………… 63 6 Discussion .3 Literature Review …………………………………………………………. 31 Key Question …………………………………………………………………….1.3 5.……………………. 41 5 Findings …………………………………………………………………………… 44 5.2 6.1 4.1.… 5 1 2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….1 6.. 7 Literature Review ……………………………………………………………….. 24 Light in Films …………………………………………………………….....………………....3 2.Contents Abstract ………………………………………………………………………………...
.5 6..…….6 7 8 Where does light fit in design process? …………………………………….. 71 References …………………………………………………………………. 75 4 ...6. 67 Who is responsible for light design? ………………………………………… 69 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………….
And the recognition level of light brands is also explored from the questionnaire data collated. A number of specific topics and theory were discovered during the study. brand. of design process was investigated. The key question addresses the management of light if it is determined to be a key product and brand differentiator. Key Question From the literature review the key question is defined along with sub-questions which are crucial to the area of light branding and design. Methodology The main research method was focus on literature. The main sections of the dissertation are as follows: Introduction and Literature Review Bringing colour and light into our daily lives helps in connecting with the corresponding different facets of one's self. or otherwise. Discussion The discussion explores where and how light can be used within the corporate climate and its 5 . with light acting as the linkage between the tangible. product design and the intangible.Abstract The main objective of this dissertation is to find out how light can be implemented in design and branding strategy. This section also outlines the way in which primary research to answer the key question was undertaken. The role that senses and emotions on the use. The subject is divided into ‘light in design’ and ‘light branding’. Colour and light are the visual impulse that inspires us to realise our inner richness. Little direct evidence found in either literature or interview of its use. Findings Evaluation can be undertaken in a number of ways. The role of light in product design and branding are need to be investigated through the identification of the consumer perception of lights.
6 .implications for design management. The contributions that the findings from this dissertation can make to the world of designing with light are uncomplicated. The difference between artists and designers in the design management was also discussed. and also in communicating with customers. Conclusions Design has to be acknowledged for the role that it can play in transforming into a product.
When light is present it enables one to function in what otherwise is darkness. The presence of light and colour is accepted by most people of the world today without really giving it a second thought. Bringing colour and light into our daily lives helps in connecting with the corresponding different facets of one's self. So is it possible to transfer our sense of recognition of light into design and branding? Light branding is still a new area. Even dim light is noticed. new technologies that create opportunities for future products will enable designers to develop their ideas of creating new things. Artists and designers have known for a long time. From awakening in the morning until we retire in the evening.Introduction The idea for this project was inspired by the film — Batman Forever. has a major dominance upon our lives. The conception of “Light Branding” came to my mind when I saw the ‘Symbol’ of Batman projected into the sky. emotional and aesthetic aspects are in creating a properly balanced. Light and therefore colour. and helping the brand to be differentiated from other competitors. and the way we see. Subjectively. it is a decision to withdraw elements or put emphasis on what it is believed to be more significant and communicative in a unique and specific context. Most of what we know of our environment comes to us through our eyes. It is a creative medium . which the role of light in product design and branding are need to be investigated through the identification of the consumer perception of lights. depends on how the space and objects are illuminated. Yet if we were cut out light. lighting is a powerful emotional tool. Whether we realise it or not. The subject is 7 . It could be the most powerful catalyst and motivator. Lighting is a reflection of how we perceive the world around us. helping customers to recognise the brand which is firmly imbedded within their subconscious. our world would quickly become extinct. humane environment. Colour and light are the visual impulse that inspires us to realise our inner richness. we are saturated by an ever-changing relationship with the colours that are presented to us and perceived on so many different levels. Light is something always noticed in darkness. Then I began to wonder what an interesting way of identifying himself.perhaps the most powerful of all-mediums. We have started to realize just how important many cultural. Furthermore.
divided into ‘light in design’ and ‘light branding’. brand. with light acting as the linkage between the tangible. Through the collation of research data it will be determined if light can be a key product and brand differentiator and the implications for brand strategy. 8 . product design and the intangible.
We can hardly ignore the drama of a beautiful sunset or an impressive landscape. we can see a spectrum of colours. it is very important to look at them in the same light in which they will remain. It is an important component of visual perception. a physician named Thomas Young proved that these colours all have a specific frequency and wavelength. A chemist may tell you it's a study of pigmentation. This led up to his theory that light is made up of only three primary colours — blue. Determining the source of light is essential when working with colour. The source of natural light. COLOUR is the VISIBLE LIGHT (electromagnetic spectrum). Others will say it's what the eye perceives. they produce a white light. will affect colour. In fact colour is all of these. all colour theory is based on the principle that colour is light.2 Literature Review 2. When a beam of light is refracted by a crystal prism. It is this theory that is the basis on which the processes in colour photography works. Later. Colour in light was first discovered by Sir Isaac Newton in 1666 when he passed light through a prism and created a rainbow of colours on his wall. but colour in interior spaces is 9 . The term “perceived” is important because each of us views colour differently.1 Light and Colour For every person we ask. Some of us are extremely sensitive to colour and its application. A certain shade of red in natural light will look very different in fluorescent light. green. As a light source changes. and when combined equally. When selecting colours. A physicist will say it's a study of electro magnetic waves and their frequencies. green and blue. as well as the time of day. and red — and that all other colours are formed by a combination of these three. A psychologist may tell you it's the study of the mind. It can not be perceived without daylight or artificial lighting. while darkness. "What is colour?" You are sure to get a range of answers. in 1802. Natural white light is the presence of all colours. This spectrum of colour is unique to the human eye. and an anthropologist could say it's a cultural phenomenon. or black. so does colour. Regardless of how we identify colour. while others do not consciously take notice. Colour is also defined as the perceived quality of light reflected or emitted by an object. is the absence of all colours. The primary colours of light are red.
vibrant room.often ignored. spirits tend to be cheery and delightful. 1940 – World War II brings a palette of heavy greys. sage and hunter. light. teal. and thick reds. for a well-planned colour scheme can completely change the appearance and mood of a space. somber teals. soft yellows and yellow greens. texture. it is one of the most expressive elements of design because its quality affects our emotions directly and immediately. and colour. but colour is added to Victorian homes with somber golds and reds. 10 . 1960 – Avocado green and harvest gold are in homes all across America.” Henry Ford. iridescent. colour is much more than reflected light. 1900 – “You can have it in any colour as long as it is black. Late 1990 – Corals. 1930 – The depression brings in what is known as the “taupe age”. In a drab dark room we may feel uncomfortable. 1920 – Colour is in full swing. Early 1990 – Colours are rich with jewel tones. The National Bureau of Standards estimates that the human eye can distinguish over ten million colours. The following colour Synopsis for the last century was provided by The Colour Marketing Group. while in a bright. History shows that colour trends change with the times. 1980 – Gray takes over from beige as the neutral. Yellows and Orange permeate the culture. 1950 – Colour explodes into bright pastels. 1910 – Victorian era clothing is black and white. Colour is the integral element in every design. space. Colour has a big impact on how we feel and behave in a space. Several shades of green are popular. Light blues and mauve are popular. pale yellow and pink. 1970 – Earth tones dominate. Effects such as pearlescent. Another favourite colour is chartreuse green. appliances in aqua. We normally don’t realize that these emotions can stem from colour. Yet. Successful interior designs harmonize form. holographic and metallic are changing the future of colour.
It is a common misconception that colour psychology is purely subjective. possibly because everyone responds instinctively and each of us has our own favourite colour. Every living creature on earth responds to the messages implicit in the play of light and colour. In the retina.2. it is a purely visual phenomenon. but little understood. large amounts of green in any landscape indicate plenty of water and therefore little danger of famine. therefore it is arguably the most critical element of design.to recognise poisonous foods. the part of the brain that governs our hormones and endocrine system. Throughout millions of years of evolution. Another misconception is that. colour is the principal cue to composition . as Sir Isaac Newton demonstrated when he shone white light through a triangular prism and the different wavelengths refracted at different angles. Light and Emotion The concept that colour affects mood and influences behaviour has long been recognised. Although some people are generally deemed to have a "good eye".e. money and effort are invested in the finest expertise and technology. which in turn evoke a psychological response. However. innately understanding the language of colour has helped humanity to survive . enabling us to see them separately. but this does not diminish its power. 11 . In commercial design. In modern times this primitive instinct is often quite unconscious. colour is light and light is the source of life. with no objective criteria for predicting response. no matter how much time. when it comes to colour the decisions are largely made on the basis of rank. the different wavelengths do so in different ways. Scientifically. so we are reassured.i. When light strikes the eye. we recognise that a creature coloured black and yellow is unlikely to be friendly. it is difficult to challenge this. Thus colour sets up complex physiological reactions. and spectral hues are its components. threatening predators and danger signals of all kinds. Without any objective rationale. In Europe. As Faber Birren. the first thing we register when assessing anything -and a powerful communication tool.2 Colour. because colour is physically processed through the eyes. when the world about us turns grey we recognise the onset of winter and instinctively draw in. observed in 1950: "Its role in all forms of life is too evident to be either denied or ignored" Colour is light. the eye constantly adjusts and long wave colours require the most adjustment. and insist upon using it. they are converted to electrical impulses that pass to the hypothalamus. the eminent American colourist. if the Chief Executive does not like green it would take a brave subordinate to take issue on such an apparently subjective matter.
