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# DLSU Metaphysics Conference 2011: A Tribute to Claro R.

Ceniza

## The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Mark Anthony Dacela DLSU Philosophy Department

1. What is X?

## 1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

## 1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

## 1. What is truth? 2. How do we know the truth?

1. What is X? 2. How do we know X?

Green

Green

X = Proposition

X = Proposition

X = Proposition

## Truth is a property of a certain x

X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

## Truth is a property of a certain x

X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

## Truth is a property of a certain x

X = Proposition Truth The tumbler is green.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if:

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if: 1. A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs), and

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

P (where P is a complex proposition) is true only if: 1. A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs), and 2. A and B constitute P.

A

A B

## P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

A B

A and B constitute P.

## P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

A B

A and B constitute P.
C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

A B

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

A B

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

A B

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

## P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

A B
A and B have the same structure as X and Y.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

## P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

A and B (which constitute P) have the same structure as X and Y.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

C1: A and B (where A and B are simple propositions) have the same structure as X and Y (where X and Y are states of affairs),

## P:The car is red or Jake is fat.

A and B (which constitute P) have the same structure as X and Y. = P is true.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

Q1. What makes P true? Q2. How do we know that P is true? Q2*: How does S (where S is the knower) know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

## The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ? Q2*: What makes Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y true?

## The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

## The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT): Q2*: How does S know that A and B have the same structure as X and Y ?

## Nondoxastic Experience Argument (NDE):

S s belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Definition (df.) 1. Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

X
The car is red A

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

X
The car is red A

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.
A has the same structure as X.

X
The car is red A

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problems: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification. NDE:. S is justified in believing that A and B have the same structure as X and Y = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Correspondence Theory of Truth (CPT):

NDE: Ss belief that A and B have the same structure as X and Y is true = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE. Problem: 1. NDEs cannot guarantee truth for S. NDEs merely offers a criterion of justification. NDE:. S is justified in believing that A and B have the same structure as X and Y = Df. 1) Ss belief is grounded on NDE.

## Coherence Theory of Truth (CT):

P is true only if: 1. P is part of A (where A is a coherent set of beliefs)

Q2.
P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

P: I am sick.

## I have a fever. I have a headache. I feel weak.

P: I am sick. P is part of A.

## CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

Does CT answer Q1 (What makes P true?)?

P: I am dog.

## I have a tail. I eat dog food. I bark all night.

P: I am dog. P is part of A.

Problem:

## CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification.

## CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification. If P is part of Ss coherent set of beliefs then S is justified in believing that P.

## CT: P is true only if P is part of Ss set of coherent beliefs.

Problem: CT merely offers a criterion of justification. If P is part of Ss coherent set of beliefs then S is justified in believing that P.

## Verificationist Theory of Truth (VT):

P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

X verifies P.
X

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true.

X verifies P.
X

= P is true.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2?

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**:

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P?

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2?
Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems:

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem. There is an X1 that verifies Ss belief that X verifies P.

## What makes P true?

VT: P is true only if: 1. There is an X (where X is a method of verification) that verifies P. 2. X verifies that P is true. Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 1. The regress problem. There is an X1 that verifies Ss belief that X verifies P. What justifies Ss belief that X1 justifies the belief that X verifies P?

## What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism.

## What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism. If X is merely created or imposed by S, then VT collapses into a form of relativism.

## What makes P true?

Does VT answer Q2? Q2**: How does S know that X verifies P? Problems: 2. The problem of relativism. If X is merely created or imposed by S, then VT collapses into a form of relativism. VT does not guarantee truth for S.

## Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?

There are no truths.

## Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?

There are no truths.

## Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?

There are no truths.

## Can S determine whether or not a proposition is true?

There are no truths.

## The Metaphysics of Truth and the Knowability Problem

Mark Anthony Dacela DLSU Philosophy Department