The designer is the ultimate arbiter for setting consistency across platforms. 5. triggers memory.an entirely different process from colour psychology. express personality. creative director. and ability to master consistency and meaning over a broad range of mediums. In the sequence of visual perception. 1. Ensuring consistency across multiple media is an enormous challenge.” – Louis Erhardt Colour is used to evoke emotion. A person doesn’t need to read the type on a Tiffany gift box in order to know where the gift was purchased. is a conditioned response . the unconscious response will prevail. other colours may be used functionally to clarify brand architecture.It is important to recognise that colour symbolism. It is essential to take account of cultural conditioning. While some colour is used to unify an identity. Sixty percent of the decision to buy a product is based on colour. 3. of comfort. and often the two coincide . 2. and there is no off-the-shelf solution. Choosing a colour for a new identity requires a core understanding of colour theory. Colour creates emotion. through differentiating products or business lines. of motivation. Colour is dramatically affected by various file formats and reproduction media. a clear vision of how the brand needs to be perceived and differentiated. and gives sensation (Gael Towey.but if they do not. Colours have different connotations in different cultures. Different viewers experience colour differently in various environments. we depend on the familiarity of Coca-Cola cans that are red and UPS trucks that are brown. which is what happens on an unconscious level. The ultimate goal is to own a colour-a colour that facilitates recognition and builds brand equity. the brain reads colour after it registers a shape and before it reads content. and stimulate brand association. 4. of awe and wonder of mood. “Light profoundly affects our feelings of well-being. 6. Tiffany’s signature blue sets off a series of immediate impressions that are aligned with the company’s overall positioning and brand identity strategy. 12 . deriving as it does from our conscious associations. Matrtha Stewart Living Omnimedia) As consumers.
and the excitement of red. The theory is that this is also a change within the stages of childhood development. ensuring persistent goal-directed behaviour Emotions allow communication of motivational states Emotions enhance social bonding Emotions direct our cognitive processes Emotions facilitate storage and recall of memories There have been studies that test the preferences of colours at different ages with the following results: • • • Babies and children. yellow and orange seem to be basic reactions for everyone. Some theories suggest that people give meaning to colour by an intuitive sense that is universal to everyone. yellow and orange. Why do we have emotions? Rolls (1999) identified a number of inter-related functional aspects of emotion. At age seven to eight. to the ages of six. The basic reaction of the emptiness of solid white. 13 . The preferences from age eight to sixty years old are blue. orange and yellow. black and gray. More than likely it is a combination of both.The emotional effect of colour is a huge topic by itself and has undergone significant psychological research that is undoubtedly used by the major corporations such as Microsoft and Disney. green. and violet. then red. These include: • • • • • • • • Emotional arousal elicits autonomic responses which prepare the body for action Emotions act as a simple interface between sensory inputs and action systems Emotions are motivating Emotions persist beyond the eliciting stimulus. place and time. Another theory suggests that associations of colour are learned and are dependent upon a society. there is a change from the preference of reds to the preference of blues. interchangeably. prefer bright stimulating colours such as red.
Cool greens and blues are preferred.” – Ralph M. Yellow will look more saturated if it is surrounded or next to its complimentary colour. By late afternoon . Without doubt. his or her eyes grow weak and sometimes it is difficult to distinguish between green and blue. the range of artificial light is determined by the nature of its source.early evening the colour of the hills becomes a less saturated green. In the morning light on a clear sunny day. The green is bright and saturated. incandescent. not seeing the LIGHT is no choice. A vivid green that is breathtaking. As the day continues and the sun's intensity begins to fade. the hills are especially green. This green is a result of natural sunlight and clear optimal atmospheric conditions. Understanding how light can affect colour will give us more control over how we use it. then the nature of the illuminating source is important because it affects the colour we see. Evan If we think of colour as reflected light. 14 . The range of natural light is affected by the sun's position and atmospheric conditions. candle light… Seeing the LIGHT is a choice. The green has more grey in it. Similarly. From the research I understand that colour can be manipulated by other colours. (Doug Horton) So what does this have to do with design? This is clear a part of the developing an awareness of colour. colour can evoke emotional and social responses. in spring the hills in the south bay are green. For example. “Visual and emotional comfort demand constant change and variety. florescent. From this we can see that colour is affected by light. The functional use of colour is designed around the use of a variety of colours in order to keep human responses continually active and to avoid severe visual adaptation or emotional monotony. so does the colour of the green hills. The green is less intense than in the morning because there is less sunlight.• As a person grows older.
like plants. our daily. John Ott. the wrong kind can make us ill. states: "Light is a nutrient much like food." Humans need light of specific intensity and colour range to regulate their internal biological clock. yet. monthly and annual rhythms become disrupted. • The knowledge of light's effect on the human body is in its infancy. Light Therapy pioneer. 15 . and like food. Dr. but humans have looked at how light behaves in ways that have allowed us to move beyond a primitive state.Tone-varied images for identifying the subtle emotional state 2. Without it. and the right kind can keep us well. researchers continue to discover the power of light in preventive and therapeutic medicine. Some organisms. use light simply for basic growth.3 Light and Health Light has been both an elusive and necessary driving force in our biotic world since life began.
Humans have a biological requirement for ultraviolet light. They report success in speeding the recovery of stroke victims and those persons who experience chronic depression. in fact every living thing. Others used colour infused water and colour meditations to send healing rays to the person.• • • Light regulates and stabilizes our physiology and emotions. disease occurs. cells and nerves all have a level of vibration. we know that colour and light will help bring our physical and emotional systems into balance. Light enters the pineal gland (the body's light meter) via the retina. When our body becomes out of balance. Some people use coloured silk cloths which are placed on the body and then flooded with sunlight. soul and spirit. The earth. particularly during the winter months. melatonin. Colour is an active power. Early colour and light healers in the modern world used coloured gels and sheets of glass to apply light to the body. Light through the eyes affects the brain and every cell of the body. muscles. Its neurotransmitter. 16 . and the timing of the biological clock. influences the hypothalamus. Today. Through extensive research. mood. We live in a sea of energy and our bodies are composed of energy. A recent scientific study disclosed that each cell in the body emits light. there are many practitioners who use colour and light in interesting ways. Colour and light have been used for healing since the beginning of recorded time. is dependent upon light for its very existence. Each colour has its own frequency and vibration. which is responsible for controlling many of the endocrine functions that are disturbed in depressed individuals such as sleep and wakefulness. • Light enables us to see. gland and muscle. reproductive physiology. Within our body. Evidence points to the fact that we could all benefit from a greater supply of natural light. cell. and it plays several vital roles as it enters our eyes and our skin. the oceans. The sun would shine through the glass and flood the patient with colour. Ancient Egyptians built solarium-type rooms with coloured panes of glass. and it is currently unclear how much we need of the other colours of the spectrum. in every nerve. It shines in our auras and radiates upon us from the sun. our organs. Some therapists have a box with a mechanism that flickers light into the eyes. Colour works through and in us. exerting a tremendous influence on our consciousness.
much of our energy has gone to educate marketers that colour is a strategic tool . they feel that they can trust it. A brand’s identity is a symbolic representation of its reason for being in our lives. Colour and brand identity are inextricably linked. and less on analysing the target market.” hot colours. Many companies spend so much time focusing on second guessing their target market that they do not in fact have that clear view of what their brand is actually all about. the red carton of milk). It is about letting existing and potential customers. It is based on the belief that the one universally attractive characteristic is authenticity. Colour is the visual component which people remember most about a brand (that yellow box of film.. decorations. the visual language used to communicate this message must be strategic not arbitrarily based on the personal preferences of marketers or designers. and finally. not simply a decorative whim. words. a visual distillation of its core marketing message. know what sort of company it is and what they can expect from it. When the public are confronted by a brand that knows itself and communicates its values clearly. Colour surrounds us and manifests itself in our choices – clothing. Therefore. and the staff.2. cars. They believe what they are being told and a perception of integrity is created .the most powerful element of branding there is. It is an intricate process of combining visual communication with behaviour to create an image in the public's mind of who you are. then it will be easier to choose the right colours that work individually and combine synergistically to project those values universally. logos and websites.. Consequently.4 Colour and Brand Branding is all about communicating the essence of the company. Coca Cola bottle). Colour Affects has a different approach. If there is a crystal clear view of the brand. Colour can affect our moods and the millions spent by companies every year on careful branding and design is testament to popular belief that colour 17 . For example. followed closely by shapes/symbols (i. a brand whose core essence is serenity and calm could best communicate this personality with light cool colours rather than with “heavy. countries (think flags) and sporting teams. colour also plays a large role shaping the identities of people. Since colour tends toward the subjective. then numbers.e. the products and the services to its own personnel and to the wider world. Like it or not. the company ethos and philosophy. it is important to spend considerably more time on analysing the nature of the brand and the individual personality of the company. the copper-topped batteries.
Even women looked “squared-off” in their faux-masculine business suits. conveying seriousness. smell and sound. was the envy of every office. with its direct link to the brain’s primitive limbic region. some companies have developed some interesting snapshots of colour. That approach simply won’t do in contemporary culture in which. rather than offer a unified visual presentation to the consumer. Unlike dogs. A quick rear-view glance can help put into perspective how the visual vocabulary of our culture has changed dramatically in the second half of the 20th century. Throughout the ‘80s Western culture was dominated by a square. the visual aspects of a brand were treated as “decoration. visual communication collapses the five senses into a primarily visual experience. promotion. advertising. with 1.” As a result. in their totality. Fax machines were all the rage. or crocodiles. The age was a celebration of testosterone in Armani. dominated by the attributes of the masculine principle. Not surprisingly. vividly depicted by Michael Douglas’ Gordon Gekko in the movie Wall Street. has the visual brand presence. what we consider “brand essence.” been approached in anything resembling a strategic. cats. brands are primarily experienced visually. now people are more convinced in the power of colour and from my research into colour facts. key consumer touch-points often remain disparate entities. taste. we humans are a sightdriven species. authority. evoking sensations of touch. reflecting and anticipating 21st Century lifestyle needs. These are just the tip of the iceberg and don’t even address eye and hair colour stereotypes or the interpretation of different colours in dreams. creative manner. 18 . geometric. hard–edged “yuppie” aesthetic. encouraging loyalty. Only in the past decade. or whatever.” with each marcom agency (design. In the early 80’s emerging star “FedEx” was a new brand. The IBM Selectric typewriter. dictated by our very biological wiring. digital) promoting its own vision of how the written brand position should be “brought to life. Traditionally. as well as into popular opinion. holistic.can influence our decisions and inspire our actions – to purchase. Colour should never be underestimated as a powerful vehicle of communication and symbolism – and it goes a lot deeper than traffic lights directing us on the roads. linear. We now understand that.000 characters of stored memory. An understanding of the meanings and perceptions that surround specific hues can help set the mood for many communication activities. with 80% of our experience mediated through the eyes.
did not come to pass. Importantly. we are more tethered to work than ever. textures. they realized success through a commitment to design and a consistent cross media visual presence: the Apple iMac. the new VW Beetle and the Mach 3 razor.” The most influential products of the year sported rounded. The natural order provides a counterpoint to our “high-tech” lifestyle. a key visual cue that often signalled premium a brand status. At the pinnacle of the ’90s. Portable technology was still a future concept. the product colour vocabulary evolved from the heavy. which creates great strains and has unleashed a powerful antithesis dominated by a need to reunite with our biological rhythms. The collective vision of machines doing most of our drudgework. was just beginning to take form. to reconnect to our senses. Science-fiction portrayals of the 21st Century limned a landscape of sleek.The idea of a computer on one’s desk. The tectonic shift occurred in 1998. The Human Aesthetic: • • • Empathetic (to our time pressed needs) Simple Sensory 19 . or in the home. We live at the speed of technology. ergonomic forms. freeing up great quantities of leisure time. earth-friendly palette reflecting the prevailing themes of globalization and eco-friendliness. Technology has become our taskmaster. with the first break from the domination of the grid toward the emergent celebration of humanity birth and a new “Human Aesthetic. and the vocabulary of “Big Boxy Beige” would remain with us well into the ’90s. Instead. and exhibited a sense of optimism and two even showed a sense of humour. serious darks and glitzy golds of the ’80s to a recycled. It has bound us to our jobs in ways unimaginable a decade ago. steely square technology. our cultural visual vocabulary evolved away from one rationality to one influenced by biology and genetics. The concept of sophisticated technology and performance was represented by rigid geometry (Gillette Sensor and Sensor Excel) dictated by the masculine principle. Even visions of the future were dominated by the masculine principal. The World Wide Web was but a glimmer. As technology exploded into our personal and work lives throughout the ’90s. shapes. translucence and COLOUR. colours) reconnect us with our innate humanity. Celebrations of nature (natural products. By the late ‘90s technology had become our daily sustenance.
Brands have become our new myths and fantasies. indicating where we have been and where we are going while they remind us of our humanity. has been defeated. Pre-modern sleep was that of mammals in the wild. brands have taken on a more subliminal and emotional role in society. and fears. Sleep deprivation is a key fallout of “fast living” (impacts two-thirds of Americans). of entrepreneurship. We found ourselves living at the speed of technology and felt a growing need tore connect with the natural biological rhythms of life. Like totems.” Daily life had become a sustained workout..• • • • • Optimistic Evocative Biological. Human physiology is now experiencing a collision between the demands of a 24/7 world. Artificial lighting and the move to indoor work has disconnected us further from natural rhythms.in prehistoric times this [sleep] arrangement provided a channel of dreams and waking life that has gradually been closed off as humans have compressed and consolidated their sleep. “. 20 . high value Help us unplug. aspirations. some people identified a trend that was a manifestation of our being “tethered to technology” and called it “Survival of the Fastest. Natural form High performance. dominated by the new speed paradigm. which balances our internal systems with the environment.” (Awakening to Sleep: Verlyn Klinkenborg. brands represent personal and cultural identities.. If so. power. cultural artefacts that define our hopes. Living on six or less hours of sleep has become a badge of status. punctuated before and after REM sleep with periods of quiet rest. The oscillation between wakefulness and sleep has been flattened to a state of semi-wake / semisleep. keep up or go faster Where does this Human Aesthetic lead? In 1997. and leadership. The New York Times Magazine) In this Survival of the Fastest era. dreams. Our natural circadian rhythm. this alteration might provide a physiological explanation for the observation that modern humans have lost touch with their wellspring of myths and fantasies.
email. This understanding will lead to products that more effectively stimulate all of our senses. as smell takes on more of a role. more of our genes are devoted to the detection of odours than to any other kind of sensory information. touch and sound. suggesting that in our evolutionary past smell played a far more important role than it does today. it is likely that many more companies will start to develop their own unique ‘signature scents’. While nearly half of the brain is dedicated to processing what we see. For instance. let alone inspire them. While we might soon forget the unique colours of a visual logo. we may see something of a scent revolution. Such scents may well be designed to have a therapeutic role.5 Sensory Branding In a world where vision is the dominant sense. An understanding and embracing of senses could herald a new era of sensory marketing and open up the long neglected communication channels of not just smell. mail. through television. In this century. multi-sensory communication could prove even more powerful and effective than our traditional reliance on all things visual. and is the principal means by which marketers communicate with consumers. increasingly. These scents will help companies to create a distinctive. but also taste. newspapers. making it difficult to catch their eye. perhaps helping customers to relax or put them in a ‘buying’ mood and provide an especially potent means of creating a lasting impression. unifying. Think how certain smells can immediately transport you to a particular place and time. And in commercial terms. Manufacturers and marketers have traditionally tended to appeal to each sense in isolation.2. posters and. and so enhance our quality of life. the other senses are marginalised. Smell is the sense that is most closely linked to the brain’s emotional centre and could therefore be harnessed to provoke a powerful emotional reaction. 21 . And it could do so again. and memorable ‘scentimage’ that will help to distinguish them from their competition. but a growing number of researchers are starting to investigate how the senses interact to create the rich multi-sensory experiences that fill our daily lives. Consumers are bombarded by tens of thousands of visual sources of information every day. a signature scent may well stay with us for life. magazines.
edu/chudler/chsense. What’s more. we should be moving towards holistic sensory signatures.There is already evidence to support this. people almost invariably associated the brand name with the scent of the product. The Senses Poll Which sense is most important to you? 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Internet Votes: 15390 (28/07/2003) 1:30AM (http://faculty. and so help to predict precisely which combinations will make the greatest impression. Scent alone is not a quick fix remedy for companies. The average person can recognise 22 . If we can train our bodies to Olympian standards. others depend on environmental factors – but just how much can we change our sensory abilities through practice? Can we train our noses to smell better? The answer is ‘Yes’.html) Taste Smell Vision Touch (1203) (738) (10290) (1885) Hearing (1274) Just imagine what would happen if we could train our sense to be ever more acute. Just as the 20th century is all about visual stimuli. the 21st is already moving towards smell and combining the best of all the senses. We do not want to make the same mistakes as before creating yet another dominant sense.washington. surely the same is possible with a sensory workout? Is a world of sensory superpowers just around the corner? While certain individual differences in sensory perception are genetic. In fact. brain imaging techniques may soon be able to determine precisely which odour-colour combinations give rise to the greatest enhancement of neural processing in olfactory areas. People find it easier to identify the smells of particular products such as Johnson’s baby powder than to identify many natural odours such as coffee or lemon.
23 . Although difficult at first. For example.as many skilled craftsmen have known for years. what you feel. you can alter. More importantly their performance was improved even further when participants looked at their arm through a magnifying lens. but with training we can recognise around five times that. But when it comes to training our nose. not the filaments. Carpenters who want to assess the finish of a piece of furniture often place a sheet of paper under their fingertips before running their fingers and the paper over its surface. and actually improve. Such research suggests that the best way to improve our sense of touch may be to change what we see. participants asked to decide whether their arms had been touched with one or two fine wire filaments performed better when they were allowed to see their arm . in a test. The subtle sounds made by the paper as it passes over the wood act as auditory cues as to how it actually feels. so that their arm appeared to be bigger than it actually was. what we hear can also make a difference .around 2000 odours. they are able to improve their sensitivity to a number of different smells five-fold.‘the mind’s nose’. but also the farm from which it came. But what of the other senses? One consequence of our visual dominance over tactile perception is that by changing what you see. Olfactory experts often claim to be able to create and identify symphonies of smell in their minds using nothing more than their extraordinarily rich and vivid olfactory mental imagery .turning off any background music and closing eyes helps. The next step is to try to identify the component smells in more complex odours such as household products or perfumes. most people find it much easier after just a few days practice. With relatively little training.but critically. Distractions to the other senses should also be eliminated . In the same way. women stand the best chance of becoming sensory athletes. Would-be ‘super smellers’ should start in the kitchen by trying to identify herbs and spices by their smell alone. Experienced perfumers can name not only the country of origin of a particular sample of lavender oil. while men show nothing like as much improvement.
The relationship between the brand and the consumer can be seen to consist of three stages . creator of the d/g* worldwide agency in New York who published a book on the topic of emotional branding. This assumption originated in the Classical Conditioning theory (you will recall Ivan Pavlov and his experiments with the salivating dogs). A new perspective on the nature of the relationship between the brand and the consumer comes from Mark Gobé. The unfortunate result was ineffectiveness of many branding campaigns.2. but rather something they do things with".functional. When a brand asserts its personality. this theory is largely obsolete. 1987) Which of the user's situational & motivational needs does the product meet? Psychological Functional What does the product do? Evaluative How well does the product perform as compared to other products on the market? Meadows (1983) states " consumers are not just passive recipients of brand marketing activity. and thus abandoned as a means for modelling the attribution of emotional significance by humans. In it he cites rules which companies should pay attention to in order to create a dynamic relationship between their consumers and their brand. and thus branding is not something done to consumers. evaluative and psychological (Alcock et al. consumers will assess the fit between the personalities of the 24 .6 Emotional Branding The recent popularity of emotional branding was often based on the erroneous assumption that emotions can be simply 'glued' to brands by means of advertising. Today.
if possible) a certain desired experience or a beneficial result. 'bohemian') 25 . The 'Emotional Brands' arouse feelings in consumers because they are instrumental psychologically or socially. In his book. Consumers also use products and services to convey: . Therefore a product that makes an emotional connection and impression will continue to draw consumer interest above and beyond need. Apple and Mercedes. however. Branding is the creation of a system of both arousing anticipation for and providing fulfilment of. From this standpoint.Certain personality traits ('conscientious'. brand benefits. The more motivating and unique is the expected benefit . 'up-datedness'.who all speak the same language . can be considered the psychology of the relationship between the consumer and a brand.Linkage to specific Social stereotypes ('yuppie'. Brands have been referred to by some as "unique clusters of values" and brand positioning therefore. through the music in it's stores. The aim of a brand is ultimately to occupy a space in the consumer's mind which is connected to psychological values as opposed to functional needs.) . This view may seem obvious to those in the business of branding.the stronger the desire and the more lasting the preference.brand and the personality they wish to project. he states that "products fill needs. a marketer can claim ownership of a brand only if his target consumers attribute to his product and/or service the ability of consistently delivering (exclusively. Gobé believes that companies need to view their products and services as an opportunity to develop an experience for consumers in order to move as far away as possible from the functional aspect of a product or service. 'intellectual. These are Psychological uses. experiences fill desires". the décor and it's salespeople .. According to this philosophy. Gobé cites the example of Quiksilver as a brand which has a clear personality and communicates that to the consumer. An anticipation of benefit will not last if not consistently fulfilled.. the question remains as to how firms manage to forge a relationship with their consumers that taps into this. Think of the particular and distinct anticipation of benefit evoked by such brand names as James Bond.the customer's.
Having certain tastes and preferences. .7 Light in Films Lighting is an essential component of visually rich cinematographic images. such as a cone shaped spotlight. Psychological or Social instrumentality is the intrinsic. meanings and rituals These are Social and interacting uses. The studios became closed dark rooms. 2.Having a Social role . The first studios based themselves on windows with real daylight. It is gaining insight into what consumers are trying to accomplish psychologically or socially. From the beginning of film history. motivational books. etc In order to comply with a norm and / or to manage other people's impressions influencing their attitudes. it was all about a question of getting enough light for exposure.To create shared experiences. are not versatile enough for cinematographic-quality lighting. the artificial 26 . Destining brands to be instrumental psychologically or socially is a strategic option. and so did the powersupply.g. They could start to control the light. the common computer graphics light source models.. and gifts). This means of course.Belonging to particular groups . Hollywood was built on one of the sunniest places in the USA. However.Having a socio-economic status . designating the brand for a specific function based on one of the options listed above and having a specific content. that presents us with opportunities to shape brands for psychological or social gratification. psychotherapy. core benefit of the product or service (e. The electrical lights got bigger.A certain level of sophistication and refinement .To express emotions .To create an atmosphere and to evoke emotions . In some cases.
shadowy (Figure 1). Different lighting-styles became an important part of the film-language. they developed light-fixtures with a reflector and a lens.Caligari (1919) or Metropolis. lighting. This light worked almost like a slide-projector. suspense and detective genres. depth and movement in expressive new ways. Many factors came together to influence this style: technical innovations such as faster. but black-and-white films still continued to use lighting creatively and effectively. with contrast and long shadows. The technical limitation became a creative style. The light could be placed further away from the object. of course. faster lenses. Expressionism with films like the Cabinet of Dr. cameras light enough to hand-hold and portable power supplies. gave the DOP's new possibilities to express themselves with hard light. finer grained black-and-white negative. But natural light contains more than hard light. were intended to look "lighted". This was.light. montage. to concentrate and control the light. One of the highlights of lighting as storytelling is the era of film noir: American films of forties and fifties. The films at this time. composition. an integral narrative device. At first it was purely functional. To get enough light to the object. the light-source is small compared to the object. 27 . As a result. chiaroscuro. This kind of lighting gives hard shadows. more mobile camera dollies. But all of this is more that just visual style: it is inherently a part of the storytelling. Hollywood took this even further with the Film-noir films of the 40s and early 50s. all perfected during World War II. without loosing it's intensity. primarily in the mystery. The films became signed by a certain expression. most films were filmed outdoors in broad daylight. nearly all of them in blackand-white. alleviated many of the logistical problems previously connected with location filming. motion picture lighting has gone through a number of periods. When Technicolor was introduced. The noir genre is best known for its low-key lighting style: side light. only one of the various elements of visual style: they also used angle. Origins of Motion Picture Lighting Historically. expressive lighting. The low speed of the film and the lenses together with lack of high-power. controllable light sources made it a necessity to just pour as much light as possible onto the scenes. smaller.
1945) Light as Storytelling The purposes of lighting for cinematography are to contribute to the storytelling. great sensuality. Like a painting.). ‘The art of cinematography is the art of lighting and making that light tells the story.’ Stephen H. Carlito's Way. “There's an electrical thing about movies. Instead. Burum. etc. 28 . Director of JFK). and image composition. film is sensual too. ASC (Apocalypse Now. That's part of the reason I'm fascinated by the process. or hiding a light under a desk to fill in dark areas under a character’s chin. Montage can create a three-dimensional space. Mission Impossible. and to direct the viewer’s eye. because I've written a lot of things that I've been able to direct and see how it works. So that's not a definition. A lighting designer will use whatever techniques. play writing.(Figure 1) The black-and-white noir period is one of the highest achievements of film lighting as a story element – this frame from Mildred Pierce (Warner Bros. are rarely major contributors to the illumination. mood.”(Oliver Stone. Film is distinctive because of its nature. so we can't say it's the only sensual experience. and cheats are necessary. such as: suspending a cloth in front of a light to soften shadows. Lighting is a key element of storytelling in films. positioning opaque cards or graded filters to shape a light. Drama. so is sculpture. Often something that will work on paper does not work when we see it on film. tricks.. such as desk or ceiling lamps. So is music. Clearly the light represents knowledge. The “practical” light sources on a real-world movie set. but it is not just a symbol – it tells the story itself. and I am amazed constantly. various types of lamps and spotlights are placed off-camera. a threedimensional aura. so is architecture. the illuminating power of the great mystery of the universe. Life or Something Like It. is also live. focusing a narrow “tickler” light to get an extra highlight. And I've noticed it. Body Double. Light has a great power to form space. of its being able to cut through time with editing. in order to create the desired illumination effect.
Light as Visual Metaphor A more recent example. but sometimes stuff that isn't so great on paper will be dynamite. It is a story of good versus evil in the classic senses and Levinson and Deschanel use a wide variety of cinematic and narrative devices to tell it. the film is so visually unified and well thought out that it would be possible to comment on the metaphoric or narrative use of lighting in almost every scene. stormy. So those are elements that are very electric. Masterfully photographed by Caleb Deschanel. the sensuality of a touch. 1984) (Figure 3) They are silhouetted on a ridge against a glowing ultramarine blue sky which represents night and the temptations of eros.It sounds like a contradiction. ‘The Natural’ is the tale of a talented young baseball player Roy Hobbes (Robert Redford) who is diverted from his career by a chance encounter with a dark and mysterious young lady. a film that uses light as a metaphor and as storytelling perhaps better than any other of the modern era: Barry Levinson’s ‘The Natural’. They are young and innocent. but makes a comeback years later as he simultaneously finds love with his long lost childhood sweetheart. it will be electric. (The Natural. because something -. what he called. It is completely unnatural but beautiful and perfectly portrays their mental state. but their purity is disrupted when they meet in the blue 29 . an angle. suspended in time: the past is uncertain and the future is unclear. magic. This purgatory of being caught between them establishes the mood and tone of uncertainty and conflict between two worlds that is carried through the rest of the film.the look of an actor. (Figure 2) The opening shot from The Natural – a faceless character lost somewhere in the light and the dark. the caress. the camera catches the light in a certain moment of time and it's just. Tri-star Pictures/RCA/ Columbia.
he once again is silhouetted in dark blue – even the car headlights seem to be glowering at him as he falls for the seductive Memo Paris. shoots him and then jumps to her death. (Figure 4) The Lady In Black – the temptation that leads to Roy’s downfall.moonlight and make love. 30 . she invites him to her hotel room. She is always lit dimly and is somewhat shadowy – an ephemeral figure. as befits her evil nature. Usually portrayed backlit or in shadow. Light and Shadow – Good and Evil It is here that he first sees the woman who is to bring evil and temptation into his life – The Lady In Black (Figure 4). Here and in his love tryst with Memo Paris (Figure 6) blue represents the danger of succumbing to temptation. ending his baseball hopes. the most elemental evil in the film. (Figure 5) The Judge. claims to abhor sunlight – he stays always in the dark. (Figure 6) As Roy begins to fall victim to the temptations of fame and the glamour of the big city. only a few meagre slits of light manage to seep into his darkened den. in this shot underlit for a mysterious look. who we first see in silhouette and from the back.
Levinson and Deschanel make the most of and add extra layers of meaning onto a great story.8 Light in Design Light is much more than something that allows us to see. 2. It defines space. (Figure 8) The light itself manages to obscure the Judge’s eyes and partly disguise his evil. but it can always be a factor in underlying story points. sets the mood by which we live and evoke our emotions. from buildings and products to communication networks and transport systems. subtle and powerful tools of visual storytelling. In this particular film. creates atmosphere. In most films. she is surrounded by men only. all in dark clothes and hats.(Figure 7) As the team is losing and Roy is striking out. The angelic glow makes her hat a halo to supplement the white dress and the standing pose. This is appropriate as he appears here not as the intimidating force of evil but as a silky voiced cajoler. To reinforce the lighting effect. The man-made artefacts in our environment. lighting is a part of storytelling in more limited and less overtly metaphorical ways. character and particularly the perception of time and space. light is used as a metaphor and a very clear and sustained way. Filmmakers who take a rejectionist attitude toward lighting are depriving themselves of one of the most important. Her translucent white hat is backlit by a single shaft of sunlight. making her appear angelic. are created with sensorial qualities in mind. Sensory stimulation is a key element in determining our 31 . Those who reject lighting are often those who least understand its usefulness and eloquence as a cinematic tool. a great script and a superlative cast. Iris stands up.
experience of the world. The introduction of plastic into our production processes led to a whole new category of cheap and disposable products. a world of visual objects and concepts and meanings. create a sight world from the start. flexible and more durable.” Lighting can be used as a means to convey and enhance the meaning of the architecture. It can create illusions. to those of us for whom vision is the primary way of understanding and orienting ourselves with our environment. hygienic. Whether interior designers. but also to objects that were comfortable. Thus light visually reveals the world around us. Light makes objects visible and is itself made visible by objects. The experience of walking among the dazzling glass towers of New York is radically different to that of walking among the stone buildings of medieval town. born with a full complement of senses and correlating these one with the other. as for instance the spirituality of a church. it become incorporated into our culture and can have an impact both on how we experience our environment and on how we interact with it. for as Oliver Sacks says…… “We. As new technologies providing new sensorial qualities emerge. The same space could look festive or somber by the use of different types of lighting. Lighting can add excitement and drama to the built environment. 32 . product designers or architects. light has always been an important tool that allows them to work creatively and provides a great benefit to the emotional aspect as well.
Architectural lighting effects created by laser technology 33 .
Scotland 34 . Glasgow. Indiana.Riley Hospital for Children. USA Maryhill lock.
Amsterdam. USA Heineken Experience. UK.Northwest Airlines terminal at Detroit Metro Airport. Holland The flagship Nike store in London. 35 .
Morimoto Restaurant, Philadelphia, PA, USA
It is sight, sound, touch, taste, feel, texture, colour, motion, emotion and everything in between that have a role to play in helping establish, create and develop a branded image. Today, advances in lighting design technology are solving old problems and offering many new options for designers to achieve their ideas. Good lighting draws attention to projects and plus customers at ease. Many companies have realized that branding through lighting design technology is extremely important, what with a lot of money being spent, as is positioning that brand in the marketplace. More recently, ‘high-tech’ combinations of materials have resulted in clothing that regulates body temperature, toothbrushes with composite ergonomic handles and car seats that mould themselves to the shape of our bodies. These developments affect all of our senses, from sight to smell, sometimes obviously and sometimes in a more subtle, peripheral way. Designing with cool light became possible only in 1996 when Japanese manufacturer Nichia announced that it would make commercially available a phosphor that would emit blue light. Until then, researchers had successfully recreated just red and green light. By combining blue with red and green, it was at last possible to create white light, which is far more useful for architectural and product design.
It is essential to elicit answers for a number of related sub-questions that support the main key question.3 The Key Question Through the literature and case study that there are only limited resources drawing correlation’s between the use of light in design and branding. Through an investigation into how consumers regard light. and how the implications for the design and branding strategy will be considered through the questions outlined below: • • • • • • Can consumers recognize a product through its light brand? Can light be a key product and brand differentiator? Why use light? How should light be used? Where does light fit in design process? Who is responsible for light design? These six questions support the key question for this dissertation. after exploring many areas of product design and branding texts a relationship between the senses and design is evident. However. which is: How can light be effectively implemented in branding? 39 . This implies that the areas of branding and design are gradually becoming aware of the need to connect with consumers on a higher level. to consider whether the user identifies the light as a part of the product or brand experience.
4. Sources used included publish books. some figures and data were collected through this research method.1. assessing and communicating were recognised features of designing with light. Moreover.1. that provides a connection to a product or brand.1 Literature Review The literature review established the areas of finding. 4. journals and magazines as well as online information from the internet.4 Methodology The objective for this research project is to try and discover the possibilities of lighting effect can be a key product and brand differentiator. Hopefully to find an insight into the possibility of how light can add an extra value by creating a strong and memorable lighting symbol. A range of material was used to investigate the light and branding areas.1 Research methods • • • • Literature Review Observations Interviews Questionnaire 4. Some of the incomprehensible references prompted a number of visits to The British Library. The purpose of this research method is to discover the area of how far the uses of light have been developed in the areas such as technology. Whilst the literature survey focused attention on the justification of light as an emotional tool. And more in-depth research of how light can create an emotional connection with customers and evoke their awareness of the brand. The literature survey conducted highlighted the areas where research into the use of light has been applied. A wide ranging with the main purpose being to find a variety of products in industry. the perceived challenges and opportunities looking to the future and new technologies and methods that will be required to meet the possibility of light branding.2 Observations A major advantage of this observational method lies in the ability to gain the real physical viewing of the subject. art and design. The emphasis of observations was to clarify the approaches of product and 40 .
friends and some contacts from the internet. The questionnaires were given through to my classmates. 4. Would you be pleased if your mobile phone or other stuff has a special nice lighting design on it? 41 . the result were also assessed and found to be close to those anticipated. 1. The people interviewed were: Tim Becker – Founder of Fluid Lighting Design. Jennifer Duke was the only person I managed to interview in person at the “New Designers 03” show. simple to answer as well as distributed and returned easily.1.lighting effect and to validate the perception of the differences and in particular the strengths and weaknesses of both sides. University of Northumbria. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 people with their comments. place and contact information limits of this research project would not guarantee all information can be collected in time. As a final analyze. Industry observations were carried out at many different locations from small shops to air ports in Europe. UK Jennifer Duke– Student of Furniture Design. Because of the time. these comments were fed into the some significant bullet points in my research. UK 4. There are five e-mails were received from the three companies. criticisms and responses noted. It was just relevant to discover which industry is keener on developing the use of light compared to those who were not.3 Interviews via E-mail This method is to gain experts’ opinions from industry by e-mail interviews. So observations were selected on the basis of the questionnaire responses where I wished to clarify and elaborate. The following points were set as a brief for the questionnaire.4 Questionnaires The method decided upon was a questionnaire which could be filled in without supervision. New York.1. As a result seven companies were contacted by e-mail but only three of them replied with different point of views about this project. The observations were used to give greater depth to the study and to enhance the reliability and validity of the research project. TAIWAN Greg Rowland – Owner of Greg Rowland Ltd. (Semiotics for Brands). I am aware of the potential disadvantage of observation in that they can be subjective. USA Sophia Wang – Manager of Sun-Ling Lighting Ltd..
DELL 4. Any other ways you might wish to use the light? 6. 7. clothes. What sort of products would you like to see having embedding lighting design. 3. shop and so on.2. Can light evoke the emotional connection between you and a brand or a product? 5. Which supermarket sign is the most memorable/appealing to you? 42 . whether in functional or in aesthetic aspect? 3. building. 2. speaker. 4. computer. Can you differentiate the different brand by its light? (e. Which notebook brand image is the most recognisable and the least recognisable from the pictures below? (1.APPLE) 1.) 4.COMPAQ 3. movie.g.IBM 2. mobile phone. supermarket.
Process of research methods Literature Research Key Issues Defined Primary Research (Interview/ Questionnaire) Information Flow Secondary Research (Literature) Analysis of Findings Conclusions Recommendations 43 .
The overwhelming presence of Apple comes through in everything they do. Appleholics. People always ask marketers why Mac users are so loyal. colourful look. Apple abandoned the old rainbow-hued Apple logo in favour of a minimalist monochrome one. It's not just intimate with its customers. The glowing Apple logo has the most eye-catching brand identity among all the computer notebooks. This piece of hardware verges on beautiful. Mac loyalty is so well-known. members of the cult of Mac. they become fans. Even in the famous American TV drama “Sex and the City”. Other examples are automaker Lexus. gave its computers a funky. and they all cite the same reason: Apple's brand. which can sometimes turn into an obsession. in fact. Mac users are routinely referred to as Apple's faithful. design and innovation. of course. switching to Macs in droves. it's a cliché. people don't simply use Macs. Apple. Linux and Unix users are. But unlike ordinary personal computers." said Mark Gobe author of Emotional Branding. it is loved. according to Apple. Apple's computers have always been sleeker than most of the competition. There are 25 million people around the world who use Macintosh computers.as a group -. Macheads. The Mac community is arguably the largest subculture in computing. But the smallest of the company's PowerBook G4 models takes the idea of computer as art form further than before. It's a really powerful brand. It's done wonders. when columnist Carrie Bradshaw is reading her column 44 . Macolytes and Mac addicts. more dedicated than users of any other computer. and streamlined the messages in its advertising. perhaps even Linux.are probably more loyal. retailer Target and outdoor clothing line Patagonia. The Apple logo has long been an essential tool for enabling customers to identify Maccompatible hardware and software products. Mac enthusiasts -. is known an archetypal emotional brand. "Apple is about imagination.5 Findings in the Literature 5. with its matte silver finish and an arresting glowing Apple shape logo on the lid.1 Case Study – 1 Apple was awarded the "Brand of the Year" in 2001. Maccies. Mac zealots. They develop a passion for the machines.
Furthermore. or in a video editing studio.” as its ads proclaimed. Apple at long last regained its swing and its reputation for “daring to be different. that human touch. expressed in product design and advertising: This is true of Apple. Gobe also noted that Apple has always projected a human touch -. "People are anxious and confused". Its founding ethos was power to the people through technology. Cutting edge product design.on her screen: we immediately recognize the brand by the ghost white glowing Apple logo on the back of the computer screen. the leading hand. the human touch is expressed in Apple’s recent product innovation. The company has a unique visual and verbal vocabulary. People can activate and adjust the illumination them self. People need to find some grounding. extraordinary technological innovation. Apple used fiber-optic technology to illuminate the keyboard from the bottom rather than trying to shine a light down onto the keys. or let the computer control it with its embedded ambient light sensor. And undoubtedly. all combined radical styling and flash with the technological innovation of illuminated keyboard have made the brand Apple — Apple! According to Mark Gobe. "It's always about people". characterized by volunteerism. and legendary ease of use have made Mac the platform of choice for people all over the world who think and work creatively. "Today’s technology is accelerating faster and faster than we can keep up with. in a lecture hall. The company projects a humanistic corporate culture and a strong corporate ethic. So user can see the keyboard legends easily even in such low-light situations as on a plane. Macintosh computers are legendary for bringing a human face to technology. and it remains committed to computers in education. There's a need to recreate tribes that give people a grounding. emotional brands have three things in common: 1. 45 . support of good causes or involvement in the community." said Gobe. 2.from the charisma of Steve Jobs to the notion that its products are sold for a love of technology. Apple comes across as profoundly humanist. Its products and advertising are clearly recognizable.
3. The results outline that all the respondents identified the Apple brand through is glowing Apple shape logo. which was carried out through my primary research. 46 . Only 20% of them were able to recognize the IBM product at first sight. the light brings an emotional. The company has established a "heartfelt connection" with its customers. from building trust to establishing a community around a product." "It's like having a good friend. That's what's interesting about this brand. The findings have been sectioned up into light and colour in both design and branding. More than 70% of the participants that identified the Compaq brand by its red logotype on a white background. Somewhere they have created this really humanistic. "Apple's design is people-driven." Gobe said.2 Findings from the Questionnaires The following section collates the information from the questionnaires. This can take several forms. About half of the participants could recognize the Dell brand. The questionnaires were distributed to twenty respondents. You're part of the brand." Gobe said. In Apple's case. beyond-business relationship with users and created a cult-like relationship with their brand. its products are designed around people: "Take the glowing Apple logo. It's a big tribe. The graph below illustrates the responses when participants were asked to recognise a brand through its light and colour identity in a slightly dimmed room. sensory experience to computing. and their responses have been tabulated below. everyone is one of them. 5.
The three pictures showed to the twenty respondents were not all taken in the same period of time. Therefore. There is a considerable distinction between TESCO and ASDA the two lower priced supermarkets.120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Light Branding – 4 Notebooks Brand Recognition Graph IBM DELL APPLE COMPAQ 5. About 70% of them felt the TESCO red and blue signboard gave them a strong impact at first sight. the photo had to be taken under the natural daylight. 47 .3 The Initial Impact of Light The graph below represents the three supermarkets brand recognition rate through the first impact of light received. It is because of the ASDA signboard does not have a light to brighten it at night. The result shows that more than 80% participants have a stronger first impact on Sainsbury’s bight orange signboard. which is a good comparison with the other two. Only less than half of them have the impact on single colour green signboard of ASDA.
intensity and frequency. all in the name of safety and 48 .4 Case Study – 2 Colour. walls. some respondents may have chosen answers at random. Ford is now taking the art of colour and light to a more intense level with a concept car that uses LED lights to change body panel colours. 100 80 Sainsbury's 60 TESCO 40 20 0 ASDA Supermarket Signboard – The Initial Impact of Light Graph 5. It can negatively or positively affect our emotional state. furniture.The information relating to the impact of the light that supermarket signboard has been represented in visual form. audible sound or additional stimuli. and of course. However. our automobiles. The graph also shows the respondents which signboard has more impact on the brightness of the colour and light. It can be seen from the graph that Sainsbury’s signboard has the highest level of impact on people. It is one of the first things that anyone finds a favourite of. swinging us to aggression or calm without graphic imagery. Colour says more about a person's priorities than almost any other visible choice. It covers our clothes.
the panels increase in intensity. Something like this revolutionary couldn't just use conventional hardware to move it along. The customizable GloCar was designed to be safe.user preferences.” 49 . National Design Museum in May. GloCar challenges the icon by being any colour except black. a translucent concept vehicle intended to push the boundaries of automotive design and predict the future of consumer needs in the “National Design Triennial: Inside Design Now. intensity and frequency in response to safety conditions and user preferences.” said Laurens van den Acker. “The rear panel doubles as a brake light.” Launched in the spring of 2002. 2003. Nearly 100 years ago. “The soft glowing panels serve as a safety feature to make you very visible at night. chief designer at Ford’s Brand Imaging Group. Pollutant producing paint processes are eliminated. and the side panels as blinkers. fun and evoke emotion. so Ford took the opportunity to incorporate its co-developed fuel cell drive train. The same can be said of its lack of paint. It is powered by fuel cell technology. signalling the driver to keep a distance. extrusions and castings. The driver can either stand out or blend in. it uses LED lights to change the body panel colour. comprising its space frame. The GloCar is built around a lightweight aluminium space frame with aluminium extrusions and castings. When somebody comes too close. Of course. reducing environmental damage at the factory level.” on display at New York's Cooper-Hewitt. aluminium is completely recyclable making the GloCar more environmentally friendly than cars made of steel. Henry Ford let his colour preference be known with the legendary quote: “You can have any colour as long as it’s black. It also makes use of lightweight materials such as aluminium. Ford’s Brand Imaging Group showed the GloCar. Clad in injection-moulded translucent plastic panels.
“These scenarios were used to anticipate future consumer needs and provide solutions for new challenges the automotive industry might face. FWD Engine: hybrid electric-fuel cell Seating Capacity: 4 GloCar came about after extensive socio-cultural and technological trend research.Specifications: • • • • Body Type: 4-door sedan Layout: front engine. The research determined five scenarios of the future: the unfolding universe. Sixty percent of accidents happen at intersections at night. designers explored possible trends. It allows the car to be seen from all angles. ‘Being seen’ is a key in avoiding this.” Based on the scenarios. not just headlights and 50 . Among the most important were safety and sustainability. the sustainable society and the caring society. the mosaic society. the experiential society.” said van den Acker. “The intended user is always the end user – the customer.
but the positive social impact of the GloCar is also important. It shows a future where cars become more intelligent and optimistic. intelligence and lightness and takes the car from an aggressor to a protector. thus eliminating waste as well as reducing complexity at the manufacturer by making only one version of the vehicle. In addition. “Imagine hundreds of GloCars.” said van den Acker. “The GloCar projects an image of concern. Some premium marques even allow prospective owners to choose a custom 51 . others only a narrow assortment. brightening up a city. safety.” Approximately 30% of all vehicles sold around the globe are painted some shade of silver. the GloCar can potentially eliminate the need for vehicle paint. The ecological and bottom line benefits might be obvious. Just the same some automakers offer a wide palette of shades and colours for each model.taillights.
In the end Ford's Brand Imaging Group determined five future scenarios: 1. No matter what colour its driver chooses. intensity and frequency of the Ford GloCar's injection-moulded translucent plastic body panels. For instance. intelligence and lightness and takes the car from an aggressor to a protector. remove the colour argument from the auto-purchasing scenario. "The GloCar projects and image of concern. it actually offers more practical applications too. over 60% of MVAs occur in the dark at stop signs or traffic lights. The caring society." Such statements aren't off the cuff. safety. But now there is a new idea that could. try to miss it at night. but the result of extensive social and ecological trend research.hue direct from the factory . A new concept arrives more vibrant than anything preceding. The experiential society 4. albeit not too soon. According to research. 52 . The sustainable society 5. LED lights change the colour. According to van den Acker. The mosaic society 3. it's less likely to be hit by an otherwise unobservant driver. allowing it to be seen for miles. the GloCar literally glows when the sun is beyond the horizon.for a fairly steep fee. If it's immediately noticeable. While the ability to choose an exterior colour to match the outfit may sound enticing. The unfolding universe 2.
It's a trend that can be traced through the decades. Through my case study I came across a study indicates that car colours still reflect the mood of the nation and the personality of the driver. we saw a lot of pastels. Colour Marketing Manager.5 Most Popular Car Colours – 2002 Percentage of vehicles manufactured during 2002 model year in North America According to many car dealers." said Robert S. The car expert said that psychiatrists who analyzed the car colour choices of 1. it is more proof positive that many consumers are consumed with their cars. Daily. fretting over all the details.000 motorists 53 . especially when it comes to colour. We were over the post-war syndrome and things were on the upswing. and those sort of candy-soft pastel colours were a sign of the times. The current most popular colour to cruise in is silver. "When you go back to the heritage of colours of the '50s.5.
" Out of this research came the conclusion that the most important consumer priorities are safety and sustainability. according to the study. are often successful and a bit pompous. conservative and shy.nbc5. Does your car colour reflect your personality? 60 50 40 30 20 YES NO Percentage of 744 Votes ( http://www." Other findings: • • • • • Brown car drivers tend to be "mean." Red car drivers are "outgoing." Green car drivers are "traditional." Black car drivers are "ambitious." Blue car drivers tend to be "consistent.com/index.html ) 54 . are "methodical and fussy. and the GloCar could be the direct result. impulsive and easily bored. cautious and conservative.revealed that drivers of silver cars tend to have great style. The study claims that drivers of white cars. 15 percent of the study group.
DELL. In order to determine an answer to this question the primary research explored the use of light branding by computer notebook manufacturers. the consumer’s perception of light as a branding and product design tool will be examined.1 Can consumers recognize a product through its light brand? Some companies like Apple.6 Discussion In this section. it indicates that the electric power is on or is off and also communicates the brand of computer that 55 . observations and literature review will also be highlighted against the key questions and discussed. And the findings in this section illustrated from the consumer survey. Ford and the some major mobile phone companies have started to develop light branding identities. The use of light branding as part of a computer notebook’s lid is still not fully functional. APPLE and COMPAQ. The question is whether consumers are able to recognise and remember the product or brand the glowing visual logo promotes. IBM. The key question emerged as: How can light be effectively implemented in branding? The six issues below have thus been used to frame the key question. which are: • • • • • • Can consumers recognize a product through its light brand? Can light be a key product and brand differentiator? Why use light? How should light be used? Where does light fit in design process? Who is responsible for light design? This section of the discussion will examine the consumer’s perception of light as a branding and product design tool. 6.
56 .the owner has. 6. Apple is always known for its high quality product design and innovation. Respondents aged between 20 and 35 had the highest level of recognition of brands. the only glowing logo drew the attention of people. were present. It’s not easy being Apple Computer.2 Can light be a key product and brand differentiator? In today’s fast-moving consumer goods markets. Apple gave the creativities what people want. turning the simple curvy logo into an icon of humanizing technology and creative exuberance. Brands created by manufacturers have value in competitive markets because of their role in the consumer's decision-making process. These findings corroborate the fact that consumers are able to recognise notebook computer brands through the lid design. They toil for decades to build a brand. Though only if they have had experiences with the brand where the elements are necessary for recollection. where the design has a vital important role in their brand. Not surprisingly. producing hardware that pushed the boundaries of product design. the visual logo. The results relating to the recognition of the design of notebook’s lid indicated a number of points: • • • • • Immediately. The research also explored how the respondents rated the quality of the APPLE computer’s visual communication design in product. APPLE G4 PowerBook stood out from the field as the most recognisable brand. For the purpose of this research project the recognition of brand logo and brand name perceived level was investigated. It is evident that there is an opportunity for a high quality-lighting embedded product to enter the market. The recognition level was higher if the brand logotype has a bigger. The brands that did not receive high recognition votes do not indicate the cheaper or lower quality brands. brighter colour design and a more distinctive shape. The darker and the flatter design had the lower recognition. brands are developed by manufacturers in order to compete more effectively. It won the hearts of computer-using aesthetes by rejecting the mediocrity of the beige box.
for example in a point-of-purchase sample. and extrinsic cues. Brucks (1985) found that prior knowledge facilitated the acquisition of new information and also made the search process more efficient (for example by helping the individual to formulate and ask questions). Johnson and Russo (1984) found that product familiarity improved a consumer's ability both to absorb new information in evaluating product offerings and also to select important information in making a choice.As Fill (1995) points out. which consumers use to evaluate the offerings before them and make their choice. while intrinsic cues will matter more at the point of consumption. extrinsic cues may be more important for initial purchase by unfamiliar consumers. A brand image can be understood as a "subset of highly salient associations stored in schemas" (Hoyer and MacInnis. the pack and the price. brands may develop personalities and encapsulate the core values of a product. and this aptitude has value for the seller as well as the consumer. or "cues". Zeithaml (1988) discusses the circumstances in which the one type will be more important to consumers than the other. A distinction is sometimes made between intrinsic cues. Achieving successful differentiation in any product field rests partly upon the creation of an adequate understanding among target consumers of what is being offered and why it should be chosen. This implies a consumer ability to recognize and interpret the cue. Significantly for the present area of interest. Research into brand communications in marketing also includes the concept of signals. 57 . Consumers' understanding of a product field affects the way in which products are chosen. texture or appearance. Intrinsic cues will also be important at the point of purchase if the cue can be perceived before purchase and the customer has the necessary familiarity with the product to make this interpretation. 1997). such as flavour. such as the brand.
which definitely gives people a very strong first visual impact. Immediate impact Simple. in more refined and complete cognitive structures.Alba and Hutchinson (1987). affect. The diagram below explains the process when perceiving a brand image. feelings and meaning linked to brand Convey message When evaluating the surveys it was seen that although the higher priced supermarket brand – Sainsbury’s had the highest votes for the first visual impact in the sample. Their signboard interface area was lightened and covered by bright colour orange like a standing light box in the dark. In terms of specialist food products. the signals provided by the producer about the product will be more effective if a consumer can recognize them and relate them to some already-existing structure of understanding about the product and its field. personally experience Communicate associations. The consumer may feel what quality food they are 58 . direct Episodic Processing. Relate to character of image. involving Convey mood. greater product familiarity is positively associated with greater product expertise. But there was only about 10% differentiation between TESCO. Generally. Not rationally scrutinized Engaging. for example. distinguish familiarity (the number of product-related experiences accumulated) from expertise (the ability to perform product-related tasks effectively). which may be evident. or in greater ability to process and elaborate on information provided. IMAGE Know what it is. ideas. in a review of the literature on consumer expertise.
It was established that light builds an associative hierarchy with the product or brand. Designing with light can enrich a brand identity and develops an emotional connection with a customer in related to effective brand strategy. In comparison the findings showed that the image level of the initial impact for ASDA supermarket signboard was only 40%. providing either brand images or products. This indicates that when the visual logo is embedded within in the brand communication then recognition with consumers is inevitable. High Initial Impact Low Light is a medium which companies. 59 . The designing with light influences design and branding strategy in a number of ways: • • Using light as a part of design concepts can decrease some industrial wastes. as part of the companies branding strategy indicating a lack of consideration. As products become increasingly aligned in their offerings manufacturers and consumers alike will look for new ways to differentiate their visual image of the products. The ASDA identity does not have any lighting support and the rather plain chosen colour.purchasing by paying a higher price for their goods. The benefits of light as a recognition tool were outlined in the literature survey. are able to use as a tool for communication. for example the Ford GloCar which does not need many paints for its design.
born with a full complement of senses and correlating these one with the other. create a sight world from the start. Sensory perceptions are unique to each of us.BRAND IDENTITY Brand as Product Product attributes / Quality / Value / Uses / Users Brand as Symbol Visual imagery / metaphors VALUE PROPOSITION • Functional benefits • Emotional benefits • Self-expressive benefits BRANDCUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP 6. as memories are. Light can have a strong impact on those who experience it. The retina processes that light and through chemical and electrical messages. a world of visual objects and concepts and meanings – Oliver Sacks – Everything that we perceive creates an emotional reaction.3 Why use light? We. We experience powerful stimulations from them. It has a very 60 . a picture is produced in our brains. we "see" because "light" is bouncing off of each object and then that light enters our eyes. Everything we look at.
The qualitative values of artificial light are also diverse and depend on the lamps and fixtures employed. has the potential for wide-ranging effects on our emotions. inspire. enhance. Light is a language in itself. LIGHT = ENERGY Light radiates through space as waves of electromagnetic energy. create a sense of community. emanating from rapidly vibrating particles in the same source. spatial arrangement.strong spiritual connotation for many people. There are many aspects of light. excite. evoke feelings of comfort and pleasure. Light in its basic sense. It is converted to heat after absorption. is a form of energy. as mentioned in the literature review earlier. in design. intensity and contrast can. depending on it's wavelength. shadows vary in depth and contrast. Light. LIGHT = LIFE Light adds form and colour to our existence. Visible radiation creates impressions of colour. as bringing them closer to / pushing them away from.it can be harnessed to soothe. Humans experience positive / negative emotions. encompassing the entire field of human emotions . respectively. The only emotions that brands evoke in consumers result from anticipating the benefit. as elsewhere. Therefore. whenever perceiving anything. Light even affects our hormonal balance. including a brand. in the correct balance. Light colour. And the most amazing thing about the light is it can be used in variety of applications. transmitted as means as particles that move as sinusoidal waves. – James Turrell – So. colour and direction. how do brands achieve emotional significance? The first point to realize is that consumers' feelings are not really related towards the brand itself. the opportunity of brand building by light is wide open. Daylight varies continuously in intensity. Light is not so much something that reveals. It is the very nature of the human emotional system. Let us not be confused. their goals (for people benefit when realizing their goals). That implies that a change in the character of light changes the way we view the world. and with it our mood. they can also enhance sales and work results. The reason for this is not shrouded in some kind of mystique. as it is itself the revelation. befriend. 61 .
no colour. 62 . can never see poetry in their surroundings. The virtual reality we perceive outside of us is creating emotions inside of us all the time. All other colours are built up from these primary colours. Light. All the emotions we experience existed before we knew what they were. is an emotional medium. which can communicate with greater effect the requirements for end products. no clarity. no depth. In an age where consumers are buying into the emotional values of products. The two separate.LIGHT = EMOTION We are born with the ability to react emotionally to everything that we see around us. red or blue). LIGHT = ART Light is forever bound with the arts. authors and painters have marvelled at the natural light and attempted to capture the constant changes in colour impressions in words and paint. The brain is a factory of emotions. what emotional memories does it bring back and what image does it evoke? Visual stimulus is a powerful medium. Poets. one of which (the cones) are highly sensitive to one of three different colours (green. Think of the time if you were in New York City during the ‘Blackout’. LIGHT = PERCEPTION The only radiation that we see as light is that in the band of wavelengths between 380 and 780 nanometres. therefore. The retina contains two kinds of light receptors. The sensory cells on our retina contain a sensitive matter that is destroyed by the incoming light beams. Those who can not see poetry in the light. LIGHT = COLOUR Physically one can postulate that there is an infinite range of colours. but the human eye is not capable of differentiating all possible wavelength combinations as separate colours. slightly different images that we perceive by the left and the right eye. visual communication enables people to convey deep emotional feelings that light evoke or reminds them of. This change delivers the stimulus necessary to deliver an impulse via the optic-nerve to the brain. Without light there is no visual perception. are united in the optic centre of the brain to form a stereoscopic image. before we put names to them. designers need to gain a greater understanding of consumer needs.
although for a well known brand. Is it possible to portray a brand by simply designing a visual experience which connects with the consumer? Deconstructing the brand into a visual statement or logo. is clearly an over simplification of the issue.connect with the consumer. carriers. and content providers with information about what products need to be developed to serve consumer needs and wants. and individual flavour colours stand out. Different light colours can be customised for different callers in the phone memory. –. Foe example. cross-sold and remembered. a strategically placed logo will add value and put the stamp of quality onto a product or service.Henry Matisse – Understanding the nature of this light design motivation will provide device manufacturers. the Motorola V. however all too often this is based on the need for visibility and does not take fully into account the sensory experiences that the consumer will appreciate. In order to create an identity . brands need to develop a personality so that a relationship can be created as a logical extension of the brand personality. on feeling." This type of brand gets noticed.4 How should light be used? Gobé acknowledges that many marketers create a visual experience for the consumer. Colours vary with flavour. on the very nature of each experience.6. Users can find delight in this feature. found. The most unique design of this mobile phone is the ‘v’ shaped light window lights up in different colours during an incoming call for easy identification of the caller. However. it combines high technology with high style. it is based on observation. 63 . My choice of colours does not rest on any scientific theory. Series v8088. there is more to it than that. Some companies have already embedded light in the products to connect with consumers. A single brand colour is a key to create a unified block of branded colour "real estate.
This is no longer the case. In Kennedy's perfect world. Kennedy and her team of designers have developed a chameleon cloth that will change colours based on the daily cycle of natural light or adjust to reflect the type of music playing in the room. glass.Throughout design history. such as laptops and mobile phones. it was always material that constrained the representation of ideas. so-called cool light. "It’s the end of bulb culture". The Italian fashion firm – LUMINEX®. In the intervening years. it was at last possible to create white light. said Kennedy Sheila (An architect and Harvard University professor). For example. the objects of commercial output are often increasingly immaterial. even fabric. walls. acrylic. Instead. they think of telephone or cable service and visualize a bundle of glass or plastic threads that transmit data at close to the speed of light. It can be embedded into architectural materials such as fabric. "Cool light represents a new paradigm in illumination". the medium is now becoming just as important as the idea itself. 64 . Kennedy and Violich are the first architects to embrace the technology as an integral part of building design. researchers had successfully recreated just red and green light. By combining blue with red and green. which is far more useful for architectural and product design. Today. Until then. It is created with threads of every type and nature and can emit light in different colours. which is created by heating an incandescent filament until it throws off lightproducing photons. wood. light will no longer be confined to lamps or ceiling fixtures. Unlike traditional light. we have been reminded that design was born out of the need to compensate for the absence of art in the forms of industrially produced products. and plastic -creating new interfaces between the physical world and digital technology. most cool-light applications have focused on electronic devices. With the onset of immateriality of the output. When most people think about fiber optics. also uses a new fabric (non reflective) that can emit its own light. which is made by using natural light or electricity to "excite" molecular crystals embedded in luminescent pigments or special light-emitting diodes. it will be integrated into futuristic touch screens to control home lighting and heating systems. Designing with cool light became possible only in 1996 when Japanese manufacturer Nichia announced that it would make commercially available a phosphor that would emit blue light. In the past.
in a multitude of fields yet to be discovered. LUMINEX® has successfully developed a series of light-clothes. from the most frivolous to the most useful. don’t be surprised when you walk into a room and see all the luminous objects and people. giving it its own brilliance.After numerous attempts and experiments. 65 . So. The innovation can be used in the most diverse applications. it has finally been possible to integrate a luminous fibre into a fabric.
lighting can transform any interior. Product Design Exploration + Light Design Evaluation In the exploration phase the gathering information from the target user group to find human needs. with the mere change of a bulb and flip of a switch. so where does it fit in? Before determining how to develop a specification for light design it is necessary to define where light fits into the product design and branding process. which would have been derived from the light research section. Throughout the continuing design stages light will be considered and evaluated against the original specification. Upstaging can add dramatic distinction to the building with the most advanced exterior theatrical lighting fixtures. values and emerging sociocultural trends are the key inputs to design process that generates initial ideas for experience solutions which induce a sensory feeling. The market stage is traditionally used for investigation and understanding 67 . Light needs to be managed carefully so that both the product and the brand convey the same message. The diagram below shows an overview of the design process.5 Where does light fit in design process? Without doubt. Lately. products simply look better with attractive lighting. Within the specification light will be identified as a key design element for consideration with its own requirements to fulfil. The market stage is the area where light should be inputted into the design process. some landscape artists have already used the lighting design on some imposing buildings in branding the city skyline. light has always being a crucial element of designing interiors. From skyscraper to store front signboard. Create eye-popping themed environments or high-tech products branding with special lighting effects. If light is a powerful tool for a brand. If a brand is promoting itself as a luxury product yet the product ‘light’ cheap then there is dissonance in the branding and design strategies.6. It will be necessary to produce fully operational models so that the lighting effect can be compared to the specification. Furthermore. Generally.
Such as prototypes serve as means of communication and dialogue about what concept does and how it might appear and be used were it to be developed for the market. In the design stage. perception. It is useful to investigate into consumers’ perception about the product. there are a number of factors that are essential for the process. And a deeper understanding of the relationship between people and the product. the focus is on developing and understanding potential cause and effect cycles and the experiential qualities of light-sensory input and out put from a mainly context-free perspective. The objective of the evaluation could be twofold: • • To investigate whether the designed products would induce a light-sensorial feeling. At the exploration stage. memory. in order to establish the context from which to develop design ideas into light branding concept.of user needs. This approach also needs to be evaluated. It is also very important to re-evaluate the outcome frequently to ensure that it conveys the desired brand values to the right audience. increase branding and awareness which will generate extraordinary results. An experiential prototype is a working demonstration of a design concept where features and consumer behaviours are simulated. Creative designers and lighting technical experts work closely together. So there is still a place which designers can create environments to educate. communication. time. They also gave clues for the relative importance of other competitors’ products. emotion. 68 . market products. To find out if the colours and light from the correspondence analysis are related to the concept designs that have been designed on the basis of those products. technology and entertainment. Rapidprototyping is carried out with a focus on innovating in the realm of specific light elements. as the foundation ingredients of any experience. Additional inspiration can also provided by research into broad topics such as space.
they arrive at a position where a number of solutions are viable and the design and socio-cultural understanding id high. They focus on their experience of certain field. Hence.6. 69 . enabling them to exclude certain options. product designers (as artists) and lighting experts need to switch between and combine many different modes of communication. Within a small company the design manager would be responsible for all designs produced as part of the product. so that the solution can be better defined. But in this respect. encompassing operational and feedback. as time progress. whilst lighting-designers are convergent thinkers. there is an important need for the overall design management to support and carry out the creative process. could not only revolutionize the research and exploration of art and science. analogies and manufacture. but it has the benefit of providing the creative process with many tools as the lighting designer gains a better understanding of the project in question. The design manager would be accountable for embedding the use of light design to the product designers. as presented in this hypothesis. From this experience. Consequently. but both are insufficient alone. Both roles of product designer and lighting designer are equally important within the creative process. Lighting designer’s background of scientific training is actually broader in comparison with the product designers that probably encompasse the solution to a given problem. However the product designer’s approach appears very different.6 Who is responsible for light design? Within the creative process. Both product and lighting designers look for and use experience. This synthetic approach to creativity and finding ideas requires grate flexibility. they explore a number of solution propositions and representations. productdesigners are divergent thinkers. A fuller understanding and the exploitation of the inter-dependencies of these two apparently conflicting processes. Furthermore. media. lighting designers become a bit more focused. but also the manner in which engineering and art lead creative innovation within the business development process.
70 . The lighting designers would respond directly to the lighting design manager who would then outline the design strategy. would have a position in lighting design manager.In a large corporation. The lighting designer manager would be held responsible for ensuring that all lights were of the desired quality and transmitted key values. such as Ford.
• • • • • • • • • • • • To reassure themselves and relieve anxiety To bring about mood changes and a sense of being refreshed To encourage themselves and inspire optimism To cultivate motivation To strengthen their sense of self and invigorate self-image To reward themselves and to heighten self esteem To compensate themselves To obtain legitimization for certain demeanours and to strengthen self-confidence To internalize Social roles To assign personal meaning to certain dates. dangerous or very costly to realize 71 . and multi-sensory experiences will play an important part of design and branding strategy. Consequently. places and other components of the surrounding environment To support certain interpretations of reality (sometimes quite fictional) and self delusion To escape. The age of the visual assault on our senses will be more soared. To understand it is a major step to enhancing our wellbeing that will have the most profound effects on society. consumer use products and services. compelling visual platform as a focus to their marketing messaging across media. Embracing senses is nothing short of breaking the code for the way we live. The global embrace of senses may soon see the arrival of products that engage the consumer on several sensory levels. take a break from both actual self and reality.7 Conclusion Senses hold the promise of a new era of personal empowerment. A holistic approach to the senses is a new way of living. including in one's body). marketers must become students of the emerging art and science of visual positioning to ensure that their brands present a consistent. and to experience emotions scarce in real life and fantasies that are impossible. And next to usages leading directly to experiential benefits (desired sensual or emotional experiences) and usages resulting in tangible benefits (desired effects in the physical world.
It is important for a company that is changing to become more consumer oriented. BRAND Product / Functional Experimental / Sensory Symbolic / Emotional Enriched Brand Values A process like the one presented in this report can support design decisions related to the feelings that are induced by a consumer product. Identifying and keeping up with key consumer drivers is a core need for any brand . they have notoriety. to take feelings induced by design seriously. rather than starting from on technical innovation. and even more importantly. assess the psychological needs of their consumers to ensure they are meeting them.The consumer totally understands the brand's need to sell to them in order to make money and survive . consumer needs should be analysed in order to account for changes in buying patterns.but what of the consumer's needs? Increasingly. An additional advantage is that new product designs can be created by understanding the needs of potential users and their feelings. New kinds of products might evolve from such a process. The brand lifecycle needs to constantly be refreshed and regenerated in order to succeed . but do they still posse preferential status? Market research can help companies expand their knowledge of how their brand is perceived by their consumers. Using market research can also enable companies to effectively segment their market and communicate with their customers in each segment in a way that will enable their customers to identify with them more strongly. This involves segmenting the market and creating needs profiles which define and qualify them.established or not. 72 .look at Nike and Levis.
enabling new technologies to be modelled according to people’s expectations and behavioural patterns.And involving users at an early stage of the process can increase the chance that consumer products will induce particular feelings for their users. there is collaboration. the collaboration between engineers and artists will too affect the process. 2. so that a commissioner can define what he wants in a better way and the designer has a broad range of information and input regarding users and their feelings. It can clarify and deepen design briefs. designers. Ford says the idea could eventually enable the company to stop 73 . and also in communicating with customers. marketers) and their management. To fully use this user input. Thus. Artists and engineers: Artists present a new concept and engineers provide technologies to realize it. when managers have to make decisions increasingly quickly. even through it was not designed specially for this purpose. the GloCar. 1. Only engineers type: Typical engineering research. Engineers and designers: Engineers present a whole concept and Artists produce the art part of it. there is collaboration. it proves that with its newest concept. Design has to be acknowledged for the role that it can play in transforming into a product. Moreover. the process of investigation and design should be iterative. Like the idea of Ford GloCar. also helps to educate people inside the organization. The strategic innovation system can play a role. Although not every design concept is designed to eventually go into production. This is especially important in times like these. The exploration of the future is a great way to revitalize an organization and focus it on the future. Exploring user needs enables an organization to picture the people it intends to target. on the basis of new criteria rather than established routines. but also the acceptance gap within the organization between the inventors/consumers (technologists. 3. 4. The challenge is not only to bridge the acceptance gap between the inventors/consumers and the users/improvers. a styling exercise that uses translucent panels and LED lighting to enable the car to change colours. Only artists: Artists themselves have engineering knowledge and the ability to produce art work by adopting new technologies. Experience creation. Thus. The contributions that the findings from this dissertation can make to the world of designing with light are simple.
since it says 60 percent of all traffic accidents happen in intersections at night. I believe that this is opens up new opportunities to renew perspectives on innovation and to centre it on momentum management and sensory creation. is a feasible study or a wacky show car conceived by a group of designers and engineers gone mad? The Ford Brand Imaging Group seems to think that many of the GloCar's design elements could find their way into production Fords. the GloCar would make it easier to pick out apathy behind the wheel. clueless day-dreaming and cases of potential road rage. The acceptance gaps between inventors/consumers and users/improvers. particularly in design and technology companies. Now if it only could change light colour in accordance with the mood swings of its driver. and between revolutionaries and managers. What I have tried to make clear is that. Light branding represents a new paradigm for the consumer products industry. and the new can only be explored by creating it. It might even be able to eliminate driving while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. This can only be done by exploring the new. GloCar. and could make driving safer. innovation and communication are increasingly inextricably linked on the route to success.painting cars entirely. need to be bridged. We might be onto something with this one Ford. enhancing the safety and sustainability of the cars we currently drive. 74 . Light branding will only happen if we make it happen.
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